WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear particle spectroscopy

  1. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  2. Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejnalova, O.; Zejnalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms are provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter on the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionization chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer is investigated in terms of the distance between pile-up pulses. The efficiency of the developed algorithms is compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature

  3. Modern hadron spectroscopy: a bridge between nuclear and particle physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    In this talk I discuss aspects of hadron physics, which soon are expected to shed new light on the fundamental QCD phenomena. In the analysis of hadron reactions and their propertieds I emphasize similarities to the nuclear many body problem.

  4. Nuclear Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at the Limit of Particle Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Norbert Pietralla

    2006-01-01

    The research project ''Nuclear Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at the Limit of Particle Stability'' with sponsor ID ''DE-FG02-04ER41334'' started late-summer 2004 and aims at the investigation of highly excited low-spin states of selected key-nuclei in the vicinity of the particle separation threshold by means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy in electromagnetic excitation reactions. This work addresses nuclear structures with excitation energies close to the binding energy or highly excited off-yrast states in accordance with the NSAC milestones. In 2005 the program was extended towards additional use of virtual photons and theoretical description of the low-lying collective excitations in the well deformed nuclei

  5. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of nuclear spectroscopy is to study properties of nuclear energy levels and transitions (electromagnetic, particle transfer, etc.) between these levels. Traditionally, the properties that involve a single level or a few levels have theoretically been investigated using models e.g. shell model, self-consistent field approximation, collective model (RPA, Generator Coordinate) and so on. Basically from these models, one obtains eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (or expectation values and transfer strengths) which can be compared with data. The choice of the model depends upon the properties that one wants to examine and the usefulness of the model depends upon its ability to explain observations and make predictions

  6. New possibility for high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear particles entering CR-39 at selected dip angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Hunyadi, I.; Hafez, A.F. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete); Espinosa, G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica)

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear reaction studies a differentiation of the reaction products according to their type and energy is generally required. At right angle of incidence a particle identification method based on the relation between the track diameter and particle energy can be well applied to plastic track detectors of low registration sensitivity. We have tried to extend this 'track-diameter method' to the high-sensitivity CR-39 sheets by selecting special incident angles for particle detection. The utility of such a measuring procedure, called 'track-size method', is presented for alpha and proton spectroscopy. A theory is developed to calculate at arbitrary angles the main parameters affecting the energy resolving power of the 'track-size method', namely the critical layer thickness (which has to be removed from the detector surface for track-induction) and the depth and minor axis of etch-pits.

  7. High-spin nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given

  8. Lecture II. Charmed particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of charmed particle spectroscopy covers the particle properties and interrelations from a charmed quark composition point of view including SU(4)-symmetry generalities, mesons, baryons, charmed particle masses, and decays of charmed particles. 6 references

  9. Particle-nuclear intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With the traditional distinctions between particle and nuclear physics becoming increasing blurred, the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, held from May 31 to June 6 in St. Petersburg, Florida, brought together particle and nuclear physicists to discuss common research efforts and to define and plan a united approach

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    Contributions by various authors who are working in the field of NMR imaging present the current status and the perspectives of in-vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, explaining not only the scientific and medical aspects, but also technical and physical principles as well as questions concerning practical organisation and training, and points of main interest for further research activities. (orig./TRV) [de

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Susanta Das. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 34-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0034-0049. Keywords.

  12. Spectroscopy of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1977-08-01

    A review of the spectroscopy of the ''psions'' with hidden charm or charm quantum number ch = o is followed by a discussion of charmed mesons and baryons. The anomalous C-μ events and the heavy lepton hypothesis are briefly considered

  13. Spectroscopy after the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1975-06-01

    Conventional spectroscopy was reexamined, and the puzzles and paradoxes which have arisen in attempting to describe the properties of the known particles are sought. It is noted that these may offer clues to the missing elements necessary for the description of the new particles. The minimum number of elementary building blocks, charm and color, the colored quark model for saturation, spin splittings in the meson spectrum, three kinds of quarks, the Melosh transformation and the Jackson frame, the Zweig rule mystery, new particles and old symmetries, f--A2 interference, and nonleptonic decay. (U.S.)

  14. Spectroscopy after the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional spectroscopy is reexamined in a search for puzzles and paradoxes which have arisen in attempting to describe the properties of the known particles. These may offer clues to the missing elements necessary for the description of the new particles. The minimum number of elementary building blocks, charm and color, the colored quark model for saturation, spin splittings in the meson spectrum, three kinds of quarks, the Melosh transformation and the Jackson frame, beyond the single-quark transition--the Zweig rule mystery, new particles and old symmetries, the f--A2 interference, and tests of the Zweig rule by rho--ω and f--A2--f' interference are considered

  15. Core-shell particle composition by liquid phase infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Goncalves, Odinei H.; Bona, Evandro

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric particles with core-shell morphology can offer advantages over conventional particles improving properties like mechanical and chemical resistance. However, particle composition must be known due to its influence on the final properties. In this work liquid phase infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the overall composition of core-shell particles composed by polystyrene (core) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (shell). Results were in agreement with those obtained with H 1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data (Goncalves et al, 2008). (author)

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Guo, W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most widely used instrumental methods, with applications ranging from the characterization of pure compounds by high-resolution NMR to the diagnosis of disease by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To give some idea of the wide-spread use of NMR, a computer search for the period 1985-1987 turned up over 500 books and review articles and over 7000 literature citations, not including papers in which NMR was used together with other spectroscopic methods for the routine identification of organic compounds. Consequently, they have by necessity been somewhat selective in the topics they have chosen to cover and in the articles they have cited. In this review, which covers the published literature for the approximate period Sept 1985-Aug 1987, they have focused on new developments and applications of interest to the chemist. First they review recent developments in instrumentation and techniques. Although there have not been any major break-throughs in NMR instrumentation during the past two years, significant refinements have been reported which optimize instrumentation for the demanding multiple pulse experiments in routine use today. Next they review new developments in methods for processing NMR data, followed by reviews of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments

  17. Particle and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, H.; Chong-shi, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the September symposium. There are two parts to this book divided according to particle physics and nuclear physics. Some of the titles of the papers are as follows: Bifurcation and Dynamical Symmetry Breaking, Negative Binomial Distribution for the Multiplicity Distributions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ Annihilation, Variational Study of Lattice QCD, Rescaling for Kaon Structure Function, SDG Boson Model and its Application, The Pair-Aligned Intrinsic Wave Function in Single-j Configuration, and The Short Range Effective Interaction and the Spectra of Calcium Isotopes in (f-p) Space

  18. Intersections between particle and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains papers from an AIP conference on the intersections between particle and nuclear physics. Some of the general topics covered are: Accelerator physics; Antiproton physics; Electron and muon physics; Hadron scattering; Hadron spectroscopy; Meson and lepton decays; Neutrino physics; Nonaccelerator and astrophysics; Relativistic heavy-ion physics; and Spin physics. There are 166 papers that will be processed separately

  19. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyer, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance constitutes a major analytical technique in biological and organic analysis. This technique appears now in the programme of preparatory classes and its teaching is developed in the second year of DEUG. The following article reviews on the nuclear magnetic resonance and on the possibilities it offers to bring to the fore the physico-chemical properties of molecules. (N.C.)

  20. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  1. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styczen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The contributions given hereafter to this Annual Report cover a broad activity of the Department in 1999 both in the pure nuclear spectroscopy and in the applied spectroscopy investigations. That activity is then assembled in the two main groups: the nuclear structure studies with the application of the multidetector systems such as GASP, GAMMASPHERE, EUROBALL and the RFD - as its ancillary device, and investigations of condensed matter properties with the use of nuclear methods. In addition, non-nuclear methods such as the atomic force microscopy provided several new encouraging results. The nice data obtained are due to the great skill and hard work of all members of the staff, and a vast cooperation both with international and national institutes and institutions. When anticipated for calling the attractive results of the past year, I would rather admit that all data given here pretend to be those. To meet with, I refer directly to the short presentations given in the next pages. (author)

  2. [Meson spectroscopy and particle astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    Progress in the design and construction of a light meson spectroscopy experiment is reported. The experiment will run in 1993. Some non- accelerator, activities and plans for the future are also discussed. Results of a Brookhaven beam test with a subset of the final detector are described. The test has been quite promising both in the speed with which results have been obtained and in the quality of the data itself. The status of the CsI veto is reported The target region, in particular the CsI veto experiment is Notre Dame's primary hardware responsibility on this experiment

  3. Nuclear and particle physics 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, I.J.D.; Doyle, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    This item documents the International Conference on Nuclear and Particle Physics held at the University of Glasgow, UK, from 30th March to 1st April 1993. It was organised by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Glasgow University on behalf of the Nuclear and Particle Physics Division of the Institute of Physics. The scientific programme covered many areas of current interest in nuclear and particle physics. Particle physics topics included up to the minute reports on the physics currently coming from CERN'S Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), Hadron-Elektron-Ring Analage (HERA) and Large Electron-Positron Storage Rings (LEP), and reviews of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) lattice gauge theory. Looking to the future the programme covered the search for the Higgs boson and a review of physics experiments planned for the new generation of accelerators at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). The conference coincided with the final closure of the world class Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury and marked the transition of United Kingdom (UK) nuclear physics research into a new era of international collaboration. Several talks described new international collaborative research programmes in nuclear physics initiated by UK scientists. The conference also heard of new areas of nuclear physics which will in future be opened up by high energy continuous beam electron accelerators and by radioactive ion beam accelerators. (author)

  4. X spectroscopy and newer particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, F.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments to search for new (charm) particles are discussed. Three modes of psi(3684) radiative decays have been studied: psisup(') → γ + X, γγX, γ + hadrons. Corresponding mass and energy spectra, branching ratios and production angular distributions are presented, which agree with the predictions of the charm quark model. Evidence is presented for two narrow new states (charges 0 and 1) at 1.86 GeV produced between 3.9 and 4.6 GeV center of mass energy and decaying to K +- π -+ and K +- π -+ π + π - . Structures are seen in the recoil mass spectra. The production and decay characteristics support the assignment of those states as the low-lying non-strange charmed mesons

  5. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styczen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Spectroscopy Department is the largest department of the Institute. It merges a variety of research groups having been performing investigations with a rich diversity of methods: from pure studies of the structure of nucleus and of nuclear properties through applied nuclear spectroscopy in condensed matter research, to the complex biophysical investigations of biological tissues. The nuclear structure experiments were performed mainly in European Large Scale Facilities (ALPIINFN-Legnaro, VIVITRON-IReS-Strasbourg, JYFL-K100-Cyclotron) with the use of the GASP, EUROBALL IV, RITU systems and with application of ancillary detectors - HECTOR+HELENA, RFD. Some data were obtained with the GAMMASPHERE in USA. Other research has been based on our own instrumentation - VdG, AFM, Dual-Beam-Implanter, PAC, Moessbauer spectrometers etc., in a strong co-operation with Polish and European institutions, of course. The atomic studies were done on the ESR at GSI in Darmastadt. In several pages which follow, some important results of the investigations in the Department are presented. In 2001, Dr hab. Jerzy Dryzek and Dr hab. Adam Maj were granted the Associated Professor positions, and Miss Agnieszka Kulinska and Mrs Maria Kmiecik - the Ph.D. degrees. Dr Kmiecik was also awarded the Henryk Niewodniczanski prize for studies of 147 Eu compound nucleus shape evolution. Some of us became (continued to be) members of International Committees - the PHINUFY (R. Broda), the Steering Committee of RISING at GSI (J. Styczen), the PAC of the VIVITRON at Strasbourg (J. Styczen). We organized an International Conference on Condensed Matter Studies (100 participants), which belonged to the well known series of Zakopane School of Physics. It's Proceedings appeared as a volume of the Acta Physica Polonica A journal. (author)

  6. Laboratory system for alpha particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.R.; Chiu, N.W.

    1987-03-01

    An automated alpha particle spectroscopy system has beeen designed and fabricated. It consists of two major components, the automatic sample changer and the controller/data acquisition unit. It is capable of unattended analysis of ten samples for up to 65,000 seconds per sample

  7. Nuclear spectroscopy and quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Iwasawa, Kazuo.

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, a recent development of INS-TSUKUBA joint research project on large-amplitude collective motion is summerized. The classical theory of nuclear collective dynamics formulated within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory is recapitulated and decisive role of the level crossing in the single-particle dynamics on the order-to-chaos transition of collective motion is discussed in detail. Extending the basic idea of the classical theory, we discuss a quantum theory of nuclear collective dynamics which allows us to properly define a concept of quantum chaos for each eigenfunction. By using numerical calculation, we illustrate what the quantum chaos for each eigenfunction means and its relation to usual definition based on the random matrix theory. (author)

  8. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  9. On spectral averages in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In nuclear spectroscopy one tries to obtain a description of systems of bound nucleons. By means of theoretical models one attemps to reproduce the eigenenergies and the corresponding wave functions which then enable the computation of, for example, the electromagnetic moments and the transition amplitudes. Statistical spectroscopy can be used for studying nuclear systems in large model spaces. In this thesis, methods are developed and applied which enable the determination of quantities in a finite part of the Hilbert space, which is defined by specific quantum values. In the case of averages in a space defined by a partition of the nucleons over the single-particle orbits, the propagation coefficients reduce to Legendre interpolation polynomials. In chapter 1 these polynomials are derived with the help of a generating function and a generalization of Wick's theorem. One can then deduce the centroid and the variance of the eigenvalue distribution in a straightforward way. The results are used to calculate the systematic energy difference between states of even and odd parity for nuclei in the mass region A=10-40. In chapter 2 an efficient method for transforming fixed angular momentum projection traces into fixed angular momentum for the configuration space traces is developed. In chapter 3 it is shown that the secular behaviour can be represented by a Gaussian function of the energies. (Auth.)

  10. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  11. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen Schieck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory-a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear rea...

  12. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  13. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  14. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  15. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: During the last year, the activity of our department was spread over basic research in nuclear physics (standard spectroscopy, more exotic regions close to the elementary particle physics, theoretical studies of heavy ion interactions), high energy atomic physics, applications of and nuclear physics (environmental studies, effects of irradiation, ion production). Some effort was focused on teaching - actually, four Ph. D. students are working for their degrees. Some of us were involved in organisation and further activity of the ''Radioactive Waste'' exhibition in Swierk. Our research is performed on our facilities (C30 cyclotron, low background detection facility), and in close co-operation with the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the Warsaw University, Jagellonian University in Cracow, Military Technical Academy in Warsaw, Institute of Electronic Technology and Materials in Warsaw and some foreign centers like GSI in Darmstadt, MPI in Heidelberg and KFA in Juelich (Germany), PSI in Villigen (Switzerland), University of Notre Dame, Argonne National Lab., Lawrence Berkeley Lab. and Los Alamos National Lab. (USA). The reader is invited to find some of our recent results on the next pages; together with a list of publications. Nevertheless some activities are worth mentioning: Nuclear spectroscopic studies were concentrated on Z or N 50 nuclei - determination of excited level schemes of 182,183 Ir, 180,181,182 Os and 110 Sn and 132 Ce was continued and some new effects found. The most precise lifetime of the A hyperon in very heavy hypernuclei was measured(COSY-13 project). The search of muon number forbidden nuclear μ - e nuclear conversion was continued (SINDRUM II coll.). Heavy ion interactions leading to fusion or fission processes were studied theoretically, and the experiments are in preparation. The experimental studies of atomic effects in bare, H- and He- like very heavy atoms and X ray spectroscopy of heavy ion atomic collisions were continued at GSI

  16. Report of the Nuclear Spectroscopy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerry, T.B.; Wylie, W.; Hugo

    1978-01-01

    This is a report of the group working with Nuclear Spectroscopy. They made a general discussion involving personnel, research interests (present and future) and suggestions, on general. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics are considered. P, T-breaking, neutron beta decay, neutron radiative capture and neutron polarizability are discussed. Reaction with fast neutrons, methodical aspect low-energy fission are considered too

  18. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and nuclear physics. For the physicists it is a good introduction to all experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Nuclear engineers will appreciate the nuclear measurement techniques, while biomedical engineers can learn about measuring ionising radiation, the use of accelerators for radiotherapy. What's more, worked examples, end-of-chapter exercises, and appendices with key constants, properties and relationships supplement the textual material. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear physics with strange particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of strange particle interactions with nuclear systems is reviewed. We discuss the relative merits of various reactions such as (K - , π/sup +-/), (π + , K + ), or (γ, K + ) for hypernuclear production. The structure of /sub Λ/ 13 C is analyzed in some detail, in order to illustrate the role of the ΛN residual interaction and approximate dynamical symmetries in hypernuclear structure. Recent results on the single particle states of a Λ in heavy systems, as revealed by (π + , K + ) reaction studies, are used to extract information on the density dependence and effective mass which characterize the Λ-nucleus mean field. Finally, we develop the idea the K + -nucleus scattering at low energies is sensitive to the subtle ''swelling'' effects for nucleons bound in nuclei. 64 refs., 13 figs

  20. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trell, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it ''is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation'' also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)xO(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  1. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  2. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pel- letron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more sophisticated experiments. Front line nuclear spectroscopy ...

