Sample records for nuclear physicians 18th

  1. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  2. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine

  3. The results of investigation in connection with the 18th Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Concerning the 18th nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China, the results of measurements of radioactivity, etc. in Japan are presented. (1) As for gross beta-radioactivity in upper air, the same level as normal was measured in middle and northern Japan. (2) At monitoring posts, the same level as normal was measured across the country. (3) As for gross beta-radioactivity in rain and dry fallout, 56 pCi/ml was detected in Hachijo Island. (4) As for gross beta-radioactivity in airborne dust, 6.0 pCi/m 3 was detected in Fukuoka. (5) As for gross beta-radioactivity in dry fallout the same level as normal was measured. (6) As for the Iodine-131 concentration in fresh milk, 113 pCi/l was detected in Ishikawa Prefecture. (7) Analysis of radionuclides. (8) Data concerning the radioactivity surveillance. (J.P.N.)

  4. Proceedings of the 18th technical meeting on nuclear reactor and radiation for KURRI engineers and the 9th technical official group section 5 meeting in Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is a summary of 18th Technical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor and Radiation for KURRI Engineers in Kyoto University. This was also the 9th meeting for technical official group section 5 (nuclear and radiation) in Kyoto University. In the workshop, three special lectures held were: (1) 'On Border Between Subcritical and Supercritical', (2) 'Memories of Nuclear Power Plant Management for 40 Years', and (3) 'Introduction of Technical Office in Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University'. The technical presentations held were: (1) 'Radiation Background Study of Specialty Products in Senshu Region', (2) 'Introduction of Radioactivation Analysis at KUR', (3) 'Consideration of Critical Approach Method for KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC', (4) 'Evaluation of Temperature Coefficient of KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC'. As training for technical staffs in Technical Office, we visited the facility in Ashiu Research Forest. An introduction of this facility and the comments from the participants were included in this report. (S.K.)

  5. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G


    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  6. The physicians and the nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, W.O.


    This paper shows that a lot of physicians in the world are worried about a new nuclear war and they created the International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War. The main objectives of the IPPNNW are to amplify the public or people knowledge of the medical aspects of the nuclear war and promote and coordinate researches about the medical and psychological effects of the nuclear weapon race. (author)

  7. Physicians cannot prepare for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.


    In this paper, the author argues that medical preparations for nuclear war are futile. Not only would few physicians survive a nuclear attack, but these physicians would have the impossible task of caring for hundreds of thousands of injured and dying victims

  8. Physicians' group seeks nuclear arms ban. (United States)

    Litwin, M S


    The history and recent activities of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) are reported. Founded in 1980 by cardiologists Bernard Lown of the United States and Eugene Chazov of the Soviet Union, the group has attracted well over 100,000 members from 51 countries. Following the organization's fifth congress in Budapest in June 1985, a four-city tour of the United States by three American and four Soviet physicians was co-sponsored by IPPNW, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and the Soviet Committee of Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. Through separate lecture series aimed at physicians and laypersons, the doctors sought to persuade colleagues to take an active stand against nuclear war, and to increase public awareness of the medical realities of a nuclear attack. A similar tour of the Soviet Union is planned.

  9. Benjamin Banneker's 18th Century Astronomy (United States)

    Howard, Sethanne


    Benjamin Banneker is considered to be the first African-American man of science (1731-1806), a contempory of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. He was a self taught clock maker, mathematician, and astronomer. He owned land in Baltimore County near Ellicott City, Maryland where he farmed tobacco. He is especially known for his work on the Boundary Survey of our new Capital. Surveyors place boundary stones along the boundary of the nascent Capital. Banneker was part of the team who measured the latitutde and longitude for each stone. Using 18th century surveying techniques Banneker became part of the early history of Washington DC. He also published popular almanacs.

  10. 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Dobreva, Milena


    The ways in which research data is used and handled continue to capture public attention and are the focus of increasing interest. Electronic publishing is intrinsic to digital data management, and relevant to the fields of data mining, digital publishing and social networks, with their implications for scholarly communication, information services, e-learning, e-business and the cultural heritage sector. This book presents the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing (ELPUB), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2014. The conference brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss the many aspects of electronic publishing, and the theme this year is 'Let's put data to use: digital scholarship for the next generation'. As well as examining the role of cultural heritage and service organisations in the creation, accessibility, duration and long-term preservation of data, it provides a discussion forum for the appraisal, citation and licensing of research data and the n...

  11. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla


    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  12. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich


    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  13. 18th informal meeting on reactor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.


    The proceedings contain the texts of 24 papers all of which fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The main purpose of the meeting of more than 90 scientists and specialists from 18 countries was for them to get acquainted with the current state and prospective development of noise diagnostics application in nuclear reactor operation. (Z.M.)

  14. Physicians should prepare for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccabee, H.D.


    In this paper, the author insists that physicians must take an active role in the civil defense of the United States. They must prepare to save lives and prevent suffering in any type of disaster including nuclear war. The author makes comparisons of America's civil defense programs and those of other nations. The United States is way behind other nations in civil defense. The author gives five advantages of civil defense. He says civil defense, unlike offensive weapons systems, cannot directly threaten the lives of Russians or any other nation. Properly designed shelter systems can serve multiple purposes, including storage and parking. Construction of shelters is likely to be labor-intensive by comparison with weapons systems and would probably result in more jobs in portions of the economy that have been distressed. If arms control and reduction negotiations are successful, there may be a transition period of fear and instability while methods of verification are checked. An adequate civil defense system could help to bridge these gaps of insecurity. The extension of the above argument would be to replace the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD) with mutually assured survival

  15. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon


    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  16. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel......The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding...... of development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers...

  17. The power of mathematics education in the 18th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, J.H.J.


    In the Dutch Republic in the 18th century mathematics was considered very important for many professions. However there were hardly any national or regional educational institutes which provided mathematics education. Three orphanages in different towns received a large inheritance under condition

  18. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century]. (United States)

    Kugener, Henri


    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  19. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen


    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  20. The 18th Annual Conference on Finance and Accounting




    Abstract. In this paper, the evaluation of the 18th Annual Conference on Finance and Accounting held on 26 May 2017 in Prague, Czech Republic will be mentioned.Keywords. Accounting, Finance, Czech Republic.JEL. M40, G10.

  1. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.


    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [fr

  2. Supplementary training of nuclear power plant occupational physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letard, H.; Carre, M.


    A short description is given of the supplementary training course given to nuclear power plant occupational physicians within the frame of the Division of occupational medicine at Electricite de France. Such training is necessary to deal with the specific problems involved. However, it is only a complement to medical studies and the special degree in occupational medicine and industrial hygiene [fr

  3. [Dental aspects of general symptoms in the 18th century]. (United States)

    Forrai, Judit


    In the 18th century, numerous diseases with symptoms of oral cavity were cured by chirurgien-dentist, barber-surgeons, or tooth drawer. The so called "dentitio difficilis" was blamed for the high children mortality, therefore gum cut or use of leeches was advised as a treatment. Both acute and chronic type of gum inflammation was called scurvy. It seems that the mechanical removal of plaque was enough to cure the scurvy as it was written in advertisements from that time. Syphilis was present in the everyday life throughout centuries, and assumed to cause different stigmas in the oral cavity. Today we consider theses stigmas as the toxic signs of mercury treatment.

  4. 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting, American Chemical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Proceedings of the 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society held May 21-23, 1984, include information about the meeting, e.g. area map and list of exhibitors, and abstracts for most of the 397 papers. A few papers are only title listed. The papers are arranged into sections dealing with analytical chemistry, biochemistry, chemical education, environmental chemistry, fuel chemistry, history of chemistry, industrial and engineering chemistry, inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, and polymeric materials. Sections are also included to highlight undergraduate research and papers by chemical technicians and younger chemists. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 36 papers

  5. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.


    The 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 20-22 June, 2012 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty-eight contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  6. Integrating cardiology for nuclear medicine physicians. A guide to nuclear medicine physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahed, Assad; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Buscombe, John R.; Hall, Margaret


    Nuclear cardiology is no longer a medical discipline residing solely in nuclear medicine. This is the first book to recognize this fact by integrating in-depth information from both the clinical cardiology and nuclear cardiology literature, and acknowledging cardiovascular medicine as the fundamental knowledge base needed for the practice of nuclear cardiology. The book is designed to increase the practitioner's knowledge of cardiovascular medicine, thereby enhancing the quality of interpretations through improved accuracy and clinical relevance.The text is divided into four sections covering all major topics in cardiology and nuclear cardiology: -Basic Sciences and Cardiovascular Diseases; -Conventional Diagnostic Modalities; -Nuclear Cardiology; -Management of Cardiovascular Diseases. (orig.)

  7. Domenico Cirillo's collections. A recently rediscovered 18th-century Neapolitan herbarium. (United States)

    Ricciardi, Massimo; Castellano, Maria Laura


    The herbarium of the 19th-century Neapolitan botanists Vincenzo and Francesco Briganti was acquired by Orazio Comes in 1892 for the Royal Higher School of Agriculture in Naples. Based on a study of the handwriting on their labels, Comes concluded that some of the dried specimens were the sole remains of the herbarium of Domenico Cirillo, the distinguished 18th-century Neapolitan botanist, entomologist and physician. The current arrangement of the specimens not uniform and it is clear that they underwent extensive handling and rearrangement Some of the exsiccata are preserved in two packets, fixed on sheets bearing a printed label that reads "Herbarium D. Cyrilli". In an additional label Gaetano Nicodemi's handwriting and not Cirillo's as stated by Comes was identified. Other specimens, many of them mounted in a different manner from those in the first group, are arranged in another three packets. Certain characteristics of the herbarium may be explained by the vicissitudes of its history, including a hasty salvage operation. A study of the collection was conducted, including an analysis of the handwritten labels and notes, leading to conclusions that shed light on the significance of the Cirillo collection within the historical and scientific context of 18th-century Naples.

  8. [Venereal diseases in a "general practice" in the 17th and early 18th centuries]. (United States)

    Fries, F; Winckelmann, H J


    The diary of the town physician Johannes Franc (1649-1725), handwritten in Latin, gives-among other diseases-an overview of sexually transmitted infections affecting citizens in Ulm such as syphilis and gonorrhea. Franc reported on his own experiences in the diary and also included many theoretical details on the causes of the diseases and the corresponding therapies, including ethical considerations. Even in ancient times, there are indications of venereal diseases. However, at the latest with the outbreak of syphilis around the year 1495, the treatment and control of the spread of venereal diseases became an important task of medicine. Before gonococci were detected by Neisser in 1879, sexually transmitted diseases were generally seen as a single disease. However, at the beginning of the 18 th century, there were several doctors who treated syphilis and gonorrhea as separate entities. Franc was one of them. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis and gonorrhea, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of these diseases. Franc's treatment patterns are illustrated. Franc's case reports indicate a fundamental change in the perception of STIs at the end of the 17 th /beginning of the 18 th century.

  9. Valladolid, a Festival Town (17th-18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The festival was a great sociocultural event whose dimensions reached their maximum evolution in Early Modern Spain, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries and in its urban centres. This was the «festive society» par excellence, because of the frequency of the celebrations and the multiplicity of meanings, implications and consequences. Society and power, ultimately, were represented at the festival. In this context, the specific case of Valladolid demonstrates both its character as a germane model, applicable to any other town, and its uniqueness. Significantly, in the early 17th century it was once again the seat of the Court and yet even after being abandoned by Philip III in 1606, it continued to be one of the most important towns of Castile, the seat of the Royal Chancellery.

  10. 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador


    This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management. The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the traini...

  11. 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber; Pinto, Alberto


    These proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover a number of different aspects of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems, as well as the interplay between difference equations and dynamical systems. The conference was organized by the Department of Mathematics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) and held in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in July 2012. Its purpose was to bring together experts and novices in these fields to discuss the latest developments. The book gathers contributions in the field of combinatorial and topological dynamics, complex dynamics, applications of difference equations to biology, chaotic linear dynamics, economic dynamics and control and asymptotic behavior, and periodicity of difference equations. As such it is of interest to researchers and scientists engaged in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dy...

  12. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1 (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)


    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  13. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg


    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  14. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.


    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  15. Proceedings of 18th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology was held on August 7-12, 2005 in Beijing, China, and Sponsored by International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Chinese Nuclear Society, Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Tsinghua University. 486 abstracts are Collected. The contents includes: opening, plenary and keynote presentations; computational mechanics; fuel and core structures; aging, life extension, and license renewal; design methods and rules for components; fracture mechanics; concrete material, containment and other structures; analysis and design for dynamic and extreme loads; seismic analysis, design and qualification; structural reliability and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); operation, inspection and maintenance; severe accident management and structural evaluation; advanced reactors and generation IV reactors; decommissioning of nuclear facilities and waste management.

  16. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery. (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland


    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Hosts States Service


    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  18. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.


    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  19. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  20. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  1. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.


    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  2. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William


    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  3. Review on 18th Revision of 'Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jihye; Lee, Chansuh


    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) has established a guideline and continued to revise it in accordance with ever-changing international situation and developing technology. The Part 1 of guideline, 'Guidelines of Nuclear Transfers' covers the Trigger List items which triggers safeguards as a condition of supply. Currently NSG has published the 12 th revised guideline (INFCIRC/254/Rev.12/Part1) in November 2013. Korean government fully reflected the guideline to its national legislation to implement in accordance with internationally agreed standard. The export control of nuclear strategic items in Korea is responsibility of Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which entrusted the technical review of the work to Korea Institute of Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). The specific guidelines for the technical review are stipulated in Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items with other strategic items usable to other Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy approved the 18 th revision of Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items on 31 January 2014 as Notice no. 2014-15, which strictly follows the NSG guideline. The 18 th revision of the notice reflects the final proposals agreed from the last Dedicated Meeting of Technical Experts (DMTE) of NSG's Consultative Group (CG) in April 2013. The 3-year-DMTE offered the 'fundamental, holistic approach to the technical review' within the international framework of NSG, rather than sporadic endeavors by individual states in the past. The 18 th version itself has meaning in that the final products of the international technical review were reflected in the Korean national legislation of nuclear export control. It addressed various changes in control text in technical, contextual, and editorial aspects. The revision is analyzed herein concentrating only on technical and semantic changes in control text

  4. Medicine against Cold War. Physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 1980ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Claudia


    The book on physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 19080ies covers the following issues: (I) Frame of the subject: methodology, research fields and actors; (II) The social dimension of the physician's movement; (III) IPPNW (International physicians for the prevention of nuclear war) - a political idea is medicalized and organized, 1980 - 1984; (IV) Borderlines of the international peace idea during the Cold War - IPPNW 1980 - 1986.

  5. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII) (United States)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.


    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  6. An 18th Century Jesuit “Refutation of Metempsychosis” in Sanskrit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Colas


    Full Text Available The Punarjanmākṣepa, a work in Sanskrit from the 17th–18th century Jesuit milieu, aims at refuting the notion of reincarnation as believed by the Hindus in India. It discloses an interesting historical perspective of missionary comprehension and criticism of the belief. This paper briefly examines the context, purpose and the rhetorical strategies of the work and incidentally situates the subject of reincarnation in the 18th century European intellectual ideologies.

  7. The liability of the radiopharmacist and the nuclear physician in the use of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coustou, F.


    A brief article examines the traditional aspects of the physician's and pharmacist's liability in general followed by a discussion on the liability of the nuclear physician and the radiopharmacist in the use of radiopharmaceuticals. It is concluded that the liabilities involved in the use of radiopharmaceuticals go well beyond the scope of traditional medicine and pharmacy. (UK)

  8. Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th-19th Century Style


    Dragicevic, Pierre; Bach, Benjamin; Dufournaud, Nicole; Huron, Samuel; Isenberg, Petra; Jansen, Yvonne; Perin, Charles; Spritzer, André; Vuillemot, Romain; Willett, Wesley; Isenberg, Tobias


    Extended abstract and exhibition piece; International audience; We exhibit an data graphic poster that emulates the style of historic hand-made visualizations of the 18th -19th century. Our visualization uses real data and employs style elements such as an emulation of ink lines, hatching and cross-hatching, appropriate typesetting, and unique style of computer-assisted facial drawings.

  9. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996). (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  10. Hispanic Philippine historiography: a brief description of the structure of the Calepino Ylocano (18th C.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, R.; Reid, L.; Ridruejo Alonso, E.; Stolz, T.


    In this article we present a brief and general study of the macro- and micro-structure of an 18th century Hispano-Philippine vocabulary manuscript: the Calepino ylocano o vocabvlario de yloco en romance written and compiled by Spanish Augustinian missionaries. We will examine the historical and

  11. Medical semiotics in the 18th century: a theory of practice? (United States)

    Hess, V


    Medical semiotics in the 18th century was more than a premodern form of diagnosis. Its structure allowed for the combination of empirically proven rules of instruction with the theoretical knowledge of the new sciences, employing the relation between the sign and the signified.

  12. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori


    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurfacecomposition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18CDanish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time...

  13. Progresses in neuroproteomics of neurodegenerative diseases--18th HUPO BPP workshop: September 12, 2012, Boston, USA. (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; May, Caroline; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok


    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 18(th) workshop in Boston, USA, September 12(th) 2012 during the HUPO 11th Annual Word Congress. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis


    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  15. A Note on the 18th Party Congress of the CCP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik


    The 18th Party Congress was more dramatic than anticipated due to the completely non-transparent process of selecting new leaders as well as a number of scandals involving leaders competing for the top posts. This contrasts with 2002 when Hu Jintao became secretary general in a comprehensive chan...

  16. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England. (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  17. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century]. (United States)

    Marques, Rita de Cássia


    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton MATYTSIN


    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  19. Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century


    Junpeng Zhu; Wanzhen Chen; Hongying Fan; Bingren Zhang; Kebin Liao; Xiaolin Li; You Xu; Wei Wang


    The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions...

  20. Prospects for tax reform in China following the 18th CPC National Congress


    Yang, Zhiyong


    After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...

  1. Implementation of a Flipped Classroom for Nuclear Medicine Physician CME. (United States)

    Komarraju, Aparna; Bartel, Twyla B; Dickinson, Lisa A; Grant, Frederick D; Yarbrough, Tracy L


    Increasingly, emerging technologies are expanding instructional possibilities, with new methods being adopted to improve knowledge acquisition and retention. Within medical education, many new techniques have been employed in the undergraduate setting, with less utilization thus far in the continuing medical education (CME) sphere. This paper discusses the use of a new method for CME-the "flipped classroom," widely used in undergraduate medical education. This method engages learners by providing content before the live ("in class") session that aids in preparation and fosters in-class engagement. A flipped classroom method was employed using an online image-rich case-based module and quiz prior to a live CME session at a national nuclear medicine meeting. The preparatory material provided a springboard for in-depth discussion at the live session-a case-based activity utilizing audience response technology. Study participants completed a survey regarding their initial experience with this new instructional method. In addition, focus group interviews were conducted with session attendees who had or had not completed the presession material; transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. Quantitative survey data (completed by two-thirds of the session attendees) suggested that the flipped method was highly valuable and met attendee educational objectives. Analysis of focus group data yielded six themes broadly related to two categories-benefits of the flipped method for CME and programmatic considerations for successfully implementing the flipped method in CME. Data from this study have proven encouraging and support further investigations around the incorporation of this innovative teaching method into CME for nuclear imaging specialists.

  2. Position on short-lived radionuclides of the American College of Nuclear Physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoop, J.D.


    The more than 1100 nuclear medicine physicians who make up the bulk of the ACNP membership have as their goal the optimum practice of nuclear medicine; hence the purpose of the College as their professional association is to help them achieve this goal, acting primarily in areas where as individuals they cannot work effectively, gathering and disseminating information and other resources, assessing the impact of new technology on practice, combating interference with good practice, enhancing the quality of services offered their patients, and striving to maintain economic stability in the nuclear medicine minisystem

  3. 76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th... (United States)


    ... commitment to performance excellence and client-centered services. As part of UI Performs, a comprehensive...) Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service Plan Planning (SQSP) and... proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service...

  4. The coarse painter and his position in 17th- and 18th-century Dutch decorative painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.; van Eikema Hommes, M.H.; Keune, K.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.


    In modern studies of Dutch art, the makers of decorative paintings in the 17th and 18th centuries are usually referred to as ‘decorative painters’ or ‘interior painters’, as if this was a profession in its own right. However, neither name existed at the time. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the

  5. International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) in Europe and the dissemination of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongnet, J.


    The problem of the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons is of great concern to physician because of their professional interest in the life and heals of the population.It for the reason that we have studied and published articles on the effects of nuclear weapons, the consequences of nuclear weapon production and testing and demanded their abolition. Unfortunately we can at present observe their dissemination, both vertical and horizontal, in Europe and the world. July 2 nd marked the beginning of a series of nuclear tests in Nevada in direct violation of Article 6 of the Treaty of Non-Proliferation. IPPNW is part of the Abolition 2000 campaign which is working towards the abolition of nuclear weapons for the year 2000. The American and European initiative regarding the extension of NATO will ruin all hopes of this. Although public opinion was greatly influenced by the decision taken by the President of the French Republic to resume nuclear testing in the Pacific in 1995, it is not yet aware of the danger of the extension of NATO and has been lulled into a false sense of well-being by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty signed in New York in 1996. It is therefore the duty of physicians all over Europe to preserve the population from these new threats and the vast military expenditure they represent to the detriment of health and education

  6. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL


    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Ljustrov


    Full Text Available The essay examines the problem of the fragmentary perception of European literature in the 18 th Century Russia. The author compares the body of 17 th Century French poetical works translated into Russian and Swedish languages and published in the Russian and Swedish editions in the middle of the 18 th Century. Regardless of many predicted coincidences, Russian and Swedish lists are not identical. Some 17 th Century French poets unknown in Russia were, however, extremely popular in the 18 th Century Sweden. The essay focuses on the work of E. Pavillon, a member of the French Academy and of the General R. de Bussy-Rabutin. The “Våra fӧrsӧk” edition released in Sweden in the 1750s, included numerous translations of the poems by these two authors as well as discussions about the specificity of their poetic gifts. Pavillon’s works are in the center of discussion by Swedish authors. In G. F. Gyllenborg’s “Satire öfver Sprätthökar,” E. Pavillon is compared with J.-B. Rousseau, in H. Ch. Nordenflycht’s “De svenska poeter” he is identified with a famous Swedish poet J. Frese. Swedish poems mentioning R. de Bussy are absent in the edition of “Våra fӧrsӧk”, however the French poet was familiar to Swedish authors, and the interest in his works drew on his role in the 17 th Century Franko-Swedish history. Swedish and French participation in the Thirty Years War and a visit of Christine, Queen of Sweden, to Paris were well known to Swedish authors. The paper argues that the lack of interest in the work of these authors in Russia is conspicuous if compared with their Swedish perception. This may be explained by cultural and historical circumstances and also by the lack of demand for some of the “species” of the 17 th Century French poetry in the Russian poetry of the 18 th Century.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.


    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  9. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael


    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  10. Debate on sublime in the end of 18th century: Burke, Kant, Schiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana


    Full Text Available In the article the authors are examining three positions within the 18th Century aesthetic discussion on the sublime - Edmund Burke's, Immanuel Kant's and Friedrich Schiller's. They are also trying to reconstruct the political backgrounds of each of this theoretical positions: old regime conservatism (Burke, republican liberalism (Schiller and romantic longing for the 'third way' (Kant. The most sophisticated and mature theory of sublime is found in Schiller's aesthetic works, especially in those following his disappointment in French Revolution, in which the relationship between sublime and paradoxes of historical violence is most thoroughly reflected.

  11. Moulds and profiles of the building facades of St. Petersburg of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna


    Full Text Available In the article the author underlines the importance of details (moulds and profiles for the architects of previous times. The architects of the 17th-19th centuries expressed their creative and filosofic position choosing some concrete example of the great theorists of the past when constructing moulds and orders. We should note that the negative attitude to Classicism theory reasoned in the lack of investigations of the architectural details of the buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, in particular the ones in Saint Petersburg. At the present moment the interest to studying the architectural theories and forms is reappearing both in Russia and in Europe. The article considers the architectural moulds of the eighteenth century buildings of St. Petersburg, examples of their construction in each stylistic period. The analysis shows the significant differences of the Russian moulds drawings from the recommendations of classical treatises of the Renaissance and educational counterparts. The author offers the basic analysis of the characteristic features and data elements for each stylistic period in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century, as well as a unique handwriting of the architects who worked in that era.

  12. Three points of a triangle: Italian, Latin and German oratorios and sepolcros in the early 18th century central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela


    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-188 ISSN 1212-0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Italian oratorio * 18th century * Bohemian Lands Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. The 18-th century glassware from Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses. Physico-chemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunicki-Goldfinger, J.J.; Kierzek, J.; Kasprzak, A.J.; Malozewska-Bucko, B.


    The purpose of this work was to characterize some of the 18-th century glassware comming from the Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses, basing on their chemical composition and selected physico-chemical properties. It was tried to find whether there exists a specific, characteristic for a given glasshouse, chemical composition and whether it is possible, basing on this composition, to identify the glass objects coming from particular, central European, 18-th century glasshouses. The studies were carried out at the National Museum Warsaw. Non-destructive procedures, i.e., without sample withdrawing and not affecting the glass surface procedures were used. Radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, a ultraviolet excited optical fluorescence examination and visual examination were employed. For evaluation of the measurement data a multivariate analysis was used. More than 200 colourless glass tableware items, mostly engraved, manufactured in the above mentioned glassworks and a much smaller number of objects originating from other 18-th century glasshouses of central Europe were examined. Two groups of glassware, with respect to the composition, have been distinguished. One of them is characterized by an increased content of lead. However, the lead content is not a sufficient property for the differentiation. Other elements play also an important role. This composition was identified in part of the items from the glasshouses of Naliboki, Dresden and Potsdam/Zechlin where the glasses from different glasshouses are distinguishable. The PbO content in some glasses from Saxony (SPb) can be as high as 9% (by weight). Among the glasswere items belonging to the second composition group, probably not-containing an intentional addition of lead, the glassware group from Lubaczow was identified. The results of the ultraviolet fluorescence examination enabled to differentiate 2 groups of glasswares; those showing a blue fluorescence and those not-showing (mostly a green fluorescence

  14. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena


    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  15. Characterisation of 17th-18th centuries damask and gilt leathers by ATR-FTIR

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    Lina Falcão


    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the characterisation of tannins used in the vegetable tanning of two types of European historic and decorative leathers from Portuguese collections, damask leathers and gilt leathers, dated from the 17th and 18th centuries. Extracts prepared from collected leather fibres were analysed by attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results were compared with data collected from different reference vegetable tanning materials which, according to historic and technical literature, were used in Europe during the Modern Age. This study allowed, in most cases, the characterisation of the tannins used to produce the studied decorative vegetable tanned leathers and, at the same time, the detection of chemical deterioration of leathers, particularly collagen hydrolysis, which was not visually perceived.

  16. Painting with gold: gilders in Northern Alentejo in the 17th and 18th centuries

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    Patrícia Alexandra Rodrigues Monteiro


    Full Text Available This article will demonstrate that the artistic context in the North Alentejo region, very dynamic in the 16th century and enriched by the presence of both national and international artists, evolved slowly during the late 17th and 18th centuries to a reality marked mainly by the activity of local painters, most of them unknown, which became increasingly versatile, working in oil painting, fresco and also gildings. To better characterize this reality, some examples will be presented of artists who worked in various techniques as proved by documentary evidences. The materials now presented were a relevant contribution for the project "Gilt Teller: an interdisciplinary multi-scale study of gilding techniques and materials in Portugal, 1500-1800".

  17. The Concept of Blood Purification in the Context of Scientific Racism in the 18th Century

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    Carlos Federico Campos Rivas


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the presence of the concept of blood cleansing in scientific racism, by drawing equivalences and analogies with the caste discourse that prevailed in 18th century Spanish America. With the study of this conjuncture it is intended to demonstrate the existence of a taxonomical dialogue and mutual influence between the fronts of the scientific racism and the traditional conception of caste in the colonial society. Through the study of the main authors and printed works of the scientific racism paradigm, it is intended to discover the genealogical conception of the posterity of mixed lineages, reviewing its compatibility with the main theories of monogenism and polygenism, and demonstrating the survival of traditional concepts about blood and temperament. This work contributes to explain how Spanish America was taken as a sort of social laboratory for the cause of scientific racism, providing its long-lived experience in the theme of miscegenation.

  18. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  19. The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society (United States)

    Cardinal, Catherine

    The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day its rhythm. Data from that era (correspondence, memoirs, newspapers, engravings, and paintings) make it possible to catch a glimpse of the influence of clocks on the perception of time. From the beginning of the 'mechanized time' era, efforts to improve the accuracy and the technical performance of mechanisms were made. The importance of such a precise time measurement in every day life is considered.

  20. PIXE analysis of Moroccan architectural glazed ceramics of 14th-18th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Azzou, A.; El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.


    The PIXE analysis of glazes and ceramic bodies of a set of architectural glazed ceramics (mostly the zellige mosaics), sampled from seven Moroccan monuments from the 14th to the 18th century AD, has been performed. We have identified high lead glazes, opacified with tin-oxide, laid over a calciferous body to produce hard tiles easy to chisel as required by the zellige technique. The analysis has revealed significant differences between the monuments examined: in particular in the formulation of the base glass and in the use of stains to produce coloured glazes. We observed the peculiarity of materials used in Marrakech and we could distinguish, both in terms of glazes and ceramic bodies, the two almost contemporary Madersas dedicated to the sultan Bou Inan, one in Meknes the other in Fez. The PIXE measurements integrate a broad range of spectrometric investigations performed in the past few years. (author)

  1. Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century

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    Junpeng Zhu


    Full Text Available The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions were extracted, and the five-factor one was relatively clearer. The five factors of personality titled Wicked, Intelligent, Amiable, Conscientious, and Frank, were intercorrelated. Men scored higher on Wicked and Conscientious but lower on Amiable compared with women. As a preliminary trial, our study demonstrates that personality-descriptive adjectives in a famous Chinese novel characterize the personality structure.

  2. Gilding Techniques in Religious Art Between East and West, 14th -18th Centuries

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    I.C.A. Sandu


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short review on gilding techniques and materials from artifacts of religious heritage between 14th and 18th centuries, mainly gilt wood and gilded panel paintings. The study underlines the main aspects related to the use of certain materials and application techniques in different countries and époques, between Eastern and Western Europe, exemplifying with case studies of real gilded objects from Romanian, Greek, Russian and Portuguese ecclesiastic heritage. The contribution of some analytical techniques, such as optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (OM, SEM, AFM, XRF and EDX spectroscopic analysis to the study of these objects is emphasized as well as the peculiarities of the obtained information.

  3. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR


    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  4. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  5. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, P.


    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references

  6. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette


    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  7. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

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    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  8. Don Cossack Army Charters of the Mid 18th Century Via the Category of Modality

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    Elena Mihaylovna Sheptukhina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the language means of modality in the texts of military charters of the mid 18th cent. from the "Mikhailovsky stanitza hetman" archive (State Achieve of Volgograd Region. Military charters used to be major documents of legislation within Don Cossack Host, as being at that time an administrative unit in the territory of Russian Empire. The results of the contextual analysis verify the following facts: the charter texts are mainly characterized by an imperative tone of regulation that is caused by coordination between dominant meanings of a propositional (situational modality of necessity and pragmatic modality of volition, that are thought to be interrelated in utterances. The modal meaning of necessity is marked by the verbal construction with an independent infinitive or the combinations of modal verbs (imet' / possess; nadlezhat' / be to, modal predicatives with a dependent infinitive (dolzhen, nadobno, etc. / must (have to. Modality of volition is presented with a set of lexical units that possess the meanings of ordering, permission, offers, verbal forms that are used as performatives, or point to the status of a subject, etc. The texts under study represent some other modal meanings: possibility (with the words moch' / be able to; mozhno / could / may combined with an infinitive, in subordinate clauses with a particle li (if / wether, etc. in an interrogative clauses. In complex sentences with subordination combinations of various modal meanings are observed.

  9. 18th international symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 18th International Symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region was held on September 26-30, 2015 in Crete. Its main theme was sustainable resource use and impact on health and well-being. This is the theme of the current special issue, which is based on the scientific works of the Symposium. This overarching theme was further developed in thematic sessions focusing on the following: - Sustainable natural resource and waste management; - Environmental health and well-being; - Climate change mitigation and adaptation; - Indoor and outdoor air pollution; - Water and soil pollution and control; - Ecotoxicity and biodiversity; - Energy, environment and sustainability; - Environmental aspects of nutrition; - Environmental economics, policy and education. The quality of the presentations was high and several colleagues expressed their interest in publishing their work presented in the symposium into this Special Issue. After a thorough peer review process, where each manuscript was evaluated by two independent reviewers, 70 high quality manuscripts were finally selected for publication.

  10. Establishment of an absolute chronology for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiles, A.


    The establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt is an ambition which has concentrated efforts of many scholars since the beginning of Egyptology. Thanks to historical and archaeological documents, a relative chronology of the kings has been built. Only some astrophysical points and synchronisms listed in texts (Greek and Egyptian sources) have given some ankle points which have led to some propositions of absolute chronology. At first, we will see how we can re-calculate some ankle points by using Sothic dating and modelling lunar dates with a Bayesian approach. Then, radiocarbon measurements have been done at Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (CEA Saclay) on Egyptian short life materials like plants or twigs. These objects come from the Louvre Museum and are attributed to a particular reign and a precise period. With a Bayesian approach, these analyses have been combined with the known succession and length of the reign. Besides, Sothic and lunar dates have been incorporated as a prior in the model. It has led to propose an absolute chronology for the 18th dynasty. Finally, we will discuss the agreement between our results and archaeological evidence and will see if this chronology can highlight points where Egyptologists disagree. (author)

  11. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  12. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

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    Dr Florence Grant


    Full Text Available When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through which Adams used books such as Mathematical Elements in the course of his business. These techniques included commonplacing, a widespread method for organising information in the early-modern period; and physically cutting and pasting fragments from engraved illustrations into new drawings, as part of the process of design. These practices connected mobile print with local networks of production. They fundamentally shaped the group of instruments Adams made for George III, and constitute a material link between two important collections of 18th-century instruments: those of ’s Gravesande in Leiden, and those of George III at the Science Museum in London.

  13. The Tatar Tsarevitches in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (15th–18th centuries »

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    S.V. Dumin


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the genealogy of the three families of the Tatar tsarevitches (Soltans, settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th or early 16th century. The first of these (extinct until the mid 16th century descended from “tsarevitch Sihdohman from Perekop” (in all probability, from khan Sidi Ahmed. The second, tsarevitches Ostrynsky (extinct in the early 17th century, were descendants of the Crimean Giray dynasty. The third, ”tsarevitches Zavolzhsky”, called later “tsarevitches Punsky”, were the descendants of Halleck-Soltan, nephew of the last khan of the Great Horde Shah Ahmat (Sheikh Ahmed and they still existed in the first half of the 18th century. At the beginning of the 16th century these tsarevitches maintained their contacst with the Great Horde and Crimea and played some role in the diplomatic relations of the Grand Duchy and Tatar khanates. Later, they turned into ordinary military landowners, though they occupied the honored place in the Lithuanian Tatar aristocracy and retained their traditional title of tsarevitches (though often they also titled princes, like other noble Tatars.


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    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  15. The Saami drums and the religious encounter in the 17th and 18th centuries

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    Håkan Rydving


    Full Text Available From the end of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century much of the confrontation between indigenous Saami religion and Christianity was focused on the drums. The Saamis of both Denmark—Norway and Sweden—Finland had been christianized for decade. The main problem for the Church authorities turned out to be that of making the Saamis abandon their indigenous religious customs. From the end of the 17th century, an intense period of propaganda and coercion began to make the Saamis abandon these non Christian elements in their religion. For the Saamis, the drums represented their threatened culture, the resistance against the Christian claim to exclusiveness, and a striving to preserve traditional values. The drums had a twofold role to play in the religious encounter. They were both foci of the confrontation and sources documenting and structuring it. The fight between old and new beliefs is to some extent possible to follow in the records from the district and county courts. These records give us access to Saami arguments and views of the importance of the drums in Saami society. The function of the drums as instruments for a Saami description of the encounter is, however, difficult to make out. The drum figures are difficult to interpret and there are a number of alternative ways of understanding their meaning.

  16. Subjective Proportions: 18th-Century Interpretations of Paestum’s ‘Disproportion’

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    Sigrid de Jong


    Full Text Available When 18th-century travellers saw the Doric temples of Paestum in Southern Italy with their own eyes, they observed for the first time true examples of the proportions of archaic Greek architecture. Contrary to the Roman proportional systems, the Greek ones had been largely unavailable to architects until then. With the rediscovery of Paestum, conveniently located south of Naples and not in far away Greece, the secret of Greek proportions was no more. Architects were able to precisely measure the temples and wrote many accounts about their primitive forms and proportions. But what did architects mean exactly when describing the proportions as primitive? What kinds of reflections did these proportions provoke? This article treats proportions as aesthetics, or as visible proportions, not as a numerical system. The discourse on proportions changed in this period, giving more weight to their cultural and historical meaning. The writings by such architects as Soane, Wilkins, and Labrouste demonstrate how Paestum functioned as a laboratory to unveil the secret of primitive proportions, and how, with the different meanings architects attached to them, it enlarged and renewed the debate on proportions.

  17. 18th international symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 18th International Symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region was held on September 26-30, 2015 in Crete. Its main theme was sustainable resource use and impact on health and well-being. This is the theme of the current special issue, which is based on the scientific works of the Symposium. This overarching theme was further developed in thematic sessions focusing on the following: - Sustainable natural resource and waste management; - Environmental health and well-being; - Climate change mitigation and adaptation; - Indoor and outdoor air pollution; - Water and soil pollution and control; - Ecotoxicity and biodiversity; - Energy, environment and sustainability; - Environmental aspects of nutrition; - Environmental economics, policy and education. The quality of the presentations was high and several colleagues expressed their interest in publishing their work presented in the symposium into this Special Issue. After a thorough peer review process, where each manuscript was evaluated by two independent reviewers, 70 high quality manuscripts were finally selected for publication.

  18. Doses of radioiodine administered for hyperthyroidism: a sampling of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur Dejonckheere, Marianne; Glinoer, Daniel; Verelst, Jean; Sand, Alain; Ham, Hamphrey


    Full text: While radioiodine (RI) is a well established treatment for hyperthyroidism, there is no consensus regarding the administration of fixed or calculated doses. Guidelines from scientific societies do not specify the preferable approach, nor the parameters to be used in order to calculate the latter. Therefore, the doses might, for the same patient, be different with regard to the chosen procedure. This study was undertaken to assess the variability of RI amounts administered in Belgium in various cases of hyperthyroidism. 21 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians issued from different departments and universities participated into the study. They received a file with clinical and biological data, iodine turnover rate, scintigraphic images and calculated thyroid surfaces from 10 patients (8 females, 2 males), 30-77 yrs suffering from hyperthyroidism of various etiologies: 7 patients had clinically overt hyperthyroidism and 3 subclinical hyperthyroidism; 7 patients had toxic goiters of various size (Graves' disease), 2 multi nodular goiter and 1 toxic nodule. None suffered from cardiac anomalies or ophthalmopathy. Participants were asked to define the amount of RI they would give in each case. Answers were received during a 8-week period. Analysing data from case 1 to case 10, the ranges of the proposed doses varied between 8 and 22 milli Curies (mCi) (sd : 2.4 - 6.07). Considering all the patients, the proposed doses varied between 2 mCi and 25 mCi. Analysing answers among the 21 participants, mean proposed doses varied between 4.5 and 17.3 mCi (sd: 0.69 - 7.99). Conclusion: These results demonstrate a wide variability among nuclear medicine physicians in the proposed RI doses and confirm that in Belgium there is no uniformity in the procedure used to determine the amount of RI to administer for various causes of hyperthyroidism. This emphasizes the notion that the determination of the amount of RI to be administered remains a matter of debate. (author)

  19. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.


    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  20. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States. (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  1. Radiomorphometric indices of mandibular bones in an 18th century population. (United States)

    Ivanišević Malčić, Ana; Matijević, Jurica; Vodanović, Marin; Knezović Zlatarić, Dubravka; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Jukić, Silvana


    To estimate four radiomorphometric indices of mandibular bones in an 18th century population sample, and possibly associate the findings with bone mass loss related to sex, age, nutritional habits and pathologies reflecting on the bone. Thirty-six sculls (31 males, 5 females), recovered from the crypt of Požega Cathedral in Croatia were analyzed. Age estimation was based on tooth wear, and Eichner class was determined according to the number of occlusal supporting zones. The parameters in recording analogue orthopantomographs were set to constant current of 16 mA, exposure time of 14.1s, and voltage between 62-78 kV. Films were processed in an automatic dark chamber processor for 12 min, and digitized at 8-bit, 300 dpi. The thickness of the mandibular cortex was assessed below the mental foramen (MI), at antegonion (AI), at gonion (GI). Qualitative mandibular cortical index (MCI) was assessed. Average values of MI, AI and GI were 3.97 ± 0.94 mm, 2.98 ± 0.56 mm, and 1.99 ± 0.55 mm, respectively. Statistically significant differences between males and females were found for AI right (p=0.014), GI left (p=0.010) and GI average (p=0.006), and were in all cases higher in males. There were no statistically significant differences between age groups for either index (p>0.05). Considering Eichner classification the differences were not significant for MI (p=0.422), AI (p=0.516), and GI (p=0.443), but in Eichner classes II, MCI was significantly higher (p=0.02). The obtained data does not suggest generalized malnutrition or calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D deprivation in the historic population studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo


    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  3. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, P.


    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references.

  4. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H.; Sand, A.


    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  5. Perceived risks from radiation and nuclear testing near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: a comparison between physicians, scientists, and the public. (United States)

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L; Werner, Cynthia A; Frank, Irene


    Determining the difference in perception of risk between experts, or more educated professionals, and laypeople is important so that a potential hazard can be effectively communicated to the public. Many surveys have been conducted to better understand the difference between expert and public opinions, and often laypeople exhibit higher perceptions of risk to hazards in comparison to experts. This is especially true when health risk is due to radiation, nuclear power, and nuclear waste. This article focuses on one section of a risk perception survey given to two groups of individuals with a more specialized education (scientists and physicians) and laypeople (villagers) in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan. All of these groups live near the former Soviet nuclear test site. Originally, it was expected that the scientists and physicians would have similar perceptions of radiation risk, while the public perceptions would be higher, but this was not always the case. For example, when perceptions of risk pertain to the health impacts of nuclear testing or the dose-response nature of radiation exposure, the physicians tend to agree with the laypeople, not the scientists. The villagers are always the most risk-averse group, followed by the physicians and then the scientists. These differences are likely due to different frames of reference for each of the populations.

  6. Some Notes About Medical Vocabulary in 18th Century New Spain: Technical and Colloquial Words for the Denomination of Illnesses

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    Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future. 

  7. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

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    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva


    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  8. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) 2016: MAXQDA User Conference


    Galan-Diaz, Carlos


    During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany) to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user foru...

  9. Homily of 18th - early 19th century as source of science about vital values of a Russian cleric

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    Альберт Иванович Есюков


    Full Text Available The article considers the value aspects of the gospels of the 18th century. It demonstrates the real importance of the heritage of the major Russian theologians for understanding of the basic value focus of the national culture. To achieve this, the article analyses the ideas of labour, wealth and poverty, «personal benefit» and «public welfare», the balance between theonomy and autonomy, «eternity» and everyday life.

  10. Shapes and geometries underlying the religious architecture in the 18th century

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    Sebastiano Giuliano


    Full Text Available In Eastern Sicily , the 18th century was deeply characterized by an artistic renovation linked to the rebuilding fervor following  the catastrophic events which hit the NOTO VALLEY at the end of the 17th century. It was also characterized by the new needs of the counterreformation spirit.As far as this period is concerned, the research work tends to develop a new methodology of critical review on the works that, both on small and big scales, have characterized the inner and outer spaces of religious buildings, their altars and their facades.These works testify the circulation of cultural shapes and models, in both regional and national areas, in a dimension which widely overflows the local area and all its limited elaborations.It is difficult to diachronically read these works which are apart from important cultural centres, because there are very few historical documents which can testify the architectural design.The research work is based on a double analysis which, taking into account the deeply symbolic elements of the religious architectural expression, traces, on one hand the possible references to the literature of that period in order to identify its models; on the other hand it tries to find out connections among the typical elements of the surveyed area through a geometrical investigation.The aim is to promote a more and more effective preserving and developing action  of a less famous religious heritage. Thanks to the collection of cultural information, it is possible to gather valuable elements, on both small and big scales, in less famous areas which are apart from the most popular tracks.For this reason the first part of this study focuses its attention on the development of an analysis system which makes it possible to read in a syncretic way, the inevitable contaminations with the literature dating back to the Renaissance, which can be found in the religious architecture of the Noto Valley during that peculiar, cultural period

  11. Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum: Early 18th century botanical drawings of medicinal plants from colonial Ceylon. (United States)

    Van Andel, Tinde; Scholman, Ariane; Beumer, Mieke


    snakebites. Many plants are characterised by their humoral properties, of which 'warming' is the most prevalent. Plant species were mostly used for their roots (28%), bark (16%) or leaves (11%). More Tamil names (260) were documented than Sinhalese (208). More than half of the Tamil names and 36% of the Sinhalese names are still used today. The author was probably a VOC surgeon based in northern Sri Lanka, who travelled around the island to document medicinal plant use. Less than half of the species were previously documented from Ceylon by the famous VOC doctor and botanist Paul Hermann in the 1670s. Further archival research is needed to identify the maker of this manuscript. Although the maker of this early 18th century manuscript remains unknown, the detailed, 300-year-old information on medicinal plant use in the Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum represents an important ethnobotanical treasure for Sri Lanka, which offers ample opportunities to study changes and continuation of medicinal plant names and practices over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov


    Full Text Available The article reviews the relationship between the rationalism, inherent in the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, and the Russian Orthodox traditon. The author raises the question whether it is true that in the Russian literature of the 18th century the Old Testament’s God (and, therefore, the Law prevails, as it was postulated by Y. Lotman and other researchers, or whether the Old Testament texts were seen by Russian writers through the perspective of New Testament’s Grace due to such dominant concepts of the Russian culture as sobornost, paskhalnost, and Christocentrism. Thus, in the Russian Orthodox tradition the Psalter does not represent the God of the Old Testament, rather it shows the Christianized understanding of the God in the New Testament. In the cultural unconscious mind of a Russian person, which had a strong influence on the individual creative work of our poets, the Psalter is an integral part of the very Orthodox Сhurch, the Orthodox divine service. When analyzing the versification of psalms by Russian poets of the 18th century, one should not ignore this situation. This article demonstrates the influence of the Orthodox tradition on the poetics of a fable as one of the most ancient genres. The author reconstructs the cultural context of the last decade of the 20th century and outlines new perspectives in the study of a transition period between the Russian Middle Ages and the early modern period.

  13. Management accounting and rationalisation in the Army: The case of Spanish Military Hospitals in the 18th century

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    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.

  14. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France]. (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min


    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  15. Tree rings reveal a major episode of forest mortality in the late 18th century on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Fang, Ouya; Alfaro, René I.; Zhang, Qi-Bin


    There is a growing research interest on studying forest mortality in relation to ongoing climate warming, but little is known about such events in past history. The study of past forest mortality provides valuable information for determining baselines that establish the normal parameters of functioning in forest ecosystems. Here we report a major episode of previously undocumented forest mortality in the late 18th century on the northern Tibetan Plateau, China. The event was not spatially uniform, in which a more severe mortality happened in dryer sites. We used dendrochronology to compare radial growth trajectories of individual trees from 11 sites in the region, and found that many trees showed positive growth trend, or growth release, during 1796-1800 CE. Growth releases are a proxy indicator of stand thinning caused by tree mortality. The growth release was preceded by an almost two-decade long growth reduction. Long-term drought related to weakened North Atlantic Oscillation and frequent El Niño events are the likely factors causing the tree mortality in a large area of the plateau. Our findings suggest that, besides the effect of drought in the late 18th century, large-scale forest mortality may be an additional factor that further deteriorated the environment and increased the intensity of dust storms.

  16. Oath Ceremonies in Spain and New Spain in the 18th century: A Comparative Study of Rituals and Iconography

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    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya


    Full Text Available This paper will focus on a comparative study of the royal oath ceremonies in Spain and New Spain starting with the 16th century, when the ritual was established, to later consider some examples from the 18th century. A process of consolidating a Latin American and Hispanic identity began in the 17th century and was reflected in religious and political festivals everywhere. The royal oath ceremony was a renewal of vows of loyalty to the Crown, which was especially important in a monarchy composed a variety of different kingdoms. This ritual was very important in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, where a king ruled from afar over subjects scattered throughout a vast territory that was ethnically and culturally very diverse. The ceremony was therefore used in the 18th century to assert matters of identity through ritual gestures and the images that adorned the ephemeral architecture created for it. Accounts of festivities and prints depicting the event as it took place in places like Lisbon, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Mexico and Lima will be studied from a comparative point of view.

  17. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology (United States)


    The XVII International Conference on Strings, Particles and Cosmology, PASCOS 2012, was held in the City of Mérida, Mexico, from June 3-8, 2012. The conference series is aimed at exploring the interface and interplay between particle physics, string theory and cosmology. With the advent of new data, the emphasis of the XVIII edition of PASCOS was on phenomenology and the interpretation of recent observational and experimental results. The conference followed the format of previous conferences in this series, with plenary reviews and contributed presentations in parallel sessions. The lectures covered a wide range of subjects which included: Dark matter and dark energy, flavor physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, Higgs physics, baryogenesis and EDMs, supergravity, high energy cosmic rays, string and F-theory GUTs, and string phenomenology. This is the first time that PASCOS was held in Latin America. The aim to do it in Mexico was to engage the Latin American community and thus to bring the conference to a wider and different audience, a goal which was thoroughly achieved. The venue was held at the Hotel Fiesta Americana in the beautiful city of Mérida. The social events included a reception with typical local food at the Katun restaurant, conference dinner at the historical Quinta Montes Molina, and an excursion to the archeological site of Dzibilchaltún including a swim at the famous cenote. PASCOS 2012 was possible thanks to the generous support of the following sponsors: CONACyT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología), UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Consejo Técnico de la Investigación Científica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Instituto de Física), Cinvestav, (Centro de Estudios Avanzados del IPN: U. Zacatanco, U. Mérida and Secretaría General), ICyTDF (Instituto Científico y Tecnológico del D.F.), PIFI (Programa Integral de Fortalecimiento Institucional, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León), SMF

  18. Certainties, Uncertainties and Expectations Regarding the Salvation of the Soul. Eschatological beliefs in New Spain, 16th-18th centuries

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    Gisela von Wobeser


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prevailing collective imaginary in New Spain regarding the place and life of the dead in the afterlife, as well as the beliefs and expectations about the salvation or damnation of the souls, between the 16th and 18th centuries. The essay analyzes issues such as the idea of life’s frailty and the fear of death, and refers to the road of salvation offered by the Church, as well as to a number of practices leading to it, such as indulgences, good deeds and the donation of pious works. It also discusses the influence of these religious beliefs and practices on the customs, social relations, education, culture and economy of the people of New Spain.

  19. From the history of Săseni village of the Orhei County in 15th-18th centuries

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    Mihai Onilă


    Full Text Available This paper presents a documentary research of the history of establishment of Săseni village in Orhei County, which was formed in the second stage of the population of Moldova, during 15th-18th centuries. According to the documents, the first owner of the village was mentioned in the charter of Stephen II of March 6, 1443 as “pan Ivan Boldur”, who sold this place to “God-loving pan Mihul the scribe”. In the 16th century the settlement came into the possession of State Treasurer Mire Călugărul, the progenitor of the family of Bulat and a ktitor of the Hîrjauca Monastery. This article also presents the place, the specifics of the village in the administrative apparatus of Ţara Moldovei, its demographics and socio-economic development.

  20. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

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    Carlos Galan-Diaz


    Full Text Available During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user forum. The conference also hosted three seminal keynote speakers in two presentations: John CRESWELL, and Udo KUCKARTZ and Stefan RÄDIKER, who shared, respectively, the state of the art of mixed methods and the ways that software can support these approaches. URN:

  1. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries. (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos


    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  2. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos


    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  3. Virtopsy shows a high status funerary treatment in an early 18th Dynasty non-royal individual. (United States)

    Loynes, Robert D; Charlier, Philippe; Froesch, Philippe; Houlton, Tobias M R; Lallo, Rudy; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Bianucci, Raffaella


    This work presents the multidisciplinary investigation of the head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin S_5109), Chief of Stables, a high status elite person from the 18th Dynasty involving MDCT, 3D brain surface and facial reconstructions accompanied by a consideration of previously presented chemical analysis of the embalming materials found in fragments of bandages used on the head and viscera (lung) found in one of the four canopic jars. Comparison of the techniques used for the cosmetic treatment of Nebiri with those used in other elite and high status non-royal persons confirms the validity of the use of the term "high status elite" in the case of Nebiri. This case highlights the importance of using modern forensic techniques both to enhance new technologies of retrospective diagnosis on altered human remains and to increase knowledge of past populations.

  4. Documents of judicial institutions in the 80-90's 18th century in the State Archives of Dnipropetrovsk region

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    Posunko, O. M.


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the documents of the juridical instances of Yekaterinoslav vicegerency in the 80-90ies of the 18th century. The study is based on the materials of the State Archives of the Dnipropetrovsk region. It was considerer their information possibilities for region history. The data is interesting for historians from South and Left-bank Ukraine. In the fullness of time the part of the former land of Hetmanate was the part of the Yekaterinoslav province. Therefore many cases are showing real use of standards of Little Russian Law especially in the areas of the inheritance and matrimonial law. By the South Ukraine history analyzed documents give information about the development of trade; the formation of landed proprietorship in the region; the work of various government institutions. Also a lot of stories to the social history of the region which is very important in limited capacity of source base.

  5. Proceedings of the 18th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics (QABP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin


    The 18th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on ''Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics'' was held from October 15 to 20, 2000, in Capri, Italy. This was the second workshop under the same title. The first one was held in Monterey, California, in January, 1998. Following the footstep of the first meeting, the second one in Capri was again a tremendous success, both scientifically and socially. About 70 colleagues from astrophysics, atomic physics, beam physics, condensed matter physics, particle physics, and general relativity gathered to update and further explore the topics covered in the Monterey workshop. Namely, the following topics were actively discussed: (1) Quantum Fluctuations in Beam Dynamics; (2) Photon-Electron Interaction in Beam handling; (3) Physics of Condensed Beams; (4) Beam Phenomena under Strong Fields; (5) Quantum Methodologies in Beam Physics. In addition, there was a newly introduced subject on Astro-Beam Physics and Laboratory Astrophysics

  6. Writings of St. Augustine as is the Case in Polemical Theology Middle of the 18th Century

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    Grigor'ev Anton


    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of the relation to the works of St. Augustine and the views of the representatives of the conservative theological episcopal start community — the middle of the 18th century. Metropolitan Stefan (Yavorsky svyaschennomuchennika Metropolitan Arseny (Matseevich and Archbishop Theophylact (Lopatinskii. Analyzing quoting St. Augustine in the work of Russian scholars, we can understand how and for what purposes they are treated to the authority of the ancient saint in what consisted their difference from the progressive part of the so-called “Russian avgustinistov”. As research shows, these authors are actively turning to the works of St. Augustine and quoted many times in his various works, but it does not make them representatives of the so-called “Russian Augustinian”. They use the authority of St. Augustine, to neutralize the possibility of using its own theological and political opponents.It should also be noted that due to the insufficient level of study of the works of the traditionalists of the 18th century., most of which are not only studied, but have not been published, and some are only open for the study of the manuscript. For this reason, it is impossible to adequately assess the level of reception of the ideas of St. Augustine in the Russian theology of the early period of the Synod. It can be concluded that they have the choice was made in favor of the perception of Augustine as the interpreter of Sacred Scripture, whose poetic images fi ll their sermons poetic and theological content, leading to edify necessary for the preacher to the moral conclusion.

  7. Croatian Pilgrimages to Loreto from the 5000 Documents of the "Croatian Maritime Regesta" in the 18th Century - vol. I

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    Zrinka Podhraški Čizmek


    Full Text Available This paper presents a small part of the pilgrimages undertaken by Croats during the 18th century across the Adriatic Sea to Loreto. The pilgrimages are described as a sui generis phenomenon of all human and religious societies. The history of the Catholic pilgrimage is analyzed through the perspective of common roots with Judaism and Islam, and the subsequent differentiation from other Christian confessions. Relations of the Croats with overseas territories since the 14th century are described, as well as their settlement in the hinterland of Ancona: Recanati and Loreto. The story of the Shrine of the Our Lady of Loreto is presented, the ties with the Croats settled there, and the foundation of a special seminary for Croats in 1580: the Illyrian College. During the review of the 4,890 documentary sources of volume I of the Croatian Maritime Regesta, a smaller segment of sources was found from the State Archive of Venice on the subject of pilgrimages. These sources list 44 pilgrimages from various locations on the Croatian coast. The types of ships they traveled on, the origin of the passengers, their number, organization in groups, the time of pilgrimage and the time of the year in which they occurred are analyzed. The most numerous pilgrims are from Lošinj (Lussino, followed by Cres (Cherso, Dugi Otok (Isola Lunga, Rovinj (Rovigno, Labin (Albona, Korčula (Curzola, Zadar (Zara and Vis (Lissa.This work is a contribution to the study of the links between the two sides of the Adriatic in the 18th century, which requires further publication and analysis of documentary sources.

  8. Geschlechtermodelle im spanischen Roman des 18. Jahrhunderts Constructions of Gender in the 18th Century Spanish Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gronemann


    Full Text Available Während Spanien lange Zeit als „Land ohne Aufklärung“ galt und das 18. Jahrhundert auch in der deutschen Hispanistik ein Randgebiet gegenüber der Masse an Studien etwa zum Siglo de Oro darstellte, wandelt sich diese Tendenz zunehmend. Beinahe zeitgleich erschienen jetzt zwei Dissertationen zum spanischen 18. Jahrhundert, die sich auf der Basis von Korpus und Fragestellung sehr gut vergleichen lassen. Wenn dieses Jahrhundert im Anschluss an die Brüder Goncourt (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852 wiederholt als das der Frau apostrophiert wurde, scheint es kein Zufall, dass sich beide mit „Geschlechterentwürfen“ (Kilian bzw. dem „Bild der Frau“ (Hertel-Mesenhöller im spanischen Roman befassen. Spanien hat nicht nur Anteil an der europäischen Aufklärung, auch wenn sich diese als patriotische und christliche Ilustración „von oben“ erweist, sondern ebenso an einem übergreifenden Wandel der Geschlechterkonstellation, welcher unter dem Begriff der Naturalisierung des Geschlechtsunterschieds in die Gender Studies eingegangen ist. Beide Verfasserinnen untersuchen die diskursiven Manifestationen dieses Wandels im Roman und problematisieren, ob und inwiefern die jeweiligen Weiblichkeitsentwürfe einem spezifischen Aufklärungsprogramm entsprechen. Dabei greifen sie gegenwärtige Theorieentwicklungen ganz unterschiedlich auf.For the longest time, Spain used to be considered the “country without enlightenment”, and the 18th century was only assigned a marginal position in Hispanic Studies in Germany, compared to the large number of studies on the Siglo de Oro darstellte. However, this tendency has recently changed. Two dissertations on 18th century Spain have just been published; both works are comparable in terms of their corpus and the research questions they investigate. If, following the Goncourt brothers (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852, the 18th century has repeatedly been called the century of the woman, it does not seem

  9. Transactions of the nuclear societies of Israel joint meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 18 th convention of the Israel nuclear societies transactions book contains presentations in the following topics: reactor physics, health physics, radiation protection, nuclear medicine and general reviews about the status of nuclear energy in Israel

  10. Initial letters on the pages of Ukrainian old printed books of the 17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukhymets H. M.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to such a complicated and little studied element of artistic decoration of Ukrainian printed books of the 17th-18th centuries as capital letters. The authors research old printed books from the collection of imprints of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra’s typography. Various topics, iconography, compositional and artistic stylistic features of miniature illustrations of initial letters, their location on book pages, content correspondence or discrepancy with a text, usage of one clichй in various editions provide multiple new possibilities to researchers. Especially the authors accentuate iconography of gospel and life subjects, as well as the source studies analysis of initial letters, which in Ukrainian old printed editions of Baroque epoch impress with innovation of subject development and the ambition for original decisions of complex compositional tasks conditioned not only by the size and format of an initial, but also by the form and location of the letter itself in a certain decorative space.

  11. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies). (United States)

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert


    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  13. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko Sergey P.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  14. The emergence of the confessional theology in Russia (18th – first half of the 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lyutko


    Full Text Available This article looks at a text dealing with theology as a text dealing with the reality that stands behind this text. Based on examples of three Russian church hierarchs who tried to systematise theology in the 18th and 19th centuries — Archbishop Feofan (Prokopovich, St. Philaret (Drozdov, St. Innocent (Borisov — the paper reveals and interprets the following issues: gradual penetration of categories of history, administration and church service into the structure of theology; rejection of the socalled natural theology (theologia naturalis, which takes place at the beginning of the 19th century. Proceeding from Foucauld’s methodology, we come to a conclusion about the emergence of confession in the Russian Empire of the fi rst half of the 19th century. This was an integrated and distinct social body, the key category of which was theology. Theology unites the social space of the confession by means of three key narratives: the identity (a complex of historical disciplines, administration (the canon law, or “theologia rectrix”, and pastoral theology, participation practices (liturgics. At the end of the period in question, the category of “Church” emerges within the theological system. On the one hand, this fact refl ects the completion of the process of constructing the confession; on the other hand, it is a sign of the emergence of ecclesiology, the new practice of theological discourse that came to be dominant in the following period.

  15. NEDO business outline for fiscal 1997. 18th project report meeting; 1997 nendo gyomu gaiyo. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The projects of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) are stated as reported at the 18th project report meeting. Outlined are new energy-related projects involving technology development, resources exploitation, promotion of new energy introduction, promotion of international cooperation, gathering of information, and so on. Outlined in relation to the research and development of industrial technologies are projects on research and development, development of medical and welfare equipment, research and development of global environment-related industrial technology, development of international industrial technology, and improvement on platforms for researches. Concerning coal, subsidy-granted projects on domestic coal and projects on domestic coal mine improvement are outlined. Projects relating to compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining and those relating to alcohol production are also outlined. NEDO's financial statement for fiscal 1997 is reported. Also reported are budgets for fiscal 1998 for projects relating to new energy, research and development of industrial technology, coal mining structure coordination, compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining, and alcohol production. (NEDO)

  16. Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women from the 18th Health Region of Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women in a public health service. Methods A study of 496 pregnant women at 35-37 gestational weeks was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in 21 municipalities of the 18th Health Region of Paraná State. Vaginal and anorectal samples of each woman were plated on sheep blood agar, and in HPTH and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broths. Results Of the 496 pregnant women, 141 (28.4% were positive for GBS based on the combination of the three culture media with vaginal and anorectal samples. The prevalence was 23.7% for vaginal samples and 21.9% for anorectal ones. Among the variables analyzed in this study, only urinary infection was a significant factor (0.026 associated with GBS colonization in women. Conclusions Based on these results, health units should performs universal screening of pregnant women and hospitals should provide adequate prophylaxis, when indicated.

  17. NEDO business outline for fiscal 1997. 18th project report meeting; 1997 nendo gyomu gaiyo. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The projects of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) are stated as reported at the 18th project report meeting. Outlined are new energy-related projects involving technology development, resources exploitation, promotion of new energy introduction, promotion of international cooperation, gathering of information, and so on. Outlined in relation to the research and development of industrial technologies are projects on research and development, development of medical and welfare equipment, research and development of global environment-related industrial technology, development of international industrial technology, and improvement on platforms for researches. Concerning coal, subsidy-granted projects on domestic coal and projects on domestic coal mine improvement are outlined. Projects relating to compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining and those relating to alcohol production are also outlined. NEDO's financial statement for fiscal 1997 is reported. Also reported are budgets for fiscal 1998 for projects relating to new energy, research and development of industrial technology, coal mining structure coordination, compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining, and alcohol production. (NEDO)

  18. The Phasing-Out of 18th-Century Patterns of German Migration to the United States after 1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Grabbe


    Full Text Available The years 1816 to 1819, at the beginning of the 19th century, saw the last wave of immigration into the United States that basically followed patterns of travel, finance, and trade established in the 1700s. Migrants from the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, in particular, reached British North America and later the United States under arrangements allowing them to book a passage on credit which they were to pay off by entering into a term of service for room and board which generally lasted from three to seven years. Their debt was redeemed this way, and such migrants were known as redemptioners. The contract agreement consisted of an original and a copy. When separating the two, the upper margins became indented—hence the term indentured servant. The reasons for the disappearance of this major 18th-century migration pattern, caused, above all, by the collapse of the redemptioner system, will be the focus of this article.

  19. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.


    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  20. Nuclear technology and chronic diseases: an exploratory study evolving the clinical physician perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Renato Cesar


    This research is an exploratory cross-sectional study about the relationship of chronic disease and the use of nuclear technology. There is a concern over the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease in developing countries and it should hence be carefully evaluated in the context of societies, organizations and individuals. The technological advances experienced in the last decades especially in the nuclear technology area have created expectations to deal more efficiently with the challenge of chronic diseases. However little has been explored in this area under the point-of-view of medical doctors as agents who make this system of relations between disease and technology. The necessity for public and private planning to deal with this set of problems can benefit through an initial evaluation about the forthcoming theme, but should incorporate the agenda of health and technology planning for the following years. Using mixed methodology, made up of qualitative and quantitative approach, this research sought to reveal and configure important dimensions around the theme of this study. The field research was made up of interviews analyzed using techniques of fundamental theory and also of questionnaires sent by web analyzed statistically using exploratory factor analysis. These ventures allowed dimensions to be revealed that make up the perception of chronic disease and the use of nuclear technology. These dimensions presented in a form of a theoretical construct that were then discussed under the point of view of social theory and technological innovation. (author)

  1. Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Van Dongeren, A.; Den Heijer, C.; Van Heteren, S.; Smit, M.W.J.; Van Koningsveld, M.; Pool, A.


    For the design of cost-effective coastal defence a precise estimate is needed of the 1/10 000 per year storm surge. A more precise estimate requires more observations. Therefore, the three greatest storm surges that hit the northern part of the Holland Coast in the 18th century are reconstructed.

  2. a Webgis for the Knowledge and Conservation of the Historical Wall Structures of the 13TH-18TH Centuries (United States)

    Vacca, G.; Pili, D.; Fiorino, D. R.; Pintus, V.


    The presented work is part of the research project, titled "Tecniche murarie tradizionali: conoscenza per la conservazione ed il miglioramento prestazionale" (Traditional building techniques: from knowledge to conservation and performance improvement), with the purpose of studying the building techniques of the 13th-18th centuries in the Sardinia Region (Italy) for their knowledge, conservation, and promotion. The end purpose of the entire study is to improve the performance of the examined structures. In particular, the task of the authors within the research project was to build a WebGIS to manage the data collected during the examination and study phases. This infrastructure was entirely built using Open Source software. The work consisted of designing a database built in PostgreSQL and its spatial extension PostGIS, which allows to store and manage feature geometries and spatial data. The data input is performed via a form built in HTML and PHP. The HTML part is based on Bootstrap, an open tools library for websites and web applications. The implementation of this template used both PHP and Javascript code. The PHP code manages the reading and writing of data to the database, using embedded SQL queries. As of today, we surveyed and archived more than 300 buildings, belonging to three main macro categories: fortification architectures, religious architectures, residential architectures. The masonry samples investigated in relation to the construction techniques are more than 150. The database is published on the Internet as a WebGIS built using the Leaflet Javascript open libraries, which allows creating map sites with background maps and navigation, input and query tools. This too uses an interaction of HTML, Javascript, PHP and SQL code.

  3. Problems in the Study of the Crimean Court Registries of the 17th–18th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rustemov


    Full Text Available The first mention of the Crimean court registries – sijils – belong to the 1800s. At that time, translations of some texts were made, the content of these monuments was relatively minutely described and their historical and philological significance was evaluated. However, separate volumes of presented documents still have not been published. Neither comprehensive linguistic study nor description of terminology and style of these texts have not been made. Research objectives: study of the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. One of the problems lying on the surface of this field of study of the Crimean Tatar language history and the right is the question about the compilers of these judicial materials. Whom we can consider the author or scribe of a court registry? How competent is an assertion that these books are kadiaskers books? Research materials: the court registries, kadylyk, kadiasker defters. The paper also raised the question of authenticity of the Crimean law and the two sources of the entire justice system of this Eastern European Turkic state: Sharia and actual Turkic law – Töre implemented subsequently in various legislative compilations, such as the Yasa of Chinggis Khan. Another issue of research of these monuments is the question of their content. Fedor Lashkov identified the Crimean records of Sharia courts as a sort of land records’ acts. Research results and novelty: As a result of a detailed study, the author found that its own jurisdiction and its own laws, which did not always coincide with the laws of the Ottoman Empire, functioned in the Crimean Khanate. Despite their historical and philological value as well as more than a century of study, Crimean court registries still contain many blank spots. This again points to the need for their early reading, translation into modern Turkish language and publication, which should be carried out in the Crimean Tatar and Russian languages.

  4. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries (United States)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta


    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vacca


    Full Text Available The presented work is part of the research project, titled "Tecniche murarie tradizionali: conoscenza per la conservazione ed il miglioramento prestazionale" (Traditional building techniques: from knowledge to conservation and performance improvement, with the purpose of studying the building techniques of the 13th–18th centuries in the Sardinia Region (Italy for their knowledge, conservation, and promotion. The end purpose of the entire study is to improve the performance of the examined structures. In particular, the task of the authors within the research project was to build a WebGIS to manage the data collected during the examination and study phases. This infrastructure was entirely built using Open Source software. The work consisted of designing a database built in PostgreSQL and its spatial extension PostGIS, which allows to store and manage feature geometries and spatial data. The data input is performed via a form built in HTML and PHP. The HTML part is based on Bootstrap, an open tools library for websites and web applications. The implementation of this template used both PHP and Javascript code. The PHP code manages the reading and writing of data to the database, using embedded SQL queries. As of today, we surveyed and archived more than 300 buildings, belonging to three main macro categories: fortification architectures, religious architectures, residential architectures. The masonry samples investigated in relation to the construction techniques are more than 150. The database is published on the Internet as a WebGIS built using the Leaflet Javascript open libraries, which allows creating map sites with background maps and navigation, input and query tools. This too uses an interaction of HTML, Javascript, PHP and SQL code.

  6. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier. (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko


    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  7. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le premier Janvier 1950 et le premier Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  8. Book of Abstracts of 18th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Quo Vadis- Energy in Time of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 18th Forum of the Croatian Energy Society, titled Quo Vadis Energy in Times of Climate Change, is focused on analysis and thinking about energy sector development in the conditions of dramatically reducing the CO 2 and greenhouse gases emissions and in the eve of the Copenhagen Climate Summit. The commitments to radically down size CO 2 emissions will change the approach to planning and development of the energy sector. There is high probability that in the time frame of 20 to 30 years a new technology platform will have been introduced through the whole technological cycle, from generation to consumption of energy. It is expected that breakthroughs will be made towards clean and more efficient technologies, but with significantly higher price levels. The changes in the energy sector will affect everyone, from general public to energy buying companies, and most of all it will affect the companies in the energy sector. The changes in the energy sector, which are to contribute to climate preservation, are a realistic and achievable goal, but they come with a price. We can expect to see the doubling of the prices, not in the near future of course, but undoubtedly in the times of great changes in the energy sector. The realisation of these changes requires a great deal of political determination in the international context, as well as fair solutions which will enable the advancement of the underdeveloped and less developed nations. Also, a strong support to the technological development is needed. The climate preservation can be a powerful generator of the international cooperation, especially as a synergy in the technological development. Technological development can be the most important asset in solving the problems of climate preservation, with the condition, of course, that the resources for research are increased and that the developed countries join efforts in using the knowledge they have, and that a non-discriminatory transfer of knowledge to the

  9. The abolition of nuclear weapons: realistic or not? For physicians, a world without nuclear weapons is possible and above all necessary. To abolish, did you say abolish? Is the elimination of the nuclear weapon realistic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Abraham; Gere, Francois; Lalanne, Dominique


    In a first article, a physician explains that eliminating nuclear weapons would be a way to get rid of the temptation for some persons to use this arm of massive destruction, and that it would be better for mankind to live without this threat. The author of the second article discusses the effect abolition could have, and, with a reference to President Obama's position about zero nuclear weapons, outlines that it could be at the benefit of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. He also discusses the perspectives of this 'global zero logics' with a new approach to arms control, and comments the relationships between abolition and non proliferation. He finally discusses the reserved attitude of France on these issues. In the next contribution, a nuclear physicist wanders whether the elimination of nuclear weapons is realistic: whereas it has always been a political objective, nuclear states refused to commit themselves in this direction in 2010 and keep on developing military-oriented tools to design new weapons

  10. Session summaries for workshop meeting on virtual reality applications in process industry maintenance training, outage planning, control room retrofits and design, 17th - 18th September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louka, Michael N.