  3. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  4. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Nuclear and Particle Physics (NUPPAC-2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M N.H.; Hanna, K M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-08-15

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) high energy physics; (2) nuclear scattering and reaction; (3) nuclear models and spectroscopy; (3) neutron and reactor physics; (4) applied nuclear physics; (5) Detectors and Instrumentations; (6) computer codes and stimulation; (7) radiation measurement and dosimetry; (8) selected topics.

  5. Proceedings of the Third Nuclear and Particle Physics Conference (NUPPAC-2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M N.H.; Hanna, K M [Egyptian Nuclear Physics Association, Cairo (Egypt)

    2002-09-15

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) high energy physics; (2) nuclear scattering and reaction; (3) nuclear models and spectroscopy; (3) neutron and reactor physics; (4) applied nuclear physics; (5) computer codes; (6) selected topics; (7) radiation sciences.

  6. Proceeding of the seventh Nuclear and Particle Physics Conference (NUPPAC-2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2009-11-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Nuclear and Particle physics conference. the conference consists Nuclear Scattering and Reactions; High Energy Physics; Nuclear Structure and Spectroscopy; Neutron and Reactor Physics; Relativistic and Quantum Physics; Modeling, Codes and Simulation; Nuclear Analytical Techniques; Accelerator and Reactor Utilization; Detectors and Instrumentation; Radiation and Radioactivity. This conference consists of 662 p., figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Nuclear and Particle Physics (NUPPAC-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.; Hanna, K.M.

    2004-08-01

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) high energy physics; (2) nuclear scattering and reaction; (3) nuclear models and spectroscopy; (3) neutron and reactor physics; (4) applied nuclear physics; (5) Detectors and Instrumentations; (6) computer codes and stimulation; (7) radiation measurement and dosimetry; (8) selected topics

  8. Proceeding of the Sixth Nuclear and Particle Physics Conference (NUPPAC-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Nuclear and Particle Physics conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: High Energy Physics; Nuclear Scattering and Reactions; Nuclear Structure and Spectroscopy; Nuclear and Reactor Physics; Relativistic and Quantum Physics; Plasma and magneto hydro Dynamics; Computation and Simulation and Radiation Measurement and Dosimetry. This conference consists of 642 pages., figs., tabs., refs

  9. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Nuclear and Particle Physics (NUPPAC-99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M N.H.; Hanna, K M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-11-15

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) high energy physics; (2) nuclear scattering and reaction; (3) nuclear models and spectroscopy; (3) neutron and reactor physics; (4) plasma and fusion physics; (5) applied nuclear physics; (6) related topics.

  10. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Nuclear and Particle Physics (NUPPAC-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.; Hanna, K.M.

    2000-11-01

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) high energy physics; (2) nuclear scattering and reaction; (3) nuclear models and spectroscopy; (3) neutron and reactor physics; (4) plasma and fusion physics; (5) applied nuclear physics; (6) related topics

  11. Proceedings of the Third Nuclear and Particle Physics Conference (NUPPAC-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.; Hanna, K.M.

    2002-09-01

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) high energy physics; (2) nuclear scattering and reaction; (3) nuclear models and spectroscopy; (3) neutron and reactor physics; (4) applied nuclear physics; (5) computer codes; (6) selected topics; (7) radiation sciences

  12. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  13. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  14. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  15. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Schwab, Mark J.; Pan, Yong-le

    2015-01-01

    The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field. PMID:26247952

  16. Nuclear level mixing resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Put, P.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.

    1985-01-01

    The existent methods for measuring quadrupole interactions are not suited to nuclei with lifetimes in the micro-seconds to minutes region. AD/NQR, a possible candidate in this lifetime gap, has not yet succeeded in overcoming its predicted difficulties. A new resonant method, recently developed and based on the principles of level mixing (cfr atomic spectroscopy) covers this less accessible lifetime range. Many other kinds of resonances can be described according to the level mixing formalism. The particular example of NMR as a level mixing resonance (LMR) is discussed. The underlying theory of LMR and its important consequences, leading to some interesting features of the method, is briefly formulated. Two successfully performed measurements demonstrate the feasibility and the predicted characteristics of this new promising method. (orig.)

  17. The electric monopole transition: Nuclear structure, and nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zganiar, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The electric monopole (E0) transition process provides unique information on the structure of nuclei. For example, δI=0 transitions between nuclear configurations of different shape have enhanced EO components. The authors have observed I π→Iπ (I=0) transitions in 185 Pt and 184 Pt which are pure E0. This is unprecedented. Further, they have initiated searches for the location of the superdeformed band in 192 Hg utilizing internal conversion spectroscopy and, for the first time, internal pair spectroscopy. Additionally, the lifetime of the 0 + 2 level in 188 Hg was measured with a newly developed picosecond lifetime system which utilized the 0 + 2 →0 + 1 E0 internal conversion transition as an energy gate and its associated atomic X-ray as a fast trigger. The role of the E0 internal conversion process in the study of nuclear structure and as a tool in nuclear spectroscopy are discussed

  18. Nuclear spectroscopy using the neutron capture reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental methods using neutron spectroscopy as a means to study the nucleus structure are described. Since reactions of neutron capture (n, γ) are non-selective, they permit to study the nature of excitation (monoparticle and collective) of nuclear levels, the nature of vibrational excitations, to check the connection between shell model and liquid drop model etc. In many cases (n, γ) reactions are the only way to check the forecast of nuclear models. Advantages of (n, γ) spectroscopy, possessing a high precision of measurement and high sensitivity, are underlined. Using neutron spectroscopy on facilities with a high density of neutron flux the structures of energy levels of a large group of nuclei are studied. In different laboratories complete schemes of energy levels of nuclei are obtained, a great number of new levels are found, the evergy level densities are determined, multipolarities of γ-transitions, spins, level parities are considered. StrUctures of rotational bands of heavy deformed nuclei are studied. The study of the structure of high-spin states is possible only using the methods of (n, γ) spectroscopy Investigation results of the nuclei 24 Na, 114 Cd, 154 Eu, 155 Cd, 155 Sm, 233 Th are considered as examples. The most interesting aspects of the investigations using neutron spectroscopy are discUssed

  19. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernicki, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text:Research activities in our Department in the last year were focused on traditional domains of nuclear physics: heavy-ion reactions and nuclear spectroscopy, but also on medium-energy elementary particle physics, neutrino physics, as well as atomic physics. Along with the group of nuclear and atomic physicists, our Department encompasses a team working on medical physics and another team engaged in ecology and environmental physics. We maintain our collaboration with FZ Juelich (Germany) continuing experiments on the COSY storage ring, aimed at studying heavy hyperons produced in pp collisions. Recently, evidence for a new hyperon has been obtained. At PSI Villigen (Switzerland) rare pion- and muon decays have been studied using the large PIBETA detector. The branching ratio for the pion beta decay was measured with six times better accuracy than previously. From the precise measurements of the radiative pion decay the pion axial form factor was evaluated (four times more precisely). Some anomaly, which can not be explained by the Standard Model, was observed in this process. In the field of neutrino physics, data collected with the T600 module of the cosmic ray detector ICARUS in Pavia (Italy) have been analysed. In collaboration with the Department of Nuclear Theory, conditions to observe the fascinating process of neutrino-less double electron capture were further examined from the point of view of the fundamental question of the neutrino nature and mass. Our involvement in the CHIMERA/ISOSPIN Collaboration resulted in interesting studies of semi-peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Fermi energy range. In particular, a new method of determination of the time scale of the emission of intermediate mass fragments was developed. We continued the collaboration with LBNL Berkeley (USA) and IEP Warsaw University on a theoretical model of the synthesis of super-heavy elements. A comprehensive description of the model with extensive predictions of the

  20. Russian Federal nuclear center facilities for nuclear spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkaev, R.I.; Punin, V.T.; Abramovich, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Russian Federal Nuclear Center facilities for Spectroscopy investigation in the field of nuclear spectroscopy are described. Here are discussed basic properties of used radiation sources, facilities and technologies for target material production and manufacture of targets from rare, high-toxic or radioactive materials. Here are also reported basic features of complex detector systems and technologies for manufacture of scintillation detectors with special properties VNIIEF was founded as a weapons laboratory. The development of nuclear and thermonuclear bombs was followed by a wide complex of nuclear-physics investigations. Naturally, data on nuclear-physics properties of active and structure materials being part of nuclear weapons were of greatest interest.At the initial stage of work on the development of nuclear weapons the information on nuclear constants of materials including the most important neutron ones was rather scant. Data published in scientific literature had low exactness and were insecure. Results of measurements sometimes differed greatly by various groups of investigators. At the same time it was clear that, for example, a 1,5-times mistake in the fission cross-section could cause a several times mistake in the choice of uranium or plutonium mass, which is necessary for the bomb development. These circumstances determined importance of the nuclear-physics investigations. Demands on knowledge of process details occurring inside the nuclei conditioned by a problem of developing and improving of nuclear weapons and atomic power are rather limited. However, the further development of nuclear industry has proved a well-known point that this knowledge being accumulated forms a critical mass that leads to an explosive situation in the elaboration both of ideological and technological aspects of these problems. It is the tendency of inside development of nuclear science that has conditioned preparedness of knowledge about intranuclear processes for

  1. Nuclear spectroscopy with direct relations II. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throw, F. E.

    1964-01-01

    The Symposium on Nuclear Spectroscopy with Direct Reactions, sponsored and organized by Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, was held on 9-11 March 1964 at the Center for Continuing Education, University of Chicago. The present volume contains the invited papers along with abstracts or summaries of the few short papers selected for their special relevance to the topics of the invited lecturers . Edited versions of the discussions are also included

  2. Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)

  3. The spectroscopy of the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.

    1977-01-01

    Theories and models of heavy quark-antiquark systems are reviewed. The principal topics are: i) the spectroscopy of the psi-family both above and below charm threshold; ii) production of charmed mesons in e + e - annihilation; and iii) the consequences of interpreting UPSILON and UPSILON' as bound states of a new quark-antiquark system. (orig.) [de

  4. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  5. Three-particle forces and nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Different nuclear models accounting and unaccounting for three-particle internucleon forces (TIF) are reviewed. At present only two nuclear models use manifestly TIP: the Vautherin-Brink-Skyrme (VBS) model and the model proposed by the author of the review and called the semiphenomenological (SP) nuclear model. There is a short discussion of major drawbacks of models unaccounting for TIF: multiparticle shell model, ''superfluid model'', Harty-Fock calculations with two-particle forces, Bruckner-Hartry-Fock calculations, the relativistic self-consistent nuclear model. The VBS and SP models are discussed in detail. It is concluded, that the employment of TIF even in a very simplified form (extremely short-range) puts away a lot of problems characteristic to models limited by two-particle forces (collapse at iteratious in Hartry-Fock, simultaneous fitting of the binding energy of a nucleus and the binding energy of a nucleon, etc.) and makes it possible to obtain in a rather simple way such nuclear characteristics as nuclear binding energy, nuclear mean square root radii, nucleon density of a nucleus

  6. Foundations of nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, T William; Holstein, Barry R; Milner, Richard G; Surrow, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.

  7. A CAMAC system for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Araby, S.M.S.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis describes a computer based multichannel pulse height analyzer for acquiring, processing and displaying random signals coming from a nuclear detector for on - line γ- ray spectroscopy. The system is built around a Pdp - 11/ 04 Computer. Interfacing to the computer is carried out by CAMAC modules. The necessary hard- were required to interface the nuclear detector system to the computer- CAMAC system is developed together with the associated circuits needed to measure the dead time of the whole system. The software has been written Macro,FORTRAN and CATY languages. emphasis was placed on execution speed and it was found that accumulating a large number of data for later processing could improve the execution speed considerably thereby minimizing dead time fast FORTRAN - CAMAC callable subroutine have been developed and used in the software

  8. Particle transfer spectroscopy using radioactive targets

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann, R A

    1976-01-01

    The practicality of general use of radioactive targets to study nuclei off the stability line by transfer spectroscopy is examined. Some advantages of this spectroscopic technique are illustrated with recent results from (p, t) and (t, p) stable target studies of negative parity core-coupled states systematically occurring in 4 adjacent odd silver isotopes. Preliminary results from the study of the /sup 205/Pb (t, p)/sup 207/Pb reaction using reactor produced 3*10/sup 7/ year lead 205 are given. (3 refs).

  9. Nuclear spectroscopy in nuclei with Z ≥ 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, D., E-mail: D.Ackermann@gsi.de

    2015-12-15

    The nuclear structure of species at the extreme of highest atomic numbers Z and nuclear masses A promises to reveal intriguing new features of this exotic hadronic matter. Their stability itself they owe to quantum-mechanic effects only. They form metastable states which, governed by the subtle interplay of α decay and spontaneous fission versus quantum-mechanic stabilization via shell effects, are in some cases more robust against disintegration than their ground states. Following the isotopic and isotonic trends of single particle levels, as well as collective features like deformation, may reveal the path towards the gap in the level densities, expected for the next closed proton and neutron shells at the so-called “island of stability” of spherical superheavy nuclei. Their atomic configuration offers via X-ray spectroscopy a tool to identify the atomic number of heavy species, where other more traditional methods like evaporation residue (ER)–α correlation are not applicable.

  10. Generation of narrow peaks in spectroscopy of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbers, Dirk, E-mail: dubbers@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmidt, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.schmidt@physi.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-11-21

    In spectroscopy of charged particles, narrow peaks may appear in continuous spectra if magnetic transport of the particles is involved. These artefacts, which so far have escaped the attention of investigators, can develop whenever geometric detection efficiency is less than 100%. As such peaks may be misinterpreted as new physics, their generation is investigated, both analytically and experimentally, for various detector configurations, including those used in searches for the spontaneous decay of the vacuum in heavy-ion collisions.