    A well-attended workshop was held in Halden 17th - 18th September 1998 to discuss VR applications in the process industry. In particular, maintenance training, outage planning, decommissioning, control room retrofits, and design were discussed. It is clear that there is a great deal of interest in both current and potential use of VR technology. The workshop participants represented a diverse range of research disciplines, as well as utilities, vendors and regulators (author) (ml)

  11. Charles Richard de Beauregard and the treatment of blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in Madrid in the 18th century: Advertising, secrecy and deception. (United States)

    Gómiz, J J; Galindo, I


    Describe the introduction of the treatment for blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in the city of Madrid in the 18th century by the French surgeon Charles de Beauregard, the formulations employed in the preparation of his personal «bougies», the advertising in the press, their marketing and distribution. Nonsystematic review of the Madrid newspaper Gaceta de Madrid y Diario curioso, erudito, económico y comercial (Madrid Gazette, curious, erudite, financial and commercial) between 1759 and 1790. Review of the medical literature of the 18th century preserved in the Fondo Antiguo of the Biblioteca Histórica of Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Historical Resource of the Historical Library of the Complutense University of Madrid). A Google search of «Charles Richard de Beauregard». Charles de Beauregard focused his professional work mainly on the treatment of the urethral sequela of blennorrhagia, phimosis and paraphimosis. He introduced to 18th century Spanish society (with purported originality and clear commercial interests) therapeutic methods based on lead acetate that had already been developed in France by Thomas Goulard. The urethral sequela of diseases such as blennorrhagic urethritis, stenotic phimosis and paraphimosis were highly prevalent in 18th century Madrid and required complex solutions for the practice of urology of that era. Charles de Beauregard introduced innovative but not original treatments that were invasive but not bloody and that provided him with fame and social prestige. He advertised his professional activity and marketed his therapeutic products through advertisements submitted to the daily press (Madrid Gazette, Gaceta de Madrid). Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.


    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  13. Diagnosis of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities using SPECT: agreement between individualized statistical parametric maps and visual inspection by nuclear medicine physicians with different levels of expertise in nuclear neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da, E-mail: [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Nitrini, Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Tazima, Sergio [Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz (HAOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Peres, Stela Verzinhase [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Busatto Filho, Geraldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Medicina Nuclear


    Introduction: visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. Objectives: to compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. Methods: using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. Results: of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). Conclusion: statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice. (author)

  14. Physicians for the prevention of nuclear war. A portrayal of the Nobel prize winner. Betrifft: Aerzte gegen den Atomkrieg. Ein Portraet des Friedensnobelpreistraegers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jogschies, R.


    The publication abstracted reports on the history and aims of IPPNW (International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War). In recognition of their continuous and consistent international campaign of enlightenment its 140,000 members were awarded the peace Nobel prize in 1985. Emphasis is placed on the achievements and work of the Western Germany section of ''Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War''. The portrait is the first of its kind to comprehensibly acquaint even non-experts with the background, history and difficulties of the medical resistance to the dangers of nuclear war. Neither stopping at national or at political borders the medical hippocratic mission of fighting against a nuclear holocaust has brought about and developed a professional disinterestedness which is not equalled by any other kind of social and moral devotion. The publication analyses the worldwide threatening situation, the forgotten lesson taught by the past and the chances of medical protest. The result pointed out expresses an optimistic view. Chances are good if IPPNW does not only supply us with facts but also sets an example of modern morality. Interesting rudimentary attempts of initation can already be observed with other professions, for example among journalists.

  15. Traditional costume as a migration phenomenon on the part of the Adriatic coast in the 17th and 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Dragana S.


    Full Text Available Migrations from Herzegovina and Montenegro to the Herceg Novi region, during the period from the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, were the reasons for investigation (thanks to the preserved archive material of female "traditional costumes" involved in these migrations. Clothing retained the influence of Balkan, Slav, Oriental and Mediterranean cultures. The function of clothing (for work and ceremonial occasions was studied, as well as changes within the generation, regardless of whether the individual items were in constant use or only used on one occasion.

  16. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015


    Anna G. Jónasdóttir


    On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first...

  17. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero


    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.

  18. Muhammad Akbar Arzani (-1772): Mughal physician and translator. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan


    Muhammad Akbar Arzānī was an influential Mughal physician famous throughout Iran and South Asia. His reputation is considered from contemporary accounts of his importance within the broader scholarship in South Asian culture and history. A brief synopsis of his life is provided, followed by a bibliography of his writings. Arzānī made Greco-Arabic knowledge accessible for Indo-Persian audiences in the 18th century.

  19. Can Physicians Identify Inappropriate Nuclear Stress Tests? An Examination of Inter-rater Reliability for the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for Radionuclide Imaging (United States)

    Ye, Siqin; Rabbani, LeRoy E.; Kelly, Christopher R.; Kelly, Maureen R.; Lewis, Matthew; Paz, Yehuda; Peck, Clara L.; Rao, Shaline; Bokhari, Sabahat; Weiner, Shepard D.; Einstein, Andrew J.


    Background We sought to determine inter-rater reliability of the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for radionuclide imaging (RNI) and whether physicians at various levels of training can effectively identify nuclear stress tests with inappropriate indications. Methods and Results Four hundred patients were randomly selected from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing nuclear stress testing at an academic medical center. Raters with different levels of training (including cardiology attending physicians, cardiology fellows, internal medicine hospitalists, and internal medicine interns) classified individual nuclear stress tests using the 2009 AUC. Consensus classification by two cardiologists was considered the operational gold standard, and sensitivity and specificity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests was calculated. Inter-rater reliability of the AUC was assessed using Cohen’s kappa statistics for pairs of different raters. The mean age of patients was 61.5 years; 214 (54%) were female. The cardiologists rated 256 (64%) of 400 NSTs as appropriate, 68 (18%) as uncertain, 55 (14%) as inappropriate; 21 (5%) tests were unable to be classified. Inter-rater reliability for non-cardiologist raters was modest (unweighted Cohen’s kappa, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.55). Sensitivity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests ranged from 47% to 82%, while specificity ranged from 85% to 97%. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability for the 2009 AUC for RNI is modest, and there is considerable variation in the ability of raters at different levels of training to identify inappropriate tests. PMID:25563660

  20. Tungsten/wolfram: A little-known connection between the 18th century Basque Country and SOFT 2014 in Donostia/San Sebastián

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Pascual; Ascasíbar, Enrique


    Highlights: • SOFT 2014 has taken place in Donostia/San Sebastián. • Tungsten/wolfram (W) is a strategic material for the development of fusion. • W was isolated very close to Donostia in the late 18th century as a result of a combination of fortunate circumstances. • This fact is largely unknown even to the fusion materials experts working with W. • We describe this story with some detail. - Abstract: This paper is intended as a preface of the special issue that Fusion Engineering and Design will devote to the best papers presented in the Symposium on Fusion Technology, 2014 (SOFT 2014) that took place in Donostia/San Sebastián. It is a historical note dwelling on the largely unknown story of the isolation of tungsten/wolfram in Spain, more precisely, in the Basque Country, very close to Donostia/San Sebastián, in the late 18th century. Given the current strategic importance of tungsten in the development of fusion as a viable energy source we think it is timely to recall the protagonists and the circumstances involved in the isolation of this metal.

  1. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance]. (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo


    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  2. State Policy of Russia in the Field of Science and Education (The end of 17th-early 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroniсa E. Matveenko


    Full Text Available The process of education and science intensive development in Russia at the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th centuries is completely related with the personality of Emperor Peter I (Great, who understood the grandiose importance of public education for Russia. The reforms of Peter I in the field of science and education became the most important foundation in the history of pedagogy and military affairs development in Russia, as well as in the history of the Russian state national security strengthening. The result of Peter I reforms in education was the creation of domestic regular Armed Forces of Russia and the provision of the Russian state with the experts of different profiles: military people, engineers, technicians and diplomats. The authors of the article carried out a comprehensive analysis of the materials available in Russia about the Peter schools in order to systematize and preserve these data for pedagogical science and history. The work studied the documents (decrees and letters of Peter the Great reflecting the reforms in the field of science and education of Russia at the end of the 17th - early 18th centuries. With the support of historical documents, the establishment chronology of the first schools in Russia, the conditions for schoolchildren teaching, the structure and the content of training programs were described, and the teaching aids used in Peter schools were listed.

  3. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal]. (United States)

    Rab, Irén


    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe.

  4. The celebrated écorchés of Honoré Fragonard, part 1: The classical techniques of preparation of dry anatomical specimens in the 18th century. (United States)

    Degueurce, Christophe; Adds, Philip


    The écorchés that Honoré Fragonard created between 1766 and 1771 have miraculously survived the ravages of time due to a technique of preparation which Fragonard never revealed. The present paper and a subsequent article aim to explain the classical methods used by anatomists of the 18th century (Part 1) and to throw light on the details of Fragonard's method (Part 2). Anatomists of the 18th century who wished to preserve their dissections used a method of mummification, which has now fallen into disuse: drying after immersion in alcohol. This article explains the stages of the classical method utilized by French anatomists of the Age of Enlightenment. The cadaver was selected with care before the vascular system was injected with a colored mixture of wax, animal fat, and plant resins. The body was then dehydrated by immersion in a bath of alcohol, after which it was removed and positioned by means of a wooden framework, which held the body in the desired pose while the alcohol evaporated. The vessels were painted, and finally the body was varnished. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Medical procedures in the event of nuclear power plant accidents. Guidelines for: Medical consultants for emergency response commander; physicians in emergency care centres; physicians in outpatient and inpatient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genkel, Simone


    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on medical procedures in the event of nuclear power plant accidents. This contribution consists of the following sections: protective measures, tasks of radiation protection physicians, emergency care centres. It has been pointed out that differentiation of the hospitals is acquired which accept radiation accident patients. However, only a small number of hospitals will be able to professionally treat patients with suspected gastrointestinal or pronounced (muco)cutaneous type of hospitals with haemotological-oncological departments. Thus they should be able to treat patients who have been exposed to radiation doses between 1 and 6 Gy without any difficulties. Even larger is the number of hospitals which can accept patients who were exposed to a radiation dose of less than 1 Gy, but suffer from other complicating diseases (injuries, general diseases)

  6. 18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

  7. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  8. Physician Compare (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Physician Compare, which meets Affordable Care Act of 2010 requirements, helps you search for and select physicians and other healthcare professionals enrolled in...

  9. Composition of 12-18th century window glass in Belgium: Non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, Olivier; Janssens, Koen; Wouters, Hilde; Caluwe, Danielle


    A set of ca. 500 window glass fragments originating from different historical sites in Belgium and covering the period 12 th -18 th century was analyzed by means of electron probe microanalysis. Most samples are archaeological finds deriving from non-figurative windows in secular buildings. However, the analyzed set also contains glass sampled from still existing non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings. A sudden compositional change at the end of the 14 th century can be noticed among the series of glass compositions that were obtained. These changes could be related to the use of different glassmaker recipes and to the introduction of new raw materials for glass making

  10. Archaeological Textile Findings of 17th – 18th Centuries from the Quarter of the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow. Attribution and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkina Irina I.


    Full Text Available The article considers the textile findings of 17th – 18th centuries obtained during archaeological studies conducted in 2014–2015 at the cemetery of St. John the Baptist Church in the quarter of Novodevichy Convent. The items were in an extremely unsatisfactory state of preservation. The study allowed to identify their purpose and partially reconstruct their appearance and decoration. Of most interest among the remaining items were the fragments of shirts, covers and a phaelonion shoulder. On the basis of the results of reconstruction conducted by the author, the phaelonion, representing an element of church attire, featured a high rigid trapezoid shoulder made of red velvet and decorated with gold ornamental embroidery imitating the appearance of Turkish textile. According to the author, similar shoulders in terms of the shape and manufacturing technique are characteristic of the discovered phaelonions of 16th – 17th cc.

  11. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures (United States)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel


    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  12. Portraits from the second half of the 18th century in Croatia – witnesses of clothing forms and fashion influences of rococo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Nina Simončić


    Full Text Available his paper will attempt to analyze the clothing from the rococo period and underline fashion as an important segment in the reconstruction of a specific style era. Based on conserved portraits from the second half of the 18th century, as well as rare artifacts of clothing from the period found in Croatia, a description of primarily women’s types of clothing, accessories and the terms used to describe them will be given. Influences had, primarily through cultural and trade routes, come from the fashion capital of the period – France, and fashion innovations and the intensity of their changes were under the influence of the personal style first of Madame de Pompadour and afterwards Marie Antoinette. Croatia, which had at the time been part of the Habsburg monarchy and under the Republic of Venice, tended toward French influences in fashion, which represents a considerable move from the prior influence of Italian and German style.

  13. 18th Meeting of the IFRC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.


    The 18th meeting of the Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) was held on 26-27 April 2012 at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Activities of the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit for the period 2010-2012 were reviewed and recommendations were made for continuig activitiees in 2012-2013 and for new projects in the 2014-2015 budget cycle. The proceedings, conclusions and recommendations of the Subcommittee meeting are briefly described in this report. Specific recommendations of the Subcommittee from this meeting, as well as the report on the activities of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit for the period May 2010 - April 2012, are also included. (author)

  14. On the Chemical Signature and Origin of Dicoppertrihydroxyformate (Cu2(OH)3HCOO) Formed on Copper Miniatures of 17th and 18th centuries. (United States)

    Veiga, Alfredina; Teixeira, Dora Martins; Candeias, António J; Mirão, José; Rodrigues, Paulo Simões; Teixeira, Jorge Ginja


    A corrosion product rarely reported in the literature has been found on the copper support of three miniature paintings of the 17th and 18th centuries. This product, which has been identified as dicoppertrihydroxyformate (Cu2(OH)3HCOO), is an unusual basic copper formate found on copper artifacts. The identification and characterization of dicoppertrihydroxyformate was carried out directly over the corroded surface of the objects, using a nondestructive approach, which combines the integrated use of various microanalytical techniques. Using this approach, it was possible to obtain a set of new reference data about the natural form of Cu2(OH)3HCOO, that will enable its unambiguous identification in other similar objects. In this work, the probable causes that may have contributed to its formation are also discussed.

  15. Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baart


    Full Text Available For the design of cost-effective coastal defence a precise estimate is needed of the 1/10 000 per year storm surge. A more precise estimate requires more observations. Therefore, the three greatest storm surges that hit the northern part of the Holland Coast in the 18th century are reconstructed. The reconstructions are based on paintings, drawings, written records and shell deposits that have recently appeared. The storm-surge levels of these storms have been estimated using numerical modelling of the coastal processes. Here we show how these reconstructions can be used in combination with extreme value statistics to give a more confident estimate of low probability events.

  16. Composition of 12-18 th century window glass in Belgium: Non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings (United States)

    Schalm, Olivier; Janssens, Koen; Wouters, Hilde; Caluwé, Danielle


    A set of ca. 500 window glass fragments originating from different historical sites in Belgium and covering the period 12 th-18 th century was analyzed by means of electron probe microanalysis. Most samples are archaeological finds deriving from non-figurative windows in secular buildings. However, the analyzed set also contains glass sampled from still existing non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings. A sudden compositional change at the end of the 14 th century can be noticed among the series of glass compositions that were obtained. These changes could be related to the use of different glassmaker recipes and to the introduction of new raw materials for glass making.

  17. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives. (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine


    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  18. Application of INAA to identify lead white in icons from the 15th-18th centuries from south-eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.; Giemza, J.


    The purpose of the work was to analyse lead white from eighteen icons of the 15 th -18 th centuries, collected in the Orthodox Art Department at the Castle Museum in Lancut, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. 1-3 samples from each object, with a mass from 0.1 to 1 mg were collected after removing the varnish, from the top lights, in order to ensure that they include pure lead white without other pigment additives. Samples were irradiated in the MARIA reactor in Swierk (Poland), in a channel with a 8·10 13 n/cm 2 s thermal neutron flux. 47 standards of determined elements, e.g. Na, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga ,Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Th and 238 U were simultaneously irradiated. Measurements of activity of the samples and standards were carried out using an HP germanium detector. Ultimately, 28 elements were selected for a multi-parameter statistical analysis aimed at identifying the degree of similarity of analysed icons. Results of the analysis permit for division into groups closely related to chronology of tested icons. Icons from the 15 th and 16 th centuries are much more alike than icons from the 17 th and 18 th centuries. Probably, the applied lead white was obtained from different sources that had changed over time

  19. [How do first codes of medical ethics inspire contemporary physicians?]. (United States)

    Paprocka-Lipińska, Anna; Basińska, Krystyna


    First codes of medical ethics appeared between 18th and 19th century. Their formation was inspired by changes that happened in medicine, positive in general but with some negative setbacks. Those negative consequences revealed the need to codify all those ethical duties, which were formerly passed from generation to generation by the word of mouth and individual example by master physicians. 210 years has passed since the publication of "Medical Ethics" by Thomas Percival, yet essential ethical guidelines remain the same. Similarly, ethical codes published in Poland in 19 century can still be an inspiration to modem physicians.

  20. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. (United States)

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa


    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  1. Ten theses for Chernobyl. A friendly address before the 6. international congress of physicians to prevent a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Guenther


    After having recalled that he already published a first set of theses about the atomic hazard in 1957, and a second one in 1959, the philosopher Gunther Anders proposes a new one in which he evokes various notions like carelessness, panic, and emotional reactions, the threat of nuclear on human life, the consequences of nuclear war on health as there will no nurses or doctors any more, the opposition to the fabrication of weapons, the risk associated with the victory of nuclear energy, the meaning of revolution, the fact that the so-called peace is a war

  2. 18th International Seapower Symposium (United States)


    brid war or complex irregular conflict: somewhat like you see going on right now potentially in Iraq and Afghanistan, where you’ll have combinations of...pable of operating in this complex irregular warfare that our vision folks see as the wave of the future. We are attempting to stay balanced with...think less about the challenges that it raises, which are quite small, and more about the opportunities it presents, which are im- mense . And I want

  3. Physicians' obligations in radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.


    Physicians have responsibilities to develop effective radiation programs that will (1) protect the public's physical and emotional health, (2) prevent and/or minimize illnesses and injury, and (3) treat and rehabilitate all exposed individuals. To accomplish these goals, physicians should understand the basic elements of radiation physics, radiation biology, benefit/risk, radiation regulations, nuclear power production, and world energy needs

  4. Viajando sobre hojas volanderas: representaciones del viaje en pliegos sueltos del siglo XVIII = Travelling on broadsides: representations of travels in 18th-century Spanish chapbooks

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    Juan Gomis Coloma


    Full Text Available ResumenEl tema que aborda este trabajo son las representaciones del viaje y de los viajeros en los romances del siglo XVIII. Los objetivos son, en primer lugar, dar a conocer una fuente “popular” en relación a un tema, el viaje, que para el siglo XVIII ha sido generalmente estudiado desde la perspectiva de la alta cultura, como ingrediente clave para la formación e instrucción de cualquier espíritu ilustrado. Rastreando los aspectos asociados al viaje que, numerosos, asoman en los pliegos sueltos, se muestran otras representaciones de viajes y viajeros, que contribuyan a enriquecer nuestra comprensión sobre la diversidad de concepciones que el tema pudo suscitar en la época. En segundo lugar, a partir de una muestra representativa de romances publicados en el siglo XVIII, se analizan distintos rasgos de los relatos de viajes: periplos, lugares de destino, tipos de viajes, identidad de los viajeros, causas para emprender el itinerario, descripción de espacios, éxito o fracaso de la empresa, etc. Finalmente, se seleccionan algunos textos representativos para indagar los valores asociados al viaje y al encuentro con “el otro”, con el fin de explorar los miedos e ilusiones que, según los relatos, llevaba aparejado aventurarse hacia lo desconocido.AbstractThis paper focuses on 18th century romances’ representations of travels and travellers. Its aims are: firstly, to shed light on a «popular» source about a topic like travels, which has been studied traditionally from the perspective of high culture, as an element linked to the education of enlightened people. Through the analysis of different features about travels which are found in «pliegos sueltos», another representations of travels and travellers are shown, which can enrich our understanding about this topic. Secondly, different features of travelling stories published as popular prints in the 18th century are analysed: journeys, destinations, travellers and their aims


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan N. ROŞCA


    Full Text Available The author argues that the philosophers from the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, regardless if they were empiricist or rationalist, showed respect for religion, as well by their admittance of God, as by the adoption of religious morality. Ontologically, the thinkers from the above mentioned period have identified God with the supreme substance, which, by the attribute of scope and that of thought, as Spinoza considered, or, by the extended or omnipresent substance and thoughtful or omniscient substance, as the Deists stated, makes God intrinsic to the world of things and,respectively, to the human souls. Ethically, thev thinkers we consider here argued that, being created by God, human souls have enrooted in them the divine principles of moral conduct as well as the freedom of choice between good and evil. The philosophers of Enlightenment reaffirmed the above indicated correlations between philosophy and religion, merely criticizing the behavior of some of the members of clergy, but not exactly the Christian doctrine. The author argues that, at present, given the identified interferences between philosophy, on the one hand, and theology and religion, on the other hand, they could and should be cultivated as consistent and not conflicting forms, which would contribute to the affirmation of the unified and harmonious spirit of contemporary human being and to the revival or, even more, to the retrieval of her moral conduct.

  6. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin. (United States)

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment.

  7. Lutheran Clergy in an Orthodox Empire. The Apppointment of Pastors in the Russo-Swedish Borderland in the 18th Century

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    Räihä Antti


    Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.

  8. The Absolutist Reformism: Projects of Political Reforms in Russia (2nd half of 18th century – 1st quarter of 19th century

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    Konstantin D. Bugrov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of absolutist reformism – a form of political culture that chronologically spans from the mid-18th century to 19th century, and is determined by both communicative context (genre, pragmatic purpose, and the social and political status of its participants, the members of court-administrative elite. The author argues that the principal reformers, who belonged to the court and administrative elite of Russian Empire, were competing with each other, and the reform proposals allowed the competitors to simultaneously improve their own positions within the structure of state governance and enact the absolute power of the monarch to bring the reform forth. However, that meant that the monarch was appearing in the reform proposals as an omnipotent arbiter capable of creating the social and political institutions by his will. Consequently, these reform proposals – starting from the early projects of the 1750es – 1760es, and finishing with the intense production of reform plans under Alexander I – were aimed at increasing the power of monarch, assuring its benevolent character, and protecting it from the potential usurpation from the inside of the bureaucratic apparatus. This logic of argumentation, which places the monarch against the bureaucracy, was to flourish later on in Russian 19th century.

  9. "Diarium patris ministri", a Jesuit view of social structures at the break of 18th century in south-west Bohemian town of Klatovy. (United States)

    Cerný, Karel


    The Jesuit college in the Czech town of Klatovy was founded in 1636 and canceled in 1773. It had its own grammar school and numerous contacts with local nobility and church dignitaries. The college was the most important house of a catholic order in the area and baroque festivities organised by the jesuits were visited (or it would be better to say taken part in) by a wide spectrum of members of the local society. The Jesuits concerned not only on careful arrangement of their ecclesiastical celebrations, but also on presence of the important guests. They recorded numbers of the guests who visited the college and their social status in the college manuscripts. The records were then used for an internal need of the order. Till the present day three manuscripts related to the college in Klatovy have been preserved. The most interesting records of the guests are in the diary of father "minister" of the college. The article focuses on a reconstruction of a not very conventional view of social structure in an average Czech town in the beginnig of 18th century. I'm trying to describe the social situation from the jesuit point of view using internal records of the order.

  10. The Orchestras of the Príncipe and Cruz Coliseums in Madrid during the Second Half of the 18th Century

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    Marina BARBA


    Full Text Available There were no stable orchestras in Madrid’s public theatres during the first half of the Eighteenth Century, and a variable number of instrumentalists were used on each occasion. This paper discusses the development of the two town-owned theatres in the second half of the century, when the orchestra was considered an important element and a new way of hiring musicians developed, based on sources kept at the Archivo de Villa de Madrid, Sección de Secretaría.René Andioc and Mireille Coulon in their Cartelera teatral madrileña del siglo XVIII: (1708-1808 refer to the companies that worked in both theatres in the second half of the 18th Century, those of de Josef de Parra, María Hidalgo, José Martínez Gálvez, Juan Ángel, Águeda de la Calle, María Ladvenant, Nicolás de la Calle, Juan Ponce, Manuel Martínez, Eusebio Ribera, Joaquín Palomino, Luis Navarro and Francisco Ramo, although they do not study the orchestral musicians. The first study on this issue is that by José Máximo Leza «Las orquestas de ópera en Madrid entre los siglos XVIII-XIX», although it does not discuss the theatres of La Cruz and El Príncipe in the second half of the century. 

  11. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

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    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana


    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  12. Training of Russian Officers in Line Troops in the Second Half of the 17th – First Half of the 18th Century

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    Aleksey N. Grebenkin


    Full Text Available This article considers the attempts of officer training directly in the troops of Russian army, which were undertook in the second half of the 17th –first half of the 18th centuries. The author gives the characteristic to the training of “commanding people” in reytar regiment of I. Fanbukoven in 1649-1653 and comes to conclusion that it was effective. The author thinks that the military educational activity of the “toy” army was focused on the training of soldiers, not officers. The attempt of Peter I to organize the military training of young courtiers abroad wasn’t successful because of their weak base preparation. The training of officers in guard regiments was more effective, but it quickly became sham because young noblemen only numbered in lists of military units. Besides, regiment schools which had been organized in the guard troops since 1721 didn’t give so much military knowledge as the technical one, moreover training was organized on a rather low level. The author comes to conclusion that difficulties which were connected with the organization of officer training directly in the troops (such as lack of qualified teachers, impossibility of regular conduct of classes, etc. made the government to pay close attention to the development of boarding military schools – cadet corpses.

  13. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England. (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L


    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

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    Kozma Ahačič


    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  15. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

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    Matija Ogrin


    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  16. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.


    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation

  17. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

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    Predrag Mutavdžić


    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  18. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

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    Anna G. Jónasdóttir


    Full Text Available On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first to embark on an advanced academic career in political science and gender studies. It is therefore highly appropriate that Anna Guðrún should be awarded the first honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science, where these disciplines are located. Her research covers a broad spectrum, including political science, sociology, economic history, psychology and gender studies. She was among the first to deal in a theoretical manner with gender, power and politics, which was considered rather provocative at the start of her academic career in the early 1970s. She is a pioneer in intertwining political research and gender studies and her most important research is in the field of power and personal gender relations. Anna Guðrún moved to Sweden at an early age but has kept in touch with the Icelandic research community. Below we publish her acceptance speech on the occasion when the honorary doctorate was awarded. It reflects clearly how her ideas have developed and her intimate sense for how personal and political factors bring politics and gender studies closer at the same time as she deepens and broadens both of their subjects.

  19. The Populations of Vinkovci and Vukovar during the Period of Their Moulding into Urban Entities: The End of the 18th Century and Beginning of the 19th

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    Sanja Lazanin


    Full Text Available In this article, a comparison is drawn between the demographic characteristics of these two Slavonian-Srijem towns during the period of their moulding into urban entities at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th. The author applies the comparative approach and endeavours to establish the similarities and differences between Vinkovci and Vukovar in the demographic structure and forms of settlement of those two centres during their »initial urbanisation«. Starting out from the justification for comparison of these two towns – their spatial proximity, similar historical circumstances, the comparable eco-historical systems that gave rise to them, as well as their diverse status within the Hapsburg Monarchy – when comparing them, the author sees the great influence of the State and absolutist reforms on urban development in those border settlements in the Croatian and Hapsburg region. Apart from that, the demographic aspect and the role of migration, along with the organised settlement policy, was of great importance in their urban moulding. The needs of Vinkovci and Vukovar as urban centres with new inhabitants were largely covered by moving in people from other parts of the Monarchy, and also from the Croatian lands under other jurisdictions and other countries under Ottoman authority. Bringing in new inhabitants from various regions enabled the recovery and strengthening of those settlements after the Ottoman era. Despite the influx of new demographic elements, the entire region of Slavonia and Srijem – as was the case with Vinkovci and Vukovar – represented a poorly inhabited area in comparison with other parts of the Monarchy. An important role in the life of those towns was played by the largest ethnic and/or religious groups, the Roman Catholic and the Christian Orthodox believers.

  20. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez


    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  1. Towards the Description of “Philological Translation” in the 1930-s: Adrian A. Frankovsky as Translator of the 18 th Century English Novel

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    Maria E. Malikova


    Full Text Available The first part of the article describes the phenomenon of “philological translation” in the Soviet culture of the 1930s and, in particular, translations of the 18 th century English novels by Adrian A. Frankovsky. Within the Soviet culture with its dominating Marxist discourse, “idealistic” philosophical-aesthetic foundations of philological translation were absent from critical reviews or translators’ paratexts. However, these concepts were well familiar to translators from the university philosophical and philological habitus, to which Frankovsky also belonged, and were presented in a number of theoretical and historical works on translation authored by such university professors as Fyodor D. Batyushkov, Mikhail P. Alexeev, and Alexandеr M. Finkel’. Their brief overview allows to trace the ori gins of Frankovsky’s concept of translation. The second part of the article is based on the draft materials preserved in Frankovsky’s archive (Manuscript Department of Pushkin House, Fund 132. Their analysis allows to demonstrate Frankovsky’s individual orientation within the field of philological translation. Frankovsky was focused on literal reproduction of the foreign syntax in the Russian language and thus endeavored to construct a more intellectual, rational, “European” Russian language. There are also striking parallels between Frankovsky’s interest in humor as the dominant of the early English novel and his conveyance of indirect speech (as it was analyzed within German linguistic school of Carl Vossler with similar interests of Mikhail M. Bakhtin at the same time. This allows us to place Frankovsky’s translations within the cultural context that remained unnoticed by his contemporaries.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  4. Physician suicide. (United States)

    Preven, D W


    The topic of physician suicide has been viewed from several perspectives. The recent studies which suggest that the problem may be less dramatic statistically, do not lessen the emotional trauma that all experience when their lives are touched by the grim event. Keeping in mind that much remains to be learned about suicides in general, and physician suicide specifically, a few suggestions have been offered. As one approach to primary prevention, medical school curriculum should include programs that promote more self-awareness in doctors of their emotional needs. If the physician cannot heal himself, perhaps he can learn to recognize the need for assistance. Intervention (secondary prevention) requires that doctors have the capacity to believe that anyone, regardless of status, can be suicidal. Professional roles should not prevent colleague and friend from identifying prodromal clues. Finally, "postvention" (tertiary prevention) offers the survivors, be they family, colleagues or patients, the opportunity to deal with the searing loss in a therapeutic way.

  5. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.


    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  6. ITC18: 18th international Toki conference. Development of physics and technology of stellarators/heliotrons 'en route to DEMO'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    18th International Toki Conference (ITC18) was held in Toki (Japan) December 9-12 2008 organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). More than 150 experts in fusion research, especially in stellarator/heliotron research from Australia, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America gathered at the conference. The International Organizing Committee (IOC) chaired by O. Motojima, the International Program Committee (IPC) chaired by Y. Ogawa and the Local Organizing Committee (LOC) chaired by T. Mutoh have played the leading role in the elaboration of the scientific program of the conference. NIFS has organized the ITC as an annual meeting for fusion related sciences since its establishment in 1989. The IPC arranged 2 plenary talks, 1 review talk, 34 invited talks in addition to 109 contributed presentations including 6 oral talks. Recent developments in the experimental, theoretical and technical research show the clear route to the realization of a stellarator/heliotron type demo fusion reactor. ITC18 was devoted to review the recent developments and to discuss the next steps forward to the demo reactor realization of stellarator/heliotron type. In the conference, recent experimental results from both tokamak and stellarator/heliotron devices are reviewed and the experimental and theoretical physics of plasma confinement in toroidal devices are also discussed and confirmed that the physical base of the fusion reactor is well developed. The development of steady state operation, heating, fueling, divertors, plasma wall interaction and wall materials, advanced diagnostics for reactor relevant plasma, blanket materials as well as super conducting magnets are discussed as inevitable key physics and technologies for the DEMO reactor. Slides of all oral presentations as well as the proceedings are available at Extended papers of major

  7. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries (United States)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert


    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  8. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption (United States)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen


    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the

  9. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, Th.


    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  10. 18. YY.'da İstanbul Esnafının Sorunları The Problems Of The Merchants In The 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan NAKİBOĞLU


    Full Text Available Provisioning denotates feeding, nourishing, nursing. When theworld history is taken into account, providing food and raw material tothe cities has been a crucial problem for the states and pre-capitalistcommunities. The increase in the population in the cities had made theproblems of provisioning even worse which caused crises ofprovisioning.Provisioning of İstanbul has always been essential to the OttomanEmpire. The economic view of the Empire leaned on to three principlesÇProvisioning, traditionalism and fiscalism in which provisioning wasseen as the key among the others.Provisioning in Ottoman Empire was based on the consumer,therefore the Empire followed a economic policy which has protected theconsumer and the producer against prices. State intervened the marketfrom the production of the good until it hasreached the consumer. Thepurpose was to control the market. Fixed price system was alsoemerged because of the provisioning. The provisioning policy of theEmpire was to put export prohibition to the wheat, to monitor thedistribution of food to hte whosalers and merchants, to determine thethe fix price to prevent the price speculations and to ban the stockpilingİstanbul was very crucial to the Empire as the capital and theregulator of the social order. Therefore the empire had undertaken the provisioning of İstanbul. Since, provisioning was important economical and political stances, empire did not leave the market alone but intervene it which means, Empire had worked full force with its all units related to production and distrıbution to prevent its people from famine, poverty and expensiveness. This had continued untill the 18th century. In the 18th century, provisioning problems, smuggled good, hardships to control the fixed price policy and the disagreements between the merchants of İstanbul and its surrounding region had become the agendaIn this study, the problems related to the topics such as the commerce between the merchants of

  11. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

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    Paolo Barresi


    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  12. Summary report of IAEA technical meeting on technical aspects of atomic and molecular data processing and exchange - 18th meeting of the A+M Data Centres and ALADDIN Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.


    The IAEA Technical Meeting on 'Technical Aspects of Atomic and Molecular Data Processing and Exchange - 18th Meeting of A+M Data Centres and ALADDIN Network' was held on 10-11 October 2005, in Vienna, Austria. The discussions and presentations focused on the priorities in A+M data compilation and evaluation, and are summarized in this report. Conclusions and recommendations on the technical aspects of data processing, exchange and distribution are also presented. (author)

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician who has specialized training in nuclear medicine will interpret the images and send a report to your referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear ...

  14. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus


    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  15. Presidential Oration: The 18 th Annual Conference of the Indian Academy of Neurology, Trichi, Tamil Nadu, September 24-26, 2010, Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Kurupath


    Full Text Available Nearly 80% of the 50 million people with epilepsy worldwide reside in developing countries that are least equipped to tackle the enormous medical, social and economic challenges posed by epilepsy. These include widespread poverty, illiteracy, inefficient and unevenly distributed health care systems, and social stigma and misconceptions associated with epilepsy. Several studies have reported that a large proportion of patients with epilepsy in developing countries never receive appropriate treatment for their condition, and many, though diagnosed and initiated on treatment, soon discontinue treatment. Unaffordable cost of treatment, unavailability of antiepileptic drugs, and superstitious and cultural beliefs contribute to high epilepsy treatment gap in resource-poor countries. A significant proportion of the current burden of epilepsy in developing countries can be minimized by educating the public about the positive aspects of life with epilepsy and the primary and secondary physicians about current trends in the management of epilepsies, scaling up routine availability of low-cost antiepileptic drugs, and developing cost-effective epilepsy surgery programs.

  16. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence. A consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society, endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Anagnostopoulos, C.; Cerqueira, M.; Ell, P.J.; Flint, E.J.; Harbinson, M.; Kelion, A.D.; Al-Mohammad, A.; Prvulovich, E.M.; Shaw, L.J.; Tweddel, A.C.


    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  17. Beyond denial and exclusion: The history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the Cape Colony during the 17th–18th centuries with lessons for a post-colonial theology of religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers


    Full Text Available Learning from the past prepares one for being able to cope with the future. History is made up of strings of relationships. This article follows a historical line from colonialism, through apartheid to post-colonialism in order to illustrate inter-religious relations in South-Africa and how each context determines these relations. Social cohesion is enhanced by a post-colonial theology of religions based on the current context. By describing the relationship between Christians and Muslims during the 17th–18th centuries in the Cape Colony, lessons can be deduced to guide inter-religious relations in a post-colonial era in South Africa. One of the most prominent Muslim leaders during the 17th century in the Cape Colony was Sheik Yusuf al-Makassari. His influence determined the future face of Islam in the Cape Colony and here, during the 18th century, ethics started playing a crucial role in determining the relationship between Christians and Muslims. The ethical guidance of the Imams formed the Muslim communities whilst ethical decline was apparent amongst the Christian colonists during the same period. The place of ethics as determinative of future inter-religious dialogue is emphasised. Denial and exclusion characterised relationships between Christians and Muslims. According to a post-colonial understanding of inter-religious contact the equality and dignity of non-Christian religions are to be acknowledged. In the postcolonial and postapartheid struggle for equality, also of religions, prof Graham Duncan, to whom this article is dedicated, contributed to the process of acknowledging the plurality of the religious reality in South Africa.

  18. The formation of the urban network as a strategy to define the boundary between the captaincies of Minas Gerais and São Paulo in the second half of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Salgado


    Full Text Available The municipal institutions are essential instruments in the consolidation and defense of the territories of the Portuguese Crown in Brazil. In the 18th century, in face of the gold discoveries and occupation of the territory, the creation of towns in Minas Gerais is a strategy to affirm the Crown's power and administrative organization. When the Captaincy of São Paulo was restored in 1765, the strengthening of the Crown's power was structured by military actions and the inauguration of sugar production, which is associated with the creation of a network of villages, parishes and towns. The governors of São Paulo seek to improve structures that would guarantee the flows of people and goods in the territory, as well as consolidate territorial limits with Spain and with the confining captaincies. However, the occupation of the border areas between the captaincies of São Paulo and Minas Gerais was never consensual among the authorities, both metropolitan and colonial. A region of litigation in the18th century, the hinterland of the Rio das Mortes was marked by São Paulo’s establishments, stimulated by the government of this captaincy, and by attempts to organize the colonial authorities of Minas Gerais. This work analyzes the conflicts, practices, and discourses involved in the process of establishing the urban network in the border region between the captaincies of Minas Gerais and São Paulo in the end of the 18thcentury. The actions of the Crown indicate the importance of the region in the late eighteenth century. The role of civil and ecclesiastical authorities in the establishment of the urban centers in question is highlighted. The case studies elucidate regional differences in the same context and are based on the primary documentation that represents the instruments of control of the territory by the Crown: cartography and the oficial documents of the Municipal Chambers and the Governors.

  19. “An Aristocracy of Talent”: The South Carolina Physician-Naturalists and their Times (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S.; Whitehead, A. Weaver


    During the natural history movement of the 18th and early 19th centuries, Charleston as a center was rivaled in the United States only by Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Prominent physician-naturalists included Alexander Garden (for whom the gardenia is named), John Edwards Holbrook (“father of American herpetology”), and Francis Peyre Porcher (whose Resources of Southern Fields and Forests helped Confederates compensate for drug shortages). The Charleston physician-naturalists belonged to an “aristocracy of talent” as distinguished from the “aristocracy of wealth” of lowcountry planters, who probably did more than any other group to perpetuate slavery and propel the South toward a disastrous civil war. None of the physician-naturalists actively opposed slavery or secession, a reminder that we are all prisoners of the prevailing paradigms and prejudices of our times. PMID:25125748

  20. "An aristocracy of talent": the South Carolina physician-naturalists and their times. (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S; Whitehead, A Weaver


    During the natural history movement of the 18th and early 19th centuries, Charleston as a center was rivaled in the United States only by Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Prominent physician-naturalists included Alexander Garden (for whom the gardenia is named), John Edwards Holbrook ("father of American herpetology"), and Francis Peyre Porcher (whose Resources of Southern Fields and Forests helped Confederates compensate for drug shortages). The Charleston physician-naturalists belonged to an "aristocracy of talent" as distinguished from the "aristocracy of wealth" of lowcountry planters, who probably did more than any other group to perpetuate slavery and propel the South toward a disastrous civil war. None of the physician-naturalists actively opposed slavery or secession, a reminder that we are all prisoners of the prevailing paradigms and prejudices of our times.

  1. Local censuses in the 18th century. (United States)

    Law, C M


    Abstract Recent work on the population problems of the eighteenth century has been mainly based on the use of parish records. Another source, and one which, surprisingly, has received little attention is the local census. These are more numerous than is generally realised; and can be of great use in demographic studies. This paper examines 125 local censuses mainly taken in urban areas. They are discussed in terms of how they come to be taken, their reliability, extant manuscript material and their contents. Whilst most of the censuses confine themselves to the basic facts such as total population, number of houses and number of families, some give details of sex, age, marital status and occupation. Generally the information is given for the parish or local administrative unit, but in a few instances it is available by streets.

  2. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.


    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  3. Physician Fee Schedule Search (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...

  4. Physicians' Job Satisfaction.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    doctors and retention of the existing doctors, in addition to the ... an employee's well-being Examples of job resources are job ..... increase physician job satisfaction for ensuring the .... both pay and benefits physicians at private hospitals.

  5. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  6. Physician heal thyself

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to overweight or obese physicians, normal‑weight physicians were significantly more likely to discuss weight loss with their obese patients, according to a study among. 500 primary care physicians, undertaken by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.[4]. A recent, highly accessed ...

  7. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  8. The edition from the VNLU fonds, unknown in the bibliography, as a sourcefor the biography of the book owner in the 18th ct. (description of the edition and the copy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabolotna N.


    Full Text Available The research of small (with a small amount of pages editions is now very actual as such publications usually are not covered by most scientific catalogs. This complicates their attribution and primarily their dating because many of these books are undated. The activity of Pochayiv Assumption monastery printing house in the 18th ct., especially in 70’s - 80’s is an example of active publication of such kind of editions. The article is devoted to the copy of the book «Decretum quo Sanctissimus Dominus Noster Clemens Divina Providentiв PP. XIV. concedit Proto-Archmandritж Congregationis S. Basilii Magni Ruthenorum, nec non cжteris Archimadritis ejusdem Congregationis, eorumquи in perpetuum Successoribus, facuttalem impertendi Benedictionem cum Jndulgentia Plenaria in articulo mortis» [Pochayiv: Typography of Assumption Monastery, between 1772 and 1774], which is not described in the bibliography. The investigated copy is also a document of one of the owners, the Basilian monk Amvrosii Lukasevych. The article has appendices with scientific descriptions of the edition and the copy.

  9. Comparing two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy that represent the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century (1751 with the current mapping of the country as regards its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pais Neves Dos Santos


    Full Text Available In our paper “Estudo de dois Mapas do Geografo Robert de Vaugondy relativos ao Reino de Portugal do Século XVIII (1751” (Study on two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy representing the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century, published in Revista Semina: Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Vol. 34, Issue No 1, 2013, we tried to give an explanation for the administrative divisions that appear in those maps. After having studied a number of texts dedicated to the period in question and other related documents, we came to the conclusion that the most logic explanation for those divisions is that they represent ecclesiastical divisions. In this paper, we go further in our analysis and compare these two maps with some current maps of Portugal, taking into account its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements. Although there are some errors in his maps, we can conclude that Robert de Vaugondy’s work, in terms of his knowledge and geographic representation of Portugal, was the best anyone could do at the time, and we restate the idea that the two maps represent ecclesiastical divisions.

  10. Situación económica y financiera del Monasterio de Oseira en el siglo XVIII = Financial and economic situation of the Monastery of Oseira in the 18th century

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    Elena Gallego Rodríguez


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la actividad económica y financiera de uno de los cenobios más representativos de la orden cisterciense en Galicia: El Monasterio de Oseira(Ourense. El periodo temporal analizado ha sido seleccionado en base a la documentación conocida de este monasterio, siendo la relativa al S.XVIII la más abundante y completa. Losresultados del trabajo ponen de manifiesto la época de gran esplendor económico que vive elmonasterio y que se manifiesta en las substanciales cantidades de productos y dinero recaudadas, que le permiten abordar importantes obras y realizar una gran labor social.The objective of this paper is to analyse the economic and financial activity of one of the most representative monasteries of the Cistercian Order in Galicia: the Monastery of Oseira(Ourense. The period analysed has been selected based on the documents which mention this monastery, being the 18th century the most bountiful and complete period. The results obtained in this paper state the great economic splendour the monastery lives during thiscentury as is shown in the substantial amount of products and money collected, which allowthem to confront important works and execute a great social labour.

  11. Territorialidad y reproducción social: Los tinogasta en Belén, Catamarca, durante el siglo XVIII Territoriality and social reproduction: The tinogasta in Belen, Catamarca. 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ignacio Vázquez


    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las prácticas de territorialización desplegadas por los Tinogasta en Belén durante el siglo XVIII. Se analizaran los mecanismos jurídicos coloniales a partir de los cuales los Tinogasta buscaron "reterritorializar" su espacio, para recomponer sus condiciones de reproducción social. En este sentido, se observará cómo, frente a diversas prácticas de dominación, algunas poblaciones indígenas implementaron estrategias de resistencia, negociación y/o alianza para reinterpretar la realidad colonial y operar sobre ella. Así, lejos de ser meros espectadores pasivos de su dominio se transformaron en agentes de su reproducción social en un contexto de asimetría.This paper analyzes the practices of territorialization deployed by the Tinogasta in Belen through the 18th century. It will analyze how, through colonial legal mechanisms, the Tinogasta looked for "re-territorialize" their space in order to rebuild their conditions of social reproduction. We intend to observe how some Indian populations implemented multiple resistance, negotiation and/or alliance strategies against diverse domination practices in order to reinterpret -and operate on- the colonial reality. Then, far from being mere passive spectators of their dominance they became agents of their own social reproduction in an asymmetrical context.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ ... Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  17. Advanced training as a specialized physician for medical radiology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessler, W.


    The complex subject of advanced training of physicians in radiology in Switzerland is treated in this contribution. There is a report on the reorganisation, new guidelines, educational centers, educational catalogues, the specialiced physician's examination and nuclear medicine. (APR) [de

  18. 'The chearful haunts': John Armstrong (1709-1779), physician, poet, satirist and leveller of medical knowledge. (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S; Scott, Patrick


    John Armstrong, the first honours graduate of the University of Edinburgh School of Medicine, was famous in his day for a lengthy didactic poem entitled The Art of Preserving Health (1744). He is now obscure except to scholars specializing in the 18th century and, when discussed at all, often dismissed as a failed physician who wrote mediocre poetry in a quest for money and fame. A new exegesis by Adam Budd exhumes Armstrong as an original voice who offered timely and reassuring advice to Britons as they braced for another epidemic of plague; who depicted illness through the lens of a vulnerable and sympathetic physician, and who was perhaps above all else a leveller of medical knowledge. Elaborating on Budd's thesis, it would seem that Armstrong, a complicated man, has frequently been misread and was in some ways ahead of his time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Burnout among physicians


    Romani, Maya; Ashkar, Khalil


    Burnout is a common syndrome seen in healthcare workers, particularly physicians who are exposed to a high level of stress at work; it includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. Burnout among physicians has garnered significant attention because of the negative impact it renders on patient care and medical personnel. Physicians who had high burnout levels reportedly committed more medical errors. Stress management programs that range from relaxation to ...

  20. Becoming a Physician (United States)

    ... the Payment Process Physician Payment Resource Center Reinventing Medical Practice Managing Your Practice CPT® (Current Procedural Terminology) Medicare & Medicaid Private Payer Reform Claims Processing & Practice ...

  1. American College of Physicians (United States)

    ... Plus In this Section Clinical Guidelines & Recommendations Performance Measures Journals & Publications Clinical Resources & Products High Value Care Ethics & Professionalism Practice Resources Physician and Practice Timeline Upcoming important dates ...

  2. A well-informed ‘model of administration’ for agrarian states. Or: how not to fall into the trap of ‘nostri cation’ when comparing colonial West African States with 18th century Prussia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Treiber


    Full Text Available In a noteworthy essay entitled “The Operation Called Vergleichen (Comparison” Joachim Matthes has drawn attention to the fact that studies which claim to compare particular phenomena from one’s own culture (such as law or administration, for example with those of an alien culture do not, strictly speaking, perform a real comparison.  Instead, what takes place is (in his words a “nostrification”, that is, “an appropriation of the other in one’s own terms” or conceptual assimilation.  Even the ideal-type constructions of Max Weber seem largely to confirm this proposition.  In principle, then, it ought to be quite hard to find studies which are not exposed to the charge of nostrification.  In what follows works by Gerd Spittler are examined in some detail from this particular perspective.  In the first instance Spittler investigated the specific problems encountered by the colonial administration in West African peasant states (1919-39, before examining if this problematic could be applied to the peasant state of Prussia in the 18th century.  So, for example, he asked himself how a bureaucratic administration reliant on written documents resolved the problem of raising taxes on a body of untruly peasants who to a large extent communicated orally amongst themselves.  Since in both cases Spittler relates the typical structures of an agrarian society to typical administrative structures, he attains a level of reflection where the ‘“One” can be translated into the “Other” and vice versa’ (Matthes, and in this way he escapes the particular danger of nostrification.

  3. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy. (United States)

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen


    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children.

  4. The trip as formation: examples from the European literature of the 18th century El viaje como formación: ejemplos de la literatura europea del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás BAS MARTÍN


    Full Text Available The importance that the literature of trips acquired in the 18th century is one of the reasons that they have led us to investigating in the instructive facet that these works had in the society of the moment. Adopting the premise of «travelling to know», the trip turned not only into an exercise of individual formation but into an instrument of formation and information of the first magnitude. Governments, institutions and individuals did of the trips some of his more important sources of information. Expeditions that were taken soon to the press, completing the pedagogic and didactic character of the same ones, on never having been accompanied of engravings places, men and customs till now known. This end, of learning to instruct, we cross some of the emblematic works of the literature of trips of the Enlightenment.La importancia que la literatura de viajes adquirió en el siglo XVIII es una de las razones que nos han llevado a indagar en la faceta instructiva que estas obras tuvieron en la sociedad del momento. Adoptando la premisa de «viajar para saber», el viaje se convirtió no sólo en un ejercicio de formación individual, sino en un instrumento de formación e información de primera magnitud. Gobiernos, instituciones e individuos hicieron de los viajes unas de sus fuentes de información más importantes. Expediciones que fueron llevadas pronto a la imprenta, completando el carácter pedagógico y didáctico de las mismas, al ir acompañadas de grabados de lugares, hombres y costumbres nunca hasta ahora conocidas. Con ese fin, de instruirse para instruir, recorremos algunas de las obras emblemáticas de la literatura de viajes de la Ilustración.

  5. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull. (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas


    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  6. La predicación dominicana del Rosario. El Rosario de la aurora de Zafra en el siglo XVIII (Dominican preaching of the rosary: The dawn rosary of Zafra in 18 th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Romero Mensaque


    Full Text Available Resumen: El Rosario, signo de identidad misional de la Orden de Predicadores, desborda los cauces conventuales ya desde el siglo XVI al universalizarse el rezo y devoción. Los dominicos predican el Rosario en sendas misiones y fundan numerosas hermandades adscritas a la Orden en parroquias e iglesias diocesanas, pero ya en el siglo XVII el rezo avemariano rebasa incluso los espacios sagrados para ser predicado en las calles. El proceso culmina en el siglo XVIII con un protagonismo del pueblo en la predicación del rosario, asumiendo en gran parte la responsabilidad de la misión que comenzaran los dominicos. En el extremo de la Provincia Bética, Zafra se convierte en escenario de esta Misión Popular con el Rosario de la Aurora y su hermandad, una corporación claramente misional y asistencial, que no duda en dar mayoría de edad a la mujer en su gobierno.Abstract: The rosary is an important sign of missionary identity for the Dominican Order, whose use has not been limited to the convent since the 16th century when preach and devotion became universal. Dominic monks preach the rosary in all their missions and found several brotherhoods affiliated with the Order in parishes and diocesans churches, but in the 17th century the Hail Mary can be found outside sacred places, it is preached even in the streets. This process end up in the 18th century when common people take a bigger responsibility and continue with the mission started by Dominic monks. Zafra, situated at the limit of the Baetica Province, becomes the stage of this Popular Mission thanks to the dawn rosary and its brotherhood, which clearly was a corporation dedicated to the mission and the assistant of people in need. This brotherhood does not hesitate before giving majority of age to the women in their government, even though they faced a strong social exclusion.

  7. Proceedings of the 1999 symposium on nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio [eds.


    The 1999 Symposium on Nuclear Data was held at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), on 18th and 19th of November 1999. Japanese Nuclear Data Committee and Nuclear Data Center, JAERI organized this symposium. In the oral sessions, presented papers were on keynote address, nuclear data measurement for long-lived RI and in medium energy region, status of JENDL, international session and other topics. In the poster session, presented papers were concerning experiments, evaluations, benchmark tests and on-line database on nuclear data. Those presented papers are compiled in the proceedings. The 64 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Kentucky physicians and politics. (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B


    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  9. [The court physician, the clergyman, a learned society and smallpox]. (United States)

    Hillen, H F P


    Variolation was introduced in England in the first half of the 18th century. The positive effects of this new method for preventing smallpox were already known in the Netherlands around 1720, one of whom was the Dutch physician Boerhaave. In spite of this, it took another 30 years before variolation was used in the Netherlands. Despite receiving positive advice and information from his learned English friends Sloane and Sherard, Boerhaave did not apply nor advise the use of variolation. There were various arguments for this restrained approach. In 1754 Thomas Schwencke found that conditions were favourable for the introduction of variolation in The Hague. There was support from the House of Orange-Nassau (the current royal family in the Netherlands) and from a learned society; a highly motivated clergyman acted as ambassador for the new technique and the court physician Schwencke was willing to take the lead. A similar combination had previously been effective in England, though the ambassador there was not a clergyman but an influential noble lady.

  10. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  11. Hitler's Jewish Physicians. (United States)

    Weisz, George M


    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  12. Physician Referral Patterns (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data was initially provided as a response to a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request. These files represent data from 2009 through June 2013...

  13. Physician-Owned Hospitals (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 6001 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 amended section 1877 of the Social Security Act to impose additional requirements for physician-owned hospitals to...

  14. Physician Shared Patient Patterns (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data linked below was provided as a response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. These files represent the number of encounters a...

  15. A Survey and Intervention Study of the Military Medics and Physicians' Knowledge about Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Disaster%军医和卫生员“三防”知识认知调查与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京生; 袁跃彬; 胡波


    Objective To survey and promote the military medics and doctors' knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster. Method 243 medics and 110 military physicians were surveyed firstly. And then they learned some knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster through multimedia and demonstrating. Six months later, they were surveyed again. Result Before intervention, related knowledge of the medics and doctors was deficiency( the score was 55. 3 and 50. 3 respectively). The scores of the navy were higher than the land army and the air force. All their scores were promoted significantly after intervention (P <0. 01) , education level had effects on the scores (P <0. 01). Conclusion This study demonstrates the knowledge of the medics and doctors doesn' t meet the needs of military missions, so it is necessary and urgent to improve their related knowledge to make better preparedness for the potential high - tech warfare.%目的 了解并提高部队军医和卫生员“三防”防护知识.方法 共抽样175名军医和243名卫生员,现场填写调查表和考核,一系列干预措施后重复调查和考核.结果 干预前军医和卫生员核化生防护知识均缺乏,分别得分为总成绩的55.3%和50.3%,干预后军医和卫生员成绩均显著提高(P<0.01),文化程度对军医或卫生员干预前后成绩均有显著性影响(P<0.01).结论 部队军医和卫生员“三防”知识与实际要求尚存有差距,努力提高其“三防”知识,为潜在的高技术条件下的局部战争做好军事斗争准备有重要的现实意义.

  16. “Strange Beasts… in taste Chinese” : Le goût chinois dans l’Angleterre du XVIIIe siècle ou l’esthétique de l’étrange “Strange Beasts… in taste Chinese” The Chinese taste in 18th-century England or the aesthetics of the strange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alayrac


    Full Text Available The wonders and riches of China brought back to England by the East Indiamen at the end of the 17th century and in the 18th century triggered a deep interest for things Chinese. Indeed, England was hit by the Chinese taste in the decorative arts, emblematised by the playful chinoiserie style. This taste nonetheless evolved during the 18th century, and although it remained very popular throughout the period, it underwent some sharp criticisms. What was the nature of the English reception of this style? Why was it so welcomed, and at the same time seen so suspicious? This paper explores the ambivalence which lay in the reception of the Chinese style, and examines what was perceived as the lure and threat of Chinese exoticism through the concepts of strangeness and foreignness.

  17. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  18. Intensidade de ruído em hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª Regional de Saúde - PR Noise level in a 222 bed hospital in the 18th health region - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio


    Full Text Available A poluição sonora ambiental torna-se hoje onipresente e beira o intolerável. Nos hospitais, os avanços tecnológicos trazem, como conseqüência, níveis de ruído potencialmente danosos. Muito do ruído no hospital provém mais de dentro, do que de fora desse ambiente, sendo as principais causas de ruído em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, por exemplo, os equipamentos e a conversação entre a equipe hospitalar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de ruído nos diversos ambientes hospitalares, em Hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª RS de Saúde - PR. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se, em março de 2005 no período de 24 horas, em dez setores. Forma de Estudo: Aferição do nível de ruído ambiental utilizando um Decibelímetro modelo 1350. RESULTADOS: O nível de ruído encontrado em nosso estudo apresentou média total de 63,7 dB(A, que excede os valores máximos permitidos de 45 dB recomendados pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987. CONCLUSÃO: Nos setores analisados, o nível de ruído encontrado neste está consideravelmente acima do recomendado. A equipe hospitalar deve estar consciente do ruído e dos efeitos deste, para que possa atuar de maneira mais efetiva na redução da poluição sonora, beneficiando assim a função laborativa dos profissionais e recuperação dos pacientes.Environment noise pollution is common place today, at intolerable levels. In hospitals, technological developments have, as a consequence, potentially harmful noise levels. Much of the hospital noise comes from inside, rather than outside, and the major source of such noise is the Intensive Care Unit, for example equipment and hospital staff talk. Our goal with the present study was to investigate the noise level present in the different hospital environments, within a 222 bed hospital located at the 18th health zone, PR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in March, 2005, during a period of 24 hours, in tem different

  19. La vente des biens nationaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, nouvelle donne pour la ville The sale of national assets at the end of the 18th century – a gift to the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Antoine


    Full Text Available À la fin de l’Ancien Régime, les villes des Pays-Bas gardaient les traits de villes médiévales sans ordre et faites d’entrelacs de rues et de ruelles. Le caractère corporatif de la production limitait la présence de grands ensembles industriels et les couvents et leurs jardins occupaient une grande partie de la superficie intra et extra muros des cités. Par ailleurs, l’Église était propriétaire d’un important parc immobilier de petites demeures adossées à des églises jusqu’aux importants refuges d’abbayes dominant dans les campagnes de vastes espaces fonciers. Durant la deuxième moitié du xviiie, les autorités habsbourgeoises menèrent une politique tendant à moderniser les villes en faisant, en autres, tomber les enceintes et en donnant une nouvelle affectation aux couvents contemplatifs supprimés. La Révolution française bouleversa ces ensembles urbains en libérant d’un coup une masse très importante de biens immobiliers qui appartenait à l’Église et en modifiant radicalement les modes de production par la suppression des corporations de métiers. La bourgeoisie principalement négociante réussi habilement tirer tous les profits de cette nouvelle donne. Cet effet d’aubaine contribua grandement à faire passer nos régions dans un nouveau stade de leur démarrage industriel.At the end of the Ancien Régime, the towns of the Netherlands retained the characteristics of medieval towns, without any order and consisting of warrens of streets and alleys. The corporative nature of production limited the presence of major industrial complexes and the monasteries and convents, together with their gardens, covered a large part of the urban areas both within and outside city walls. In addition, the church had important property holdings, ranging from small residential properties attached to churches to major abbey residences dominating vast countryside estates. During the second half of the 18th century, the

  20. Alteraçoes das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa no século XVIII = Changes in accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Martins De Sousa


    Full Text Available En este artículo se explica el cambio de prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa encuadrándolas en la política de difusión de la contabilidad por partida doble en el ámbito público en Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.La necesidad del Estado de ejercer un mayor control sobre sus fuentes de ingresos justificó la transformación ocurrida demostrando la adaptación de las prácticas contables a las características de cada organización. En la Casa da Moeda, lo específico de su misión acuñación de monedas originó una legislación propia fechada en 1773. La periodización de estas prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa se organizó en tres fases: la primera entre 1686 y 1761, la segunda entre 1761 y 1773 y por último desde 1773 a 1797, período final de este estudio.This article explains the changes made to accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint within the context of the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping into the public sphere in Portugal during the second half of the 18th century.The State’s requirement to exercise greater control over its sources of income justified the changes that took place, with accounting practices being adapted to the features of each organisation. The Mint's specific function –the minting of metallic money– gave rise to the creation of its own particular legislation, in 1773. The study of these accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint will be divided into three separate periods: firstly from 1686 to 1761, secondly from 1761 to 1773, and finally from 1773 to 1797. Neste artigo explica-se a alteração das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa enquadrando-as na política de difusão da contabilidade por partidas dobradas na esfera pública, em Portugal, na segunda metade do século XVIII.A necessidade de um maior controlo exercido pelo Estado sobre as suas fontes de receita justificarão as transformações ocorridas, demonstrando estas a

  1. [Hippocrates' treatise physician]. (United States)

    Frøland, Anders


    This small treatise does not appear to have been published in Danish in its entirety. It gives a vivid picture of the physician in ancient Greece. The well known first chapter describes the attitudes and attributes of the doctor. It goes on discussing in some detail how the light should be in the surgery, the instruments to be used, the preparations of bandages and drugs, and the use of cupping instruments. The author stresses both the needs of the patient and the necessity of the physician's dignity and integrity.

  2. The African Family Physician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North America and Europe, and these serve us well up to a point. When a colleague ... Maybe we need a different set of principles to work by in the Afri- ... base the balance. ... The African Family Physician is dedicated to life-long learning and.

  3. Physician self-care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact on patient care, increasing the number of medical errors, lowering both patient and physician satisfaction and lengthening the recovery phase.[1-3]. Joan Halifax[4] has taught at programmes in palliative care for health professional caregivers for many years. She identified frequent challenges facing healthcare ...

  4. Physician-owned companies. (United States)

    Kostuik, John P


    The author relates his experience in the development of a spinal implant development company (K2M) that is significantly advised by physicians. To provide information about the development of a spinal implant company (K2M) advised by a group of professional spinal surgeons. To relate the federal laws (STARK and anti-kickback) as they pertain to surgeon-influenced companies. To discuss the role of a scientific advisory board. A self-developed company was developed together with significant, but minority physician financial input and majority scientific advice. A privately owned spinal implant development corporation (K2M) was developed 3 years ago. Physician financial participation was less than 20% (Stark laws state no more than 40%). Users of product are greater than 60% non-investor physicians. The development of a large scientific advisory board has been very influential in product development. A privately owned spinal implant company (K2M) has been developed strictly within Federal laws. Its board of scientific advisors that receives recompense commissurate only with effort significantly impacts the company policy.

  5. Physicians and Insider Trading. (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven


    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drink before the exam, especially if your physician plans to use sedation for the procedure. top of page Who interprets the results and how do we get them? A radiologist or other physician who has specialized training in nuclear medicine will interpret the images and ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. ... Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be followed after leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the ... Please note is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help diagnose childhood disorders that are present at birth or that develop during childhood. It provides unique ... diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear ...

  10. [Burnout in physicians]. (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang


    Burnout is a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The primary objective of this study was to investigate both the prevalence and severity of burnout symptoms in a sample of clinical physicians from different speciality disciplines. A total of 69 clinical physicians ≤55 years who are working at the Medical University/regional Hospital Innsbruck were included into a cross-sectional study. Next to the assessment of sociodemographic and work-related variables the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to investigate burnout symtoms. Overall, 8.8% of the study population showed high emotional exhaustion with high or moderate depersonalization and low personal accomplishment and therefore had a high risk to develop a burnout syndrom. 11.8% showed a moderade burnout risk. Neither sociodemographic variables nor the degree of educational qualification or speciality discipline had an influence on burnout symptoms. However, there was a positive correlation between scientific activity and personal accomplihment. Our results suggest that the dimension of burnout symtoms among clinical physicians in Austria has be taken seriously. Further research is needed to develop specific programs in terms of burnout prevention and burnout therapy.

  11. Physician Order Entry Clerical Support Improves Physician Satisfaction and Productivity. (United States)

    Contratto, Erin; Romp, Katherine; Estrada, Carlos A; Agne, April; Willett, Lisa L


    To examine the impact of clerical support personnel for physician order entry on physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with electronic health record (EHR) documentation, and physician attitudes. All seven part-time physicians at an academic general internal medicine practice were included in this quasi-experimental (single group, pre- and postintervention) mixed-methods study. One full-time clerical support staff member was trained and hired to enter physician orders in the EHR and conduct previsit planning. Physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with EHR documentation, and physician attitudes toward the intervention were measured. Four months after the intervention, physicians reported improvements in overall quality of life (good quality, 71%-100%), personal balance (43%-71%), and burnout (weekly, 43%-14%; callousness, 14%-0%). Matched for quarter, productivity increased: work relative value unit (wRVU) per session increased by 20.5% (before, April-June 2014; after, April-June 2015; range -9.2% to 27.5%). Physicians reported feeling more supported, more focused on patient care, and less stressed and fatigued after the intervention. This study supports the use of physician order entry clerical personnel as a simple, cost-effective intervention to improve the work lives of primary care physicians.

  12. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians. (United States)

    Coyle, Susan L


    This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. Physicians and industry have a shared interest in advancing medical knowledge. Nonetheless, the primary ethic of the physician is to promote the patient's best interests, while the primary ethic of industry is to promote profitability. Although partnerships between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavorable public perceptions. Many physicians and physicians-in-training think they are impervious to commercial influence. However, recent studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts, even drug samples, can compromise judgment about medical information and subsequent decisions about patient care. It is up to the physician to judge whether a gift is acceptable. A very general guideline is that it is ethical to accept modest gifts that advance medical practice. It is clearly unethical to accept gifts or services that obligate the physician to reciprocate. Conflicts of interest can arise from other financial ties between physicians and industry, whether to outside companies or self-owned businesses. Such ties include honorariums for speaking or writing about a company's product, payment for participating in clinic-based research, and referrals to medical resources. All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships.

  13. Physician practice management companies: should physicians be scared? (United States)

    Scott-Rotter, A E; Brown, J A


    Physician practice management companies (PPMCs) manage nonclinical aspects of physician care and control physician groups by buying practice assets. Until recently, PPMCs were a favorite of Wall Street. Suddenly, in early 1998, the collapse of the MedPartners-PhyCor merger led to the rapid fall of most PPMC stock, thereby increasing wariness of physicians to sell to or invest in PPMCs. This article explores not only the broken promises made by and false assumptions about PPMCs, but also suggests criteria that physicians should use and questions would-be PPMC members should ask before joining. Criteria include: demonstrated expertise, a company philosophy that promotes professional autonomy, financial stability, freedom from litigation, and satisfied physicians already in the PPMC. The authors recommend that physicians seek out relatively small, single-specialty PPMCs, which hold the best promise of generating profits and permitting professional control over clinical decisions.

  14. Nebezpečné „veřejné“ mínění lidu v 18. století v českých zemích (Dangerous Common Opinion of People in the Czech Lands in 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Soukalová


    Full Text Available The article deals with the advent of the formation of public opinion in the Czech lands in the end of 18th century. Specific attention focuses on the reflection of the French Revolution and its effects on the Czech environment, especially on minds of serfs. The article deals with unofficially disseminated information described by sheriffs in their reports, censorship of the press, surveys of the mood of the population and contemporary legends spread among the people. In this context, the paper shows that the given historical period gave birth to the modern public opinion in the Czech lands.

  15. Measurement and correlates of empathy among female Japanese physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataoka Hitomi U


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of empathy is important in the assessment of physician competence and patient outcomes. The prevailing view is that female physicians have higher empathy scores compared with male physicians. In Japan, the number of female physicians has increased rapidly in the past ten years. In this study, we focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care. Methods The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians. Results The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in “people-oriented” specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in “procedure-” or “technology-oriented” specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family. Conclusions Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians’ empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout.

  16. 1992 Nuclear Regulatory Commission Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the 18th annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), covering events and activities occurring in fiscal year 1992 (the year ending September 30, 1992), with some treatment of events from the last quarter of calendar year 1992. The NRC was created by enactment in the Congress of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. It is an independent agency of the Federal Government. The five NRC Commissioners are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. The Chairman of the Commission is appointed by the President from among the Commissioners confirmed

  17. UK Renal Registry 18th Annual Report: Chapter 11 2014 Multisite Dialysis Access Audit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and 2013 PD One Year Follow-up: National and Centre-specific Analyses. (United States)

    Rao, Anirudh; Evans, Rebecca; Wilkie, Martin; Fluck, Richard; Kumwenda, Mick


    Data are presented from the third combined vascular and peritoneal dialysis access audit. In 2014, 53 centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (out of 62) returned data on first access from 4,339 incident haemodialysis (HD) patients and 1,090 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Of the 5,429 incident patients, 20.1% started dialysis on PD, 27.8% started with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 1.0% with an arteriovenous graft (AVG), 27.1% on a tunnelled line (TL) and 24.0% on a non-tunnelled line (NTL). Older patients (565 years) were more likely to start haemodialysis using AVF compared to their younger counterparts (36.2% vs. 32.8%). Thirteen of the nineteen centres (68%) using the physician led percutaneous insertion technique had over 20% of their incident patients starting on PD when compared to only seven out of fourteen centres (50%) which used single technique (open surgical or laparoscopic) for their PD catheter insertion. Wide variations were apparent between centres for use of AVF as the first haemodialysis access ranging from 10–54%. Eight of the 49 centres were achieving close to the 65% target for AV fistula in their incident patients. Length of time known to nephrology services and likelihood of commencing dialysis using either an AVF or a PD catheter are strongly associated. Patients who were known to a nephrologist for over one year were more likely to start dialysis with AVF, as compared to those who were referred between 90–365 days (39.2% vs. 24.6%). Similarly, patients who were known to a nephrologist between 90 days and one year were more likely to start on PD when compared to patients who were referred report demonstrates wide variations in practice between centres across several domains in the provision of dialysis access and further work will be required to understand the underlying reasons.

  18. Better Physician's 'Black Bags' (United States)


    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  19. Medicare, physicians, and patients. (United States)

    Hacker, Joseph F


    There are many other provisions to the MMA. It is important to remind our patients that these changes are voluntary. If patients are satisfied with their current Medicare benefits and plan, they need not change to these new plans. However, as physicians we should familiarize ourselves with these new Medicare options so as to better advise our patients. For more information, visit The Medical Society of Delaware will strive to keep you informed as these new changes are implemented.

  20. Energy security strategy and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toichi, Tsutomu; Shibata, Masaharu; Uchiyama, Yoji; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamazaki, Kazuo


    This special edition of 'Energy security strategy and nuclear power' is abstracts of the 27 th Policy Recommendations 'The Establishment of an International Energy Security System' by the Japan Forum on International Relations, Inc on May 18 th , 2006. It consists of five papers: Energy security trend in the world and Japan strategy by Tsutomu Toichi, Establishment of energy strategy supporting Japan as the focus on energy security by Masaharu Shibata, World pays attention to Japan nuclear power policy and nuclear fuel cycle by Yoji Uchiyama, Part of nuclear power in the energy security - the basic approach and future problems by Tatsujiro Suzuki, and Drawing up the energy strategy focused on the national interests - a demand for the next government by Kazuo Yamazaki. (S.Y.)