  11. The nuclear single particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, H.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty years ago in December 1963 one half of the Nobel prize in Physics was awarded to Maria Goeppert-Mayer and Johannes Daniel Jensen for their work on the nuclear shell model. They suggested independently that a strong spin-orbit force with the opposite sign of the one known from atomic physics should be added to the shell-model potential. This proved to be the crucial new idea, because then all the bits of and pieces of evidence that had accumulated over the years fell into place. The author begins with the basic assumption: In a nucleus nucleons move almost independently of each other in an average or shell-model potential. He then provides experimental evidence plausibility arguments and mathematical deductions

  12. Nuclear fission and fission-product spectroscopy: 3. International workshop on nuclear fission and fission-product spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Heloise; Fioni, Gabriele; Faust, Herbert; Goutte, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The present book contains the proceedings of the third workshop in a series of workshops previously held in Seyssins in 1994 and 1998. The meeting was jointly organized by different divisions of CEA and two major international laboratories. In the opening address, Prof. B. Bigot, the French High Commissioner for Atomic Energy, outlined France's energy policy for the next few decades. He emphasized the continuing progress of nuclear fission in both technical and economic terms, allowing it to contribute to the energy needs of the planet even more in the future than it does today. Such progress implies a very strong link between fundamental and applied research based on experimental and theoretical approaches. The workshop gathered the different nuclear communities studying the fission process, including topics as the following: - nuclear fission experiments, - spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei, - fission data evaluation, - theoretical aspects of nuclear fission, - and innovative nuclear systems and new facilities. The scientific program was suggested by an International Advisory Committee. About 100 scientists from 13 different countries attended the conference in the friendly working atmosphere of the Castle of Cadarache in the heart of the Provence. The proceedings of the workshop were divided into 11 sections addressing the following subject matters: 1. Cross sections and resonances (5 papers); 2. Fission at higher energies - I (5 papers); 3. Fission: mass and charge yields (4 papers); 4. Light particles and cluster emission (4 papers); 5. Spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei (5 papers); 6. Resonances, barriers, and fission times (5 papers); 7. Fragment excitation and neutron emission (4 papers); 8. Mass and energy distributions (4 papers); 9. Needs for nuclear data and new facilities - I (4 papers); 10. Angular momenta and fission at higher Energies - II (3 papers); 11. New facilities - II (2 papers). A poster session of 8 presentations completed the workshop

  13. Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology : T-2 : LANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    linked in Search T-2, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology T-2 Home T Division Focus Areas Nuclear Information Service Nuclear Physics Particle Physics Astrophysics Cosmology CONTACTS Group fundamental and applied theoretical research in applied and fundamental nuclear physics, particle physics

  14. PSI nuclear and particle physics newsletter 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frosch, R.; Furrer, F.

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains reports on nuclear and particle physics supported by the F1 division of PSI. Groups were invited to present new preliminary or final results obtained in 1990. As ususal, the contributions were not referred. They should be quoted after consultation with the authors only. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Hugh E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.

  16. Data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, B.

    1993-01-01

    An introduction to the methodics of the measurement data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics for students of physics as well as experimental physicists and engineers in research and industry. The contents are: Obtaining of measurement data, digitizing and triggers, memories and microprocessors, bus systems, communication and networks, and examples for data acquisition systems

  17. Nuclear fuel particle and method of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Loffler, M.

    1975-01-01

    The core consisting of fuel oxide (UO 2 or Th or Pu oxide) of a fuel particle coated with carbon-contained material is enriched with a small addition (max 6 wt.%) of a Ba or Sr compound (atomic ratio for nuclear fuel oxide Ba being 5 - 10 : 1) which is to prevent fission products breaking the protective carbon and/or silicon carbide coating; the Ba or Sr molybdate generated is to reduce the pressure of the carbon dioxide produced. Methods to manufacture such nuclear fuel particles are proposed where 1) an agglomerisation and shaping of the spheres in a fast cycling bowle and 2) a formation of drops from a colloidal solution which are made to congeal in a liquid paraffin column, take place followed by the pyrolytic coating of the particles. (UWI/LH) [de

  18. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.; Burrows, T.W.

    1982-03-01

    This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions

  19. Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkiouak, L; Tang, M J; Camp, J C J; McGregor, J; Watson, I M; Cox, R A; Kalberer, M; Ward, A D; Pope, F D

    2014-06-21

    The heterogeneous interactions of gas molecules on solid particles are crucial in many areas of science, engineering and technology. Such interactions play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and in heterogeneous catalysis, a key technology in the energy and chemical industries. Investigating heterogeneous interactions upon single levitated particles can provide significant insight into these important processes. Various methodologies exist for levitating micron sized particles including: optical, electrical and acoustic techniques. Prior to this study, the optical levitation of solid micron scale particles has proved difficult to achieve over timescales relevant to the above applications. In this work, a new vertically configured counter propagating dual beam optical trap was optimized to levitate a range of solid particles in air. Silica (SiO2), α-alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2) and polystyrene were stably trapped with a high trapping efficiency (Q = 0.42). The longest stable trapping experiment was conducted continuously for 24 hours, and there are no obvious constraints on trapping time beyond this period. Therefore, the methodology described in this paper should be of major benefit to various research communities. The strength of the new technique is demonstrated by the simultaneous levitation and spectroscopic interrogation of silica particles by Raman spectroscopy. In particular, the adsorption of water upon silica was investigated under controlled relative humidity environments. Furthermore, the collision and coagulation behaviour of silica particles with microdroplets of sulphuric acid was followed using both optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the role of gamma-ray and conversion-electron (γ-e) spectroscopy in developing our understanding of nuclear structure and nuclear reaction-mechanisms. The book was written because of the spectacular development in the last decade of new γ-e spectroscopic methods, and their application to various kinds of nuclear reactions and the need to present γ-e spectroscopy from the point of view of nuclear structure as well as of reaction mechanism. The importance of γ-e spectroscopy is due to the simplicity and familiarity of the electromagnetic interaction, which gives accurate values for many nuclear quantities and reveals special nuclear properties. γ-e spectroscopy is applied to investigate static as well as dynamic nuclear properties over a wide range of excitation energies from the ground state to states of extreme temperatures and angular momentum, including some new degrees of freedom. (author)

  1. The influence of target properties on nuclear spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.; Vieu, C.; Lagrange, J.M.; Pautrat, M.; Vanhorenbeeck, J.; Passoja, A.

    1988-01-01

    A broad review of different kinds of in-beam nuclear spectroscopy measurements particularly influenced by the target properties is outlined. To illustrate such an influence a few typical examples of in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements, performed at the Orsay MP Tandem accelerator, are reported. In particular several applications of the recoil ion catcher method in the study of short-lived nuclear isomers (with half-lives between ten and few hundred nanoseconds) are briefly described. This method is operated mostly with a pulsed heavy ion beam, bombarding a thin self-supported target but avoiding hitting the catcher foil. Moreover, the time of flight filtering properties of this experimental device is improved by a fast detection of compound nucleus deexcitation (performed with an array of several BaF 2 crystals). This kind of measurement shows clearly the importance of the target qualities as well as the need of good focusing properties and time structure for the accelerated particle beam. Finally, the required characteristics of the targets and recoil stopper foils needed for these measurements (and similar ones performed with the recoil ion shadow method) are analyzed in detail for a few typical experimental arrangements. (author). Abstract only

  2. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaja, A.I.; Kievets, M.K.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the α-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (γ,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by 235 U, 239 Pu and 241 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 -6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical image of the SSNTD surface obtained through a video camera and the determination of size and activity of 'hot' particles

  3. Future directions in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1988-09-01

    With the advent of the standard model of quarks, leptons and unified forces one has achieved an understanding of the wealth of data in particle physics and provided a new basis for the understanding of nuclei and hadrons. In particle physics one now seeks to improve the standard model and to go beyond it. In nuclear physics one enquires about the role of quarks and gluons in the dynamics of strongly interacting systems. To answer these new questions an impressive network of large accelerator facilities, including CEBAF, is under construction or in the proposal stage. A global view of this network and its physics is given. (Author) (3 figs.)

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschunke, A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are discussed only briefly. The emphasis is laid on developing reader's ability to evaluate resonance spectra. The following topics are covered: principles of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; chemical shift and indirect nuclear spin coupling constants and their relation to the molecular structure; analysis of spectra; and uses for structural analysis and solution of kinetic problems, mainly with regard to organic compounds. Of interest to chemists and graduate students who want to make themselves acquainted with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  5. Proceedings of the Fifth Nuclear and Particle Physics Conference (NUPPAC-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.; Hanna, K.M.

    2006-08-01

    The publication's has been set up as a book of the conference of nuclear and particle physics, it consists of the following chapters (1) Plenary, Invited, Keynote Talks; (2) high energy physics; (3) nuclear scattering and reaction; (4) Relativistic and Quantum Physics; (5) neutron and reactor physics; (6) Nuclear Structure and Spectroscopy; (7) Detectors and Instrumentation; (8) computer codes and Simulation; (9) Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry; (10) Plasma and Fusion Physics

  6. Nuclear spectroscopy with density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1976-07-01

    The paper investigates excited nuclear states with density-dependent effective interactions. In the first part of the paper, the structure and the width of the multipole giant resonances discovered in 1972 are derived microscopically. Because of their high excitation energy, these giant resonances are unstable to particle emission and thus often have a considerable decay width. Due to their collective structure, the giant resonances can be described by RPA in good approximation. In this paper, the continuum RPA is applied to the spherical nuclei 16 O, 40 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb. The experimental centroid energy are in very good agreement with the calculations performed in the paper. (orig./WL) [de

  7. PSI nuclear and particle physics newsletter 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frosch, R.; Furrer, F.

    1990-01-01

    The present newsletter contains reports on nuclear and particle physics supported by the F1 division of PSI. Groups were invited to present new preliminary or final results obtained in 1989. As usual there has been no refereeing. The contributions must not be quoted without previous consultation with the authors. Spokespersons are indicated by superscripts 'S' following their names in the headings of the contributions. (author) 85 figs., 10 tabs., 307 refs

  8. PSI nuclear and particle physics newsletter 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frosch, R.; Furrer, F.

    1989-01-01

    The present Newsletter contains reports on nuclear and particle physics supported by the F1 division of PSI. Groups were invited to present new preliminary or final results obtained in 1989. As usual there has been no refereeing. The contributions must not be quoted without previous consultation with the authors. Spokespersons are indicated by superscripts 'S' following their names in the headings of the contributions. (author) 65 figs., 9 tabs., 189 refs

  9. Selected exercises in particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents more than 300 exercises, with guided solutions, on topics that span both the experimental and the theoretical aspects of particle physics. The exercises are organized by subject, covering kinematics, interactions of particles with matter, particle detectors, hadrons and resonances, electroweak interactions and flavor physics, statistics and data analysis, and accelerators and beam dynamics. Some 200 of the exercises, including 50 in multiple-choice format, derive from exams set by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Research (INFN) over the past decade to select its scientific staff of experimental researchers. The remainder comprise problems taken from the undergraduate classes at ETH Zurich or inspired by classic textbooks. Whenever appropriate, in-depth information is provided on the source of the problem, and readers will also benefit from the inclusion of bibliographic details and short dissertations on particular topics. This book is an ideal complement to textbooks on experime...

  10. Supralinearity and particle discrimination in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Larsson, L.; Pinkerton, F.E.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear emulsions may be desensitized in manufacture and/or may be so processed as to discriminate against small latent image sites; to yield supralinear sensitometric response after x-irradiation; and to discriminate against lightly ionizing radiations in favor of heavily ionizing particles. In a circumstance where one electron passing through an emulsion grain is unlikely to generate a latent image sufficiently large to yield a visible grain after development, some larger number of electrons is required, resulting in 'many-hit' statistics, supralinearity, and particle discrimination: for lightly ionizing particles are not likely to generate more than one delta-ray (secondary electron) in their passage through or near a grain. Since these properties are analogous to the response of many biological cells to ionizing radiations, such emulsion-developer combinations have the potential to mimic the response of biological systems to particulate radiations of different charge and speed. (author)

  11. Particle bed reactor nuclear rocket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.

    1991-01-01

    The particle bed reactor nuclear rocket concept consists of fuel particles (in this case (U,Zr)C with an outer coat of zirconium carbide). These particles are packed in an annular bed surrounded by two frits (porous tubes) forming a fuel element; the outer one being a cold frit, the inner one being a hot frit. The fuel element are cooled by hydrogen passing in through the moderator. These elements are assembled in a reactor assembly in a hexagonal pattern. The reactor can be either reflected or not, depending on the design, and either 19 or 37 elements, are used. Propellant enters in the top, passes through the moderator fuel element and out through the nozzle. Beryllium used for the moderator in this particular design to withstand the high radiation exposure implied by the long run times

  12. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Yaroshevich, O I; Perelygin, V P; Petrova, R I; Brandt, R; Vater, P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the alpha-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (gamma,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 sup - sup 6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical imag...

  13. Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Youxiang; Sun Zuxun

    1993-01-01

    The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc

  14. Intruder states and low energy nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, R.

    1991-01-01

    The crucial role intruder orbitals play is not limited to low spin and small deformations. In fact much of the physics at superdeformed shapes and at very high spin is a direct result of the presence of high-j intruder orbitals in the vicinity of the Fermi surface, including the introduction of intruder orbitals from still higher shells at extreme deformations. Since the intruder subshell has a larger angular momentum (j) than any other subshell close to the Fermi surface it plays an essential role for building up angular momentum in the nucleus, and the alignment of intruder shell (quasi) particles is responsible for a large variety of bandcrossings observed in discrete spectroscopy along or near the yrast line. Intruder shell orbitals are also associated with large quadrupole moments and the occupation of these orbitals may lead to significant changes of the deformation of the nucleus. Under favorable circumstances a nucleus may have totally different shapes depending on the occupation of the intruder orbitals, giving rise to a phenomenon which is usually referred to as shape coexistence. In this paper, shape coexistence in several mass regions will be discussed with specific attention focused on the relation between shape coexistence and the occupation of intruder shell levels. Shape effects associated both with spin aligned and non-aligned intruder orbitals will be investigated

  15. Quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainai, T; Mashimo, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Science and Engineering

    1976-04-01

    Recent papers on the practical quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are reviewed. Specifically, the determination of moisture in liquid N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as an oxidizing agent for rocket propulsion, the analysis of hydroperoxides, the quantitative analysis using a shift reagent, the analysis of aromatic sulfonates, and the determination of acids and bases are reviewed. Attention is paid to the accuracy. The sweeping velocity and RF level in addition to the other factors must be on the optimal condition to eliminate the errors, particularly when computation is made with a machine. Higher sweeping velocity is preferable in view of S/N ratio, but it may be limited to 30 Hz/s. The relative error in the measurement of area is generally 1%, but when those of dilute concentration and integrated, the error will become smaller by one digit. If impurities are treated carefully, the water content on N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ can be determined with accuracy of about 0.002%. The comparison method between peak heights is as accurate as that between areas, when the uniformity of magnetic field and T/sub 2/ are not questionable. In the case of chemical shift movable due to content, the substance can be determined by the position of the chemical shift. Oil and water contents in rape-seed, peanuts, and sunflower-seed are determined by measuring T/sub 1/ with 90 deg pulses.

  16. Spatial localization in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a discrete region within the body for signal acquisition is a fundamental requirement of in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Ideally, it should be possible to tailor the selected volume to coincide exactly with the lesion or tissue of interest, without loss of signal from within this volume or contamination with extraneous signals. Many techniques have been developed over the past 25 years employing a combination of RF coil properties, static magnetic field gradients and pulse sequence design in an attempt to meet these goals. This review presents a comprehensive survey of these techniques, their various advantages and disadvantages, and implications for clinical applications. Particular emphasis is placed on the reliability of the techniques in terms of signal loss, contamination and the effect of nuclear relaxation and J-coupling. The survey includes techniques based on RF coil and pulse design alone, those using static magnetic field gradients, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Although there is an emphasis on techniques currently in widespread use (PRESS, STEAM, ISIS and MRSI), the review also includes earlier techniques, in order to provide historical context, and techniques that are promising for future use in clinical and biomedical applications. (topical review)

  17. Computer Assisted Instruction (Cain) For Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaturonrusmee, Wasna; Arthonvorakul, Areerat; Assateranuwat, Adisorn

    2005-10-01

    A computer assisted instruction program for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed by using Author ware 5.0, Adobe Image Styler 1.0, Adobe Photo shop 7.0 and Flash MX. The contents included the basic theory of 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the instrumentation of NMR spectroscopy, the two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy and the interpretation of NMR spectra. The program was also provided examples, and exercises, with emphasis on NMR spectra interpretation to determine the structure of unknown compounds and solutions for self study. The questionnaire from students showed that they were very satisfied with the software

  18. Laser spectroscopy used in nuclear physics; La spectroscopie laser appliquee a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, F

    2001-04-05

    The study of nuclear shapes is a basic topic since it constitutes an excellent ground for testing and validating nuclear models. Measurements of the electron quadrupolar moment, of the nuclear charge radius and of the magnetic dipolar moment shed light on the nuclear deformation. Laser spectroscopy is a specific tool for such measurements, it is based on the interaction of the nucleus with the surrounding electron cloud (hyperfine structure), it is then an external approach of the shape of the nucleus whereas the classical nuclear spectroscopy ({alpha}, {beta} or {gamma}) gives information on the deformation from the inside of the nucleus. The author describes 2 techniques of laser spectroscopy: the colinear spectroscopy directly applied to a beam issued from an isotope separator and the resonant ionization spectroscopy linked with atom desorption that allows the study of particular nuclei. In order to illustrate both methods some effective measurements are presented: - the colinear spectroscopy has allowed the achievement of the complete description of the isomeric state (T = 31 years) of hafnium-178; - The experiment Complis has revealed an unexpected even-odd zigzag effect on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; and - the comparison of 2 isotopes of gold and platinum with their isomers has shown that the inversion of 2 levels of neutron, that was found out by nuclear spectroscopy, is in fact a consequence of a change in the nuclear shape. (A.C.)