  1. The end of medical confidentiality? Patients, physicians and the state in history. (United States)

    Rieder, Philip; Louis-Courvoisier, Micheline; Huber, Philippe


    Medical confidentiality has come under attack in the public sphere. In recent disasters both journalists and politicians have questioned medical confidentiality and claimed that in specific contexts physicians should be compelled to communicate data on their patients' health. The murders of innocent individuals by a suicidal pilot and a Swiss convicted criminal have generated polemical debates on the topic. In this article, historical data on medical confidentiality is used to show that medical practices of secrecy were regularly attacked in the past, and that the nature of medical confidentiality evolved through time depending on physicians' values and judgements. Our demonstration is based on three moments in history. First, at the end of the 16th century, lay authorities put pressure on physicians to disclose the names of patients suffering from syphilis. Second, in the 18th century, physicians faced constant demands for information about patients' health from relatives and friends. Third, employers and insurance companies in the 20th century requested medical data on sick employees. In these three different situations, history reveals that the concept of medical confidentiality was plastic, modelled in the first instance to defend well-to-do patients, in the second instance it was adapted to accommodate the physician's social role and, finally, to defend universal values and public health. Medical secrecy was, and is today, a medical and societal norm that is shaped collectively. Any change in its definition and enforcement was and should be the result of negotiations with all social actors concerned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Development of physician leadership competencies: perceptions of physician leaders, physician educators and medical students. (United States)

    McKenna, Mindi K; Gartland, Myles P; Pugno, Perry A


    Research regarding the development of healthcare leadership competencies is widely available. However, minimal research has been published regarding the development of physician leadership competencies, despite growing recognition in recent years of the important need for effective physician leadership. Usingdata from an electronically distributed, self-administered survey, the authors examined the perceptions held by 110 physician leaders, physician educators, and medical students regarding the extent to which nine competencies are important for effective physician leadership, ten activities are indicative of physician leadership, and seven methods are effective for the development of physician leadership competencies. Results indicated that "interpersonal and communication skills" and "professional ethics and social responsibility" are perceived as the most important competencies for effective physician leadership. Furthermore, respondents believe "influencing peers to adopt new approaches in medicine" and "administrative responsibility in a healthcare organization" are the activities most indicative of effective physician leadership. Finally, respondents perceive"coaching or mentoring from an experienced leader" and "on-job experience (e.g., a management position)" as the most effective methods for developing physician leadership competencies. The implications of these findings for the education and development of physician leaders are discussed.

  3. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement. (United States)

    Gellert, G A


    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by "fateful visions"--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy.

  4. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, G.A.


    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by fateful visions--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy

  5. The physician leader as logotherapist. (United States)

    Washburn, E R


    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  6. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, I; Wroe, A.; Kwan, I.; Painuly, N.; Perera, L.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.; Rosenfeld, A.; Siegbahn, E.; Reinhard, M.; Marchetto, F.; Cirio, R.; Prokopovich, D.


    Full text: The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) and it's collaborative partners are actively involved with the development of semiconductor detectors and dosimeters for radiation protection, radiation oncology, and nuclear medicine applications. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit is used extensively in our current research projects. This poster will give an overview of our experience with the toolkit, including: the use of GEANT4 to calculate the dose distribution of HDR brachytherapy sources for comparison with TLD, ionisation chamber, and MOSFET measurements; the simulation of silicon microdosimetry measurements of an isotopic neutron source; the simulation of MOSFET dosimetry of synchrotron microbeams to understand lateral dose enhancement effects (see figure); estimating the effectiveness of various space shielding configurations using microdosimetry based calculations of biological dose; simulating small animal PET scanners using GATE; and the macroscopic verification of light ion fragmentation models via comparison with experimental data for energies and targets relevant to carbon ion therapy. Figures: Simulation of the response of an 'edge-on' MOSFET to a synchrotron microbeam. Dose profile obtained using GEANT4 and PENELOPE the lateral dose enhancement from the silicon substrate of the MOSFET is illustrated by the skewness of the dose profile

  7. Education and training of physicians for radiation emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita


    The project orders implied the development, testing, and evaluation of a curriculum for educating and training physicians in prehospital radiation accident management and the development of a master curriculum. Objectives were to develop, preserve, and enlarge medical competence concerning prehospital care of radiation accident patients. The project is expected to contribute to qualify emergency physicians challenged by scenarios related to radiological and nuclear hazards. The development and the content of the curriculum for educating and training physicians in prehospital radiation accident management are being described. The conduction and evaluation of two pilot training courses with a total of 40 participating physicians are being presented. Successful testing of the pilot courses proves the value of the curriculum developed. Self-contained courses can be performed according to the master curriculum and the respective master presentations. Moreover, single modules can be integrated in existing education and training programmes. Suggestions for the implementation and accreditation of the curriculum are being made. (orig.)

  8. Family Violence and Family Physicians (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.


    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  9. Emergency Physicians at War. (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig


    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  10. Physician revalidation in Europe. (United States)

    Merkur, Sherry; Mossialos, Elias; Long, Morgan; McKee, Martin


    Despite the increasing attention on patient mobility, there remains a lack of European-level interest in assuring the sustained competence of health professionals. Specifically, the existing European legal framework fails to recognise the introduction of periodic revalidation and requirements to participate in continuing professional development in some countries. This study shows that the definitions and mechanisms of revalidation vary significantly across member states. While some countries, eg Austria, Germany and Spain, look to continuing medical education as a means to promote recertification and quality of care, other countries, eg Belgium, France and the Netherlands, also incorporate peer review. In the UK the proposed revalidation scheme would include elements of relicensure through appraisal and feedback as well as physician recertification. Divergence between countries also exists in monitoring and enforcement. The European Commission should explore the implications for professional mobility of the diversity in the regulation of the medical profession.

  11. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens


    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  12. Team physicians in college athletics. (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E; Quigley, D Bradford; Wang, Frank; Balint, Christopher R; Boland, Arthur L


    There has been little documentation of what constitutes the clinical work of intercollegiate team physicians. Team physicians could be recruited based on the needs of athletes. A multidisciplinary team of physicians is necessary to treat college athletes. Most physician evaluations are for musculoskeletal injuries treated nonoperatively. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 2-year period, a database was created that recorded information on team physician encounters with intercollegiate athletes at a major university. Data on imaging studies, hospitalizations, and surgeries were also recorded. The diagnoses for physician encounters with all undergraduates through the university's health service were also recorded. More initial athlete evaluations were for musculoskeletal diagnoses (73%) than for general medical diagnoses (27%) (P respiratory infections and dermatologic disorders, or multiple visits for concussions. Football accounted for 22% of all physician encounters, more than any other sport (P athletes did not require a greater number of physician encounters than did the general undergraduate pool of students on a per capita basis. Intercollegiate team physicians primarily treat musculoskeletal injuries that do not require surgery. General medical care is often single evaluations of common conditions and repeat evaluations for concussions.

  13. Quarterly report of the Swedish Nuclear Power inspectorate January-March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The inspectorate is reporting on the departures of the nuclear power plants from normal operations. The Ringhals-3 reactor has discontinued the operation since the 20th of Oct 1981. There have been 9 reactor trips for all nine power units. The turbine oil of the Oskarshamn-1 reactor caught fire the 18th of February 1982. No incidents are reported from Studsvik and the facilities of ASEA-ATOM. (G.B.)

  14. HASL measurements of fallout following the September 26, 1976 Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Results are reported from measurements of radioactivity in the fallout from the nuclear test conducted by the Peoples Republic of China on September 26th, 1976. These measurements were carried on through Monday, October 18th. Results of these measurements made in New York and New Jersey, including external radiation exposure, air concentrations, deposition and the concentration of radioiodine in milk, are reported. An estimate of the thyroid dose from milk consumption is also included

  15. Social media: physicians-to-physicians education and communication. (United States)

    Fehring, Keith A; De Martino, Ivan; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Sculco, Peter K


    Physician to physician communication is essential for the transfer of ideas, surgical experience, and education. Social networks and online video educational contents have grown exponentially in recent years changing the interaction among physicians. Social media platforms can improve physician-to-physician communication mostly through video education and social networking. There are several online video platforms for orthopedic surgery with educational content on diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and surgical technique. Social networking instead is mostly centered on sharing of data, discussion of confidential topics, and job seeking. Quality of educational contents and data confidentiality represent the major drawbacks of these platforms. Orthopedic surgeons must be aware that the quality of the videos should be better controlled and regulated to avoid inaccurate information that may have a significant impact especially on trainees that are more prone to use this type of resources. Sharing of data and discussion of confidential topics should be extremely secure according the HIPAA regulations in order to protect patients' confidentiality.

  16. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  17. Should physicians have facial piercings? (United States)

    Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline


    The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. Survey. Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician.

  18. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings. (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M


    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  19. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology. (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  20. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011.Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster and 2012 (post-disaster, we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics.The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (-5.3% and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%. The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture's population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: -1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20-50 km and 50-100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.7 and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8 more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively.The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area.

  1. Administrative skills for academy physicians. (United States)

    Aluise, J J; Schmitz, C C; Bland, C J; McArtor, R E

    To function effectively within the multifaceted environment of the academic medical center, academic physicians need to heighten their understanding of the economics of the health care system, and further develop their leadership and managerial skills. A literature base on organizational development and management education is now available, which addresses the unique nature of the professional organization, including academic medical centers. This article describes an administration development curriculum for academic physicians. Competency statements, instructional strategies, and references provide health care educators with a model for developing administrative skills programs for academic physicians and other health care professionals. The continuing success of the academic medical center as a responsive health care system may depend on the degree to which academic physicians and their colleagues in other fields gain sophistication in self-management and organizational administration. Health care educators can apply the competencies and instructional strategies offered in this article to administrative development programs for physicians and other health professionals in their institutions.

  2. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J


    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  3. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations. (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert


    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  4. Fear of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, T.


    Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death

  5. Physician self-referral and physician-owned specialty facilities. (United States)

    Casalino, Lawrence P


    Physician self-referral ranges from suggesting a follow-up appointment, to sending a patient to a facility in which the doctor has an ownership interest or financial relationship. Physician referral to facilities in which the physicians have an ownership interest is becoming increasingly common and not always medically appropriate. This Synthesis reviews the evidence on physician self-referral arrangements, their effect on costs and utilization, and their effect on general hospitals. Key findings include: the rise in self-referral is sparked by financial, regulatory and clinical incentives, including patient convenience and doctors trying to preserve their income in the changing health care landscape. Strong evidence suggests self-referral leads to increased usage of health care services; but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this increased usage reflects doctors meeting an unmet need or ordering clinically inappropriate care. The more significant a physician's financial interest in a facility, the more likely the doctor is to refer patients there. Arrangements through which doctors receive fees for patient referrals to third-party centers, such as "pay-per-click," time-share, and leasing arrangements, do not seem to offer benefits beyond increasing physician income. So far, the profit margins of general hospitals have not been harmed by the rise in doctor-owned facilities.

  6. American College of Emergency Physicians (United States)

    ... these... Read More More Than 850 Hours of Online Education Log In Now > Physicians Podcasts and Apps Reimbursement Quality Issues MOC Resource Center International Residents & Students Contracts & ... Medicine Foundation Online Buyers' Guide Emergency Care For You ...

  7. Physician Compare National Downloadable File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Compare National Downloadable File is organized at the individual eligible professional level; each line is unique at the professional/enrollment...

  8. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations]. (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan


    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  9. Structuring competitive physician compensation models. (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire


    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  10. The physician as a manager. (United States)

    McDonagh, T J


    The practice of occupational medicine has undergone considerable change over the last decade. Increased awareness of potential health hazards associated with the workplace and its products and wastes, the interest of society and workers in these subjects, and related governmental regulation have resulted in expanded occupational health programs within industry. The occupational physician has become a key company resource in the optimal management of the business impacts of health-related issues. Health-related matters often have noteworthy business implications, and the occupational physician needs to spend considerable time as a manager in the planning, resourcing, implementation, evaluation, and stewardship of programs. Thus he is experiencing greater demands and often is inadequately prepared for this nonclinical, nonscientific role. Therefore, the preparation of occupational physicians to assume such managerial responsibilities needs to receive high priority. The physician must be willing to accept this challenge both to ensure the program's success and to retain a leadership position in occupational health programs.

  11. Administrative skills for academic physicians. (United States)

    Aluise, J J; Scmitz, C C; Bland, C J; McArtor, R E


    To function effectively within the multifaceted environment of the academic medical center, academic physicians need to heighten their understanding of the economics of the health care system, and further develop their leadership and managerial skills. A literature base on organizational development and management education now exists that addresses the unique nature of the professional organization, including academic medical centers. This article describes an administration development curriculum for academic physicians. Competency statements, instructional strategies and references provide the academic physician with guidelines for expanding their professional expertise to include organizational and management skills. The continuing success of the academic medical center as a responsive health care system may depend upon the degree to which academic physicians gain sophistication in self-management and organizational administration.

  12. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prescribing behaviour of physicians. ... Keywords: Physician prescription behaviour, Pharmacist factor, Collaboration, Trustworthiness ... provide information relating to drug prescription, ... processing [22], which takes into consideration.

  13. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  14. Abortion and compelled physician speech. (United States)

    Orentlicher, David


    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. 18th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors

    CERN Document Server


    The International Workshops on Radiation Imaging Detectors are held yearly and provide an international forum for discussing current research and developments in the area of position sensitive detectors for radiation imaging, including semiconductor detectors, gas and scintillator-based detectors. Topics include processing and characterization of detector materials, hybridization and interconnect technologies, design of counting or integrating electronics, readout and data acquisition systems, and applications in various scientific and industrial fields. The workshop will have plenary sessions with invited and contributed papers presented orally and in poster sessions. The invited talks will be chosen to review recent advances in different areas covered in the workshop.

  16. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag


    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:


    CERN Multimedia


    Outcome of the December Council Meetings Chairing the Management Board's final meeting of 2002 in the absence of the Director-General, the Director of Administration, J. van der Boon, summarised the decisions taken during the December Council week and the main follow-up actions needed in 2003. As reported by the Director-General in his talk to the staff the previous day, the Council had approved the Management's proposed activities and resources baseline plan covering LHC construction and financing in 2003-2010 and had responded favourably to the human resources plan for the same period. It had also approved the financial agreement for the loan from the European Investment Bank, which was due to be signed in Brussels the following day, and had adopted the proposals on the adjustment of salaries and pensions for 2003 (1.2% and 0.6% respectively), the granting of observer status to India, the creation of an Associate Status for Non-European States and the setting-up of an audit committee. Finally, the Council ...

  18. Reimagining Society in 18th Century French Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    of interpersonal interaction flourished in the rich generic landscape of late eighteenth century French literature. These works of literature, the forgotten as well as the canonized ones, continuously intervened in that burgeoning social imaginary within which the struggle to define the happiness of all took place.......The French revolutionary shift from monarchical to popular sovereignty came clothed in a new political language, a significant part of which was a strange coupling of happiness and rights. In Old Regime ideology, Frenchmen were considered subjects who had no need of understanding why what...

  19. Statistics and Politics in the 18th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrisch, Lars


    The article first gives an overview over the early history of statistics in politics, and then zooms in on the first attempts at establishing a nationwide agrarian statistics in pre-revolutionary France. Attention is given to the obstacles as well as to the long-term successes in standardizing and

  20. 18th International Conference PhysicA.SPb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The eighteenth International Conference PhysicA.SPb was held 26-29 October 2015 in Saint- Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint-Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from mid-90s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both the scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2015 has brought together about 300 students, young scientists and their colleague professors from many universities and research institutes across the whole of Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, Netherlands, Iceland, and France. Oral and poster presentations were combined into well-defined sections among which one should name Astronomy and Astrophysics, Optics and spectroscopy, Atomic and elementary particles physics, Physics of ferroics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Mathematical physics and numerical methods, THz and UHF materials and devices, Biophysics, Optoelectronic devices, Surface effects, Physics and technology of energy conversion, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, and Physics of quantum structures. This issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2015 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards. This was made possible by the efforts of the Sectional Editors of this Issue: Prof. Petr Arseev (Lebedev Physical Institute), Prof. Yuri Kusraev (Ioffe Institute), Prof. Alexander Ivanchik (Ioffe Institute), Prof. Polina Ryabochkina (Ogarev Mordova State University), Dr. Karina Litvinova (Aston University), Dr. Nikolay Bert (Ioffe Institute), Dr. Yana Kuznetsova (Ioffe Institute), Dr. Prokhor Alekseev (Ioffe Institute), Dr. Mikhail Dunaevskii (Ioffe Institute), Dr. Alexandra Kalashnikova (Ioffe Institute), Dr. Leonid Lutsev (Ioffe Institute). The Editors: Nikita S. Averkiev, Sergey A. Poniaev and Grigorii S. Sokolovskii (paper)

  1. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik


    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. Gilbert (RIP) Collins David S Moore Choong-Shik Yoo

  2. Normativity in 18th century discourse on speech. (United States)

    MacNamee, T


    Eighteenth century phoneticians, such as Dodart, Ferrein, and Hellwag, extended the taxonomy of visible articulatory processes into the realm of the invisible, notably with the exploration of the voicing mechanism. Remedial initiatives were not simply confined to consideration of the outward manifestations of speech and its disorders: The work of Haller, Kuestner, and Morgagni shows an acute awareness of the nervous organization underlying verbal behavior. There was a characteristic preoccupation with mechanical models of speech, which led to the attempts of Kempelen and other investigators to construct actual "speaking machines." Eighteenth century scholars regarded language as not only an innate capacity peculiar to human nature, but also as a bodily habit learned by experience. The function of the orthoepist was to teach the right speech habits, and the upward mobility of the bourgeoisie created a demand for his services.

  3. 18th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Capasso, Vincenzo; Nicosia, Giuseppe; Romano, Vittorio


    This book presents a collection of papers emphasizing applications of mathematical models and methods to real-world problems of relevance for industry, life science, environment, finance, and so on. The biannual Conference of ECMI (the European Consortium of Mathematics in Industry) held in 2014 focused on various aspects of industrial and applied mathematics. The five main topics addressed at the conference were mathematical models in life science, material science and semiconductors, mathematical methods in the environment, design automation and industrial applications, and computational finance. Several other topics have been treated, such as, among others, optimization and inverse problems, education, numerical methods for stiff pdes, model reduction, imaging processing, multi physics simulation, mathematical models in textile industry. The conference, which brought together applied mathematicians and experts from industry, provided a unique opportunity to exchange ideas, problems and methodologies...

  4. 18TH Annual Meeting of the European Neuroscience Association. (United States)


    and heart beat . Mass spectra of these neurons neurons responded to a brief (20 - 100 ms) pulse of 1 mM glutamnate with a showed, besides peptides...DNLL. The single unit part of the neck of the dorsal horn, around the central responses to white noise bursts (200 ms, binaurally delivered at 10 dB...and 20 of identified pain-responsive neurons and NADPH positive neurons presented response in the late-off period (250-400 ins). Binaural interactions

  5. 47th Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topic / Outstanding know-how and sustainable excellence. Workshop: Preserving competence in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, Wolfgang


    On the 18 th workshop Preserving Competence in Nuclear Technology 24 young scientists presented the scientific results from their work covering a broad spectrum of technical areas. This demonstrated again the strong engagement of the younger generation as part of the German nuclear society. Prof.Dr.-Ing. Eckart Laurin, Prof.Dr.-Ing. Marco K. Koch, Dr. Katharina Stummeyer, and Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steinwarz as members of the jury assessed the written compacts and the oral presentations to award the Siempelkamp Competence Price 2016 to Andreas Wanninger from Technische Universitaet Muenchen.

  6. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.


    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  7. Health practices of Canadian physicians. (United States)

    Frank, Erica; Segura, Carolina


    To study the health and health practices of Canadian physicians, which can often influence patient health. Mailed survey. Canada. A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians; 7934 were found to be eligible and 3213 responded (40.5% response rate). Factors that influence health, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, amount of exercise and alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass idex, and participation in preventive health screening measures, as well as work-life balance and emotional stability. Canadian physicians are healthy. More than 90% reported being in good to excellent health, and only 5% reported that poor physical or mental health made it difficult to handle their workload more than half the time in the previous month (although a quarter had reduced work activity because of long-term health conditions). Eight percent were obese, 3% currently smoked cigarettes, and 1% typically consumed 5 drinks or more on days when they drank alcohol. Physicians averaged 4.7 hours of exercise per week and ate fruits and vegetables 4.8 times a day. Their personal screening practices were largely compliant with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations. They averaged 38 hours per week on patient care and 11 hours on other professional activities. Fifty-seven percent agreed that they had a good work-life balance, and 11% disagreed with the statement "If I can, I work when I am ill." Compared with self-reports from the general Canadian population, Canadian physicians, like American physicians, seem to be healthy and to have generally healthy behaviour. There is, however, room for improvement in physicians' personal and professional well-being, and improving their personal health practices could be an efficient and beneficent way to improve the health of all Canadians.

  8. Evaluation of Physicians' Cognitive Styles. (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Beckstead, Jason W; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Cannon-Bowers, Janis; Taylor, Stephanie; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Turner, Brandon; Paidas, Charles


    Patient outcomes critically depend on accuracy of physicians' judgment, yet little is known about individual differences in cognitive styles that underlie physicians' judgments. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' individual differences in cognitive styles relative to age, experience, and degree and type of training. Physicians at different levels of training and career completed a web-based survey of 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing v. satisficing, analytical v. intuitive reasoning, need for cognition, intolerance toward ambiguity, objectivism, and cognitive reflection). We measured psychometric properties (Cronbach's α) of scales; relationship of age, experience, degree, and type of training; responses to scales; and accuracy on conditional inference task. The study included 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (median age 31 years; range 25-69 years). All 6 constructs showed acceptable psychometric properties. Surprisingly, we found significant negative correlation between age and satisficing (r = -0.239; P = 0.017). Maximizing (willingness to engage in alternative search strategy) also decreased with age (r = -0.220; P = 0.047). Number of incorrect inferences negatively correlated with satisficing (r = -0.246; P = 0.014). Disposition to suppress intuitive responses was associated with correct responses on 3 of 4 inferential tasks. Trainees showed a tendency to engage in analytical thinking (r = 0.265; P = 0.025), while attendings displayed inclination toward intuitive-experiential thinking (r = 0.427; P = 0.046). However, trainees performed worse on conditional inference task. Physicians capable of suppressing an immediate intuitive response to questions and those scoring higher on rational thinking made fewer inferential mistakes. We found a negative correlation between age and maximizing: Physicians who were more advanced in their careers were less willing to spend time and effort in an

  9. Developing a Physician׳s Professional Identity Through Medical Education. (United States)

    Olive, Kenneth E; Abercrombie, Caroline L


    Professionalism represents a fundamental characteristic of physicians. Professional organizations have developed professionalism competencies for physicians and medical students. The aim of teaching medical professionalism is to ensure the development of a professional identity in medical students. Professional identity formation is a process developed through teaching principles and appropriate behavioral responses to the stresses of being a physician. Addressing lapses and critical reflection is an important part of the educational process. The "hidden curriculum" within an institution plays an important role in professional identity formation. Assessment of professionalism involves multiple mechanisms. Steps in remediating professionalism lapses include (1) initial assessment, (2) diagnosis of problems and development of an individualized learning plan, (3) instruction encompassing practice, feedback and reflection and (4) reassessment and certification of competence. No reliable outcomes data exist regarding the effectiveness of different remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physician wages across specialties: informing the physician reimbursement debate. (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel; Jerant, Anthony; Kravitz, Richard L


    Disparities in remuneration between primary care and other physician specialties may impede health care reform by undermining the sustainability of a primary care workforce. Previous studies have compared annual incomes across specialties unadjusted for work hours. Wage (earnings-per-hour) comparisons could better inform the physician payment debate. In a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6381 physicians providing patient care in the 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study (adjusted response rate, 53%), we compared wages across broad and narrow categories of physician specialties. Tobit and linear regressions were run. Four broad specialty categories (primary care, surgery, internal medicine and pediatric subspecialties, and other) and 41 specific specialties were analyzed together with demographic, geographic, and market variables. In adjusted analyses on broad categories, wages for surgery, internal medicine and pediatric subspecialties, and other specialties were 48%, 36%, and 45% higher, respectively, than for primary care specialties. In adjusted analyses for 41 specific specialties, wages were significantly lower for the following than for the reference group of general surgery (wage near median, $85.98): internal medicine and pediatrics combined (-$24.36), internal medicine (-$24.27), family medicine (-$23.70), and other pediatric subspecialties (-$23.44). Wage rankings were largely impervious to adjustment for control variables, including age, race, sex, and region. Wages varied substantially across physician specialties and were lowest for primary care specialties. The primary care wage gap was likely conservative owing to exclusion of radiologists, anesthesiologists, and pathologists. In light of low and declining medical student interest in primary care, these findings suggest the need for payment reform aimed at increasing incomes or reducing work hours for primary care physicians.

  11. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.


    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  12. Recruiting physicians without inviting trouble. (United States)

    Hoch, L J


    Many hospitals use physician recruitment strategies--generally assistance or employment strategies--to ensure medical staff loyalty. Although these strategies appeal to both hospitals and physicians, they are becoming increasingly problematic. Over the past three years, the government has issued pronouncements that question their legality. Thus any hospital considering physician recruitment strategies would be wise to evaluate them in light of various legal issues. such as reimbursement, nonprofit taxation, corporate practice of medicine, and certificate-of-need statutes. The consequences of failing to consider these issues can be ominous. The penalties for violating the proscribed remuneration provision of the Medicare act can include a fine, imprisonment, suspension from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or loss of license. Payment issues can result in reduced reimbursement levels. Nonprofit taxation issues can trigger the loss of tax exemption. As a result of the corporate practice of medicine, a physician recruitment strategy may not be reimbursable by third-party payers or may even constitute the unauthorized practice of medicine. Finally, in some states, physician recruitment may trigger certificate-of-need review.

  13. Psychiatric rehabilitation education for physicians. (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham; Eastwood, Diane


    As part of a rapidly spreading reform toward recovery-oriented services, mental health care systems are adopting Psychiatric/Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR). Accordingly, PSR education and training programs are now available and accessible. Although psychiatrists and sometimes other physicians (such as family physicians) provide important services to people with serious mental illnesses and may, therefore, need knowledge and skill in PSR, it seems that the medical profession has been slow to participate in PSR education. Based on our experience working in Canada as academic psychiatrists who are also Certified Psychiatric Rehabilitation Practitioners (CPRPs), we offer descriptions of several Canadian initiatives that involve physicians in PSR education. Multiple frameworks guide PSR education for physicians. First, guidance is provided by published PSR principles, such as the importance of self-determination ( Second, guidance is provided by adult education (andragogy) principles, emphasizing the importance of addressing attitudes in addition to knowledge and skills (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2011). Third, guidance in Canada is provided by Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) principles, which delineate the multiple roles of physicians beyond that of medical expert (Frank, 2005) and have recently been adopted in Australia (Boyce, Spratt, Davies, & McEvoy, 2011). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Fundamentals of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazraki, N.P.; Mishkin, F.S.


    This guidebook for clinical nuclear medicine is written as a description of how nuclear medicine procedures should be used by clinicians in evaluating their patients. It is designed to assist medical students and physicians in becoming acquainted with nuclear medicine techniques for detecting and evaluating most common disorders. The material provides an introduction to, not a textbook of, nuclear medicine. Each chapter is devoted to a particular organ system or topic relevant to the risks and benefits involved in nuclear medicine studies. The emphasis is on presenting the rationales for ordering the various clinical imaging procedures performed in most nuclear medicine departments. Where appropriate, alternative imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography imaging, and radiographic special procedures are discussed. Comparative data between nuclear medicine imaging and other modalities are presented to help guide the practicing clinician in the selection of the most appropriate procedure for a given problem.

  15. A physician's exposure to defamation. (United States)

    Mandell, W J


    The article defines defamation, discusses how to avoid a defamation action, and suggests defenses against a defamation action. Several examples are given that demonstrate common situations where liability exists and how a physician should respond. The article explains that at times we have a duty to speak and differentiates between our legal, moral, and ethical duty. Defamation should not be a concern for those involved in the peer review process, as long as they are truthful or act in a good faith belief that what they are saying is true. The article should enhance peer review by encouraging physicians to participate without fear of a retaliatory law suit.

  16. [Sherlock Holmes as amateur physician]. (United States)

    Madsen, S


    The medical literature contains numerous articles dealing with Sherlock Holmes and his companion Dr. Watson. Some of the articles are concerned with the medical and scientific aspects of his cases. Other articles adopt a more philosophical view: They compare the methods of the master detective with those of the physician--the ideal clinician should be as astute in his profession as the detective must be in his. It this article the author briefly reviews the abilities of Sherlock Holmes as an amateur physician. Often Holmes was brilliant, but sometimes he made serious mistakes. In one of his cases (The Adventure of the Lion's Mane) he misinterpreted common medical signs.

  17. 42 CFR 415.172 - Physician fee schedule payment for services of teaching physicians. (United States)


    ... teaching physicians. 415.172 Section 415.172 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.172 Physician fee schedule payment for services of teaching physicians. (a...

  18. As metamorfoses do império e os problemas da monarquia portuguesa na primeira metade do século XVIII The empire’s metamorphoses and the problems of the Portuguese monarchy in the first half of 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Durante a primeira metade do século XVIII, em diversas dimensões do mundo português, operou-se um significativo processo de metamorfose, tanto no âmbito interno do reino quanto na própria configuração mais geral do Império. Lisboa, consolidada como caput regne, começou a viver significativa transformação. No pensamento de diversos personagens ligados à administração da monarquia havia a certeza de que o eixo do Império situava-se definitivamente no complexo atlântico, nas duas margens do oceano. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir algumas questões relativas a esses fenômenos.During the first half of the 18th century, in various dimensions of the Portuguese world, operated a significant process of metamorphosis, both within the kingdom itself as the more general setting of the Empire. Lisbon, consolidated as caput regne, began to live a significant transformation. In the mind of several characters related to the administration of the monarchy was not certain that the axis of the Empire was located permanently in the complex Atlantic, on both sides of the ocean. This article aims to discuss some issues related to this phenomenon.

  19. PACS in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Keon Wook


    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS

  20. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians (United States)

    Weisz, George M.


    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  1. Physician-centered management guidelines. (United States)

    Pulde, M F


    The "Fortune 500 Most Admired" companies fully understand the irreverent premise "the customer comes second" and that there is a direct correlation between a satisfied work force and productivity, service quality, and, ultimately, organizational success. If health care organizations hope to recruit and retain the quality workforce upon which their core competency depends, they must develop a vision strategic plan, organizational structure, and managerial style that acknowledges the vital and central role of physicians in the delivery of care. This article outlines a conceptual framework for effective physician management, a "critical pathway," that will enable health care organizations to add their name to the list of "most admired." The nine principles described in this article are based on a more respectful and solicitous treatment of physicians and their more central directing role in organizational change. They would permit the transformation of health care into a system that both preserves the virtues of the physician-patient relationship and meets the demand for quality and cost-effectiveness.

  2. Introducing Physician Assistants to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Vanstone


    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC introduced Physician Assistants (PAs through the announcement of demonstration projects, education and training programs, and subsequent funding. PAs are directly supervised by physicians and act as physician extenders by performing acts as delegated to them by their supervising physicians. PAs were proposed as a potential solution to help improve access to health care and reduce wait times throughout the province. Prior to the 2006 Ministry announcement, there was little public discussion regarding the acceptance of the PA role or its sustainability. Opposition from nursing and other groups emerged in response to the 2006 announcement and flared again when stakeholder comments were solicited in 2012 as part of the PA application for status as regulated health professionals. As a health reform, the introduction of PAs has neither succeeded nor failed. In 2013, the majority of PA funding continues to be provided by the MOHLTC, and it is unknown whether the PA role will be sustainable when the MOHTLC withdraws salary funding and health system employers must decide whether or not to continue employing PAs at their own expense.

  3. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews


    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  4. American College of Chest Physicians (United States)

    ... Foundation Participate in the e-Community Get Social Career Connection Publications CHEST Journal CHEST SEEK Guidelines & Consensus Statements CHEST Physician CHEST NewsBrief Coding for Chest Medicine Tobacco Dependence Toolkit (3rd Ed.) Mobile Websites and Apps CHEST Journal ...

  5. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz


    Full Text Available The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  6. [The tragic fate of physicians]. (United States)

    Ohry, Avi


    Physicians and surgeons were always involved in revolutions, wars and political activities, as well as in various medical humanities. Tragic fate met these doctors, whether in the Russian prisons gulags, German labor or concentration camps, pogroms or at the hands of the Inquisition.

  7. The Mindful Physician and Pooh (United States)

    Winter, Robin O.


    Resident physicians are particularly susceptible to burnout due to the stresses of residency training. They also experience the added pressures of multitasking because of the increased use of computers and mobile devices while delivering patient care. Our Family Medicine residency program addresses these problems by teaching residents about the…

  8. Business plan writing for physicians. (United States)

    Cohn, Kenneth H; Schwartz, Richard W


    Physicians are practicing in an era in which they are often expected to write business plans in order to acquire, develop, and implement new technology or programs. This task is yet another reminder of the importance of business principles in providing quality patient care amid allocation of increasingly scarce resources. Unfortunately, few physicians receive training during medical school, residencies, or fellowships in performing such tasks. The process of writing business plans follows an established format similar to writing a consultation, in which the risks, benefits, and alternatives to a treatment option are presented. Although administrative assistance may be available in compiling business plans, it is important for physicians to understand the rationale, process, and pitfalls of business planning. Writing a business plan will serve to focus, clarify, and justify a request for scarce resources, and thus, increase its chance of success, both in terms of funding and implementation. A well-written business plan offers a plausible, coherent story of an uncertain future. Therefore, a business plan is not merely an exercise to obtain funding but also a rationale for investment that can help physicians reestablish leadership in health care.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  10. The social structure of the medical model of madness and the physician's role. (United States)

    Fernandez, G


    In this paper the origins of the medical model of madness are traced in the sociohistorical context of institutional and professional development. The paper establishes the emergence of the three primary conditions necessary for the medical model to exist: (a) the view that madness is a separate ontological reality which can be differentiated from the insane person; (b) the concept that insane people do not have a completely free will and therefore cannot be held responsible for their actions; and (c) the creation of specific criteria to classify the disease into empirically derived nosologies. These conditions and their acceptance as an explanatory paradigm of insanity result from the political economy of the late Middle Ages and are reflected in the institutional arrangement for insane persons of the 17th and 18th centuries. Finally, the role of the physician-psychiatrist is explained in terms of an ability to (a) serve as a technician for the new political forces, and (b) dislodge the moral entrepreneurs and become the only profession able to offer a proper scientific and secular treatment of madness. The psychiatrist is presented as a by-product of the dominance of the medical model rather than as the agent who created it.

  11. [Family physicians attitude towards quality indicator program]. (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Nakar, Sasson; Azuri, Yossi


    Quality indicator programs for primary care are implanted throughout the world improving quality in health care. In this study, we have assessed family physicians attitudes towards the quality indicators program in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed to family physicians in various continuing educational programs. The questionnaire addressed demographics, whether the physician dealt with quality indicators, time devoted by the physician to quality indicators, pressure placed on the physician related to quality indicators, and the working environment. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed and 91 (65%) were completed. The average physician age was 49 years (range 33-65 years]; the average working experience as a family physician was 17.8 years (range 0.5-42); 58 physicians were family medicine specialist (65.9%). Quality indicators were part of the routine work of 94% of the physicians; 72% of the physicians noted the importance of quality indicators; 84% of the physicians noted that quality indicators demand better team work; 76% of the physicians noted that quality indicators have reduced their professional independence. Pressure to deal with quality indicators was noted by 72% of the family physicians. Pressure to deal with quality indicators was related to reduced loyalty to their employer (P = 0.001), reducing their interest to practice family medicine (p programs, without creating a heavy burden on the work of family physicians.

  12. Physician career satisfaction within specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravitz Richard L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialty-specific data on career satisfaction may be useful for understanding physician workforce trends and for counseling medical students about career options. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6,590 physicians (response rate, 53% in Round 4 (2004-2005 of the Community Tracking Study Physician Survey. The dependent variable ranged from +1 to -1 and measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction with career. Forty-two specialties were analyzed with survey-adjusted linear regressions Results After adjusting for physician, practice, and community characteristics, the following specialties had significantly higher satisfaction levels than family medicine: pediatric emergency medicine (regression coefficient = 0.349; geriatric medicine (0.323; other pediatric subspecialties (0.270; neonatal/prenatal medicine (0.266; internal medicine and pediatrics (combined practice (0.250; pediatrics (0.250; dermatology (0.249;and child and adolescent psychiatry (0.203. The following specialties had significantly lower satisfaction levels than family medicine: neurological surgery (-0.707; pulmonary critical care medicine (-0.273; nephrology (-0.206; and obstetrics and gynecology (-0.188. We also found satisfaction was significantly and positively related to income and employment in a medical school but negatively associated with more than 50 work-hours per-week, being a full-owner of the practice, greater reliance on managed care revenue, and uncontrollable lifestyle. We observed no statistically significant gender differences and no differences between African-Americans and whites. Conclusion Career satisfaction varied across specialties. A number of stakeholders will likely be interested in these findings including physicians in specialties that rank high and low and students contemplating specialty. Our findings regarding "less satisfied" specialties should elicit concern from residency directors and policy makers since they

  13. Vaccines provided by family physicians. (United States)

    Campos-Outcalt, Doug; Jeffcott-Pera, Michelle; Carter-Smith, Pamela; Schoof, Bellinda K; Young, Herbert F


    This study was conducted to document current immunization practices by family physicians. In 2008 the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) conducted a survey among a random sample of 2,000 of its members who reported spending 80% or more of their time in direct patient care. The survey consisted of questions regarding the demographics of the practice, vaccines that are provided at the physicians' clinical site, whether the practice refers patients elsewhere for vaccines, and participation in the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program. The response rate was 38.5%, 31.8% after non-office-based respondents were deleted. A high proportion of respondents (80% or more) reported providing most routinely recommended child, adolescent, and adult vaccines at their practice sites. The exceptions were rotavirus vaccine for children and herpes zoster vaccine for adults., A significant proportion, however, reported referring elsewhere for some vaccines (44.1% for children and adolescent vaccines and 53.5% for adult vaccines), with the most frequent referral location being a public health department. A higher proportion of solo and 2-physician practices than larger practices reported referring patients. A lack of adequate payment was listed as the reason for referring patients elsewhere for vaccines by one-half of those who refer patients. One-half of responders do not participate in the VFC program. Provision of recommended vaccines by most family physicians remains an important service. Smaller practices have more difficulty offering a full array of vaccine products, and lack of adequate payment contributes to referring patients outside the medical home. The reasons behind the lack of participation in the VFC program deserve further study.

  14. Ethical principles for physician rating sites. (United States)

    Strech, Daniel


    During the last 5 years, an ethical debate has emerged, often in public media, about the potential positive and negative effects of physician rating sites and whether physician rating sites created by insurance companies or government agencies are ethical in their current states. Due to the lack of direct evidence of physician rating sites' effects on physicians' performance, patient outcomes, or the public's trust in health care, most contributions refer to normative arguments, hypothetical effects, or indirect evidence. This paper aims, first, to structure the ethical debate about the basic concept of physician rating sites: allowing patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' performance, online and visible to everyone. Thus, it provides a more thorough and transparent starting point for further discussion and decision making on physician rating sites: what should physicians and health policy decision makers take into account when discussing the basic concept of physician rating sites and its possible implications on the physician-patient relationship? Second, it discusses where and how the preexisting evidence from the partly related field of public reporting of physician performance can serve as an indicator for specific needs of evaluative research in the field of physician rating sites. This paper defines the ethical principles of patient welfare, patient autonomy, physician welfare, and social justice in the context of physician rating sites. It also outlines basic conditions for a fair decision-making process concerning the implementation and regulation of physician rating sites, namely, transparency, justification, participation, minimization of conflicts of interest, and openness for revision. Besides other issues described in this paper, one trade-off presents a special challenge and will play an important role when deciding about more- or less-restrictive physician rating sites regulations: the potential psychological and financial harms for

  15. Perceptions of trust in physician-managers. (United States)

    Cregård, Anna; Eriksson, Nomie


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual role of physician-managers through an examination of perceptions of trust and distrust in physician-managers. The healthcare sector needs physicians to lead. Physicians in part-time managerial positions who continue their medical practice are called part-time physician-managers. This paper explores this dual role through an examination of perceptions of trust and distrust in physician-managers. The study takes a qualitative research approach in which interviews and focus group discussions with physician-managers and nurse-managers provide the empirical data. An analytical model, with the three elements of ability, benevolence and integrity, was used in the analysis of trust and distrust in physician-managers. The respondents (physician-managers and nurse-managers) perceived both an increase and a decrease in physicians' trust in the physician-managers. Because elements of distrust were more numerous and more severe than elements of trust, the physician-managers received negative perceptions of their role. This paper's findings are based on perceptions of perceptions. The physicians were not interviewed on their trust and distrust of physician-managers. The healthcare sector must pay attention to the diverse expectations of the physician-manager role that is based on both managerial and medical logics. Hospital management should provide proper support to physician-managers in their dual role to ensure their willingness to continue to assume managerial responsibilities. The paper takes an original approach in its research into the dual role of physician-managers who work under two conflicting logics: the medical logic and the managerial logic. The focus on perceived trust and distrust in physician-managers is a new perspective on this complicated role.

  16. Gainsharing Strategies, Physician Champions, Getting Physician Buy In. (United States)

    Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Nunley, Ryan M


    As healthcare spending continues to outpace economic growth, legislators and healthcare economists have explored many processes aimed at improving efficiency and reducing waste. Gainsharing or the general concept that organizations and their employees can work together to continually improve outcomes at reduced expenditures in exchange for a portion of the savings has been shown to be effective within the healthcare system. Although gainsharing principles may be applicable to healthcare organizations and their physician partners, specific parameters should be followed when implementing these arrangements. This article will discuss 10 gainsharing strategies aimed at properly aligning healthcare organizations and physicians, which if followed will ensure the successful implementation of gainsharing initiatives. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The relationship between physician humility, physician-patient communication, and patient health. (United States)

    Ruberton, Peter M; Huynh, Ho P; Miller, Tricia A; Kruse, Elliott; Chancellor, Joseph; Lyubomirsky, Sonja


    Cultural portrayals of physicians suggest an unclear and even contradictory role for humility in the physician-patient relationship. Despite the social importance of humility, however, little empirical research has linked humility in physicians with patient outcomes or the characteristics of the doctor-patient visit. The present study investigated the relationship between physician humility, physician-patient communication, and patients' perceptions of their health during a planned medical visit. Primary care physician-patient interactions (297 patients across 100 physicians) were rated for the physician's humility and the effectiveness of the physician-patient communication. Additionally, patients reported their overall health and physicians and patients reported their satisfaction with the interaction. Within-physician fluctuations in physician humility and self-reported patient health positively predicted one another, and mean-level differences in physician humility predicted effective physician-patient communication, even when controlling for the patient's and physician's satisfaction with the visit and the physician's frustration with the patient. The results suggest that humble, rather than paternalistic or arrogant, physicians are most effective at working with their patients. Interventions to improve physician humility may promote better communication between health care providers and patients, and, in turn, better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation Between Physicians' Work Lives and Happiness. (United States)

    Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald; Vasappa, Rashmi


    Although we know much about work-related physician burnout and the subsequent negative effects, we do not fully understand work-related physician wellness. Likewise, the relation of wellness and burnout to physician happiness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how physician burnout and wellness contribute to happiness. We sampled 2000 full-time physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about workload, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the burnout and wellness subscales as predictor variables and physician happiness as the outcome variable. Our response rate was 22%. Career purpose, personal accomplishment, and perception of workload manageability had significant positive correlations with physician happiness. Distress had a significant negative correlation with physician happiness. A sense of career meaning and accomplishment, along with a lack of distress, are important factors in determining physician happiness. The number of hours a physician works is not related to happiness, but the perceived ability to manage workload was significantly related to happiness. Wellness-promotion efforts could focus on assisting physicians with skills to manage the workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or sharing workload among team members, improving feelings of work accomplishment, improving career satisfaction and meaning, and managing distress related to patient care.

  19. Some problems of selecting and classifying records of the communist period in following the regulations of articles 25 and 27 of the act from 18th December 1998 on the Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Maruszak


    Full Text Available Some problems of selecting and classifying records of the communist period in following the regulations of articles 25 and 27 of the act from 18th December 1998 on the Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation between 2007 and 2012The article is a shortened and amended version of the Report on carrying out basic tasks concerning following the regulations of articles 25 and 27 of the act from 18th December 1998 on the Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation in the Section of Collecting between 2007 and 2012, which was created as a part of the Office for the Preservation and Dissemination of the Archival Records in September 2012. Some problems of selecting and classifying records of the communist period that occurred during following the regulations of the discussed law had, and still have, a significant impact on shaping the national archival heritage. Attempts made between 2007 and 2012 in the archival department of the INR to organize methods and procedures in this scope, showed many difficulties occurring while using regulations of the act in practice. The legal system and methodology of the actions (or lack of it was analyzed then. Cooperation in the discussed scope between archival institutions responsible for following the regulations was criticized and its consequences were shown. As a result of collaboration between INR and the General Directory of State Archives, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Defence and bodies of the prison system, numerous cases showing lack of proper methods used in classifying of a significant part of records from the communist period, and lack of proper actions of archival control in this scope were pointed out. There were also given some examples showing necessity for more engagement from the Institute in the process of preserving the archival

  20. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinberg


    Discussion: Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  1. Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes ... conducted among physicians in four towns in four different States in Nigeria, ... Only 36.8% of the participants knew that children with diabetes should eat family diet.

  2. Medicares Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS)... (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicares Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) allows providers to report measures of process quality and health outcomes. The authors of Medicares Physician...

  3. Physician Asthma Management Practices in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jin


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To establish national baseline information on asthma management practices of physicians, to compare the reported practices with the Canadian Consensus recommendations and to identify results potentially useful for interventions that improve physician asthma management practices.

  4. Medicare Provider Data - Physician and Other Supplier (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File (Physician and Other Supplier PUF) provides information on services and procedures provided to Medicare...

  5. Liver transplantation for nontransplant physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany AbdelMaqsod Sholkamy


    Full Text Available Many of the nontransplant physicians who manage hepatic patients (internists and hepatologists keep asking about liver transplantation. The purpose of this article is to highlight important topics a nontransplant colleague may require in his practice. There are many topics in this respect; however, three most important topics need to be highlighted; those are; the time of referral to transplantation, the indications and contraindications and the metabolic issues regarding a transplanted patient. Still, there are no clear guidelines for the management of many of the metabolic issues regarding liver transplanted patients. And this why, collaborative efforts of transplant and nontransplant physicians are needed to conduct multicenter, long term randomized controlled trials and proper follow up programs.

  6. Physicians, radiologists, and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, W.F.


    Factors involved in quality control in medical x-ray examinations to achieve the least possible exposure to the patient are discussed. It would be hoped that film quality will remain in the position of paramount importance that it must in order to achieve the greatest amount of diagnostic information on each radiographic examination. At the same time, it is hoped that this can be done by further reducing the exposure of the patient to ionizing radiation by the methods that have been discussed; namely, education of the physician, radiologist, and technologist, modern protective equipment and departmental construction, efficient collimation whether automatic or manual, calibration and output measurement of the radiographic and fluoroscopic units, ongoing programs of education within each department of radiographic facility, film badge monitoring, education of and cooperation with the nonradiologic physician, and hopefully, more intensive programs by the National and State Bureaus and Departments of Radiological Health in education and encouragement to the medical community. (U.S.)

  7. [Imhotep--builder, physician, god]. (United States)

    Mikić, Zelimir


    The medicine had been practiced in ancient Egypt since the earliest, prehistoric days, many millenia before Christ, and was quite developed in later periods. This is evident from the sceletal findings, surgical instruments found in tombs, wall printings, the reliefs and inscriptions, and most of all, from the sparse written material known as medical papyri. However, there were not many physicians from that time whose names had been recorded. The earliest physician in ancient Egypt known by name was Imhotep. WHO WAS IMHOTEP?: Imhotep lived and worked during the time of the 3rd Dynasty of Old Kingdom and served under the pharaoh Djoser (reigned 2667-2648 BC) as his vizier or chief minister, high priest, chief builder and carpenter. He obviously was an Egyptian polymath, a learned man and scribe and was credited with many inventions. As one of the highest officials of the pharaoh Djoser Imhotep is credited with designing and building of the famous Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqarah, near the old Egyptian capital of Memphis. Imhotep is also credited with inventing the method of stone-dressed building and using of columns in architecture and is considered to be the first architect in history known by name. It is believed that, as the high priest, Imhotel also served as the nation's chief physician in his time. As the builder of the Step Pyramid, and as a physician, he also had to take medical care of thousands of workers engaged in that great project. He is also credited with being the founder of Egyptian medicine and with being the author of the so-called Smith papirus containing a collection of 48 specimen clinical records with detailed accurate record of the features and treatment of various injuries. As such he emerges as the first physician of ancient Egypt known by name and, at the same time, as the first physician known by name in written history of the world. GOD: As Imhotep was considered by Egyptian people as the "inventor of healing", soon after the death, he

  8. Organizational commitment of military physicians. (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay


    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  9. Die Verbannung von Verwaltungsverträgen aus dem Recht: Kooperationen zwischen Staat und Privaten in der deutschen Rechtswissenschaft des 18. Jahrhunderts / Banishing Administrative Contracts from Law: Cooperation between the State and Private Persons in the German Law of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Abegg


    Full Text Available Die deutsche rechtswissenschaftliche Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts und des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts zur Kooperation zwischen Staat und Privaten befasst sich fast ausschliesslich mit der Rechtsform des Staatsdienstes. Dabei ist zu beobachten, wie der Vertrag zwischen Staat und Privaten im Allgemeinen und der Vertrag mit Staatsdienern im Speziellen mit der sich vertiefenden und für den kontinentalen Raum so typischen Trennung von öffentlich und privat respektive öffentlichem Recht und Privatrecht zwischen Stuhl und Bank geriet, d. h. weder im einen noch im anderen sich ausdifferenzierenden Rechtsbereich Aufnahme fand. Für Deutschland lässt sich dies anhand der Evolution der Staatsund Rechtstheorien nachvollziehen – insbesondere von Justi über Gönner zu Hegel und zahlreichen anderen Rechtswissenschaftlern des 19. Jahrhunderts. German legal literature on cooperation between the state and private persons in the 18th and early 19th centuries dealt almost exclusively with the legal form of government service. It is possible to observe that contractual agreements between the state and private persons in general and contractual agreements with civil servants in particular were accepted into neither of the self‐differentiating realms of public and private law, as both categories of law, like the public and private spheres themselves, typically demonstrated a deep separation in continental Europe. This can be seen in Germany through the evolution of state and legal theories, particularly in the works of Justi, then Gönner, through to Hegel and numerous other legal theorists of the 19th century.

  10. Limites e fronteiras das políticas assistenciais entre os séculos XVI e XVIII: continuidades e alteridades Limits and frontiers of the poor relief and health care policies between the 16th and 18th centuries: continuities and alterities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurinda Abreu


    Full Text Available A partir dos conceitos de ação coletiva e de atores com interesses e do pressuposto de que o campo da caridade, assistência e saúde foi politicamente definido desde o início do período moderno, este texto tem dois objetivos principais: por um lado, analisar a construção do sistema assistencial português, identificando as suas linhas de continuidade durante todo o Antigo Regime. Por outro, avaliar as razões da maior eficácia da Coroa de quinhentos quando comparada com os governos da segunda metade de Setecentos, em termos de reforma das estruturas de apoio social e implementação de um novo paradigma assistencial. Em ambos os casos obviamente tendo em conta as diferenças entre os contextos políticos e sociais dos dois momentos em análise.Using the concepts of the collective action and actors with interests and the assumption that the poor relief and health care field was politically defined since the early modern period, this paper has two main purposes: on the one hand, to analyze the construction of the Portuguese assistance system, identifying its lines of continuity during the Ancient Regime. On the other hand, to evaluate the reasons why the Crown of the 16th century was more efficient when compared with the governments of the second half of the 18th century, in terms of reform of the social structures and implementation of a new paradigm of assistance. In both cases, taking into account the differences between the political and social contexts of those two moments.

  11. Infancia, familia y educación en la Edad Moderna española: un recorrido a través de las fuentes pedagógicas (siglos XVI-XVIII / Childhood, family and education in the Spanish Modern Age: Going through the pedagogical sources (16th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfín Ortega Sánchez


    Full Text Available Resumen: Tomando como punto de partida el pionero y poco conocido De liberis educandis libellus (1509 de Nebrija, en el presente estudio realizamos un recorrido por la Historia de la Familia y de la Educación desde diversos conceptos: la individualidad del niño, su evolución y conquista final en el siglo XVIII, su proceso educativo entorno a roles parentales adquiridos, la preceptiva educativa impuesta desde la moral católica y desde su aval normativo estatal, y la patria potestad. Asimismo, estudiamos brevemente la trascendencia social de uno de los pilares pedagógicos del Humanismo, la natura, que junto a su significación didáctica dentro del ámbito académico, proyectó su influencia en la “educación doméstica”, liderada por la figura del preceptor-padre. Summary: This study analyzes one of the less known works of Nebrija, De liberis educandis libellus (1509, to go through both the History of Family and Education from diverse concepts: child´s individuality, his evolution and final conquest in the 18th century, the educational process around parental roles purchased, the educational regulations imposed from the Catholic morals and from the state normative guarantee, and patria potestad. The second part of this work is a study of the social transcendence of one of the pedagogical pillars of Humanism, nature, which together with its methodological significance in the academic area added a great influence in the “domestic education”, led by the figure of the tutor-father.

  12. Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators. Summary report of an IAEA technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.K.


    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. (author)

  13. Empowering Physicians with Financial Literacy. (United States)

    Bar-Or, Yuval


    Most doctors complete their medical training without sufficient knowledge of business and finance. This leads to inefficient financial decisions, avoidable losses, and unnecessary anxiety. A big part of the problem is that the existing options for gaining financial knowledge are flawed. The ideal solution is to provide a simple framework of financial literacy to all students: one that can be adapted to their specific circumstances. That framework must be delivered by an objective expert to young physicians before they complete medical training.

  14. Bhagavad gita for the physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra


    Full Text Available This communication presents verses from the Bhagavad Gita which help define a good clinician's skills and behavior. Using the teachings of Lord Krishna, these curated verses suggest three essential skills that a physician must possess: Excellent knowledge, equanimity, and emotional attributes. Three good behaviors are listed (Pro-work ethics, Patient-centered care, and Preceptive leadership and supported by thoughts written in the Gita.

  15. Nuclear chemistry 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.


    This text-book (electronic book - multi-media CD-ROM) constitutes a course-book - author's collection of lectures. It consists of 9 lectures in which the reader acquaints with the basis of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry: History of nucleus; Atomic nuclei; Radioactivity; Nuclear reactions and nucleogenesis; Isotopism; Ionizing radiation; Radiation measurement; Nuclear energetics; Isotopic indicators. This course-book may be interesting for students, post-graduate students of chemistry, biology, physics, medicine a s well as for teachers, scientific workers and physicians. (author)

  16. Nurse-physician communication - An integrated review. (United States)

    Tan, Tit-Chai; Zhou, Huaqiong; Kelly, Michelle


    To present a comprehensive review of current evidence on the factors which impact on nurse-physician communication and interventions developed to improve nurse-physician communication. The challenges in nurse-physician communication persist since the term 'nurse-doctor game' was first used in 1967, leading to poor patient outcomes such as treatment delays and potential patient harm. Inconsistent evidence was found on the factors and interventions which foster or impair effective nurse-physician communication. An integrative review was conducted following a five-stage process: problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data analysis and presentation. Five electronic databases were searched from 2005 to April 2016 using key search terms: "improve*," "nurse-physician," "nurse," "physician" and "communication" in five electronic databases including the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. A total of 22 studies were included in the review. Four themes emerged from the data synthesis, namely communication styles; factors that facilitate nurse-physician communication; barriers to effective nurse-physician communication; and interventions to improve nurse-physician communication. This integrative review suggests that nurse-physician communication still remains ineffective. Current interventions only address information needs of nurses and physicians in limited situations and specific settings but cannot adequately address the interprofessional communication skills that are lacking in practice. The disparate views of nurses and physicians on communication due to differing training backgrounds confound the effectiveness of current interventions or strategies. Cross-training and interprofessional educational from undergraduate to postgraduate programmes will better align the training of nurses and physicians to communicate effectively. Further research is needed to determine the

  17. Changing physician behavior: what works? (United States)

    Mostofian, Fargoi; Ruban, Cynthiya; Simunovic, Nicole; Bhandari, Mohit


    There are various interventions for guideline implementation in clinical practice, but the effects of these interventions are generally unclear. We conducted a systematic review to identify effective methods of implementing clinical research findings and clinical guidelines to change physician practice patterns, in surgical and general practice. Systematic review of reviews. We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed) for systematic reviews published in English that evaluated the effectiveness of different implementation methods. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and methodological quality, and extracted relevant data. Fourteen reviews covering a wide range of interventions were identified. The intervention methods used include: audit and feedback, computerized decision support systems, continuing medical education, financial incentives, local opinion leaders, marketing, passive dissemination of information, patient-mediated interventions, reminders, and multifaceted interventions. Active approaches, such as academic detailing, led to greater effects than traditional passive approaches. According to the findings of 3 reviews, 71% of studies included in these reviews showed positive change in physician behavior when exposed to active educational methods and multifaceted interventions. Active forms of continuing medical education and multifaceted interventions were found to be the most effective methods for implementing guidelines into general practice. Additionally, active approaches to changing physician performance were shown to improve practice to a greater extent than traditional passive methods. Further primary research is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in a surgical setting.

  18. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself". (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant


    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India.

  19. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services. (United States)


    ... case of an emergency. (e) Physician delegation of tasks. (1) Except as specified in paragraph (e)(2) of... by a physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or clinical nurse specialist in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Availability of physicians for emergency care. The facility management...

  20. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate medical...

  1. Radiation protection education and training for physicians. Technical qualification for radiation protection and radiation protection instruction for physicians. More important than ever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loecker, Hubert


    The medical application of ionizing radiation - especially X-ray diagnostics - is contributing most of the civilizing radiation exposure of the population. More than 80 percent of occupationally exposed persons work in nuclear medicine. Therefore radiation protection in medicine and instruction and training of physicians is more important than ever.

  2. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging. (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer


    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  3. Physicians' fees and public medical care programs. (United States)

    Lee, R H; Hadley, J


    In this article we develop and estimate a model of physicians' pricing that explicitly incorporates the effects of Medicare and Medicaid demand subsidies. Our analysis is based on a multiperiod model in which physicians are monopolistic competitors supplying services to several markets. The implications of the model are tested using data derived from claims submitted by a cohort of 1,200 California physicians during the years 1972-1975. We conclude that the demand for physician's services is relatively elastic; that increases in the local supply of physicians reduce prices somewhat; that physicians respond strategically to attempts to control prices through the customary-prevailing-reasonable system; and that price controls limit the rate of increase in physicians' prices. The analysis identifies a family of policies that recognize the monopsony power of public programs and may change the cost-access trade-off. PMID:7021479

  4. Internship for physicians in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Plavc


    Full Text Available Background: Well-educated and highly-trained physicians are an essential part of high-quality health care. Therefore, quality assurance in medical education must be one of the priorities of health systems. We researched and analysed responses from physicians after completion of internship (IS and their mentors to questions regarding preparedness to IS and IS itself.Methods: In this cross-sectional study electronic surveys were sent to 298 physicians, having completed the IS between February 2014 and February 2015, and to their 200 mentors. Ordinal reponses of two independent groups were compared by Mann-Whitney-U test, while Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparing more than two groups. Frequency distributions of practical procedures that were completed by interns in required quantities were compared between institutions by χ²-test. The same test was used for comparing frequency distributions of binary responses between clinical departments.Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the following: in reported preparedness for IS between graduates of the two Slovenian medical faculties; in realisation of practical procedures in quantities as prescribed in the IS program between different health institutions; in agreement with statements about satisfaction between different clinical departments and different institutions; and in reported active participation in patient care between different clinical departments.Conclusions: In this study we identified differences in phisicians' preparedness for IS between the graduates of the two Slovenian medical faculties, as well as differences in realization of IS program between health institutions and clinical departments. Alongside presented descriptive statistics these data allow evaluation of the current quality of IS in Slovenia. Furthermore, the results of this study will permit assessment of quality improvement after realisation of planned IS program renovation.

  5. Ethics and responsibility of the physics physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor N, L. F.


    Professional ethics in radiation protection is characterized by high set of standards governing the conduct of any professional who is responsible for enforcing o accomplish with a set of laws and rules aimed at protecting the individuals health and the physical security of radiation sources. Without losing sight of the fulfillment of these obligations are not limited to such minimum standards and expressed as active all have a right to recognize and accept the consequences of an act done freely. There are a number of institutions that function as moral and ethics authorities in radiation protection, such as the IAEA, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health at the NEA, the UNSCEAR, in addition to national authorities in each country. There are also a reference regulatory framework which includes the Regulatory Law to Article 27 of the Constitution in the Nuclear Matter, the General Regulation of Radiation Safety and the Mexican Official Standards. The use of radiation sources representing a wide range of charitable purposes but their use involves risks due to possible radiations exposure. Hence arises the need to protect individuals, society and environment against the adverse effects of possible accidents and malicious acts involving radioactive sources. In the case of the physics physician, there is a matrix of responsibilities under obligations not only in terms of treatment planing, but also equipment, dosimetry, radiation protection and even some kinds of academic and administrative. (Author)

  6. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.


    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  7. Relation entre l’environnement politique et économique et la production architecturale dans la ville de Dubrovnik aux XVIIème et XVIIIème siècles / The relationship between the political and economic context and the architecture in Dubrovnik during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ruso


    Dubrovnik from the middle 17th until the beginning of the 18th century.

  8. TEPCO plans to construct Higashidori Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi


    In 2006, TEPCO submitted to the government plans for the construction of Higashidori Nuclear Power Station. The application was filed 41 years after the project approved by the Higashidori Village Assembly. This nuclear power station will be the first new nuclear power plant constructed by TEPCO since the construction of Units No.6 and 7 at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station 18 years ago. Higashidori Nuclear Power Station is to be constructed at a completely new site, which will become the fourth TEPCO nuclear power station. Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Unit No.1 will be TEPCO's 18th nuclear reactor. Unit No.1 will be an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), a reactor-type with a proven track record. It will be TEPCO's third ABWR. Alongside incorporating the latest technology, in Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Unit No.1, the most important requirement is for TEPCO to reflect in the new unit information and experience acquired from the operation of other reactors (information and experience acquired through the experience of operating TEPCO's 17 units at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station and Kashiwazaki Kashiwa Nuclear Power Station in addition to information on non-conformities at nuclear power stations in Japan and around the world). Higashidori Nuclear Power Station is located in Higashidori-Village (Aomori Prefecture) and the selected site includes a rich natural environment. From an environmental perspective, we will implement the construction with due consideration for the land and sea environment, aiming to ensure that the plant can co-exist with its natural surroundings. The construction plans are currently being reviewed by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. We are committed to making progress in the project for the start of construction and subsequent commercial operation. (author)

  9. Introductory physics of nuclear medicine. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.


    The new third edition includes essential details and many examples and problems taken from the routine practice of nuclear medicine. Basic principles and underlying concepts are explained, although it is assumed that the reader has some current use as a bone densitometer. For resident physicians in nuclear medicine, residents in pathology, radiology, and internal medicine, and students of nuclear medicine technology, the third edition offers a simplified and reliable approach to the physics and basic sciences of nuclear medicine

  10. Clinical Databases for Chest Physicians. (United States)

    Courtwright, Andrew M; Gabriel, Peter E


    A clinical database is a repository of patient medical and sociodemographic information focused on one or more specific health condition or exposure. Although clinical databases may be used for research purposes, their primary goal is to collect and track patient data for quality improvement, quality assurance, and/or actual clinical management. This article aims to provide an introduction and practical advice on the development of small-scale clinical databases for chest physicians and practice groups. Through example projects, we discuss the pros and cons of available technical platforms, including Microsoft Excel and Access, relational database management systems such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, and Research Electronic Data Capture. We consider approaches to deciding the base unit of data collection, creating consensus around variable definitions, and structuring routine clinical care to complement database aims. We conclude with an overview of regulatory and security considerations for clinical databases. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Difficult physician-patient relationships. (United States)

    Reifsteck, S W


    Changes in the delivery of health care services in the United States are proceeding so rapidly that many providers are asking how the working relationships between doctors and patients will be effected. Accelerated by cost containment, quality improvement and the growth of managed care, these changes have caused some critics to feel that shorter visits and gatekeeper systems will promote an adversarial relationship between physicians and patients. However, proponents of the changing system feel that better prevention, follow-up care and the attention to customer service these plans can offer will lead to increased patient satisfaction and improved doctor-patient communication. Dedicated to addressing these concerns, the Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication was established in 1987 as a continuing medical education program (CME) focusing on this topic. A half-day workshop on clinician-patient communication to enhance health outcomes was introduced in 1992 and a second workshop, "Difficult' Clinician-Patient Relationships," was developed two years later. The two courses discussed in this article are offered to all physicians, residents, medical students, mid-level providers and other interested staff within the Carle system.

  12. Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians. (United States)

    Stephens, Mary M; Cook-Fasano, Hazel T; Sibbaluca, Katherine


    Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year. Bullying can result in emotional distress, depression, anxiety, social isolation, low self-esteem, school avoidance/refusal, and substance abuse for the victim and the bully. Preventive measures include encouraging patients to find enjoyable activities that promote confidence and self-esteem, modeling how to treat others with kindness and respect, and encouraging patients to seek positive friendships. For those who feel concern or guilt about sharing their experiences, it may be useful to explain that revealing the bullying may not only help end the cycle for them but for others as well. Once bullying has been identified, family physicians have an important role in screening for its harmful effects, such as depression and anxiety. A comprehensive, multitiered approach involving families, schools, and community resources can help combat bullying. Family physicians are integral in recognizing children and adolescents who are affected by bullying-as victims, bullies, or bully- victims-so they can benefit from the intervention process.

  13. [Burnout syndrome among family physicians]. (United States)

    Sánchez-Cruz, Juan; Mugártegui-Sánchez, Sharon


    burnout syndrome is a state of physical and emotional exhaustion that can occur among workers who interact directly with others. This could affect job performance. The objective was to determine the prevalence of this syndrome and its associated factors among family physicians. a cross-sectional survey applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory was conducted in a selected convenience non-probability sampling of family physicians. Central tendency and dispersion measures were used in determining the prevalence of burnout syndrome; the associated factors were analysed by χ(2) test. there were 59 cases of burnout syndrome, 36 had involvement in a single component, 15 in 2 and 8 were affected in 3 components; we observed that 35 % of positive cases reported doing an average of 10 extra shifts a month (p = 0.013). Having a second job was associated with positive cases of burnout syndrome. the results are consistent with similar studies. Working extra shifts or having a second job were the related factors most associated to this syndrome.

  14. Verbal Aggressiveness Among Physicians and Trainees. (United States)

    Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C


    To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a

  15. Recent advances in echocardiography for nuclear medicine physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Geu Ru; Shin, Dong Gu


    Echocardiography is one of the most frequently used techniques for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Over the last twenty years, technological advances have enabled the application of high-quality imaging. Important recent developments have occurred in echocardiography that are already being used clinically. Equipment and hardware is now available to produce real time three-dimensional and contrast enhanced imaging. Tissue Doppler and stress echocardiography have provided potential benefit to analyze hemodynamic information of heart. This review discusses each of these new developments and their potential impact on the practice of echocardiography and cardiology in general

  16. Physicians warn against the atomic war: The surviving will envy the dead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Just as the politicians the physicians have the particular right as well as the inevitable duty to comment upon the topic of atomic war risk and nuclear armament. For this purpose this documentation was compiled. It contains the most different argumentations. A call against the stationing of new nuclear weapons in Europe and especially in the F.R. of Germany is made. (DG) [de

  17. Overview of physician-hospital ventures. (United States)

    Cohn, Kenneth H; Allyn, Thomas R; Rosenfield, Robert H; Schwartz, Richard


    An ongoing environment of reimbursement lagging behind escalating expenses has led physicians to explore new sources of revenue. The goal of physician-hospital ventures is to create a valuable entity that benefits patients, physicians, and the hospital. Physicians may choose to invest in healthcare facilities to improve patient care and obtain increased control over daily operations. If so, they should seek counsel to avoid violating Stark laws and anti-kickback laws. Modalities for investing in physician-hospital ventures are joint equity (stock) ventures, participating bond transactions (PBTs), and contractual integration, a new method to align the goals of specialists and hospital management without using joint equity ventures. Physicians and management should invest time in developing a shared vision of the future before beginning contract negotiations. Successful partnering requires transparency and stepwise building of trust. The greatest gain in joint ventures arises when both sides become active owners, rather than passive investors.

  18. Physicians in transition: practice due diligence. (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy E


    The landscape of healthcare is changing rapidly. That landscape is now a business model of medicine. That rapid change resulting in a business model is affecting physicians professionally and personally. The new business model of medicine has led to large healthcare organizations hiring physicians as employees. The role of a physician as an employee has many limitations in terms of practice and personal autonomy. Employed physicians sign legally binding employment agreements that are written by the legal team working for the healthcare organization. Thus physicians should practice due diligence before signing the employment agreement. "Due diligence" refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement with another party. That reasonable person should seek expertise to represent his or her interests when searching a balanced agreement between the physician and organization.

  19. [Addicted colleagues: a blind spot amongst physicians?]. (United States)

    Rode, Hans; de Rond, Marlies; Dam, Ingrid


    Physician impairment due to substance abuse or dependence is at least as prevalent as amongst non-physicians and is a real challenge. Not only for the impaired physicians themselves, but also for their colleagues, family members and patients. A 68-year-old physician describes her experiences of being an alcoholic as well as a patient with concomitant psychiatric disorders, including the hurdles she had to get over to deal with her disease and remain abstinent. Although colleagues knew what was going on, some of them took no action. The initial treatment by her general practitioner proved compromised. Addressing addiction amongst fellow physicians can be challenging and for this reason the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) has started the ABS Programme. On prompt and adequate intervention, treatment in specialised facilities has proved to be highly and durably effective. Addicted physicians who have been successfully treated should be monitored and supported, thus enabling their safe return to practice.

  20. Physician fees and managed care plans. (United States)

    Zwanziger, Jack


    One of the objectives of managed care organizations (MCOs) has been to reduce the rate of growth of health care expenditures, including that of physician fees. Yet, due to a lack of data, no one has been able to determine whether MCOs have been successful in encouraging the growth of price competition in the market for physician services in order to slow the growth in physician fees. This study uses a unique, national-level data set to determine what factors influenced the physician fees that MCOs negotiated during the 1990-92 period. The most influential characteristics were physician supply and managed care penetration, which suggest that the introduction of competition into the health care market was an effective force in reducing physician fees.

  1. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide. (United States)

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.


    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  2. Physician-patient communication in managed care.


    Gordon, G H; Baker, L; Levinson, W


    The quality of physician-patient communication affects important health care outcomes. Managed care presents a number of challenges to physician-patient communication, including shorter visits, decreased continuity, and lower levels of trust. Good communication skills can help physicians create and maintain healthy relationships with patients in the face of these challenges. We describe 5 communication dilemmas that are common in managed care and review possible solutions suggested by recent ...

  3. Still on physicians' attitude to medical marijuana


    Olukayode Abayomi; Emmanuel Babalola


    Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescrip...

  4. Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions. (United States)

    West, C P; Dyrbye, L N; Shanafelt, T D


    Physician burnout, a work-related syndrome involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a sense of reduced personal accomplishment, is prevalent internationally. Rates of burnout symptoms that have been associated with adverse effects on patients, the healthcare workforce, costs and physician health exceed 50% in studies of both physicians-in-training and practicing physicians. This problem represents a public health crisis with negative impacts on individual physicians, patients and healthcare organizations and systems. Drivers of this epidemic are largely rooted within healthcare organizations and systems and include excessive workloads, inefficient work processes, clerical burdens, work-home conflicts, lack of input or control for physicians with respect to issues affecting their work lives, organizational support structures and leadership culture. Individual physician-level factors also play a role, with higher rates of burnout commonly reported in female and younger physicians. Effective solutions align with these drivers. For example, organizational efforts such as locally developed practice modifications and increased support for clinical work have demonstrated benefits in reducing burnout. Individually focused solutions such as mindfulness-based stress reduction and small-group programmes to promote community, connectedness and meaning have also been shown to be effective. Regardless of the specific approach taken, the problem of physician burnout is best addressed when viewed as a shared responsibility of both healthcare systems and individual physicians. Although our understanding of physician burnout has advanced considerably in recent years, many gaps in our knowledge remain. Longitudinal studies of burnout's effects and the impact of interventions on both burnout and its effects are needed, as are studies of effective solutions implemented in combination. For medicine to fulfil its mission for patients and for public health, all stakeholders

  5. Spirituality and the physician executive. (United States)

    Kaiser, L R


    The "s" word can now be spoken without flinching in health care organizations. Spirituality is becoming a common topic in management conferences around the world. Many U.S. corporations are recognizing the role of spirituality in creating a new humanistic capitalism that manages beyond the bottom line. Spirituality refers to a broad set of principles that transcend all religions. It is the relationship between yourself and something larger, such as the good of your patient or the welfare of the community. Spirituality means being in right relationship to all that is and understanding the mutual interdependence of all living beings. Physician executives should be primary proponents of spirituality in their organizations by: Modeling the power of spirituality in their own lives; integrating spiritual methodologies into clinical practice; fostering an integrative approach to patient care; encouraging the organization to tithe its profits for unmet community health needs; supporting collaborative efforts to improve the health of the community; and creating healing environments.