  19. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fraleoni-Morgera, A. [ELETTRA-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Nano S3 Institute, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  20. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported

  1. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; (i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and (ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Nuclear, particle and many body physics

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, Philip M; Feshbach, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear, Particle and Many Body Physics, Volume II, is the second of two volumes dedicated to the memory of physicist Amos de-Shalit. The contributions in this volume are a testament to the respect he earned as a physicist and of the warm and rich affection he commanded as a personal friend. The book contains 41 chapters and begins with a study on the renormalization of rational Lagrangians. Separate chapters cover the scattering of high energy protons by light nuclei; approximation of the dynamics of proton-neutron systems; the scattering amplitude for the Gaussian potential; Coulomb excitati

  3. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  4. Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 Inter-Planetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.

  5. Hot spots in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelte, N.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was the study of the phenomenon of the pre-equilibrium process in nuclear and particle physics in the framework of the HS picture. From the comparison of the HS model with inclusive experiments of nuclear physics it could be concluded, that HS's can have an important portion of the pre-equilibrium spectrum. In reactions of hadrons and lighter nuclei with heavy target nuclei the dependence of the HS-induced spectrum from the target mass, the detector angle, the kinetic energy, and as far as data were available, from the kind of the emitted particle as function of the drift parameter, the maximal temperature, and the velocity could be indicated. For forward angles a qualitative to quantitative agreement with the studied data could by shown. For backward angles a quantitative agreement resulted which suggests the conclusion that this angular range is determined by the HS effect even about three orders of magnitude of the incident energy. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Pulse shaping amplifier (PSA) for nuclear spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombigit, L.; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nolida Yusup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Yong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) is an essential components in nuclear spectroscopy system. This networks have two functions; to shape the output pulse and performs noise filtering. In this paper, we describes procedure for design and development of a pulse shaping amplifier which can be used for nuclear spectroscopy system. This prototype was developed using high performance electronics devices and assembled on a FR4 type printed circuit board. Performance of this prototype was tested by comparing it with an equivalent commercial spectroscopy amplifier (Model SILENA 7611). The test results show that the performance of this prototype is comparable to the commercial spectroscopic amplifier. (author)

  7. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Departamental at activity was concentrated on two different regions according to the Department`s name: ``spectroscopy`` (basic research) and ``technology`` (applications). Simultaneously, some effort was focused on teaching. Our research was activated by cooperation with several Polish, European and USA centres and by access to their experimental facilities like the C200 heavy ion cyclotron of the Warsaw University, the heavy ion accelerator complex at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany), PSI cyclotrons in Villigen (Switzerland), NORDBALL, ANL-UND BALL and GAMMASPHERE detectors. However, some results were also obtained using our C30 proton cyclotron, the crystal X-ray spectrometer installed on the SINS EAK electron accelerator and our low background gamma detection facility. On-line radioactive ion sources are under preparation in cooperation with our Department. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to stress some highlights of 1996. i) Calculations of heavy ion collision dynamics were performed in cooperation with the SINS Theory Department and LBL at Berkeley (USA). It has been shown that the experimental data on the mean kinetic energies of fission fragments are not sufficient to distinguish between one-and two-body dissipation. The mass flow seems to be more sensitive to the dissipation mechanism. ii) A final analysis of the NORDBALL experiments on the excited states of nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 100}Sn. The level structures of {sup 90,101,} {sup 102,103}Cd, {sup 101,103,1O5}In and {sup 105}Sn are reasonably well described by the shell model. iii) The discovery of two high spin isomers in {sup {sup 1}83}Ir and two superdeformed bands in {sup 149}Tb in experiments at LBL on ANL-UND BALL and GAMMASPHERE detectors. iv) Determination of radionuclide concentration in the air, some plants and soil. In particular, the map of concentration of {sup 210}Pb in our soil is an unique achievement. v) Participation in the project of the flue gas treatment plant using the electron beam

  8. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.

    1997-01-01

    Departamental at activity was concentrated on two different regions according to the Department's name: ''spectroscopy'' (basic research) and ''technology'' (applications). Simultaneously, some effort was focused on teaching. Our research was activated by cooperation with several Polish, European and USA centres and by access to their experimental facilities like the C200 heavy ion cyclotron of the Warsaw University, the heavy ion accelerator complex at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany), PSI cyclotrons in Villigen (Switzerland), NORDBALL, ANL-UND BALL and GAMMASPHERE detectors. However, some results were also obtained using our C30 proton cyclotron, the crystal X-ray spectrometer installed on the SINS EAK electron accelerator and our low background gamma detection facility. On-line radioactive ion sources are under preparation in cooperation with our Department. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to stress some highlights of 1996. i) Calculations of heavy ion collision dynamics were performed in cooperation with the SINS Theory Department and LBL at Berkeley (USA). It has been shown that the experimental data on the mean kinetic energies of fission fragments are not sufficient to distinguish between one-and two-body dissipation. The mass flow seems to be more sensitive to the dissipation mechanism. ii) A final analysis of the NORDBALL experiments on the excited states of nuclei in the vicinity of 100 Sn. The level structures of 90,101, 102,103 Cd, 101,103,1O5 In and 105 Sn are reasonably well described by the shell model. iii) The discovery of two high spin isomers in 1 83 Ir and two superdeformed bands in 149 Tb in experiments at LBL on ANL-UND BALL and GAMMASPHERE detectors. iv) Determination of radionuclide concentration in the air, some plants and soil. In particular, the map of concentration of 210 Pb in our soil is an unique achievement. v) Participation in the project of the flue gas treatment plant using the electron beam method for the 'Pomorzany' coal power plant

  9. Nuclear and x-ray spectroscopy with radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry for 1977 is reviewed. The greatest part of the effort was directed to nuclear spectroscopy (systematics, models, experimental studies), but some work was also done involving fast neutrons and x rays from radioactive sources. Isotopes of Tl, Hg, Au, and Eu were studied in particular. Personnel and publications lists are also included. 5 figures, 1 table

  10. Power quality considerations for nuclear spectroscopy applications: Grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J. M.; Ramírez-Jiménez, F. J.; Mondragón-Contreras, L.; López-Callejas, R.; Torres-Bribiesca, M. A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally the electrical installations are designed for supplying power and to assure the personnel safety. In nuclear analysis laboratories, additional issues about grounding also must be considered for proper operation of high resolution nuclear spectroscopy systems. This paper shows the traditional ways of grounding nuclear spectroscopy systems and through different scenarios, it shows the effects on the more sensitive parameter of these systems: the energy resolution, it also proposes the constant monitoring of a power quality parameter as a way to preserve or to improve the resolution of the systems, avoiding the influence of excessive extrinsic noise.

  11. A new stage of nuclear electronics-particle electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of high energy physics experiments has pushed the nuclear electronics to a new stage, i.e. the particle electronics. In this paper the background, main features and recent trends of the particle electronics are expounded

  12. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens

  13. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of 3 H and 3 He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, π ± , and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4π acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us

  14. Decay Spectroscopy for Nuclear Astrophysics: {beta}-delayed Proton Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aysto, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla (Finland); Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pollacco, E.; Kebbiri, M. [CEA/IRFU Saclay (France); Pascovici, G. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2011-11-30

    Decay spectroscopy is one of the oldest indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics. We have developed at TAMU techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. These allowed us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of {sup 23}Al, {sup 27}P, {sup 31}Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions {sup 22}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Mg(crucial for the depletion of {sup 22}Na in novae), {sup 26m}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si and {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}){sup 31}S(bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. More recently we have radically improved the technique using a gas based detector we call AstroBox.

  15. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of a single nuclear spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Fernández-Rossier, J

    2011-08-12

    Detection of a single nuclear spin constitutes an outstanding problem in different fields of physics such as quantum computing or magnetic imaging. Here we show that the energy levels of a single nuclear spin can be measured by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We consider two different systems, a magnetic adatom probed with scanning tunneling microscopy and a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor. We find that the hyperfine coupling opens new transport channels which can be resolved at experimentally accessible temperatures. Our simulations evince that IETS yields information about the occupations of the nuclear spin states, paving the way towards transport-detected single nuclear spin resonance.

  16. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin. (U.K.)

  17. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.J. (Glasgow Western Infirmary (UK))

    1984-09-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin.

  18. Production of photofission fragments and study of their nuclear structure by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangrskij, Yu.P.; Zemlyanoj, S.G.; Karaivanov, D.V.; Marinova, K.P.; Markov, B.N.; Mel'nikova, L.M.; Myshinskij, G.V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Zhemenik, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The prospective nuclear structure investigations of the fission fragments by resonance laser spectroscopy methods are discussed. Research in this field is currently being carried out as part of the DRIBs project, which is under development at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. The fission fragments under study are mainly very neutron-rich nuclei near the proton (Z=50) and neutron (N=50 and 82) closed shells, nuclei in the region of strong deformation (N>60 and N>90) and nuclei with high-spin isomeric states. Resonance laser spectroscopy is used successfully in the study of the structure of such nuclei. It allows one to determine a number of nuclear parameters (mean-square charge radius, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments) and to make conclusions about the collective and single particle properties of the nuclei

  19. Coordinate-sensitive charged particle detector for spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko V. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have designed, manufactured and tested a coordinate-sensitive detector for charged particle spectroscopy. The detector can be used in the devices for the elemental analysis of materials, providing simultaneous analysis of all the elemental composition with high sensitivity and precision. The designed device is based on an integrated circuit (IC and a microchannel plate (MCP electron multiplier. The IC is mounted on a ceramic substrate. Ions fall on the MCP mounted above the IC. Giving rise to a pulse which typically exceeds 106 electrons, each ion falls on the detector electrodes and these pulses are counted. In this research, a two stage stack of MCPs (Hamamatsu was used. The MCPs have a channel diameter of 12 μm on a 15 μm pitch. The results of tests carried out in a mass spectrometer are presented. The designed detector is small, light, and low-power.

  20. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, K.

    2007-10-01

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the ν μ → ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  1. Nuclear Track Detectors. Searches for Exotic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    We used Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) CR39 and Makrofol for many purposes: i) Exposures at the SPS and at lower energy accelerator heavy ion beams for calibration purposes and for fragmentation studies. ii) Searches for GUT and Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles (IMM), nuclearites, Q-balls and strangelets in the cosmic radiation. The MACRO experiment in the Gran Sasso underground lab, with ~1000 m^2 of CR39 detectors (plus scintillators and streamer tubes), established an upper limit for superheavy GUT poles at the level of 1.4x10^-16 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 for 4x10^-5 particles. iii) Environmental studies, radiation monitoring, neutron dosimetry.

  2. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Felipe Rodrigues; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: garrido@ffclrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filisofia, Ciencias e Letras; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAMUS/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: the intrinsically high sensitivity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) causes considerable variability in metabolite quantification. In this study, we evaluated the variability of MRS in two research centers using the same model of magnetic resonance image scanner. Methods: two metabolic phantoms were created to simulate magnetic resonance spectra from in vivo hippocampus. The phantoms were filled with the same basic solution containing the following metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine and inositol. Spectra were acquired over 15 months on 26 acquisition dates, resulting in a total of 130 spectra per center. Results: the phantoms did not undergo any physical changes during the 15-month period. Temporal analysis from both centers showed mean metabolic variations of 3.7% in acquisitions on the same day and of 8.7% over the 15-month period. Conclusion: The low deviations demonstrated here, combined with the high specificity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, confirm that it is feasible to use this technique in multicenter studies in neuroscience research. (author)

  3. Development of a Reference Database for Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, P., E-mail: P.Dimitriou@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Becker, H.-W. [Ruhr Universität Bochum, Gebäude NT05/130, Postfach 102148, Bochum 44721 (Germany); Bogdanović-Radović, I. [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Rudjer Boskovic, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chiari, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Goncharov, A. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, National Science Center, Akademicheskaya Str.1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Jesus, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Kakuee, O. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, End of North Karegar Ave., PO Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, PO Box 51, 4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Lagoyannis, A. [National Center of Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Agia Paraskevi, P.O. Box 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Räisänen, J. [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Strivay, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Universite de Liège, Sart Tilman, B15 4000 Liège (Belgium); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) is a powerful analytical technique that exploits the interactions of rapid charged particles with nuclei located near a sample surface to determine the composition and structure of the surface regions of solids by measurement of characteristic prompt γ rays. The potential for depth profiling of this technique has long been recognized, however, the implementation has been limited owing to insufficient knowledge of the physical data and lack of suitable user-friendly computer codes for the applications. Although a considerable body of published data exists in the nuclear physics literature for nuclear reaction cross sections with γ rays in the exit channel, there is no up-to-date, comprehensive compilation specifically dedicated to IBA applications. A number of PIGE cross-section data had already been uploaded to the Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library (IBANDL) ( (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl)) by members of the IBA community by 2011, however a preliminary survey of this body of unevaluated experimental data has revealed numerous discrepancies beyond the uncertainty limits reported by the authors. Using the resources and coordination provided by the IAEA, a concerted effort to improve the situation was made within the Coordinated Research Project on the Development of a Reference Database for PIGE spectroscopy, from 2011 to 2015. The aim of the CRP was to create a data library for Ion Beam Analysis that contains reliable and usable data on charged particle γ-ray emission cross sections that would be made freely available to the user community. As the CRP has reached its completion, we shall present its main achievements, including the results of nuclear cross-section evaluations and the development of a computer code that will become available to the public allowing for the implementation of a standardless PIGE technique.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weiping; Wang Qi; Zhou Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the basic principle of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Protein's structures and functions and dynamics studied by liquid NMR are elaborated; methods for enhancing the resolution of solid state NMR and its applications are discussed; the principle of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is interpreted, and applications in different aspects are reviewed. Finally, the progress of NMR is commented. (authors)

  5. Laser induced nuclear orientation: intersection of laser and nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.; Pappas, P.; Field, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The application of lasers to the study of hyperfine structure is reviewed with emphasis placed on the ability of the laser beam to align the nuclei in a sample. This aligning effect is especially useful if the nuclei are unstable as then the angular distribution of the subsequent nuclear radiation may be effected and information will by given about the nuclear parameters. (B.R.H.)