  6. Literary Library for Physicians (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. NAVARRO


    Full Text Available The adequate practice of medicine is a difficult job if some intimate and deep feelings of patients, such pain, loneliness, depression and helplessness facing an incurable disease or the fear of dying, are not fully understood. A good way to gain a satisfactory understanding of such feelings might be the reading of the great literary works of all times. In this “Medical library for physicians” an essential list of seventy literary works from the Modern to the Contemporary periods has been collected. Their plot is about the disease, the madness, the hospital, the professionalism and the historical and social images of the physicians. In the second part of the article, a brief review of the last thirty?five books is carried out. It considers from Sinuhe egyptiläinen (1945 by Mika Waltari to Nemesis (1943 by Philip Roth.

  7. Physician assistant education: five countries. (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo


    Physician assistant (PA) education has undergone substantial change since the late 1960s. After four decades of development, other countries have taken a page from the American experience and launched their own instructional initiatives. The diversity in how different countries approach education and produce a PA for their nation's needs provides an opportunity to make comparisons. The intent of this study was to document and describe PA programs in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and the United States. We reviewed the literature and contacted a network of academics in various institutions to obtain primary information. Each contact was asked a set of basic questions about the country, the PA program, and the deployment of graduates. Information on US PA programs was obtained from the Physician Assistant Education Association. At year's end 2010, the following was known about PA development: Australia, one program; Canada, four programs; United Kingdom, four programs; The Netherlands, five programs; the United States, 154 programs. Trends in program per capita growth remain the largest in the United States, followed by The Netherlands and Canada. The shortest program length was 24 months and the longest, 36 months. Outside the United States, almost all programs are situated in an academic health center ([AHC] defined as a medical university, a teaching hospital, and a nursing or allied health school), whereas only one-third of US PA programs are in AHCs. All non-US programs receive public/government funding whereas American programs are predominately private and depend on tuition to fund their programs. The PA movement is a global phenomenon. How PAs are being educated, trained, and deployed is known only on the basic level. We identify common characteristics, unique aspects, and trends in PA education across five nations, and set the stage for collaboration and analysis of optimal educational strategies. Additional information is needed on

  8. Studying physician effects on patient outcomes: physician interactional style and performance on quality of care indicators. (United States)

    Franks, Peter; Jerant, Anthony F; Fiscella, Kevin; Shields, Cleveland G; Tancredi, Daniel J; Epstein, Ronald M


    Many prior studies which suggest a relationship between physician interactional style and patient outcomes may have been confounded by relying solely on patient reports, examining very few patients per physician, or not demonstrating evidence of a physician effect on the outcomes. We examined whether physician interactional style, measured both by patient report and objective encounter ratings, is related to performance on quality of care indicators. We also tested for the presence of physician effects on the performance indicators. Using data on 100 US primary care physician (PCP) claims data on 1,21,606 of their managed care patients, survey data on 4746 of their visiting patients, and audiotaped encounters of 2 standardized patients with each physician, we examined the relationships between claims-based quality of care indicators and both survey-derived patient perceptions of their physicians and objective ratings of interactional style in the audiotaped standardized patient encounters. Multi-level models examined whether physician effects (variance components) on care indicators were mediated by patient perceptions or objective ratings of interactional style. We found significant physician effects associated with glycohemoglobin and cholesterol testing. There was also a clinically significant association between better patient perceptions of their physicians and more glycohemoglobin testing. Multi-level analyses revealed, however, that the physician effect on glycohemoglobin testing was not mediated by patient perceived physician interaction style. In conclusion, similar to prior studies, we found evidence of an apparent relationship between patient perceptions of their physician and patient outcomes. However, the apparent relationships found in this study between patient perceptions of their physicians and patient care processes do not reflect physician style, but presumably reflect unmeasured patient confounding. Multi-level modeling may contribute to better

  9. Career satisfaction and burnout among Ghanaian physicians. (United States)

    Opoku, Samuel T; Apenteng, Bettye A


    Thus far, there has been limited inquiry into the factors associated with physician career satisfaction and burnout in Ghana, although the two have been linked to the brain drain problem. The objective of this study was to assess career satisfaction and burnout among physicians practicing in a developing nation, Ghana. A 21-item instrument was used to assess career satisfaction among actively practicing Ghanaian physicians, using items adapted from the Physician Worklife Study survey. Burnout was assessed using the Abbreviated Maslach's Burnout Inventory. Two hundred physicians participated in the online survey from December 2012 to February 2013. Generally, physicians in Ghana expressed moderate overall career satisfaction. However, they were least satisfied with the availability of resources, their compensation and work-life balance. Overall, burnout was low in the study population; however physicians exhibited moderate levels of emotional exhaustion. Career satisfaction was negatively associated with the burnout dimensions of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment. Health policy-makers in Ghana should address issues relating to resource adequacy, compensation and the work-life balance of physicians in order to improve the overall career satisfaction of an already dwindling physician workforce.

  10. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji


    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  11. Physicians' preferences for asthma guidelines implementation. (United States)

    Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Cho, Sang-Heon


    Patient care based on asthma guidelines is cost-effective and leads to improved treatment outcomes. However, ineffective implementation strategies interfere with the use of these recommendations in clinical practice. This study investigated physicians' preferences for asthma guidelines, including content, supporting evidence, learning strategies, format, and placement in the clinical workplace. We obtained information through a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was distributed to physicians attending continuing medical education courses and sent to other physicians by airmail, e-mail, and facsimile. A total of 183 physicians responded (male to female ratio, 2.3:1; mean age, 40.4±9.9 years); 89.9% of respondents were internists or pediatricians, and 51.7% were primary care physicians. Physicians preferred information that described asthma medications, classified the disease according to severity and level of control, and provided methods of evaluation/treatment/monitoring and management of acute exacerbation. The most effective strategies for encouraging the use of the guidelines were through continuing medical education and discussions with colleagues. Physicians required supporting evidence in the form of randomized controlled trials and expert consensus. They preferred that the guidelines be presented as algorithms or flow charts/flow diagrams on plastic sheets, pocket cards, or in electronic medical records. This study identified the items of the asthma guidelines preferred by physicians in Korea. Asthma guidelines with physicians' preferences would encourage their implementation in clinical practice.

  12. Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana. (United States)

    Kondrad, Elin; Reid, Alfred


    Over the last decade, the use of medical marijuana has expanded dramatically; it is now permitted in 16 states and the District of Columbia. Our study of family physicians in Colorado is the first to gather information about physician attitudes toward this evolving practice. We distributed an anonymous web-based electronic survey to the 1727 members of the Colorado Academy of Family Physicians' listserv. Items included individual and practice characteristics as well as experience with and attitudes toward medical marijuana. Five hundred twenty family physicians responded (30% response rate). Of these, 46% did not support physicians recommending medical marijuana; only 19% thought that physicians should recommend it. A minority thought that marijuana conferred significant benefits to physical (27%) and mental (15%) health. Most agreed that marijuana poses serious mental (64%) and physical (61%) health risks. Eighty-one percent agreed that physicians should have formal training before recommending medical marijuana, and 92% agreed that continuing medical education about medical marijuana should be available to family physicians. Despite a high prevalence of use in Colorado, most family physicians are not convinced of marijuana's health benefits and believe its use carries risks. Nearly all agreed on the need for further medical education about medical marijuana.

  13. Patient-physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes. (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael B; Giovenco, Daniel P; Delnevo, Cristine D


    Smokers are likely asking their physicians about the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential role as a cessation tool; however, the research literature on this communication is scant. A pilot study of physicians in the United States was conducted to investigate physician-patient communication regarding e-cigarettes. A total of 158 physicians were recruited from a direct marketing e-mail list and completed a short, web-based survey between January and April 2014. The survey addressed demographics, physician specialty, patient-provider e-cigarette communication, and attitudes towards tobacco harm reduction. Nearly two-thirds (65%) of physicians reported being asked about e-cigarettes by their patients, and almost a third (30%) reported that they have recommended e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool. Male physicians were significantly more likely to endorse a harm reduction approach. Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  14. Developing a competency framework for academic physicians. (United States)

    Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Zaatari, Ghazi; Sahakian, Tina; Rahal Alameh, Boushra; Mansour, Nabil


    There is a mismatch between the requirements of the multifaceted role of academic physicians and their education. Medical institutions use faculty development initiatives to support their junior academic physicians, however, these rarely revolve around academic physician competencies. The aim of this study was to identify these academic physician competencies and develop a competency framework customized to an organizational context. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews and Critical Incident Technique with 25 academic physicians at a teaching medical center in the Middle East region inquiring about the behaviors of academic physicians in teaching, clinical, research, and administrative roles. Using content analysis, the authors identified 16 competencies: five "Supporting Competencies", common to all four roles of academic physicians, and 11 "Function-Specific Competencies", specific to the role being fulfilled. The developed framework shared similarities with frameworks reported in the literature but also had some distinctions. The framework developed represents a step towards closing the gap between the skills medical students are taught and the skills required of academic physicians. The model was customized to the context of the current organization and included a future orientation and addressed the literature calling for increasing focus on the administrative skills of academic physicians.

  15. Analysis of emergency physicians' Twitter accounts. (United States)

    Lulic, Ileana; Kovic, Ivor


    Twitter is one of the fastest growing social media networks for communication between users via short messages. Technology proficient physicians have demonstrated enthusiasm in adopting social media for their work. To identify and create the largest directory of emergency physicians on Twitter, analyse their user accounts and reveal details behind their connections. Several web search tools were used to identify emergency physicians on Twitter with biographies completely or partially written in English. NodeXL software was used to calculate emergency physicians' Twitter network metrics and create visualisation graphs. The authors found 672 Twitter accounts of self-identified emergency physicians. Protected accounts were excluded from the study, leaving 632 for further analysis. Most emergency physicians were located in USA (55.4%), had created their accounts in 2009 (43.4%), used their full personal name (77.5%) and provided a custom profile picture (92.2%). Based on at least one published tweet in the last 15 days, there were 345 (54.6%) active users on 31 December 2011. Active users mostly used mobile devices based on the Apple operating system to publish tweets (69.2%). Visualisation of emergency physicians' Twitter network revealed many users with no connections with their colleagues, and a small group of most influential users who were highly interconnected. Only a small proportion of registered emergency physicians use Twitter. Among them exists a smaller inner network of emergency physicians with strong social bonds that is using Twitter's full potentials for professional development.

  16. Physician buy-in for EMRs. (United States)

    Yackanicz, Lori; Kerr, Richard; Levick, Donald


    Implementing an EMR in an ambulatory practice requires intense workflow analysis, introduction of new technologies and significant cultural change for the physicians and physician champion. This paper will relate the experience at Lehigh Valley Health Network in the implementation of an ambulatory EMR and with the physician champions that were selected to assist the effort. The choice of a physician champion involves political considerations, variation in leadership and communication styles, and a cornucopia of personalities. Physician leadership has been shown to be a critical success factor for any successful technology implementation. An effective physician champion can help develop and promote a clear vision of an improved future, enlist the support of the physicians and staff, drive the process changes needs and manage the cultural change required. The experience with various types of physician champions will be discussed, including, the "reluctant leader", the "techie leader", the "whiny leader", and the "mature leader". Experiences with each type have resulted in a valuable, "lessons learned" summary. LVHN is a tertiary academic community medical center consisting of 950 beds and over 450 employed physicians. LVHN has been named to the Health and Hospital Network's 100 Top Wired and 25 Most Wireless Hospitals.

  17. Physicians Care for Connecticut, Inc. Business philosophy. (United States)

    Czarsty, C W; Coffey, J R


    Physicians Care will distinguish itself from competitors in the marketplace through the introduction of products with significant value. Physicians Care is dedicated to working closely with providers to identify the contributions made by each party to the building of product value and to appropriately reward providers for those efforts. The ultimate goal is the development of an insurance company in which physicians are truly invested and committed to best clinical practices and who exercise enhanced autonomy in managing their patient's care with clinical and administrative support from Physicians Care.

  18. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F


    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  19. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.


    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  20. [Family and career planning in young physicians]. (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard


    The study investigates in what way physicians integrate their desire to have children into their career planning. Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development of young physicians, beginning in 2001, 534 participants (285 women, 249 men) were assessed in January 2007, in terms of having children, planning to have children, the career aspired to and the work-family balance used or planned. Among the study participants, 19% (54) of the women and 24% (59) of the men have children. Of the others 88% plan to start a family in the future. Female physicians with children are less advanced in their careers than women without children; for male physicians no such difference can be observed. Of the female physicians with children or the desire for children 42% aspire to work in a practice, 28% to a clinical and only 4% to an academic career. Of the male physicians with children or the desire for children one third aspire to work in a practice, one third to a clinical and 14% to an academic career. The preferred model of work repartition of female physicians with children is father full time/mother part time or both parents part time; the preferred model of male physicians is father full time/mother part time or not working. Children are an important factor in the career and life planning of physicians, female physicians paying more attention to an even work-family balance than male physicians. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. La résidence urbaine des administrateurs coloniaux de Saint-Domingue dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle Urban residency of the colonial administrators of Saint-Domingue in the second half of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélie Navarro-Andraud


    Full Text Available Colonie la plus riche du royaume de France au XVIIIe siècle, Saint-Domingue a connu une structuration spécifique de son territoire en vertu de l’économie de plantation alors développée dans l’île. La présence de deux villes d’importance dans l’île (Port-au-Prince et Le Cap permet d’aborder cette problématique. Lieu du pouvoir politique et économique, la cité apparaît également comme le lieu de résidence privilégié des administrateurs coloniaux. Cette affirmation, dans le contexte colonial dominguois, n’est en rien l’énoncé d’une évidence. En effet, nombre d’administrateurs préfèrent résider sur leur « habitation », pour des questions personnelles de gestion de biens, plutôt que d’occuper un logement en ville. Ainsi, la question de la résidence urbaine des administrateurs se révèle être pertinente dans l’étude des sociétés coloniales, ouvrant la voie à de multiples interrogations : Quelles spécificités du développement urbain caractérisent la ville coloniale ? Quels sont les divers types de logements urbains occupés par les administrateurs coloniaux ? Quelles en sont les caractéristiques ? Enfin, appréhender ces deux questionnements, n’est-ce pas également s’interroger sur la perception qu’ont les administrateurs de la cité coloniale et sur l’usage qu’ils font de l’espace urbain ?The territory of Saint-Domingue, the richest French colony of the 18th century, was structured by the plantation economy which developed on the island. The existence of two important cities on the island (Port-au-Prince and Le Cap provides a way of approaching this issue. The site of political and economic power, the city was also the preferred place of residence of the colonial administrators. This assertion is not, in the colonial context of Saint-Domingue, by any means obvious. Indeed, many administrators preferred to live on their plantations to allow them to manage their personal

  2. Physicians' perceptions of physician-nurse interactions and information needs in China. (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Guan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingting; Lei, Jianbo


    Good communication between physicians and nurses is important for the understanding of disease status and treatment feedback; however, certain issues in Chinese hospitals could lead to suboptimal physician-nurse communication in clinical work. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants. Questionnaires were sent to clinical physicians in three top tertiary Grade-A teaching hospitals in China and six hundred and seventeen physicians participated in the survey. (1) Common physician-nurse interactions were shift-change reports and provisional reports when needed, and interactions expected by physicians included face-to-face reports and communication via a phone or mobile device. (2) Most respondents believed that the need for information in physician-nurse interactions was high, information was moderately accurate and timely, and feedback regarding interaction time and satisfaction indicated that they were only average and required improvement. (3) Information needs in physician-nurse interactions differed significantly according to hospital category, role, workplace, and educational background (p < .05). There was a considerable need for information within physician-nurse interactions, and the level of satisfaction with the information obtained was average; requirements for the improvement of communication differed between physicians and nurses because of differences in their characteristics. Currently, the use of information technology in physician-nurse communication was less common but was highly expected by physicians.

  3. Physician Job Satisfaction across Six Major Specialties (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Richard, George V.


    A random sample of 763 physicians was surveyed to examine the relation of 18 critical work-related factors to job satisfaction. On the whole, physicians reported that they were satisfied with their careers and believed that caring for patients, sense of accomplishment, continuity of care, autonomy, and personal time were the five most important…

  4. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the influence of pharmacist factors on prescription decisions of physicians. Methods: A survey of literature was carried out across online databases and 12 relevant articles were identified. The influence of pharmacist factors on physician prescription decisions was identified in the articles. A conceptual ...

  5. Evaluation of Physicians' Requests for Autopsies. (United States)

    Kesler, Richard W.; And Others


    Chaplains and seminary students enrolled in the University of Virginia Medical Center's Clinical Pastoral Program were asked to judge physicians' performances while requesting autopsies by completing a confidential evaluation form. The results of the evaluations were correlated with the physicians' success in obtaining autopsies. (MLW)

  6. Physician Performance Assessment: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S.; Weng, Weifeng; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Hess, Brian J.


    Given the rising burden of healthcare costs, both patients and healthcare purchasers are interested in discerning which physicians deliver quality care. We proposed a methodology to assess physician clinical performance in preventive cardiology care, and determined a benchmark for minimally acceptable performance. We used data on eight…

  7. The physician executive in a changing world. (United States)

    Kaiser, L R


    Physicians are losing their historic franchise as sole and primary providers of medical care. In addition to eroding moral and scientific authority, physicians are also losing income and status. It is no wonder that physicians are retrenching--confused and angry about the increasing marginalization of their profession and about society's changing expectations. Physicians are caught in a transition zone between the world that was and the one that will soon be. This is destabilizing and causes great anxiety. Rather than being buffeted by changing social and cultural definitions of health care, physicians must become proactively involved in the future of their profession. Physicians can only do this by offering a better mental model of health, medicine, and the community. This cannot be a defensive retreat from engagement. Rather, it must be an imaginative vision, vigorously set forth--a vision that will enlist the support of all constituencies involved in the effort to improve the health and well-being of all members of our society. The physician executive needs to work with physicians to orchestrate this effort to create a new vision of health in the 21st century.

  8. Physician assisted death in psychiatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, J.H.; van der Maas, P.J.; van der Wal, G.; Hengeveld, M.W.; Tholen, A.J.; Schudel, W.J.; van der Heide, A.


    Background: In 1994 the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that in exceptional instances, physician-assisted suicide might be justifiable for patients with unbearable mental suffering but no physical illness. We studied physician- assisted suicide and euthanasia in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands.

  9. A Management Development Course for Physicians (United States)

    Plovnick, Mark S.; And Others


    Developed and tested by the Health Management Project at the MIT Sloan School of Management, this course was designed to provide a more accurate understanding of the relevance and usefulness of management education to physicians and to train physicians in some basic management skills. Its content and field tests are described. (LBH)

  10. Religious characteristics of US women physicians. (United States)

    Frank, E; Dell, M L; Chopp, R


    Physicians' religious attributes are unknown, and may affect patient care. The Women Physicians' Health Study (WPHS) is a random sample (n = 4501 respondents, 59% response rate) of US women physicians aged 30-70; the first large, national study of US women physicians. In this study US women physicians were less likely to be Christian than were other Americans (61.2% of women physicians versus 85.1% of the general population), but were more likely to be Jewish (13.2% vs 2.0%), Buddhist (1.4% vs 0.3%), Hindu (3.9% vs 0.4%), or atheist/agnostic (5.9% vs 0.6%). Protestantism (29.3% of the population) and Catholicism (24.9%) were the most commonly reported religious identities. The strongest religious identity was claimed by Mormons and Seventh Day Adventists. Thus, women physicians' religious beliefs differ from those of the general population in the US. This may be particularly important for physicians practicing with patient populations with different religious affiliations, and in addressing clinical questions with ethical or religious dimensions.

  11. 38 CFR 52.150 - Physician services. (United States)


    ... acute care when it is indicated. (d) Availability of physicians for emergency care. In case of an emergency, the program management must provide or arrange for the provision of physician services when the... assistant, nurse practitioner, or clinical nurse specialist in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section...

  12. [Suicide in female and male physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Luijks, H.D.P.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. DESIGN: Systematic literature search. METHOD: A literature search was performed in the

  13. Physicians' Mandatory Reporting of Elder Abuse. (United States)

    Daniels, R. Steven; And Others


    Evaluated physicians' responses to Alabama state elder abuse reporting statutes in Alabama Protective Services Act of 1976. Survey responses from over 100 Alabama physicians suggest that they have reservations about their ability to diagnose abuse, operation of the law, and their willingness to report abuse. (Author/NB)

  14. Health care workplace discrimination and physician turnover. (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H


    To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value workplace discrimination, p value Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.

  15. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs. (United States)

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W


    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  16. A Study of the Educationally Influential Physician. (United States)

    Kaufman, David M.; Ryan, Kurt; Hodder, Ian


    A survey of 172 family doctors found that they approached educationally influential (EI) physicians they knew through their hospitals; only 20% used e-mail and 40% the Internet for medical information; EI physicians helped extend their knowledge and validate innovations found in the literature; and health care reform was negatively affecting…

  17. Construction of a Physician Skills Inventory (United States)

    Richard, George V.; Zarconi, Joseph; Savickas, Mark L.


    The current study applied Holland's RIASEC typology to develop a "Physician Skills Inventory". We identified the transferable skills and abilities that are critical to effective performance in medicine and had 140 physicians in 25 different specialties rate the importance of those skills. Principal component analysis of their responses produced…

  18. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs of Physicians. (United States)

    Robinson, Kristin A; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Hansen, Patrick D; Gray, Richard J


    The aim of this study is to describe religious and spiritual beliefs of physicians and examine their influence on the decision to pursue medicine and daily medical practice. An anonymous survey was e-mailed to physicians at a large, multidisciplinary tertiary referral center with satellite clinics. Data were collected from January 2014 through February 2014. There were 2097 respondents (69.1 % men), and number of practicing years ranged from ≤1 to ≥30. Primary care physicians or medical specialists represented 74.1 %, 23.6 % were in surgical specialties, and 2.3 % were psychiatrists. The majority of physicians believe in God (65.2 %), and 51.2 % reported themselves as religious, 24.8 % spiritual, 12.4 % agnostic, and 11.6 % atheist. This self-designation was largely independent of specialty except for psychiatrists, who were more likely report agnosticism (P = 0.003). In total, 29.0 % reported that religious or spiritual beliefs influenced their decision to become a physician. Frequent prayer was reported by 44.7 % of physicians, but only 20.7 % reported having prayed with patients. Most physicians consider themselves religious or spiritual, but the rates of agnosticism and atheism are higher than the general population. Psychiatrists are the least religious group. Despite the influence of religion on physicians' lives and medical practice, the majority have not incorporated prayer into patient encounters.

  19. Peseshet--the first female physician? (United States)

    Harer, W B; el-Dawakhly, Z


    Excavation of the tomb of Akhet-Hetep at Giza revealed a monument dedicated to his mother Peseshet, who is identified by many important titles including "Overseer of Women Physicians." She is probably the world's earliest known woman physician. She practiced at the time of the building of the great pyramids in Egypt, about 2500 BC.

  20. Physician morality and perinatal decisions. (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Zafra, Katherine; Amrita, Sabharwal; Wilson, Tracey E; Homel, Peter


    Given the same set of "facts" (e.g. fetal prognosis) different physicians may not give the same advice to patients. Studies have shown that people differ in how they prioritize moral domains, but how those domains influence counseling and management has not been assessed among obstetricians. Our objective was to see if, given the same set of facts, obstetricians' counseling would vary depending on their prioritization of moral domains. Obstetricians completed questionnaires that included validated scales of moral domains (e.g. autonomy, community, divinity), demographic data, and hypothetical scenarios (e.g. how aggressively they would pursue the interests of a potentially compromised child, the degree of deference they gave to parents' choices, and their relative valuation of fetal rights and women's rights). Multivariate logistic regression using backwards conditional selection was used to explore how participants responded to the moral dilemma scenarios. Among the 249 participating obstetricians there was wide variation in counseling, much of which reflected differences in prioritization of moral domains. For example, requiring a higher likelihood of neonatal survival before recommending a cesarean section with cord prolapse was associated with Fairness/Reciprocity, an autonomy domain which emphasizes treating individuals equally (OR=1.42, 90% CI=1.06-1.89, p=0.05). Honoring parents' request to wait longer to suspend attempts to resuscitate an infant with no heart rate or pulse was associated with the community domains (involving concepts of loyalty and hierarchy) of In-Group/Loyalty; OR 1.30, 90% CI=1.04-1.62, p=0.05 and Authority/Respect (OR=1.34, 90% CI=1.06-1.34, p=0.045). Carrying out an unconsented cesarean section was associated with In-Group Loyalty (OR=1.26, 90% CI=1.01-1.56, p=0.08) and religiosity (OR=1.08, 90% CI=1.00-1.16, p=0.08). The advice that patients receive may vary widely depending on the underlying moral values of obstetricians. Physicians

  1. Can complexity science inform physician leadership development? (United States)

    Grady, Colleen Marie


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe research that examined physician leadership development using complexity science principles. Design/methodology/approach Intensive interviewing of 21 participants and document review provided data regarding physician leadership development in health-care organizations using five principles of complexity science (connectivity, interdependence, feedback, exploration-of-the-space-of-possibilities and co-evolution), which were grouped in three areas of inquiry (relationships between agents, patterns of behaviour and enabling functions). Findings Physician leaders are viewed as critical in the transformation of healthcare and in improving patient outcomes, and yet significant challenges exist that limit their development. Leadership in health care continues to be associated with traditional, linear models, which are incongruent with the behaviour of a complex system, such as health care. Physician leadership development remains a low priority for most health-care organizations, although physicians admit to being limited in their capacity to lead. This research was based on five principles of complexity science and used grounded theory methodology to understand how the behaviours of a complex system can provide data regarding leadership development for physicians. The study demonstrated that there is a strong association between physician leadership and patient outcomes and that organizations play a primary role in supporting the development of physician leaders. Findings indicate that a physician's relationship with their patient and their capacity for innovation can be extended as catalytic behaviours in a complex system. The findings also identified limiting factors that impact physicians who choose to lead, such as reimbursement models that do not place value on leadership and medical education that provides minimal opportunity for leadership skill development. Practical Implications This research provides practical

  2. Issues for the Traveling Team Physician. (United States)

    Kaeding, Christopher C; Borchers, James


    This article outlines the value of having the team physician traveling with athletes to away venues for competitions or training sessions. At present, this travel presents several issues for the team physician who crosses state lines for taking care of the athletes. In this article, these issues and their possible remedies are discussed. A concern for the travelling team physician is practicing medicine while caring for the team in a state where the physician is not licensed. Another issue can be the transportation of controlled substances in the course of providing optimal care for the team athletes. These two issues are regulatory and legislative issues at both the state and federal levels. On the practical side of being a team physician, the issues of emergency action plans, supplies, and when to transport injured or ill patients are also reviewed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician. (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A


    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  4. Pharmaceutical industry gifts to physicians: patient beliefs and trust in physicians and the health care system. (United States)

    Grande, David; Shea, Judy A; Armstrong, Katrina


    Pharmaceutical industry gifts to physicians are common and influence physician behavior. Little is known about patient beliefs about the prevalence of these gifts and how these beliefs may influence trust in physicians and the health care system. To measure patient perceptions about the prevalence of industry gifts and their relationship to trust in doctors and the health care system. Cross sectional random digit dial telephone survey. African-American and White adults in 40 large metropolitan areas. Respondents' beliefs about whether their physician and physicians in general receive industry gifts, physician trust, and health care system distrust. Overall, 55% of respondents believe their physician receives gifts, and 34% believe almost all doctors receive gifts. Respondents of higher socioeconomic status (income, education) and younger age were more likely to believe their physician receives gifts. In multivariate analyses, those that believe their personal physician receives gifts were more likely to report low physician trust (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.56-3.30) and high health care system distrust (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.49-2.77). Similarly, those that believe almost all doctors accept gifts were more likely to report low physician trust (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.25-2.29) and high health care system distrust (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.82-3.62). Patients perceive physician-industry gift relationships as common. Patients that believe gift relationships exist report lower levels of physician trust and higher rates of health care system distrust. Greater efforts to limit industry-physician gifts could have positive effects beyond reducing influences on physician behavior.

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... before abnormalities can be detected with other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures use small amounts of ...

  6. [Physician's professional retirement. Family dynamics]. (United States)

    Aguirre Gas, Héctor G


    Human beings have a natural resistance to think about their old age, both personally and professionally. Governments have targeted efforts to successfully prolong the life of the population, situation which already is a social and economic problem. “Old is a person with physical, intellectual and emotional limitations, who has a reduced autonomy and welfare, as a result of the years lived”. Not everyone ages at the same age; it will depend on health, habits, physical and intellectual activity, nutritional status, vices and attitude towards life. A physician may decide not to continue exercising medicine due to: health problems, because they do not want to, because they do not feel competent, because of the risk of having to deal with a complaint or a lawsuit, to have a new life project, or because they have no patients. The options available for a doctor at the time of retirement will depend on his/her age, health status, stage of the aging process: autonomy, dependency or old age; his/her physical and mental condition, professional development, economic situation and family environment. A doctor may remain independent, join another family or seek shelter in a retirement home.

  7. Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  8. An intervention to increase patients' trust in their physicians. Stanford Trust Study Physician Group. (United States)

    Thom, D H; Bloch, D A; Segal, E S


    To investigate the effect of a one-day workshop in which physicians were taught trust-building behaviors on their patients' levels of trust and on outcomes of care. In 1994, the study recruited 20 community-based family physicians and enrolled 412 consecutive adult patients from those physicians' practices. Ten of the physicians (the intervention group) were randomly assigned to receive a one-day training course in building and maintaining patients' trust. Outcomes were patients' trust in their physicians, patients' and physicians' satisfaction with the office visit, continuity in the patient-physician relationship, patients' adherence to their treatment plans, and the numbers of diagnostic tests and referrals. Physicians and patients in the intervention and control groups were similar in demographic and other data. There was no significant difference in any outcome. Although their overall ratings were not statistically significantly different, the patients of physicians in the intervention group reported more positive physician behaviors than did the patients of physicians in the control group. The trust-building workshop had no measurable effect on patients' trust or on outcomes hypothesized to be related to trust.

  9. The Validity of Online Patient Ratings of Physicians: Analysis of Physician Peer Reviews and Patient Ratings. (United States)

    McGrath, Robert J; Priestley, Jennifer Lewis; Zhou, Yiyun; Culligan, Patrick J


    Information from ratings sites are increasingly informing patient decisions related to health care and the selection of physicians. The current study sought to determine the validity of online patient ratings of physicians through comparison with physician peer review. We extracted 223,715 reviews of 41,104 physicians from 10 of the largest cities in the United States, including 1142 physicians listed as "America's Top Doctors" through physician peer review. Differences in mean online patient ratings were tested for physicians who were listed and those who were not. Overall, no differences were found between the online patient ratings based upon physician peer review status. However, statistical differences were found for four specialties (family medicine, allergists, internal medicine, and pediatrics), with online patient ratings significantly higher for those physicians listed as a peer-reviewed "Top Doctor" versus those who were not. The results of this large-scale study indicate that while online patient ratings are consistent with physician peer review for four nonsurgical, primarily in-office specializations, patient ratings were not consistent with physician peer review for specializations like anesthesiology. This result indicates that the validity of patient ratings varies by medical specialization. ©Robert J McGrath, Jennifer Lewis Priestley, Yiyun Zhou, Patrick J Culligan. Originally published in the Interactive Journal of Medical Research (, 09.04.2018.

  10. The Burnout Syndrome and its Intervention Strategies for Physicians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on physician burnout showed that physicians are vulnerable to burnout. The consequences of physician burnout include ineffective quality of care of patients and it can also lead to poor physical and mental health of affected physicians. The resultant poor physical and mental health of the burnout physician is likely ...

  11. Non-physician Clinicians in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Evolving Role of Physicians. (United States)

    Eyal, Nir; Cancedda, Corrado; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Hurst, Samia A


    Responding to critical shortages of physicians, most sub-Saharan countries have scaled up training of non-physician clinicians (NPCs), resulting in a gradual but decisive shift to NPCs as the cornerstone of healthcare delivery. This development should unfold in parallel with strategic rethinking about the role of physicians and with innovations in physician education and in-service training. In important ways, a growing number of NPCs only renders physicians more necessary - for example, as specialized healthcare providers and as leaders, managers, mentors, and public health administrators. Physicians in sub-Saharan Africa ought to be trained in all of these capacities. This evolution in the role of physicians may also help address known challenges to the successful integration of NPCs in the health system. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  13. Psychosocial challenges facing physicians of today. (United States)

    Arnetz, B B


    Fundamental changes in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care have added new stressors or opportunities to the medical profession. These new potential stressors are in addition to previously recognized external and internal ones. The work environment of physicians poses both psychosocial, ergonomic, and physico-chemical threats. The psychosocial work environment has, if anything, worsened. Demands at work increase at the same time as influence over one's work and intellectual stimulation from work decrease. In addition, violence and the threat of violence is another major occupational health problem physicians increasingly face. Financial constraint, managed care and consumerism in health care are other factors that fundamentally change the role of physicians. The rapid deployment of new information technologies will also change the role of the physician towards being more of an advisor and information provider. Many of the minor health problems will increasingly be managed by patients themselves and by non-physician professionals and practitioners of complementary medicine. Finally, the economic and social status of physicians are challenged which is reflected in a slower salary increase compared to many other professional groups. The picture painted above may be seen as uniformly gloomy. In reality, that is not the case. There is growing interest in and awareness of the importance of the psychosocial work environment for the delivery of high quality care. Physicians under stress are more likely to treat patients poorly, both medically and psychologically. They are also more prone to make errors of judgment. Studies where physicians' work environment in entire hospitals has been assessed, results fed-back, and physicians and management have worked with focused improvement processes, have demonstrated measurable improvements in the ratings of the psychosocial work environment. However, it becomes clear from such studies that quality of the

  14. In defense of industry-physician relationships. (United States)

    Nakayama, Don K


    The objective was to examine the economic, ethical, and legal foundations for conflict of interest restrictions between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries ("industry"). Recently academic medical centers and professional organizations have adopted policies that restrict permissible interactions between industry and physicians. The motive is to avoid financial conflicts of interest that compromise core values of altruism and fiduciary relationships. Productive relationships between industry and physicians provide novel drugs and devices of immense benefit to society. The issues are opposing views of medical economics, profit motives, medical professionalism, and extent to which interactions should be lawfully restricted. Industry goals are congruent with those of physicians: patient welfare, safety, and running a profitable business. Profits are necessary to develop drugs and devices. Physician collaborators invent products, refine them, and provide feedback and so are appropriately paid. Marketing is necessary to bring approved products to patients. Economic realities limit the extent to which physicians treat their patients altruistically and as fiduciaries. Providing excellent service to patients may be a more realistic standard. Statements from industry and the American College of Surgeons appropriately guide professional behavior. Preservation of industry-physician relationships is vital to maintain medical innovation and progress.

  15. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance. (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G


    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  16. Communication Skills of Physicians and Patients’ Satisfaction (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Nateq, Farnaz; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asgharzadeh, Ali


    Background: The communication skills of physicians is an effective step of making effective relationship between doctor and patient. It plays essential role through diagnosis and treatment processes. This current study was performed to investigate the impact of communication skillfulness of physicians on patients’ satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the impact of communication capability of practitioners on patients’ satisfaction. The DiMatto’s Patient Satisfaction Scale was administered among patients referring to the all 8 specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The validity and reliability of Persian translation of questionnaire of DiMatto’s Patient Satisfaction was verified by 10 specialists. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by content and structural analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. The data were analyzed by software package of SPSS version 16 using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-wallis Test, Regression. Results: The study showed that there was a significant correlation between patients’ satisfaction and the communication skills of physicians (devoting the appropriate time for visiting the patients, explaining diagnosis and treatment procedures). In addition, the therapeutic skills of physicians, their friendly manners, respecting the patients’ feelings, and careful examination of patients by physician, revealed a significant correlation with patient satisfaction (P Communication skills of physician play an important role on patients’ satisfaction; therefore, we propose strongly to improve the communication skills of physicians by improving the communication skills through related training courses. PMID:29109665

  17. Medicare payment changes and physicians' incomes. (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E


    An effort to control the physician portion of Medicare expenditures and to narrow the income gap between primary care and procedure-based physicians was effected through t he enactment of the Medicare Fee Schedule (MFS). To determine whether academic and private sector physicians' incomes had demonstrated changes consistent with payment changes, we collected income information from surveys of private sector physicians and academic physicians in six specialties: (1) family practice; (2) general internal medicine; (3) psychiatry; (4) general surgery; (5) radiology; and (6) anesthesiology. With the exception of general internal medicine, the anticipated changes in Medicare revenue were not closely associated with income changes in either the academic or private sector group. Academic physicians were underpaid, relative to their private sector counterparts, but modestly less so at the end of the period examined. Our findings suggest that using changes in payment schedules to change incomes in order to influence the attractiveness of different specialties, even with a very large payer, may be ineffective. Should academic incomes remain uncompetitive with private sector incomes, it may be increasingly difficult to persuade physicians to enter academic careers.