  6. ANUSpect-workbench for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Pande, S.S.; Kataria, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Multi-channel analyzers (MCA) are used extensively in nuclear instrumentation for research in physics, radiochemistry and many other branches of science. Though large variety of MCA hardware cards and analysis software packages are available, due to incompatibilities, user cannot mix and match these as per his requirement. Here, we present the components based approach used in the design of ANUSpect workbench, so as to give the user liberty in selecting the acquisition hardware and the analysis software for gamma, X ray and alpha spectrum analysis. AnuSpect will work under different MS Windows platforms. The paper also highlights the main functional features and the present implementation status. (author)

  7. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated

  8. International conference: Features of nuclear excitation states and mechanisms of nuclear reactions. 51. Meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure. The book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Results of the LI Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear Structure are presented. Properties of excited states of atomic nuclei and mechanisms of nuclear reactions are considered. Studies on the theory of nucleus and fundamental interactions pertinent to experimental study of nuclei properties and mechanisms of nuclear reactions, technique and methods of experiment, application of nuclear-physical method, are provided [ru

  9. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research activities of the Department in 1999 were concentrated on medium and low energy nuclear physics, atomic physics of the exotic bare or single electron atoms and on selected applications of nuclear physics. Experiments in the medium energy physics are carried out using large facilities: ANKE in KFA Juelich (Germany) and SINDRUM 2 at PSI Villigen (Switzerland). In the low energy our physicists continue collaboration with Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, and large international gamma multidetector facilities like GAMMASPHERE. The heavy ion beams of GSI in Darmstadt (Germany) and PSI are used for studies of atomic effects. Our C-30 proton cyclotron delivers beam to study modification of optical properties of laser crystals and our low background gamma detection facility is used to measure radioactive contamination of the environment. The theoretical work is devoted to study the fusion of the heavy nuclei with the particular interest in production of new isotopes with very small probabilities. The reader is invited to find some of our recent results on the next pages, together with a list of papers published this year. Nevertheless it is worthwhile to emphasize: Observation of helium like hole states in the ionized high Z atoms; Tests of the Langevin Dynamics of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Study of Radiative Electron Capture into bare U ions; First lifetime measurements using the DSAM method on Warsaw Cyclotron; Optimisation of the electron beam flue gas purification using the genetic controller. Some of us are also involved in teaching and in supervision of students and graduate students. Financial support received from the State Committee for Scientific Research and Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish-American Foundation is acknowledged. (author)

  10. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  11. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Currently Saha Institute is building a multi-element gamma heavy ion neutron array detector (MEGHNAD), which will have six high efficiency clover Ge detector together with charged particle ball and other accessories. The system is expected to be usable in 2002 and will be used in experiments using high energy heavy ...

  12. TCAD simulation for alpha-particle spectroscopy using SIC Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Achintya; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing requirement of alpha spectroscopy in the fields context of environmental radioactive contamination, nuclear waste management, site decommissioning and decontamination. Although silicon-based alpha-particle detection technology is mature, high leakage current, low displacement threshold and radiation hardness limits the operation of the detector in harsh environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered to be excellent material for radiation detection application due to its high band gap, high displacement threshold and high thermal conductivity. In this report, an alpha-particle-induced electron-hole pair generation model for a reverse-biased n-type SiC Schottky diode has been proposed and verified using technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations. First, the forward-biased I-V characteristics were studied to determine the diode ideality factor and compared with published experimental data. The ideality factor was found to be in the range of 1.4-1.7 for a corresponding temperature range of 300-500 K. Next, the energy-dependent, alpha-particle-induced EHP generation model parameters were optimised using transport of ions in matter (TRIM) simulation. Finally, the transient pulses generated due to alpha-particle bombardment were analysed for (1) different diode temperatures (300-500 K), (2) different incident alpha-particle energies (1-5 MeV), (3) different reverse bias voltages of the 4H-SiC-based Schottky diode (-50 to -250 V) and (4) different angles of incidence of the alpha particle (0°-70°).The above model can be extended to other (wide band-gap semiconductor) device technologies useful for radiation-sensing application. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Nuclei and particles. An introduction to nuclear and subnuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serge, E.

    1977-01-01

    A broad introduction is given to nuclear and subnuclear physics. Major divisions of the book include radiation and tools for studying the nucleus, elements of the structure, properties, and reactions of nuclei, and a semiphenomenological approach to elementary particles

  14. Transport of large particles released in a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Toivonen, H.; Lahtinen, J.; Ilander, T.

    1995-10-01

    Highly radioactive particulate material may be released in a nuclear accident or sometimes during normal operation of a nuclear power plant. However, consequence analyses related to radioactive releases are often performed neglecting the particle nature of the release. The properties of the particles have an important role in the radiological hazard. A particle deposited on the skin may cause a large and highly non-uniform skin beta dose. Skin dose limits may be exceeded although the overall activity concentration in air is below the level of countermeasures. For sheltering purposes it is crucial to find out the transport range, i.e. the travel distance of the particles. A method for estimating the transport range of large particles (aerodynamic diameter d a > 20 μm) in simplified meteorological conditions is presented. A user-friendly computer code, known as TROP, is developed for fast range calculations in a nuclear emergency. (orig.) (23 refs., 13 figs.)

  15. Transport of large particles released in a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R; Toivonen, H; Lahtinen, J; Ilander, T

    1995-10-01

    Highly radioactive particulate material may be released in a nuclear accident or sometimes during normal operation of a nuclear power plant. However, consequence analyses related to radioactive releases are often performed neglecting the particle nature of the release. The properties of the particles have an important role in the radiological hazard. A particle deposited on the skin may cause a large and highly non-uniform skin beta dose. Skin dose limits may be exceeded although the overall activity concentration in air is below the level of countermeasures. For sheltering purposes it is crucial to find out the transport range, i.e. the travel distance of the particles. A method for estimating the transport range of large particles (aerodynamic diameter d{sub a} > 20 {mu}m) in simplified meteorological conditions is presented. A user-friendly computer code, known as TROP, is developed for fast range calculations in a nuclear emergency. (orig.) (23 refs., 13 figs.).

  16. ISINN-2. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Second International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-2) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1994. Over 120 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Holland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, US and about 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The main problems discussed are the following: P-odd and P-even angular correlation and T-reversal invariance in neutron reactions, nuclear structure investigations by neutron capture, the mechanism of neutron reactions, nuclear fission processes, as well as neutron data for nuclear astrophysics

  17. Charged particle-induced nuclear fission reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nuclear fission phenomenon continues to be an enigma, even after nearly 75 years of its discovery. Considerable progress has been made towards understanding the fission process. Both light projectiles and heavy ions have been employed to investigate nuclear fission. An extensive database of the properties of ...

  18. Study of biological fluids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriat, M.; Vion-Dury, J.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Sciaky, M.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the study of biofluids is rapidly developing and might soon constitute a new major medical application of this technique which benefits from technological and methodological progress such as higher magnetic fields, new probe design, solvent suppression sequences and advanced data processing routines. In this overview, the clinical and pharmacological impact of this new approach is examined, with emphasis on the NMR spectroscopy of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Applications to pharmacokinetics and toxicology are illustrated. Interestingly, a number of biochemical components of fluids which are not usually assayed by conventional biochemical methods are readily detected by NMR spectroscopy which is clearly a new competitive entrant among the techniques used in clinical biology. Its ease-of-use, cost effectiveness and high informational content might turn it into a major diagnostic tool in the years to come [fr

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in food applications: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in food applications is presented in this review. Some of the basic concepts of NMR pertaining to one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques, solid-state NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are discussed. Food applications dealt with encompass such diverse areas like nature and state of water in foods, detection and quantitation of important constituents of foods, intact food systems and NMR related to food biology. (author)

  20. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 1985-1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1985-1986-1987 years: 1 - Teams presentation; 2 - Abstracts: On the borderline of spectroscopy; Atomic spectroscopy and low-energy low-spin nuclear structure; high-energy high-spin nuclear structure; Theories and models; Nuclear astrophysics; Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; Solid State Physics; Study of charged particles irradiation effects in astrophysics, geophysics and material sciences; Technical developments for the RF mass spectrometer and for Obelix; Technical developments for ion beams; Technical developments in electronics and their applications; CNSM's Computer Department; Developments in cryogenics; 3 - Staff and publications

  1. Ultrasonic-resonator-combined apparatus for purifying nuclear aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Suxia; Zhang, Quanhu; Li, Sufen; Chen, Chen; Su, Xianghua [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2017-12-15

    The radiation hazards of radionuclides in the air arising from the storage room of nuclear devices to the operators cannot be ignored. A new ultrasonic-resonator-combined method for purifying nuclear aerosol particles is introduced. To remove particles with diameters smaller than 0.3 μm, an ultrasonic chamber is induced to agglomerate these submicron particles. An apparatus which is used to purify the nuclear aerosol particles is described in the article. The apparatus consists of four main parts: two filtering systems, an ultrasonic chamber and a high-pressure electrostatic precipitator system. Finally, experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the implementation of the ultrasonic resonators. The feasibility of the method is proven by its application to the data analysis of the experiments.

  2. Measurement of nuclear moments and radii by collinear laser spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Geithner, W R; Lievens, P; Kotrotsios, G; Silverans, R; Kappertz, S

    2002-01-01

    %IS304 %title\\\\ \\\\Collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam has proven to be a widely applicable and very efficient tool for measurements of changes in mean square nuclear charge radii, nuclear spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Recent developments of extremely sensitive non-optical detection schemes enabled for some elements the extension of the measurements towards the very short-lived isotopes in the far wings of the ISOLDE production curves. The gain in sensitivity opens up new perspectives, particularly for measurements on lighter nuclei whose ground-state properties can be interpreted by large scale microscopic calculations instead of the more phenomenologic models used for heavier nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ For the sequence of argon isotopes $^{32-40}$Ar and $^{46}$Ar isotope shifts and nuclear moments were measured by optical pumping followed by state selective collisional ionization and detection of the $\\beta$-decay. Similarly, the low-background $\\alpha$-detection was used to extend earlie...

  3. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Dempsey, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format. References in this Part are by target for the various incident charged particles (in order of increasing A). The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  4. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  5. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P. [CNRS - UPR3079 CEMHTI, Universite d' Orleans, 45071Orleans cedex 2 (France); Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jegou, C.; Magnin, M. [CEA/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, Marcoule 30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N. [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  6. Intersections between particle and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics research. Some of areas covered are: antiproton physics; detectors and instrumentation; accelerator facilities; hadron physics; mesons and lepton decays; physics with electrons and muons; physics with relativistic heavy ions; physics with spin; neutrinos and nonaccelerator physics. The individual paper have been indexed separately elsewhere

  7. Timescale of particle emission using nuclear interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardouin, D.; Goujdami, D.; Guilbault, F.; Lebrun, C.; Erazmus, B.; Dabrowski, H.; Durand, D.; Lautridou, P.; Boisgard, R.; Quebert, J.; Carjan, N.

    1989-01-01

    A review of meson and baryon correlations at various energies is presented. An attempt, to focus on possible lifetime effects contained in existing data,is made. Data at 94 and 44 MeV/u, where experimental conditions are chosen, trying to study the lifetime of light particle emission using two particle correlations, are discussed. The temperature of a thermalized system is obtained, using the relative population of cluster excited states. It is shown that either quantum statistical fluctuations or Coulomb interactions play an important role in the trends of the correlation-functions at very low relative momenta. In the case of 1 60 and Ar induced reactions on heavy targets, a lifetime of the order of 10 -21 seconds is estimated. Temperature measurements for Ar + Ag system show that part of the excitation energy is not converted into thermal energy

  8. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy.

  9. Meta-material for nuclear particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting strips coated with boron were engineered with a view to subnuclear particle detection. Combining the characteristics of boron as a generator of α-particles (as a consequence of neutron absorption) and the ability of superconducting strips to act as resistive switches, it is shown that fabricated Nb-boron and NbN-boron strips represent a promising basis for implementing neutron detection devices. In particular, the superconducting transition of boron-coated NbN strips generates voltage outputs of the order of a few volts thanks to the relatively higher normal state resitivity of NbN with respect to Nb. This result, combined with the relatively high transition temperature of NbN (of the order of 16 K for the bulk material), is an appealing prospect for future developments. The coated strips are meta-devices since their constituting material does not exist in nature and it is engineered to accomplish a specific task, i.e. generate an output voltage signal upon α-particle irradiation.

  10. Plot of charged nuclear particles in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo H, J.I.L.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were made in order to obtain particle tracks and fission fragments in polymers. To increase the damage the polymer is attacked chemically with a solution of KOH, NaOH or other chemical agent, whose concentration depends of the polymer to be treated, maintaining a constant temperature during the process. To count the tracks which perforate the film, a spark counter with controlled nitrogen atmosphere was constructed. In the experiments which were made in order to detect particles, films of cellulose nitrate known as xylonite, daicel and red paper were used. For the detection of fission products, cellulose triacetate and cellulose polycarbonate films, known as kodacel and kimfol were used. The particle tracks on the treated films were optically counted with a microscope. They had a diameter between 12 and 30 microns, and when the thickness of the film permitted it the tracks consisted in perforations from one to another side of the film. The obtained results have permitted to have the necessary reproducibility for the realization of quantitative analysis of irradiations which can be applied to neutron dosimetry. (author)

  11. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy

  12. Analysis algorithm for digital data used in nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085950; Sin, Mihaela

    Data obtained from digital acquisition systems used in nuclear spectroscopy experiments must be converted by a dedicated algorithm in or- der to extract the physical quantities of interest. I will report here the de- velopment of an algorithm capable to read digital data, discriminate between random and true signals and convert the results into a format readable by a special data analysis program package used to interpret nuclear spectra and to create coincident matrices. The algorithm can be used in any nuclear spectroscopy experimental setup provided that digital acquisition modules are involved. In particular it was used to treat data obtained from the IS441 experiment at ISOLDE where the beta decay of 80Zn was investigated as part of ultra-fast timing studies of neutron rich Zn nuclei. The results obtained for the half-lives of 80Zn and 80Ga were in very good agreement with previous measurements. This fact proved unquestionably that the conversion algorithm works. Another remarkable result was the improve...

  13. Recoil Distance Method lifetime measurements via gamma-ray and charged-particle spectroscopy at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Philip Jonathan

    The Recoil Distance Method (RDM) is a well-established technique for measuring lifetimes of electromagnetic transitions. Transition matrix elements derived from the lifetimes provide valuable insight into nuclear structure. Recent RDM investigations at NSCL present a powerful new model-independent tool for the spectroscopy of nuclei with extreme proton-to-neutron ratios that exhibit surprising behavior. Neutron-rich 18C is one such example, where a small B(E2; 2+1 → 0+gs) represented a dramatic shift from the expected inverse relationship between the B(E2) and 2+1 excitation energy. To shed light on the nature of this quadrupole excitation, the RDM lifetime technique was applied with the Koln/NSCL plunger. States in 18C were populated by the one-proton knockout reaction of a 19N secondary beam. De-excitation gamma rays were detected with the Segmented Germanium Array in coincidence with reaction residues at the focal plane of the S800 Magnetic Spectrometer. The deduced B(E2) and excitation energy were both well described by ab initio no-core shell model calculations. In addition, a novel extension of RDM lifetime measurements via charged-particle spectroscopy of exotic proton emitters has been investigated. Substituting the reaction residue degrader of the Koln/NSCL plunger with a thin silicon detector permits the study of short-lived nuclei beyond the proton dripline. A proof of concept measurement of the mean lifetime of the two-proton emitter 19Mg was conducted. The results indicated a sub-picosecond lifetime, one order of magnitude smaller than the published results, and validate this new technique for lifetime measurements of charged-particle emitters.

  14. Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission Spectroscopy Over a Broad Range of Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hannah; Wilkinson, John; Tighe, Meghanne; McLallen, Walter; McGuire, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Ion beam analysis is a common application of nuclear physics that allows elemental and isotopic information about materials to be determined from accelerated light ion beams One of the best know ion beam analysis techniques is Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) spectroscopy, which can be used ex vacuo to identify the elements of interest in almost any solid target. The energies of the gamma-rays emitted by excited nuclei will be unique to each element and depend on its nuclear structure. For the most sensitivity, the accelerated ions should exceed the Coulomb barrier of the target, but many isotopes are known to be accessible to PIGE even below the Coulomb barrier. To explore the sensitivity of PIGE across the periodic table, PIGE measurements were made on elements with Z = 5, 9, 11-15, 17, 19-35, 37, 42, 44-48, 53, 56, 60, 62, 73, and 74 using 3.4 MeV protons. These measurements will be compared with literature values and be used as a basis for comparison with higher-energy proton beams available at the University of Notre Dame's St. Andre accelerator when it comes online this Fall. The beam normalization technique of using atmospheric argon and its 1459 keV gamma-ray to better estimate the integrated beam on target will also be discussed. Funded by the NSF REU program and the University of Notre Dame.

  15. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watanabe, Takehito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    In the early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) accident, number of spot type contamination has been observed in computed autoradiography (Kashimura 2013, Shibata 2013, Satou 2014). It's means presence of radioactive particles, however, insoluble cesium particle was overlooked because cesium, which is dominant radioactive element in the accident, becomes ionized in the environment. Adachi et al. (2013) showed presence of cesium (Cs)-bearing particles within air dust sample collected at Tsukuba, 170 km south from the Fukushima site, in midnight of 14 to morning of 15 March 2011. These particles were micrometer order small particles and Cs was could be detectable as element using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). However, other radioactive elements such as Co-60, Ru-103 and uranium, which were dominant element of radioactive particles delivered from Chernobyl accident, could not detected. Abe et al. (2014) employed a synchrotron radiation (SR)-micro(μ)-X-ray analysis to the Cs-bearing particles, and they were concluded that (1) contained elements derived from nuclear fission processes and from nuclear reactor and fuel materials; (2) were amorphous; (3) were highly oxidized; and (4) consisted of glassy spherules formed from a molten mixture of nuclear fuel and reactor material. In addition, Satou et al. (2016) and Yamaguchi et al. (2016) disclosed that silicate is main component of Cs-bearing particles. Satou et al. (2015) discovered two types of radioactive particles from soil samples collected in the vicinity of the F1NPS. These particles were remained in the natural environment more than four years, silicate is main component in common of each group particles. Group A particles were very similar to Cs-bearing particles reported by Adachi et al. except particle shape. On the other hand, group B is big particles found in north area from the F1NPS, and the strongest particles contained 20 kBq of Cs-137 within a particle

  17. Quarks and gluons in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of strong interactions, or nuclear forces, as ones understanding has expanded over the past 25 years. The major particles and models are briefly touched upon. The author expands upon the field theories which have evolved to explain the experimental work, and the present model of quarks and gluons which form the components of hadrons. The standard model has been very successful in explaining much of the newly acquired experimental data. But the property of confinement, where the partons, (quarks and gluons), are not observed seperately has precluded observation of these particles. He touches on the manifestation of these particles in high energy physics, where they model the observed particles and resonances, and are responsible for the production of hadronic jets. However in nuclear physics, one does not need to postulate the existance of these particles to explain the properties of nuclei, until one deals with interaction energies in the range of GeV. The author then touches on the area of ultra-relativistic nuclear physics, where the partons must play a role in the effects which are observed. In particular he discusses deep inelastic lepton scattering on nuclei, the Drell-Yan process in nuclei, and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Finally he gives a brief discussion of the quark-gluon plasma, which is postulated to form during very high energy collisions, manifesting itself as a brief deconfinement of the partons into an equilibrium plasma

  18. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to certifiable food colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmion, D.M.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was found suitable for the identification of individual colours, for distinguishing individual colours from colour mixtures, for the identification and semi-quantitative determination of the individual colours in mixtures and for proofs of the adulteration of certified colours adding noncertified colours. The method is well suited for observing the purity of colours and may also be used as the control method in the manufacture of colours and in assessing their stability and their resistance to increased temperature and light. (M.K.)

  19. Design of nuclear spectroscopy electronics based on the EUROsystem standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, J.

    1987-11-01

    The development of modular nuclear instruments in the EUROcard system has been continued by the design of a staircase generator; such an instrument is needed for accurate testing of spectroscopy amplifiers. The generator provides very precisely defined steps with the period between them varying from 8 to 50 microseconds, the output voltage continuously variable from 2 to 5 V, and attenuated ion steps between 1 and 100. Great care was taken that individual steps exhibit no overshot, thus providing a very clean signal to the input of a tested amplifier. The circuitry is kept simple, and it can be easily constructed in any electronics laboratory. Figs

  20. Nuclear spectroscopy in large shell model spaces: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, V.K.B.

    1995-01-01

    Three different approaches are now available for carrying out nuclear spectroscopy studies in large shell model spaces and they are: (i) the conventional shell model diagonalization approach but taking into account new advances in computer technology; (ii) the recently introduced Monte Carlo method for the shell model; (iii) the spectral averaging theory, based on central limit theorems, in indefinitely large shell model spaces. The various principles, recent applications and possibilities of these three methods are described and the similarity between the Monte Carlo method and the spectral averaging theory is emphasized. (author). 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. ISINN-3. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Third International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-3) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1995. Over 100 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA and from more than 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The Seminar is dedicated to the memory of the founder of the Neutron Physics Laboratory of JINR, the famous soviet scientist Professor Fedor L. Shapiro, whose 80th anniversary is being observed. The main problems discussed are the following: fundamental interactions and symmetries in neutron-induced reactions, fundamental properties of the neutron, properties of excited nuclei after neutron capture and some other ones. Special emphasis is laid upon γ decay and neutron induced nuclear fission as well as upon the methodical aspects of new experiments

  2. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  3. Azimuthal asymmetry of slow particles in high energy nuclear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Goswami, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    An asymmetry in the angular distribution of slow particles in the azimuthal plane has been observed during high energy nuclear disintegration of photo emulsion nuclei exposed to 1.8 GeV/c k - and 20 GeV/c protons. The mechanism of disintegration is not in accordance with the cascade-evaporation model, which is based on isotropic emission of slow particles. Deviation from isotropy indicates that some of the slow particles might be emitted well before the thermal equilibrium is reached in the disintegrating system. (author)

  4. Particle discrimination by an automatic scanner for nuclear emulsion plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, W.; Fischer, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic scanner for nuclear emulsion plates has been improved by adding particle discrimination. By determination of the mean luminosity of tracks in darkfield illumination in addition to the track length a clear discrimination has been obtained, at least for lighter particles. The scanning speed of the original automatic scanner has not been reduced. The scanner works up to 200 times faster than a human scanner. Besides the particle discrimination the determination of the mean track luminosity led to a lower perturbation sensitivity with respect to a high background of accidentally developed silvergrains, scratches in emulsion etc. The reproducibility of the results obtained by the automatic scanner is better than 5%. (Auth.)

  5. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Dempsey, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format, EXFOR. This part of the publication deals with isotope production; references are ordered by mass of the nuclide produced. The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  6. Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone

  7. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiangming; Yan Yushun; Zhang Quanrong

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark is a new type of forgery-proof product after engraving gravure printing, thermocolour, fluorescence, laser hologram and metal concealed anti-bogus mark. The mark is manufactured by intricate high technology and the state strictly controlled sensitive nuclear facilities to ensure the mark not to be copied. The pattern of the mark is specially characterized by permeability of liquid to be discriminated from forgery. The genuine mark can be distinguished from sham one by transparent liquid (e.g. water), colorful pen and chemical reagent. The mark has passed the official examination of health safety. It is no danger of nuclear irradiation. (author)

  9. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-05-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed

  10. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  11. Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.

  12. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for applications in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    There are several analytical techniques employing laser spectroscopy - each with its own distinctive potential. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such technique which is attractive in view of its relative compactness and simplicity (in configuration), remote and online analysis (with no sample handling requirement) and high spatial resolution allowing compositional map or homogeneity analysis. In this technique, a high power pulsed (mostly nanosecond) laser is employed to irradiate the sample causing spark emission, characteristics of the sample composition, which is collected using suitable optics and analysed spectroscopically. Remote and online capability is derived from long distance delivery of laser beams and collection of emitted light by fibres or conventional optics. Since laser can be focused sharply on the target, it can facilitate compositional mapping. Beam Technology Development Group at BARC had initiated work on LIBS of nuclear materials several years ago. Recently the challenge of online monitoring of radioactive waste vitrification plant in a hot cell has been taken up. The theoretical and experimental work done by the group related to instrument development, plasma characterization, quantitative compositional analysis of ternary alloys and uranium vitrified glass samples (comprising more than dozen elements) are described. The future plans for setting up online glass homogeneity monitoring facility are also described. This should fulfill an important demand for optimization of vitrification process. Various other demands of nuclear industry are also reviewed

  13. Inelastic diffraction nuclear processes with redistribution of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.G.; Goryachij, V.V.; Peresypkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic nuclear processes at high energies with redistribution of particles are described within the framework of the diffraction approach. The capture processes (p,d) and (p,p'n) generated by the high energy nucleon collision with nuclei are considered. The angular distribution of 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction is calculated and compared with experimental data

  14. Deep inelastic scaling in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    These lectures are intended to be a pedagogical introduction to some of the ideas and concepts concerning scaling phenomena which arise in nuclear and particle physics. Topics discussed are: classical scaling and dimensional analysis; non-relativistic treatment; dynamics and scaling; y-scaling; and relativistic treatment (QCD). 22 refs., 16 figs

  15. Double beta decays and related subjects for particle and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    1991-01-01

    Present status and some perspectives in 1990's are briefly given on double beta decays and related subjects. Subjects discussed are as follows I) Double beta decays without neutrinos, which require lepton number non-conservations and finite neutrino mass. II) Double beta decays followed by two neutrinos. III) Double weak processes with strangeness change ΔS = 2, leading to the H particle with 6 quarks of ss uu dd. IV) Charge non-conservation and electron decays. These are very rare nuclear processes studied by Ultra RAre-process NUclear Spectroscopy (URANUS). It is shown that URANUS is an important detector frontier of non-accelerator nuclear physics in 1990's. (orig.)

  16. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  17. Characterising legacy spent nuclear fuel pond materials using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W R; Morris, K; Mosselmans, J F W; Thompson, O R; Banford, A W; Law, K; Pattrick, R A D

    2016-11-05

    Analysis of a radioactive, coated concrete core from the decommissioned, spent nuclear fuel cooling pond at the Hunterston-A nuclear site (UK) has provided a unique opportunity to study radionuclides within a real-world system. The core, obtained from a dividing wall and sampled at the fill level of the pond, exhibited radioactivity (dominantly (137)Cs and (90)Sr) heterogeneously distributed across both painted faces. Chemical analysis of the core was undertaken using microfocus spectroscopy at Diamond Light Source, UK. Mapping of Sr across the surface coatings using microfocus X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that Sr was bound to TiO2 particles in the paint layers, suggesting an association between TiO2 and radiostrontium. Stable Sr and Cs sorption experiments using concrete coupons were also undertaken to assess their interactions with the bulk concrete in case of a breach in the coating layers. μXRF and scanning electron microscopy showed that Sr was immobilized by the cement phases, whilst at the elevated experimental concentrations, Cs was associated with clay minerals in the aggregates. This study provides a crucial insight into poorly understood infrastructural contamination in complex systems and is directly applicable to the UK's nuclear decommissioning efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  19. Nuclear spectroscopy with Geant4. The superheavy challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Luis G.

    2016-12-01

    The simulation toolkit Geant4 was originally developed at CERN for high-energy physics. Over the years it has been established as a swiss army knife not only in particle physics but it has seen an accelerated expansion towards nuclear physics and more recently to medical imaging and γ- and ion- therapy to mention but a handful of new applications. The validity of Geant4 is vast and large across many particles, ions, materials, and physical processes with typically various different models to choose from. Unfortunately, atomic nuclei with atomic number Z > 100 are not properly supported. This is likely due to the rather novelty of the field, its comparably small user base, and scarce evaluated experimental data. To circumvent this situation different workarounds have been used over the years. In this work the simulation toolkit Geant4 will be introduced with its different components and the effort to bring the software to the heavy and superheavy region will be described.

  20. Theories of Variable Mass Particles and Low Energy Nuclear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Variable particle masses have sometimes been invoked to explain observed anomalies in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Such behavior has never been observed directly, and is not considered possible in theoretical nuclear physics. Nevertheless, there are covariant off-mass-shell theories of relativistic particle dynamics, based on works by Fock, Stueckelberg, Feynman, Greenberger, Horwitz, and others. We review some of these and we also consider virtual particles that arise in conventional Feynman diagrams in relativistic field theories. Effective Lagrangian models incorporating variable mass particle theories might be useful in describing anomalous nuclear reactions by combining mass shifts together with resonant tunneling and other effects. A detailed model for resonant fusion in a deuterium molecule with off-shell deuterons and electrons is presented as an example. Experimental means of observing such off-shell behavior directly, if it exists, is proposed and described. Brief explanations for elemental transmutation and formation of micro-craters are also given, and an alternative mechanism for the mass shift in the Widom-Larsen theory is presented. If variable mass theories were to find experimental support from LENR, then they would undoubtedly have important implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics, and practical applications may arise.

  1. Nuclear spectroscopy with Geant4: Proton and neutron emission & radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, L. G., E-mail: Luis.Sarmiento@nuclear.lu.se; Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-07

    With the aid of a novel combination of existing equipment – JYFLTRAP and the TASISpec decay station – it is possible to perform very clean quantum-state selective, high-resolution particle-γ decay spectroscopy. We intend to study the determination of the branching ratio of the ℓ = 9 proton emission from the I{sup π} = 19/2{sup −}, 3174-keV isomer in the N = Z − 1 nucleus {sup 53}Co. The study aims to initiate a series of similar experiments along the proton dripline, thereby providing unique insights into “open quantum systems”. The technique has been pioneered in case studies using SHIPTRAP and TASISpec at GSI. Newly available radioactive decay modes in Geant4 simulations are going to corroborate the anticipated experimental results.

  2. Nuclear spectroscopy with Geant4: Proton and neutron emission & radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, L. G.; Rudolph, D.

    2016-07-01

    With the aid of a novel combination of existing equipment - JYFLTRAP and the TASISpec decay station - it is possible to perform very clean quantum-state selective, high-resolution particle-γ decay spectroscopy. We intend to study the determination of the branching ratio of the ℓ = 9 proton emission from the Iπ = 19/2-, 3174-keV isomer in the N = Z - 1 nucleus 53Co. The study aims to initiate a series of similar experiments along the proton dripline, thereby providing unique insights into "open quantum systems". The technique has been pioneered in case studies using SHIPTRAP and TASISpec at GSI. Newly available radioactive decay modes in Geant4 simulations are going to corroborate the anticipated experimental results.

  3. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaja, A.I.; Kievets, M.K.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the {alpha}-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and ({gamma},f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10{sup -6} Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical image of the SSNTD surface obtained through a video camera and the determination of size and activity of 'hot' particles00.

  4. α particles and the ''pasta'' phase in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, S. S.; Barros, C. C. Jr.; Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the α particles in nuclear matter at low densities are investigated within three different parametrizations of relativistic models at finite temperature. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous matter (pasta phase) are described for neutral nuclear matter with fixed proton fractions and stellar matter subject to β equilibrium and trapped neutrinos. In homogeneous matter, α particles are present only at densities below 0.02 fm -3 and their presence decreases with increase of the temperature and, for a fixed temperature, the α particle fraction decreases for smaller proton fractions. A repulsive interaction is important to mimic the dissolution of the clusters in homogeneous matter. The effect of the α particles on the pasta structure is very small except close to the critical temperatures and/or proton fractions, when it may still predict a pasta phase while no pasta phase would occur in the absence of light clusters. It is shown that for densities above 0.01 fm 3 the α-particle fraction in the pasta phase is much larger than that in homogeneous matter.

  5. Characterising legacy spent nuclear fuel pond materials using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.R. [Research Centre for Radwaste Disposal, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, Chemistry Building, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Morris, K. [Research Centre for Radwaste Disposal, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mosselmans, J.F.W. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Thompson, O.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Banford, A.W. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Law, K. [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, Chemistry Building, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Pattrick, R.A.D., E-mail: richard.pattrick@manchester.ac.uk [Research Centre for Radwaste Disposal, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • A sample from a spent fuel pond wall has been analysed via X-ray spectroscopy. • Autoradiography shows a patchy distribution of radioactivity on the core face. • μXAS across a ‘hot spot’ showed Sr associates with the TiO{sub 2} pigment in the paint. • Original concrete coatings prove effective at limiting radionuclide migration. • Sorption studies show Sr immobilisation by the concrete and Cs by aggregate clasts. - Abstract: Analysis of a radioactive, coated concrete core from the decommissioned, spent nuclear fuel cooling pond at the Hunterston-A nuclear site (UK) has provided a unique opportunity to study radionuclides within a real-world system. The core, obtained from a dividing wall and sampled at the fill level of the pond, exhibited radioactivity (dominantly {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr) heterogeneously distributed across both painted faces. Chemical analysis of the core was undertaken using microfocus spectroscopy at Diamond Light Source, UK. Mapping of Sr across the surface coatings using microfocus X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that Sr was bound to TiO{sub 2} particles in the paint layers, suggesting an association between TiO{sub 2} and radiostrontium. Stable Sr and Cs sorption experiments using concrete coupons were also undertaken to assess their interactions with the bulk concrete in case of a breach in the coating layers. μXRF and scanning electron microscopy showed that Sr was immobilized by the cement phases, whilst at the elevated experimental concentrations, Cs was associated with clay minerals in the aggregates. This study provides a crucial insight into poorly understood infrastructural contamination in complex systems and is directly applicable to the UK’s nuclear decommissioning efforts.