  18. Communication Skills of Physicians and Patients' Satisfaction. (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Nateq, Farnaz; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asgharzadeh, Ali


    The communication skills of physicians is an effective step of making effective relationship between doctor and patient. It plays essential role through diagnosis and treatment processes. This current study was performed to investigate the impact of communication skillfulness of physicians on patients' satisfaction. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the impact of communication capability of practitioners on patients' satisfaction. The DiMatto's Patient Satisfaction Scale was administered among patients referring to the all 8 specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The validity and reliability of Persian translation of questionnaire of DiMatto's Patient Satisfaction was verified by 10 specialists. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by content and structural analysis, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The data were analyzed by software package of SPSS version 16 using Pearson's correlation coefficient, U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-wallis Test, Regression. The study showed that there was a significant correlation between patients' satisfaction and the communication skills of physicians (devoting the appropriate time for visiting the patients, explaining diagnosis and treatment procedures). In addition, the therapeutic skills of physicians, their friendly manners, respecting the patients' feelings, and careful examination of patients by physician, revealed a significant correlation with patient satisfaction (P Communication skills of physician play an important role on patients' satisfaction; therefore, we propose strongly to improve the communication skills of physicians by improving the communication skills through related training courses.

  19. Family physicians and HIV infection. (United States)

    Hall, N; Crochette, N; Blanchi, S; Lavoix, A; Billaud, E; Baron, C; Abgueguen, P; Perré, P; Rabier, V


    We aimed to describe the current and desired involvement of family physicians (FPs) in the treatment of HIV patients (screening practices, potential training and patient follow-up) to reduce the duration and frequency of their hospital treatment. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey between 2011 and 2012 with the support of COREVIH (Regional Coordinating Committee on HIV). We sent a self-assessment questionnaire to all FPs of the Pays de la Loire region to enquire about their HIV screening practices and expectations for the management of HIV patients. A total of 871 FPs completed the questionnaire (response rate: 30.4%). A total of 54.2% said to provide care to HIV patients; the mean number of HIV patients per FP was estimated at 1.4. With regard to HIV screening, 12.2% systematically suggest an HIV serology to their patients and 72.7% always suggest it to pregnant women. About 45.4% of responding FPs said to be willing to manage HIV patients (clinical and biological monitoring, compliance checks and prescription renewal). FPs mainly reported the lack of training and the low number of HIV patients as a barrier to their further involvement in the management of HIV patients. The responding FPs provide care to very few HIV patients. They are, however, willing to be more involved in the routine care of these patients. Medical training provided by COREVIH would help improve HIV screening. The management of HIV patients could thus be handed over to willing FPs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Family physicians' perspectives regarding palliative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D.


    Purpose: To assess family physicians' views on common indications for palliative radiotherapy and to determine whether this influences patient referral. Methods and materials: A 30-item questionnaire evaluating radiotherapy knowledge and training developed at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre (ORCC) was mailed to a random sample of 400 family physicians in eastern Ontario, Canada. The completed surveys were collected and analyzed, and form the basis of this study. Results: A total of 172 completed surveys were received for a net response rate of 50% among practicing family physicians. Almost all of the physicians (97%) had recently seen cancer patients in their offices, with 85% regularly caring for patient with advanced cancer. Fifty-four percent had referred patients in the past for radiotherapy and 53% had contacted a radiation oncologist for advice. Physicians who were more knowledgeable about the common indications for palliative radiotherapy were significantly more likely to refer patients for radiotherapy (P<0.01). Inability to contact a radiation oncologist was correlated with not having referred patients for radiotherapy (P<0.01). Only 10% of the physicians had received radiotherapy education during their formal medical training. Conclusions: Many of the family physicians surveyed were unaware of the effectiveness of radiotherapy in a variety of common palliative situations, and radiotherapy referral was correlated with knowledge about the indications for palliative radiotherapy. This was not surprising given the limited education they received in this area and the limited contact they have had with radiation oncologists. Strategies need to be developed to improve continuing medical education opportunities for family physicians and to facilitate more interaction between these physicians and radiation oncologists

  1. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.


    Aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine and the role of the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine in these are discussed. With an effective dose-equivalence of averaged 3 mSv per year per nuclear medical examination and about 200.000 examinations per year in the Netherlands, nuclear medicine contributes only to a small degree to the total averaged radiation dose by medical treating. Nevertheless from the beginning, besides to protection of environment and personnel, much attention has been spent by nuclear physicians to dose reduction with patients. Replacing of relatively long living radionuclides like 131 I by short living radionuclides like 99m Tc is an example. In her education and acknowledgement policy the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine spends much attention to aspects of radiation reduction. (author). 3 tabs

  2. Childhood immunization: when physicians and parents disagree. (United States)

    Gilmour, Joan; Harrison, Christine; Asadi, Leyla; Cohen, Michael H; Vohra, Sunita


    Persistent fears about the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and whether immunization programs are still needed, have led a significant minority of parents to refuse vaccination. Are parents within their rights when refusing to consent to vaccination? How ought physicians respond? Focusing on routine childhood immunization, we consider the ethical, legal, and clinical issues raised by 3 aspects of parental vaccine refusal: (1) physician counseling; (2) parental decision-making; and (3) continuing the physician-patient relationship despite disagreement. We also suggest initiatives that could increase confidence in immunization programs.

  3. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon


    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  4. Medical applications of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, Valentin E.


    The Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, in Mendoza (Argentina) was created in 1986 by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and is supported by the Government of the Mendoza Province, the CNEA, and the National University of Cuyo. The main activities of the school are medical diagnosis using nuclear techniques and the training of physicians and technicians in nuclear medicine. Teletherapy and brachytherapy are also performed. The use of the PET is described in some detail

  5. Job satisfaction among obstetrician-gynecologists: a comparison between private practice physicians and academic physicians. (United States)

    Bell, Darrel J; Bringman, Jay; Bush, Andrew; Phillips, Owen P


    Physician job satisfaction has been the subject of much research. However, no studies have been conducted comparing academic and private practice physician satisfaction in obstetrics and gynecology. This study was undertaken to measure satisfaction levels for academic and private practice obstetrician-gynecologists and compare different aspects of their practice that contributed to their satisfaction. A survey was mailed to randomly selected obstetrician-gynecologists in Memphis, TN; Birmingham, AL; Little Rock, AR; and Jackson, MS. Physicians were asked to respond to questions concerning demographics and career satisfaction. They were also asked to assess the contribution of 13 different aspects of their practice in contributing to their job selection and satisfaction using a Likert scale. A score of 1 meant the physician completely disagreed with a statement regarding a factor's contribution or was completely dissatisfied; a score of 5 meant the physician completely agreed with a factor's contribution or was completely satisfied. Simple descriptive statistics, as well as the 2-sample t test, were used. Likert scale values were assumed to be interval measurements. Of the 297 questionnaires mailed, 129 (43%) physicians responded. Ninety-five (74%) respondents rated their overall satisfaction as 4 or 5. No significant difference was found between academic and private physicians when comparing overall job satisfaction (P = .25). When compared to private practice physicians, the aspects most likely contributing to overall job satisfaction for academic physicians were the ability to teach, conduct research, and practice variety (P = .0001, P = .0001, and P = .007, respectively). When compared with academic physicians, the aspects most likely contributing to job satisfaction for private practice physicians were autonomy, physician-patient relationship, and insurance reimbursement (P = .0058, P = .0001, and P = .0098, respectively). When choosing a practice setting

  6. Preface to the Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Strangeness in Nuclear and Hadronic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The International Symposium on "Strangeness in Nuclear and Hadronic Systems (SENDAI08)" was held at the Tohoku University Centennial Hall from Monday, 15th December, through Thursday, 18th December 2008; while a pre-symposium was also organized on 14th December. About 126 scientists participated in SENDAI08, including more than 46 from abroad. The symposium was organized as the third in the SENDAI symposium series on strangeness nuclear physics, which was initiated by the Tohoku University's experimental nuclear physics group in 1998. This time, it is motivated by recent progress of the research on nuclear and hadronic systems involving strangeness degree of freedom, particularly, by beams of electrons and photons at JLab, FINUDA, SPring8, LNS Tohoku, etc. and also at new facilities that will be completed in the near future such as J-PARC, etc.

  7. Physicians' professional performance: an occupational health psychology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.


    Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be

  8. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives. (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Fishman, Jennifer R; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen


    Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians' perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician's perspective. We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians' public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies.

  9. Mental health concerns among Canadian physicians: results from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Frank, Erica


    In light of prior reports on the prevalence of stress, depression, and other mental health problems among physicians in training and practice, we examined the mental health concerns of Canadian physicians using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. Among 3213 respondents, 5 variables (depressive symptoms during the past year, anhedonia in the past year, mental health concerns making it difficult to handle one's workload in the past month, problems with work-life balance, and poor awareness of resources for mental health problems) were examined in relation to sex, specialty, practice type (solo practice vs group or other practice settings), and practice setting (inner city, urban/suburban, or rural/small town/remote). Nearly one quarter of physicians reported a 2-week period of depressed mood, and depression was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians. Anhedonia was reported by one fifth; anesthesiologists were most likely to report anhedonia, followed by general practitioners/family physicians. More than one quarter reported mental health concerns making it difficult to handle their workload, which was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians and psychiatrists. Nearly one quarter reported poor work-life balance. Lack of familiarity with mental health resources was problematic, which was more prominent among female physicians and specialists outside of general practice/family medicine or psychiatry. Mental health concerns are relatively common among Canadian physicians. Training programs and programmatic/policy enhancements should redouble efforts to address depression and other mental health concerns among physicians for the benefit of the workforce and patients served by Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First and foremost, physicians: the clinical versus leadership identities of physician leaders. (United States)

    Quinn, Joann Farrell; Perelli, Sheri


    Purpose - Physicians are commonly promoted into administrative and managerial roles in US hospitals on the basis of clinical expertise and often lack the skills, training or inclination to lead. Several studies have sought to identify factors associated with effective physician leadership, yet we know little about how physician leaders themselves construe their roles. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Phenomenological interviews were performed with 25 physicians at three organizational levels with physicians affiliated or employed by four hospitals within one health care organization in the USA between August and September 2010. A rigorous comparative methodology of data collection and analysis was employed, including the construction of analytic codes for the data and its categorization based on emergent ideas and themes that are not preconceived and logically deduced hypotheses, which is characteristic of grounded theory. Findings - These interviews reveal differences in how part- vs full-time physician leaders understand and value leadership roles vs clinical roles, claim leadership status, and identify as physician leaders on individual, relational and organizational basis. Research limitations/implications - Although the physicians in the sample were affiliated with four community hospitals, all of them were part of a single not-for-profit health care system in one geographical locale. Practical implications - These findings may be of interest to hospital administrators and boards seeking deeper commitment and higher performance from physician leaders, as well as assist physicians in transitioning into a leadership role. Social implications - This work points to a broader and more fundamental need - a modified mindset about the nature and value of physician leadership. Originality/value - This study is unique in the exploration of the nature of physician leadership from the perspective of the physician on an individual, peer

  11. Le roman anglais du XVIIIe siècle à l’opéra : la sentimentalité, Pamela et The Maid of the Mill The 18th-century Novel as Opera: Sentimentality, Pamela and The Maid of the Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burden


    late 18th-century culture that it has been used as a means to define it as an ‘age’. Among the most important formative work in this ‘sentimental’ style is Richardson’s novel, Pamela, that came to the attention of the writer Isaac Bickerstaffe (1733?-1808 who re-worked it as an English opera, remarking that the piece ‘however trifling in other circumstances, was the first sentimental drama that had appeared on the English stage for forty years’. The work set to music by Samuel Arnold (1740-1802, was representative of a new musical genre, the pastiche opera that incorporated the music of others. From a musical point of view, the opera is not hugely important; in modern day terms, the lack of a single identifiable composer or compositional aesthetic makes it a problematical artistic object to assess today. And yet the very simplicity of the music was the defining attribute that allowed the ‘sentimentality’ of the story to shine through, and did herald a new genre in English opera, the pastiche. This article will argue that the very particular circumstances of an English performance played a vital role in the development of sentimental opera in London.

  12. Medicine and nuclear war - helpless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At the end of the ''2nd Medical Congress for the Prevention of Nuclear War'' attention is again drawn to the fact that erroneous or intended use of nuclear weapons can kill hundreds of millions and make the earth unlivable. What physicians are refusing here is not to give whatever help they can or are obliged to. They are on strike against politicians and journalists who ascribe them an ability they do not possess. They refuse to be the objects of false praise pretending that they could be helpers or rescuers in the, unfortunately, not only possible but probable nuclear catastrophe. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Radiation hazards of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, H.


    The basic mechanisms and principles of nuclear power plants are discussed, since their knowledge is mandatory for the understanding of the true risk associated with nuclear technology. Differences between predictable and catastrophic accidents are compared, terms which have been frequently confused to the extent that the public has become unjustifiably and irresponsibly alarmed. A description of the jobs and their responsibilities is also given. Known accidents are reported and the role of the physician in the care of accidents and the scheduling of emergency situations is described. Finally, the usefullness, necessity and risk associated with nuclear power are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Physicians' knowledge about radiation dose and possible risks of common medical tests: a survey in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Mianji, Fereidoun; Shakeri, Mahsa; Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza


    Recent data suggest that knowledge of radiation exposures among physicians is inadequate. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate their knowledge of the radiation doses their patients received and awareness of associated biological risks of radiation exposure. A questionnaire in multiple-choice format consisted of four sections with a total of 10 questions based on the literature review. A total of 136 questionnaires were returned from 69 general practitioners and 67 physicians in various specialties from 10 different hospitals in the capital city of Tehran, Iran. Fifty-four percent of general practitioners and twenty-five percent of specialties declared that they are not aware of biological risks of radiation exposure. Fifty-six percent of physicians did not know the correct definition of absorbed dose. Only 33% of physicians knew the dose exposure of a chest X-ray and only 31% knew the approximate doses of various procedures relative to a chest X-ray. Forty-seven percent of physicians incorrectly distinguished the stochastic effects of radiation from the deterministic effects, and thirty-eight of physicians did not know the organs of the body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation. Only 23.5% of physicians were aware of the one in 2000 risk of induction of fatal carcinoma from computed tomography of the abdomen. Seventy-nine percent of physicians incorrectly underestimated the contribution of nuclear and radiological tests in exposure of an average person. The mean score of the specialties trended toward being more accurate than general practitioners (4.18 ± 1.28 vs. 3.89 ± 1.46, respectively, from a potential accurate total score of 9), but these differences were not statistically significant. Among specialists, orthopedics had the highest scores. The present study demonstrated the limited knowledge of radiation exposures among general practitioners and specialists and a need to improve their knowledge by means of targeted training and re

  15. Access to care: the physician's perspective. (United States)

    Tice, Alan; Ruckle, Janessa E; Sultan, Omar S; Kemble, Stephen


    Private practice physicians in Hawaii were surveyed to better understand their impressions of different insurance plans and their willingness to care for patients with those plans. Physician experiences and perspectives were investigated in regard to reimbursement, formulary limitations, pre-authorizations, specialty referrals, responsiveness to problems, and patient knowledge of their plans. The willingness of physicians to accept new patients from specific insurance company programs clearly correlated with the difficulties and limitations physicians perceive in working with the companies (p<0.0012). Survey results indicate that providers in private practice were much more likely to accept University Health Alliance (UHA) and Hawaii Medical Services Association (HMSA) Commercial insurance than Aloha Care Advantage and Aloha Quest. This was likely related to the more favorable impressions of the services, payments, and lower administrative burden offered by those companies compared with others. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2011.

  16. Medicare Physician and Other Supplier Interactive Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has prepared a public data set, the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data - Physician and Other...

  17. Marketing to physicians in a digital world. (United States)

    Manz, Christopher; Ross, Joseph S; Grande, David


    Pharmaceutical marketing can lead to overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overuse of medications. Digital advertising creates new pathways for reaching physicians, allowing delivery of marketing messages at the point of care, when clinical decisions are being made.

  18. Legal issues confronting the occupational physician. (United States)

    Lewis, Kenneth S; Kleper, Ann-Louise


    Occupational physicians are frequently participants in a legal arena in which the interests of the patient are in conflict with those of the patient's employer. What is best for the patient may be viewed as financially burdensome or damaging to the employer. Pressures may be brought to bear upon the doctor, who is also concerned with furthering business relationships with the employer, to take action that is inimical to the patient's well-being. This article addresses legal liability and ethical responsibility in three situations: (1) when limitations or constraints are placed upon the physician's professional judgment in treating the patient; (2) when demands are made upon the physician to release medical information regarding a patient; and (3) when the physician is asked to perform a medical evaluation for purposes of litigation.

  19. Can visual arts training improve physician performance? (United States)

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram


    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation.

  20. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance? (United States)

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram


    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  1. Physician alignment strategies and real estate. (United States)

    Czerniak, Thomas A


    When addressing locations of facilities after acquiring physician practices, hospitals should: Acknowledge the hospital's ambulatory plan is the driver rather than real estate assumed with the physician practices, Review the hospital ambulatory service plan for each submarket, Review the location of facilities within the service area and their proximity to one another, Sublease or sell existing facilities that are not appropriate, Ensure that the size and characteristics of each facility in the market are appropriate and consistent with the hospital's image.

  2. Time management: a review for physicians. (United States)

    Brunicardi, F. C.; Hobson, F. L.


    This article reviews the basic concepts and techniques of time management as they relate to a medical lifestyle. Essential tools are described to help the physician reassess and sharpen skills for handling intensifying demands and constraints of juggling patient care, research, teaching, and family responsibilities. The historical background and principles of time management for three popular "best selling" techniques are critiqued. In addition, a fourth technique, or model, of time management is introduced for physician use. PMID:8855650

  3. U.K. physicians' attitudes toward active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. (United States)

    Dickinson, George E; Lancaster, Carol J; Clark, David; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Noble, William


    A comparison of the views of geriatric medicine physicians and intensive care physicians in the United Kingdom on the topics of active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide revealed rather different attitudes. Eighty percent of geriatricians, but only 52% of intensive care physicians, considered active voluntary euthanasia as never justified ethically. Gender and age did not play a major part in attitudinal differences of the respondents. If the variability of attitudes of these two medical specialties are anywhere near illustrative of other physicians in the United Kingdom, it would be difficult to formulate and implement laws and policies concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide. In addition, ample safeguards would be required to receive support from physicians regarding legalization.

  4. Non-physician Clinicians in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Evolving Role of Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eyal


    Full Text Available Responding to critical shortages of physicians, most sub-Saharan countries have scaled up training of nonphysician clinicians (NPCs, resulting in a gradual but decisive shift to NPCs as the cornerstone of healthcare delivery. This development should unfold in parallel with strategic rethinking about the role of physicians and with innovations in physician education and in-service training. In important ways, a growing number of NPCs only renders physicians more necessary – for example, as specialized healthcare providers and as leaders, managers, mentors, and public health administrators. Physicians in sub-Saharan Africa ought to be trained in all of these capacities. This evolution in the role of physicians may also help address known challenges to the successful integration of NPCs in the health system.

  5. Patient-physician trust: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Thom, D H; Campbell, B


    Patients' trust in their physicians has recently become a focus of concern, largely owing to the rise of managed care, yet the subject remains largely unstudied. We undertook a qualitative research study of patients' self-reported experiences with trust in a physician to gain further understanding of the components of trust in the context of the patient-physician relationship. Twenty-nine patients participants, aged 26 to 72, were recruited from three diverse practice sites. Four focus groups, each lasting 1.5 to 2 hours, were conducted to explore patients' experiences with trust. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded by four readers, using principles of grounded theory. The resulting consensus codes were grouped into seven categories of physician behavior, two of which related primarily to technical competence (thoroughness in evaluation and providing appropriate and effective treatment) and five of which were interpersonal (understanding patient's individual experience, expressing caring, communicating clearly and completely, building partnership/sharing power and honesty/respect for patient). Two additional categories were predisposing factors and structural/staffing factors. Each major category had multiple subcategories. Specific examples from each major category are provided. These nine categories of physician behavior encompassed the trust experiences related by the 29 patients. These categories and the specific examples provided by patients provide insights into the process of trust formation and suggest ways in which physicians could be more effective in building and maintaining trust.

  6. How physicians' organizations compete: protectionism and efficiency. (United States)

    Page, Stephen


    This article develops a framework that distinguishes four types of competitive strategies that physicians' organizations can adopt in their interactions with health plans. Two types of strategies protect physicians' incomes and autonomy from incursion and control by insurers; the other two enhance the efficiency of health care markets by controlling costs and embedding physicians' caregiving in a community of professionals. The mix of strategies that each organization adopts at any given time depends on the market conditions and regulatory policies it faces, as well as its organizational capacity. The article reviews recent developments in the field that indicate that today's markets and regulations create neither the pressures nor the capacity for physicians' organizations to adopt strategies that enhance efficiency. The managed care backlash has led to a relaxation of pressures to control costs, and the lack of a business case for quality has discouraged embedded caregiving. These developments instead have encouraged and enabled physicians' organizations to adopt strategies that protect their members from the bargaining power and micromanagement of health plans. The article therefore proposes changes in purchasing and regulatory policies to alter the pressures and improve the capacity of physicians' organizations to pursue efficiency and eschew protectionism.

  7. Job Satisfaction Among Academic Family Physicians. (United States)

    Agana, Denny Fe; Porter, Maribeth; Hatch, Robert; Rubin, Daniel; Carek, Peter


    Family physicians report some of the highest rates of burnout among their physician peers. Over the past few years, this rate has increased and work-life balance has decreased. In academic medicine, many report lack of career satisfaction and have considered leaving academia. Our aim was to explore the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and burnout in faculty members in a family medicine department. Six academic family medicine clinics were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Focus groups were conducted to allow for free-flowing, rich dialogue between the moderator and the physician participants. Transcripts were analyzed in a systematic manner by independent investigators trained in grounded theory. The constant comparison method was used to code and synthesize the qualitative data. Six main themes emerged: time (62%), benefits (9%), resources (8%), undervalue (8%), physician well-being (7%), and practice demand (6%). Within the main theme of time, four subthemes emerged: administrative tasks/emails (61%), teaching (17%), electronic medical records (EMR) requirements (13%), and patient care (9%). Academic family physicians believe that a main contributor to job satisfaction is time. They desire more resources, like staff, to assist with increasing work demands. Overall, they enjoy the academic primary care environment. Future directions would include identifying the specific time restraints that prevent them from completing tasks, the type of staff that would assist with the work demands, and the life stressors the physicians are experiencing.

  8. Supplementary physicians' fees: a sustainable system? (United States)

    Calcoen, Piet; van de Ven, Wynand P M M


    In Belgium and France, physicians can charge a supplementary fee on top of the tariff set by the mandatory basic health insurance scheme. In both countries, the supplementary fee system is under pressure because of financial sustainability concerns and a lack of added value for the patient. Expenditure on supplementary fees is increasing much faster than total health expenditure. So far, measures taken to curb this trend have not been successful. For certain categories of physicians, supplementary fees represent one-third of total income. For patients, however, the added value of supplementary fees is not that clear. Supplementary fees can buy comfort and access to physicians who refuse to treat patients who are not willing to pay supplementary fees. Perceived quality of care plays an important role in patients' willingness to pay supplementary fees. Today, there is no evidence that physicians who charge supplementary fees provide better quality of care than physicians who do not. However, linking supplementary fees to objectively proven quality of care and limiting access to top quality care to patients able and willing to pay supplementary fees might not be socially acceptable in many countries. Our conclusion is that supplementary physicians' fees are not sustainable.

  9. Family physician perspectives on primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eOrange


    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID include over 250 diverse disorders. The current study assessed management of PID by family practice physicians. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Committee and the Immune Deficiency Foundation conducted an incentivized mail survey of family practice physician members of the American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association in direct patient care. Responses were compared with subspecialist immunologist responses from a similar survey. Surveys were returned by 528 (of 4500 surveys mailed family practice physicians, of whom 44% reported following ≥1 patient with a PID. Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA, deficiency (21%, and chronic granulomatous disease (11% were most common and were followed by significantly more subspecialist immunologists (P<.0001. Use of intravenously administered Ig, and live viral vaccinations across PID was significantly different (P<.0001. Few family practice physicians were aware of professional guidelines for diagnosis and management of PID (4% vs. 79% of subspecialist immunologists, P<.0001. Family practice physicians will likely encounter patients with a PID diagnoses during their career. Differences in how family practice physicians and subspecialist immunologists manage patients with PID underscore areas where improved educational and training initiatives may benefit patient care.

  10. Matrix organization increases physician, management cooperation. (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Williams, F G; Cowley, J L


    Because of the development of multihospital systems and the establishment of diagnosis related groups, hospitals increasingly will establish matrix organizations for their corporate structures. St. Luke's Hospital adopted the matrix concept in the mid-1970s, utilizing program administrators for each specialty service or "clinical center of excellence." Such centers have been developed in digestive diseases, cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, orthopedics and rheumatology, ophthalmology, and behavioral health. The program administrator's functions are diverse: To serve as primary liaison between physicians and the hospital; To project levels of program utilization and patient and physician satisfaction, to identify areas requiring administrative and marketing emphasis, and to develop the program's marketing plan; To develop, implement, and evaluate the program's strategic, operational, and financial plans; To recruit physicians to practice at St. Luke's and to cultivate referrals from outside physicians; To participate in selecting members of all board and medical staff committees relating to the particular specialty area; and To determine the need for new programs within the specialty area and to develop services. As indicated by a medical staff survey, most physicians at St. Luke's believe that the program administrator system has improved communication with the hospital administration, that the program administrator is able to respond effectively to physician requests and problems, and that the quality of patient care has been enhanced. A great majority said they would recommend the system to other hospitals.

  11. Influences on physicians' choices of intravenous colloids. (United States)

    Miletin, Michael S; Stewart, Thomas E; Norton, Peter G


    Controversy over the optimal intravenous fluid for volume resuscitation continues unabated. Our objectives were to characterize the demographics of physicians who prescribe intravenous colloids and determine factors that enter into their decision to choose a colloid. Questionnaire with 61 items. Ten percent ( n = 364) of frequent intravenous fluid prescribers in the province of Ontario, Canada. The response rate was 74%. Colloid use in the past year was reported by 79% of the responding physicians. Important reasons for choosing a colloid included blood loss and manipulation of oncotic pressure. Physicians tended to prefer either albumin or pentastarch, but no important reasons were found for choosing between the two. Albumin with or without crystalloid was preferred in 5/13 scenarios by more than 50% of the respondents, whereas pentastarch was not favored by more than 50% of respondents in any scenario. Physicians practising in critical care areas and teaching hospitals generally preferred pentastarch to albumin. Physicians reporting pentastarch as representing greater than 90% of total colloid use were more likely to have been visited by a drug detailer for pentastarch than those who used less synthetic colloid (54 vs 22%, p distribution. Although albumin appeared to be preferred in more clinical niches, most physicians did not state reasons for choosing between products. Marketing, specialty, location of practice and clinical scenario appear to play significant roles in the utilization of colloid products.

  12. Selection of persons expressing opinions etc. and attendants in the public hearing concerning the alteration in reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Nuclear Safety Commission has selected 18 persons expressing opinions etc. and 255 (other) attendants for the public hearing on the alteration of reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in Kyushu Electric's Genkai Nuclear Power Station to be held on June 18th, 1984. The order of expressing opinions etc., number of reception, names, addresses, ages and occupations are given of the persons expressing opinions etc. For both the groups, against the selected numbers there are given applicants etc. in number by towns and city. (Mori, K.)

  13. Holding of the public hearing concerning the alteration in reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Nuclear Safety Commission held a public hearing concerning the addition of Unit 3 and 4 in Kyushu Electric's Genkai Nuclear Power Station in Karatsu City, Saga prefecture, on June 18th, 1984. The selected persons (and other attendants) expressed opinions etc. and personnel in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry answered them. Results of the public hearing are to be taken into conservation in NSC's safety examination. The following are described concerning the public hearing held: date and place, participants, hearing program, documents distributed, names of the persons expressing opinions etc. and the respective summary items of opinions etc. (Mori, K.)

  14. Discussion of “Attitude of Physicians Towards Automatic Alerting in Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, D. W.; Baysari, M. T.; Dugas, M.


    With these comments on the paper “Attitude of Physicians Towards Automatic Alerting in Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems”, written by Martin Jung and coauthors, with Dr. Elske Ammenwerth as senior author, the journal wants to stimulate a broad discussion on computerized physician order...... entry systems. An international group of experts have been invited by the editor of Methods to comment on this paper. Each of the invited commentaries forms one section of this paper....

  15. Physician choice making and characteristics associated with using physician-rating websites: cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Emmert, Martin; Meier, Florian; Pisch, Frank; Sander, Uwe


    Over the past decade, physician-rating websites have been gaining attention in scientific literature and in the media. However, little knowledge is available about the awareness and the impact of using such sites on health care professionals. It also remains unclear what key predictors are associated with the knowledge and the use of physician-rating websites. To estimate the current level of awareness and use of physician-rating websites in Germany and to determine their impact on physician choice making and the key predictors which are associated with the knowledge and the use of physician-rating websites. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. An online panel was consulted in January 2013. A questionnaire was developed containing 28 questions; a pretest was carried out to assess the comprehension of the questionnaire. Several sociodemographic (eg, age, gender, health insurance status, Internet use) and 2 health-related independent variables (ie, health status and health care utilization) were included. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and t tests. Binary multivariate logistic regression models were performed for elaborating the characteristics of physician-rating website users. Results from the logistic regression are presented for both the observed and weighted sample. In total, 1505 respondents (mean age 43.73 years, SD 14.39; 857/1505, 57.25% female) completed our survey. Of all respondents, 32.09% (483/1505) heard of physician-rating websites and 25.32% (381/1505) already had used a website when searching for a physician. Furthermore, 11.03% (166/1505) had already posted a rating on a physician-rating website. Approximately 65.35% (249/381) consulted a particular physician based on the ratings shown on the websites; in contrast, 52.23% (199/381) had not consulted a particular physician because of the publicly reported ratings. Significantly higher likelihoods for being aware of the websites could be

  16. Higher fees paid to US physicians drive higher spending for physician services compared to other countries. (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J; Glied, Sherry A


    Higher health care prices in the United States are a key reason that the nation's health spending is so much higher than that of other countries. Our study compared physicians' fees paid by public and private payers for primary care office visits and hip replacements in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also compared physicians' incomes net of practice expenses, differences in financing the cost of medical education, and the relative contribution of payments per physician and of physician supply in the countries' national spending on physician services. Public and private payers paid somewhat higher fees to US primary care physicians for office visits (27 percent more for public, 70 percent more for private) and much higher fees to orthopedic physicians for hip replacements (70 percent more for public, 120 percent more for private) than public and private payers paid these physicians' counterparts in other countries. US primary care and orthopedic physicians also earned higher incomes ($186,582 and $442,450, respectively) than their foreign counterparts. We conclude that the higher fees, rather than factors such as higher practice costs, volume of services, or tuition expenses, were the main drivers of higher US spending, particularly in orthopedics.

  17. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians in private practice: comparison of German and Norwegian physicians. (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Siegrist, Johannes; Aasland, Olaf G


    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress of German compared to Norwegian physicians in private practice. A representative sample of physicians in private practice of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (N = 414) and a nationwide sample of Norwegian general practitioners and private practice specialists (N = 340) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire comprised the standard instruments "Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS)" and a short form of the "Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI)". Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (job satisfaction scale compared to German physicians (M 5.57, SD 0.74 vs. M 4.78, SD 1.01). The effect size was highest for the items freedom to choose method (d = 1.012), rate of pay (d = 0.941), and overall job satisfaction (d = 0.931). While there was no significant difference in the mean of the overall effort scale between German and Norwegian physicians, Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (p job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and reward were significantly higher in Norwegian than in German physicians. An almost threefold higher proportion of German physicians exhibited a high level of work-related stress. Findings call for active prevention and health promotion among stressed practicing physicians, with a special focus on improved working conditions.

  18. Box-ticking and Olympic high jumping - Physicians' perceptions and acceptance of national physician validation systems. (United States)

    Sehlbach, Carolin; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Mitchell, Sharon; Rohde, Gernot G U; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Driessen, Erik W


    National physician validation systems aim to ensure lifelong learning through periodic appraisals of physicians' competence. Their effectiveness is determined by physicians' acceptance of and commitment to the system. This study, therefore, sought to explore physicians' perceptions and self-reported acceptance of validation across three different physician validation systems in Europe. Using a constructivist grounded-theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 respiratory specialists from three countries with markedly different validation systems: Germany, which has a mandatory, credit-based system oriented to continuing professional development; Denmark, with mandatory annual dialogs and ensuing, non-compulsory activities; and the UK, with a mandatory, portfolio-based revalidation system. We analyzed interview data with a view to identifying factors influencing physicians' perceptions and acceptance. Factors that influenced acceptance were the assessment's authenticity and alignment of its requirements with clinical practice, physicians' beliefs about learning, perceived autonomy, and organizational support. Users' acceptance levels determine any system's effectiveness. To support lifelong learning effectively, national physician validation systems must be carefully designed and integrated into daily practice. Involving physicians in their design may render systems more authentic and improve alignment between individual ambitions and the systems' goals, thereby promoting acceptance.

  19. Relationships of multitasking, physicians' strain, and performance: an observational study in ward physicians. (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Müller, Andreas; Sevdalis, Nick; Angerer, Peter


    Simultaneous task performance ("multitasking") is common in hospital physicians' work and is implicated as a major determinant for enhanced strain and detrimental performance. The aim was to determine the impact of multitasking by hospital physicians on their self reported strain and performance. A prospective observational time-and-motion study in a Community Hospital was conducted. Twenty-seven hospital physicians (surgical and internal specialties) were observed in 40 full-shift observations. Observed physicians reported twice on their self-monitored strain and performance during the observation time. Associations of observed multitasking events and subsequent strain and performance appraisals were calculated. About 21% of the working time physicians were engaged in simultaneous activities. The average time spent in multitasking activities correlated significantly with subsequently reported strain (r = 0.27, P = 0.018). The number of instances of multitasking activities correlated with self-monitored performance to a marginally significant level (r = 0.19, P = 0.098). Physicians who engage in multitasking activities tend to self-report better performance but at the cost of enhanced psychophysical strain. Hence, physicians do not perceive their own multitasking activities as a source for deficient performance, for example, medical errors. Readjustment of workload, improved organization of work for hospital physicians, and training programs to improve physicians' skills in dealing with multiple clinical demands, prioritization, and efficient task allocation may be useful avenues to explore to reduce the potentially negative impact of simultaneous task performance in clinical settings.

  20. Physician-patient communication in HIV disease: the importance of patient, physician, and visit characteristics. (United States)

    Wilson, I B; Kaplan, S


    Although previous work that considered a variety of chronic conditions has shown that higher quality physician-patient communication care is related to better health outcomes, the quality of physician-patient communication itself for patients with HIV disease has not been well studied. To determine the relationship of patient, visit, physician, and physician practice characteristics to two measures of physician-patient communication for patients with HIV disease. Cross-sectional survey of physicians and patients. Cohort study enrolling patients from throughout eastern Massachusetts. 264 patients with HIV disease and their their primary HIV physicians (n = 69). Two measures of physician-patient communication were used, a five-item general communication measure (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), and a four-item HIV-specific communication measure that included items about alcohol, drug use, and sexual behaviors (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). The mean age of patients was 39. 5 years, 24% patients were women, 31.1% were nonwhite, and 52% indicated same-sex contact as their principal HIV risk factor. The mean age of physicians was 39.1 years, 33.3% were female, 39.7% were specialists, and 25.0% self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In multivariable models relating patient and visit characteristics to general communication, longer reported visit length (pbetter communication. The interaction of patient gender and visit length was also significant (p =.02); longer visit length was more strongly associated with better general communication for male than female patients. In similar models relating patient and visit characteristics to HIV-specific communication, longer visit length (p better communication. In multivariable models relating physician and practice characteristics to general communication no variables were significant. However, both female physician gender (p =.002) and gay/lesbian/bisexual sexual preference (p =.003) were significantly associated with better HIV