  6. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120 0 C to +160 0 C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author)

  7. On the optimum area-balanced filters for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, G.; Pullia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The minimum noise area-balanced (A-B) filters for nuclear spectroscopy are disentangled in the sum of two optimized individual filters. The former is the unipolar finite cusp filter, used for pulse amplitude estimation but affected by baseline shift errors, the latter is a specific filter used for baseline estimation. Each of them is optimized so as to give the minimum noise in the estimation of the pulse amplitude or of its baseline level. It is shown that double optimisation produces an overall optimum filter exhibiting a total noise V 2 n equal to the sum of the noises V 2 n1 and V 2 n2 exhibited by each filter individually. This is a consequence of the orthogonality of the individual filter weight-functions in a function space where the norm is defined as √(V 2 n ). (orig.)

  8. Activation cross-section data for -particle-induced nuclear reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M ALI

    2018-02-20

    particle-induced nuclear reactions on natural vanadium up to 20 MeV. It should be mentioned that this study represents a part of (a supplement) systematical study of charged particles-induced nuclear reactions. Earlier studies were.

  9. Few body problems in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Cujec, B.; Ramavataram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon interactions at all energies, meson-nucleon and meson-deuteron interactions, nuclear bremsstrahlung, on-shell and off-shell interactions, final-state interactions, bound and scattering states, few-body forces, polarization phenomena, short range correlations, quasi-free scattering, composite hadron models, subnucleon structure, multiparticle and coherent production processes, break-up reactions, electrodisintegration, relativistic effects and future resources in nuclear and particle physics are discussed in relation to the state of few-body physics in 1974. (B.F.G.)

  10. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    2000-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by C. Rubbia and his group is a subcritical system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other application domains (radioactive isotopes production for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  11. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system. (author)

  12. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-03-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system.

  13. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique

  14. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Based Identification of Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelreich, Uwe; Sorrell, Tania C; Daniel, Heide-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and robust high-throughput identification of environmental, industrial, or clinical yeast isolates is important whenever relatively large numbers of samples need to be processed in a cost-efficient way. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy generates complex data based on metabolite profiles, chemical composition and possibly on medium consumption, which can not only be used for the assessment of metabolic pathways but also for accurate identification of yeast down to the subspecies level. Initial results on NMR based yeast identification where comparable with conventional and DNA-based identification. Potential advantages of NMR spectroscopy in mycological laboratories include not only accurate identification but also the potential of automated sample delivery, automated analysis using computer-based methods, rapid turnaround time, high throughput, and low running costs.We describe here the sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis for NMR-based yeast identification. In addition, a roadmap for the development of classification strategies is given that will result in the acquisition of a database and analysis algorithms for yeast identification in different environments.

  16. An electrostatic beam line for accelerator mass spectroscopy of exotic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.; Kubik, P.W.; Hemmick, T.; Teng, R.; Kagan, H.; Haas, P.; Boyd, R.N.; Turner, R.; Nitz, D.; Ciampa, D.; Olsen, S.L.; Gentile, T.; Haelen, T.

    1985-01-01

    An all-electrostatic charged particle spectrometer has been constructed to perform high sensitivity searches for exotic states of matter. This spectrometer consists of an electrosatic beam line capable of mass independent charged particle transport and selection together with time-of-flight, energy loss and total energy detectors. This system has been used in conjunction with the tandem electrostatic accelerator at the Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory of the University of Rochester to search for fractionally charged or anomalously heavy particles. (orig.)

  17. Improved moulding material for addition to nuclear fuel particles to produce nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made to improve the moulding materials used to produce carbon-contained nuclear fuel particles by a coke-reducing added substance. The nuclear fuel particles are meant for the formation of fuel elements for gas-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactors. The moulding materials are above all for the formation of coated particles which are burnt in situ in nuclear fuel element chambers out of 'green' nuclear fuel bodies. The added substance improves the shape stability of the particles forming and prevents a stiding or bridge formation between the particles or with the surrounding walls. The following are named as added substances: 1) Polystyrene and styrene-butadiene-Co polymers (mol. wt. between 5oo and 1,000,000), 2) aromatic compounds (mol. wt. 75 to 300), 3) saturated hydrocarbon polymers (mol. wt. 5,000 to 1,000,000). Additional release agents further improve the properties in the same direction (e.g. alcohols, fatty acids, amines). (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  19. The weak interaction in nuclear, particle and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, K.; Klapdor, H.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the concepts of weak interactions and their importance and consequences for nuclear physics, particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and cosmology. After a general introduction to elementary particles and interactions the Fermi theory of weak interactions is described together with its connection with nuclear structure and beta decay including the double beta decay. Then, after a general description of gauge theories the Weinberg-Salam theory of the electroweak interactions is introduced. Thereafter the weak interactions are considered in the framework of grand unification. Then the physics of neutrinos is discussed. Thereafter connections of weak interactions with astrophysics are considered with special regards to the gravitational collapse and the synthesis of heavy elements in the r-process. Finally, the connections of grand unified theories and cosmology are considered. (HSI) With 141 figs., 39 tabs

  20. Multiparticle production in particle and nuclear collisions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanki, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Kisei; Sumiyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Fujio.

    1990-01-01

    Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics. This book provides a comprehensive review which covers the whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. The review consists of five chapters. Chapter D, which is the first chapter of this volume, is titled 'Mechanism of Fragmentation' and contains six sections dealing with 'parton densities inside hadrons', 'hadron fragmentation and quark picture', 'recombination type models', 'quark fragmentation models in soft interaction', 'diquark and its fragmentation' and 'fragmentation in string models'. Chapter E 'Diffractive Production of Hadrons' discusses 'diffractive inelastic processes of composite particles', 'diffractive processes and triple-pomeron coupling', 'properties of diffractive inelastic final states', and 'nature of pomeron'. Chapter F 'Unified Descriptions' focuses on 'general chain picture', 'dual parton model', 'Monte Carlo simulations' and 'unification of hard and soft interactions'. Chapter G, titled 'Multiparticle Production in Hadron-Nucleus Collisions and Other Nuclear Processes' and contains 11 sections. Chapter H presents conclusions. (N.K.)

  1. Use of the associated particle technique in the fast neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquirre O, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Selecting a neutrons monoenergetic source it was found that the nuclear reaction D(d,n) 3 He can be used to measure nuclear sections and differentials in elastic nuclear reactions through the associated particle technique; the neutron beam energy is directly determined in time of flight spectrum of the neutron. The flux is determined by the number of 3 He ions observed in the charged particle spectrum. The neutron flux can be increased increasing the solid angle of the neutrons beam in two magnitude orders according to the results of neutrons beam profile measures. (author)

  2. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  3. Automatic particle-size analysis of HTGR nuclear fuel microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic particle-size analyzer (PSA) has been developed at ORNL for measuring and counting samples of nuclear fuel microspheres in the diameter range of 300 to 1000 μm at rates in excess of 2000 particles per minute, requiring no sample preparation. A light blockage technique is used in conjunction with a particle singularizer. Each particle in the sample is sized, and the information is accumulated by a multi-channel pulse height analyzer. The data are then transferred automatically to a computer for calculation of mean diameter, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skewness of the distribution. Entering the sample weight and pre-coating data permits calculation of particle density and the mean coating thickness and density. Following this nondestructive analysis, the sample is collected and returned to the process line or used for further analysis. The device has potential as an on-line quality control device in processes dealing with spherical or near-spherical particles where rapid analysis is required for process control

  4. Laser tweezers: spectroscopy of optically trapped micron-sized particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, K.M.; Livett, M.K.; Nugent, K.W. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Information is often obtained about biological systems by analysis of single cells in the system. The optimum conditions for this analysis are when the cells are living and in their natural surroundings as they will be performing their normal functions and interactions. Analysis of cells can be difficult due to their mobility. Laser tweezing is a non contact method that can be employed to overcome this problem and provides a powerful tool in the analysis of functions and interactions at single cell level. In this investigation Raman spectra of a molecule of {beta} - carotene, dissolved in microdroplets of oil was obtained. The droplets were trapped using Nd-YAG beam and a low intensity Ar{sup +} beam was used to analyse the trapped particles. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Extended particle model with quark confinement and charmonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, Peter; Kuti, Julius; Szalay, A.S.

    Extended particle like vector gluon bubbles /bags/ are introduced which are stabilized against free expansion by a surface tension of volume tension. Since quraks are coupled to the gluon field, they are confined to the inside of the gluon bag without any further mechanism. Only color singlet gluon bags are allowed. Nonlinear boundary conditions are not imposed on the quark field in the model. A massless abelian gauge confined by a surface tension is first considered; in a four-dimensional relativistic picture the surface of the gauge field bubble appears as a tube with a three dimensional surface. As a first application, the model is used to study bound states of heavy charmed quarks (charmonium). Similar to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular physics, heavy charmed quarks are treated as nonrelativistic in their motion whereas the gluon bag and light quarks (u,d,s) are treated in an adiabatic approximation

  6. Laser tweezers: spectroscopy of optically trapped micron-sized particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, K M; Livett, M K; Nugent, K W [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Information is often obtained about biological systems by analysis of single cells in the system. The optimum conditions for this analysis are when the cells are living and in their natural surroundings as they will be performing their normal functions and interactions. Analysis of cells can be difficult due to their mobility. Laser tweezing is a non contact method that can be employed to overcome this problem and provides a powerful tool in the analysis of functions and interactions at single cell level. In this investigation Raman spectra of a molecule of {beta} - carotene, dissolved in microdroplets of oil was obtained. The droplets were trapped using Nd-YAG beam and a low intensity Ar{sup +} beam was used to analyse the trapped particles. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. 33th all-union conference on nuclear spectroscopy and atomic nucleus structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Bem, P.

    1984-01-01

    The 33rd All-Union Conference on Nuclear Spectroscopy and the Atomic Nucleus Structure was held in Moscow from April 19 to 22. The plenary session heard 5 papers which summed up the results of extensive programmes of theoretical and experimental research. More than two thirds of the conference were held in parallel sessions: Properties of Concrete Nuclei, Nuclear Reactions (theory, experiment), Theory of the Nucleus, Mechanisms of Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma Processes, Nuclear Spectroscopy Techniques and Applied Nuclear Spectroscopy. (B.S.)

  8. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rosado, José Carlos; L'hermite, Daniel; Levi, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 μm to 90 μm) of Al 2 O 3 in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 μm as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: ► We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. ► Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. ► The ablation rate on Al 2 O 3 particles in suspension in water has been estimated. ► We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  9. Bibliography of integral charged-particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Wyant, G.

    1981-03-01

    This publication is the first supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1980, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. As a result of a recommendation by the recent Workshop on Intense High Energy Neutron Source and Their Characteristics, we have also undertaken to expand the coverage of charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions to include differential data. This supplement is divided into two sections, References and Isotope Production. The References section contains all references satisfying the criteria noted. The Isotope Production section contains an abbreviated reference line for all entries which contain information on a definite residual nucleus, on particle production, or on mass, charge, or isotopic distributions. Entries in the References section are sequentially numbered. These sequence numbers serve as a link between the two sections

  10. Hardened over-coating fuel particle and manufacture of nuclear fuel using its fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimuda, Hideharu.

    1990-01-01

    Coated-fuel particles comprise a coating layer formed by coating ceramics such as silicon carbide or zirconium carbide and carbons, etc. to a fuel core made of nuclear fuel materials. The fuel core generally includes oxide particles such as uranium, thorium and plutonium, having 400 to 600 μm of average grain size. The average grain size of the coated-fuel particle is usually from 800 to 900 μm. The thickness of the coating layer is usually from 150 to 250 μm. Matrix material comprising a powdery graphite and a thermosetting resin such as phenol resin, etc. is overcoated to the surface of the coated-fuel particle and hardened under heating to form a hardened overcoating layer to the coated-fuel particle. If such coated-fuel particles are used, cracks, etc. are less caused to the coating layer of the coated-fuel particles upon production, thereby enabling to prevent the damages to the coating layer. (T.M.)

  11. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown

  12. Heavy particle scattering by atomic and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazauskas, R.

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis quantum mechanical non-relativistic few-body problem is discussed. Basing on fundamentals ideas from Faddeev and Yakubovski three and four body equations are formulated and solved for fermionic atomic and nuclear systems. Former equations are modified to include long range interactions. Original results for nuclear and molecular physics were obtained: -) positively charged particle scattering on hydrogen atoms was considered; predictions for π + → H, μ + → H and p + → H scattering lengths were given. Existence of an unknown, very weakly bound H + 2 bound state was predicted. -) Motivated by the possible observation of bound four neutron structure at GANIL we have studied compatibility of such an existence within the current nuclear interaction models. -) 4 nucleon scattering at low energies was investigated. Results for n → 3 H, p → 3 H and p → 3 He systems were compared with the experimental data. Validity of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models is questioned. (author)

  13. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwaikat, N., E-mail: ndwaikat@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  14. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaikat, N.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  15. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  16. Silicon oxide particle formation in RF plasmas investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Howling, A.A.; Courteille, C.; Magni, D.; Scholz, S.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Simons, N.; de Zeeuw, W.; Schwarzenbach, W.

    1998-01-01

    In situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the composition of particles formed and suspended in radio-frequency discharges of silane - oxygen-argon gas mixtures. The silane gas consumption was observed by infrared absorption. The stoichiometry of the produced

  17. Raman, Infrared, and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Identification of Particles in Raw Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn; Lankers, Markus; Valet, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition. They also need to have no contaminants, including particles, because these could indicate raw material impurities or contaminate the product. Particle identification allows determination of process conditions that caused them and whether the quality of the final product is acceptable. Particles may appear to the eye to be very different things than they actually are. They may be coated with the raw material and may consist of several components; therefore, chemical and elemental analyses are required for accuracy in proper identification and definitive information about their source. Thus, microscope versions of Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are excellent tools for identifying particles in materials. Those tools are fast and accurate, and can provide chemical and elemental composition as well as images that can aid identification. The micro-analysis capabilities allow for easy analysis of different portions of samples so that multiple components can be identified and sample preparation can be reduced or eliminated. The differences in sensitivities of Raman and IR spectroscopies to different functional groups as well as the elemental analysis provided by LIBS and the image analysis provided by the microscopy makes these complementary techniques and provides the advantage of identifying various chemical components. Proper spectral searching techniques and interpretation of the results are important for interpretation and identification of trace contaminants.

  18. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav

    2017-01-01

    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military c...

  19. Proceedings of the 13. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on nuclear structure, nuclear matter, scattering, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay, nuclear properties and nuclear models are presented. Studies on radiation protection, radiation detectors, spectroscopy and elementary particles area also presented. (M.C.K.)

  20. A new detector array for charged particle spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, R L; Chappell, S P G; Clarke, N M; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; Cunningham, R A; Curtis, N; Dillon, G; Lilley, J; Jones, C D; Lee, P; Rae, W D M

    1999-01-01

    A compact and highly segmented detector array consisting of 44 gas-silicon-caesium iodide, position sensitive, particle identification detector telescopes and up to 10 position-sensitive, silicon strip detectors has been constructed for the study of light-ion-heavy-ion reactions including cluster break-up in the energy range 5-15 MeV/nucleon. The detectors are housed in a purpose built vacuum chamber. The telescopes are placed in fixed positions, covering the forward hemisphere from 3 to 30 deg. in the laboratory with the target placed at 535 mm from the front of the telescopes or 6-52 deg. with the target placed at 215 mm. The strip detectors are placed in any of 30 fixed positions in the forward hemisphere. For 85 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions the telescope energy resolution (gas plus silicon) is 345 keV with an angular resolution of 0.03 deg. . Using the gas-silicon section ions with Z up to 21 can be identified. For ions that pass through the silicon isotopic identification is achieved using the silicon-CsI comb...

  1. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of an advanced laboratory course in experimental nuclear and particle physics the author gave to physics majors at the University of Geneva during the years 1978- 1983. The course was offered to third and fourth year students, the latter of which had, at this point in their studies, chosen to specialize in experimental nuclear or particle physics. This implied that they would go on to do a 'diplome' thesis with one of the high- or intermediate-energy research groups in the physics department. The format of the course was such that the students were required to concentrate on only one experiment during the trimester, rather than perform a series of experiments as is more typical of a traditional course of this type. Their tasks thus included planning the experiment, learning the relevant techniques, setting up and troubleshooting the measuring apparatus, calibration, data-taking and analysis, as well as responsibility for maintaining their equipment, i.e., tasks resembling those in a real experiment. This more intensive involvement provided the students with a better understanding of the experimental problems encountered in a professional experiment and helped instill a certain independence and confidence which would prepare them for entry into a research group in the department. Teaching assistants were presented to help the students during the trimester and a series of weekly lectures was also given on various topics in experimental nuclear and particle physics. This included general information on detectors, nuclear electronics, statistics, the interaction of radiation in matter, etc., and a good deal of practical information for actually doing experiments. (orig.) With 254 figs

  2. Resolution Improvement in Multidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duma, L.

    2004-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with both liquid-state and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of this work is devoted to the investigation by solid-state NMR of C 13 -enriched compounds with the principal aim of presenting techniques devised for further improving the spectral resolution in multidimensional NMR of microcrystalline proteins. In fully C 13 -labelled compounds, the J-coupling induces a broadening of the carbon lineshapes. We show that spin-state-selective technique called IPAP can be successfully combined with standard polarisation transfer schemes in order to remove the J-broadening in multidimensional solid-state NMR correlation experiments of fully C 13 -enriched proteins. We present subsequently two techniques tailored for liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The carbon directly detected techniques provide chemical shift information for all backbone hetero-nuclei. They are very attracting for the study of large bio-molecular systems or for the investigation of paramagnetic proteins. In the last part of this thesis, we study the spin-echo J-modulation for homonuclear two-spin 1/2 systems. Under magic-angle spinning, the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation allows to derive a set of modulation regimes which give a spin-echo modulation exactly equal to the J-coupling. We show that the chemical-shift anisotropy and the dipolar interaction tend to stabilize the spin-echo J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing C 13 spin pairs. (author)

  3. Soil humic-like organic compounds in prescribed fire emissions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; Nikolich, G.; Etyemezian, V.; Dubois, D.W.; King, J.; Shafer, D.; Gamboa da Costa, G.; Hinton, J.F.; Kavouras, I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the chemical characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon fraction of atmospheric aerosol collected during a prescribed fire burn in relation to soil organic matter and biomass combustion. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we observed that humic-like substances in fire emissions have been associated with soil organic matter rather than biomass. Using a chemical mass balance model, we estimated that soil organic matter may contribute up to 41% of organic hydrogen and up to 27% of water-soluble organic carbon in fire emissions. Dust particles, when mixed with fresh combustion emissions, substantially enhances the atmospheric oxidative capacity, particle formation and microphysical properties of clouds influencing the climatic responses of atmospheric aeroso. Owing to the large emissions of combustion aerosol during fires, the release of dust particles from soil surfaces that are subjected to intense heating and shear stress has, so far, been lacking. -- Highlights: •We characterized the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of fire emissions by NMR. •Distinct patterns were observed for soil dust and vegetation combustion emissions. •Soil organic matter accounted for most of WSOC in early prescribed burn emissions. -- Humic-like soil organic matter may be an important component of particulate emissions in the early stages of wildfires

  4. Nuclear Level Densities for Modeling Nuclear Reactions: An Efficient Approach Using Statistical Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop and implement computer codes and input files to compute nuclear densities of state. Such densities are important input into calculations of statistical neutron capture, and are difficult to access experimentally. In particular, we will focus on calculating densities for nuclides in the mass range A ∼ 50-100. We use statistical spectroscopy, a moments method based upon a microscopic framework, the interacting shell model. Second year goals and milestones: Develop two or three competing interactions (based upon surface-delta, Gogny, and NN-scattering) suitable for application to nuclei up to A = 100. Begin calculations for nuclides with A = 50-70

  5. Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for coal powder analysis with different particle flow diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shunchun, E-mail: epscyao@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Xu, Jialong; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jianping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lu, Jidong, E-mail: jdlu@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The on-line measurement of coal is extremely useful for emission control and combustion process optimization in coal-fired plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to directly analyze coal particle flow. A set of tapered tubes were proposed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow to different diameters. For optimizing the measurement of coal particle flow, the characteristics of laser-induced plasma, including optical breakdown, the relative standard deviation of repeated measurement, partial breakdown spectra ratio and line intensity, were carefully analyzed. The comparison of the plasma characteristics among coal particle flow with different diameters showed that air breakdown and the random change in plasma position relative to the collection optics could significantly influence on the line intensity and the reproducibility of measurement. It is demonstrated that the tapered tube with a diameter of 5.5 mm was particularly useful to enrich the coal particles in laser focus spot as well as to reduce the influence of air breakdown and random changes of plasma in the experiment. - Highlights: • Tapered tube was designed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow as well as enriching the particles in laser focus spot. • The characteristics of laser-induced plasma of coal particle flow were investigated carefully. • An appropriate diameter of coal particle flow was proven to benefit for improving the performance of LIBS measurement.

  6. Characterization of Canadian coals by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ripmeester, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apparent aromaticities of a series of Canadian coals of different rank were estimated by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The aromaticities varied from 0.57 for a lignite up to 0.86 for a semi-anthracite coal. The aromaticities correlated well with fixed carbon and oxygen content of the coals as well as with the mean reflectance of the coals. Correlations were also established between aromaticities and the H/C and H/SUB/a/SUB/r/SUB/u/C/SUB/a/SUB/r ratios of the coals. Uncertainties in calculation of the hypothetical H/SUB/a/SUB/r/SUB/u/C/SUB/a/SUB/r ratios, from experimental data were pointed out. Structural parameters of the chars derived from the coals by pyrolysis at 535 C were, also, estimated. The H/C and H/SUB/a/SUB/r/SUB/u/C/SUB/a/SUB/r ratios of the chars were markedly lower than those of coals. This was complemented by higher apparent aromaticities of the chars compared with the coals. (21 refs.)

  7. Exploration of X-ray and charged-particle spectroscopy with CCDs and PSDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.P.L.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Ijzendoorn, L.J. van; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Two alternative detector types have been studied for use in the Eindhoven scanning ion microprobe set-up. First, the applicability of a charge coupled device (CCD) system for X-ray spectroscopy has been explored. Second, some properties of the SiTek type 1L30 position sensitive detector (PSD) for charged-particle spectroscopy have been studied. A literature survey shows that excellent X-ray spectroscopy with a CCD system is feasible, particularly with a deep-depletion backside-illuminated CCD and low speed read-out. If, however, high-speed CCD read-out is required, such as for scanning microprobe experiments, a CCD system cannot be used for spectroscopy due to excess read-out noise. For the PSD, noise theory calculations are presented, which result in a noise shaping time for optimal energy and position resolution. In practice, however, a much longer time is needed to obtain sufficient energy and position linearity. Characterization measurements of the PSD using our 4 MeV He + microprobe are also described. A position resolution of 0.47 mm and a position linearity of better than 0.15% detector length are found. In addition, an energy linearity better than 0.3% and an energy resolution of 36 keV are measured. The latter will have to be improved, to make the PSD suitable for charged-particle spectroscopy applications. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear γ-ray spectroscopy of cool free atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivlin, Lev A

    1999-01-01

    Consideration is given to the capabilities of gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nuclei of free neutral atoms cooled employing modern laser light-pressure techniques. This spectroscopy is comparable with the Mossbauer spectroscopy in respect of the expected resolving power. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Particle swarm as optimization tool in complex nuclear engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos Canedo

    2005-06-01

    Due to its low computational cost, gradient-based search techniques associated to linear programming techniques are being used as optimization tools. These techniques, however, when applied to multimodal search spaces, can lead to local optima. When finding solutions for complex multimodal domains, random search techniques are being used with great efficacy. In this work we exploit the swarm optimization algorithm search power capacity as an optimization tool for the solution of complex high dimension and multimodal search spaces of nuclear problems. Due to its easy and natural representation of high dimension domains, the particle swarm optimization was applied with success for the solution of complex nuclear problems showing its efficacy in the search of solutions in high dimension and complex multimodal spaces. In one of these applications it enabled a natural and trivial solution in a way not obtained with other methods confirming the validity of its application. (author)

  10. UNITED STATES: Particle and nuclear astrophysicists look to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, David; Kolb, Edward W.

    1994-01-01

    While many high-energy physicists are planning giant colliding beams machines as the vessels to sail beyond the familiar waters of the Standard Model, others are testing alternate conveyances to explore the most fundamental issues of particle physics. Studies of proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations, dark matter, high-energy astronomy, microwave background fluctuations, large-scale structure, and the physics of the early Universe could move the field far from the Standard Model shore. Just as zoologists and geologists once explored new lands together, high-energy physicists have been joined by nuclear physicists and astrophysicists who are interested in the experiments because of the relevance to their own disciplines

  11. UNITED STATES: Particle and nuclear astrophysicists look to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, David [Argonne (United States); Kolb, Edward W. [FERMILAB (United States); University of Chicago (United States)

    1994-12-15

    While many high-energy physicists are planning giant colliding beams machines as the vessels to sail beyond the familiar waters of the Standard Model, others are testing alternate conveyances to explore the most fundamental issues of particle physics. Studies of proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations, dark matter, high-energy astronomy, microwave background fluctuations, large-scale structure, and the physics of the early Universe could move the field far from the Standard Model shore. Just as zoologists and geologists once explored new lands together, high-energy physicists have been joined by nuclear physicists and astrophysicists who are interested in the experiments because of the relevance to their own disciplines.

  12. Real stabilization method for nuclear single-particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Zhao Enguang

    2008-01-01

    We develop the real stabilization method within the framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. With the self-consistent nuclear potentials from the RMF model, the real stabilization method is used to study single-particle resonant states in spherical nuclei. As examples, the energies, widths, and wave functions of low-lying neutron resonant states in 120 Sn are obtained. These results are compared with those from the scattering phase-shift method and the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach and satisfactory agreements are found

  13. Catalyst Particles for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Visualized at the Individual Particle Level by Micro-Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurmans, I.L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this PhD research the investigation of the reactivity and acidity of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalysts at the level of an individual catalyst particles is described. A range of micro-spectroscopic techniques has been applied to visualize both the active zeolite component within the

  14. Heavy particle decay studies using different versions of nuclear potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Sukumaran, Indu

    2017-10-01

    The heavy particle decay from 212-240Pa , 219-245Np , 228-246Pu , 230-249Am , and 232-252Cm leading to doubly magic 208Pb and its neighboring nuclei have been studied using fourteen versions of nuclear potentials. The study has shown that the barrier penetrability as well as the decay half-lives are found to vary with the nuclear potential used. The investigated decay events of the emission of the clusters 22Ne , 24Ne , 26Mg , 28Mg , 32Si and 33Si are not experimentally detected yet but may be detectable in the future. As most of the half-lives predicted are found to lie within the experimental upper limit, T 1/2 parents with varying slopes and intercepts. Also, it is to be noted that the linearity of the GN plots is unaltered using different nuclear potentials. The universal curve studied ( log10 T 1/2 vs. -ln P for various clusters emitted from various parents shows a linear behavior with the same slope and intercept irrespective of the nuclear potential used.

  15. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications. PMID:23945738

  16. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy as key technique in the investigation of nanosized magnetic particles for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, P. C., E-mail: pcmor@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    This paper describes how cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suspended as ionic or biocompatible magnetic fluids, can be used as a platform to built complex nanosized magnetic materials, more specifically magnetic drug delivery systems. In particular, the paper is addressed to the discussion of the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy as an extremely useful technique in supporting the investigation of key aspects related to the properties of the hosted magnetic nanosized particle. Example of the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in accessing information regarding the nanoparticle modification due to the empirical process which provides long term chemical stability is included in the paper.

  17. Modifications of the optical properties for DAM-ADC nuclear track detector exposed to alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Awad, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Modifications of the optical properties of diallyl maleate-allyl diglycol carbonate (DAM-ADC) nuclear detector induced by alpha particles are described. DAM-ADC samples were irradiated perpendicularly by thin 241Am disk source that emits alpha particles with 5.48 MeV. The optical absorption has been measured using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-1100) spectroscopy. It was found that DAM-ADC polymer shows substantial modifications in its optical characteristics upon irradiated with alpha particles with different energies. The optical energy band gap (Egap) for the detector was calculated for the direct and the indirect allowed transitions in K-space using two approaches (Tauc's model and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) method). Urbach's energy (Ea), number of carbon atoms per conjugated length (N), number of carbon atoms per cluster (M), and refractive index (n) for the present samples were determined. Results reveal that the values of energy gap in direct transition are greater than those of indirect, before and after irradiation. (Egap), (Ea), (N), (M), and (n) of the present samples are changed significantly with irradiation time and value of alpha energy. Results reflect the possibility of using DAM-ADC polymer track detectors to estimate alpha particle energies using the variation of the absorbance.

  18. The Optimal Wavelengths for Light Absorption Spectroscopy Measurements Based on Genetic Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ge; Wei, Biao; Wu, Decao; Feng, Peng; Liu, Juan; Tang, Yuan; Xiong, Shuangfei; Zhang, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    To select the optimal wavelengths in the light extinction spectroscopy measurement, genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (GAPSO) based on genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted. The change of the optimal wavelength positions in different feature size parameters and distribution parameters is evaluated. Moreover, the Monte Carlo method based on random probability is used to identify the number of optimal wavelengths, and good inversion effects of the particle size distribution are obtained. The method proved to have the advantage of resisting noise. In order to verify the feasibility of the algorithm, spectra with bands ranging from 200 to 1000 nm are computed. Based on this, the measured data of standard particles are used to verify the algorithm.

  19. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rosado, Jose Carlos [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); National University of Engineering, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 31-139, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru); L' hermite, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lhermite@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Levi, Yves [Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-08-15

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 {mu}m to 90 {mu}m) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 {mu}m as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation rate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in suspension in water has been estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  20. Group fellowship training in nuclear spectroscopy instrumentation maintenance at the Seibersdorf Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy instruments are important tools for nuclear research and applications. Several types of nuclear spectrometers are being sent to numerous laboratories in developing countries through technical co-operation projects. These are mostly sophisticated systems based on different radiation detectors, analogue and digital circuitry. In most cases, they use microprocessor or computer techniques involving software and hardware. Maintenance service and repair of these systems is a major problem in many developing countries because suppliers do not set up service stations. The Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf started conducting group fellowship training on nuclear spectroscopy instrumentation maintenance in 1987. This article describes the training programme

  1. Ion desorption induced by charged particle beams: mechanisms and mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, E.F. da; Schweikert, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Surface analysis, through desorption, induced by fast particles, is presented and discussed. The stopping of projectils is essentially made by collisions with the target electrons. The desorbed particles are generally emmited with kinetic energy from 0.1 to 20 eV. Mass, charge, velocity and emission angle give information about the surface components, its structure as well as beam-solid interaction processes. Time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of desorbed ions, determine the mass of organic macromolecules and biomolecules. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  2. Bogoliubov Angle, Particle-Hole Mixture and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, A.

    2010-05-04

    Superconducting excitations - Bogoliubov quasiparticles - are the quantum mechanical mixture of negatively charged electron (-e) and positively charged hole (+e). We propose a new observable for Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) studies that is the manifestation of the particle-hole entanglement of the superconducting quasiparticles. We call this observable a Bogoliubov angle. This angle measures the relative weight of particle and hole amplitude in the superconducting (Bogoliubov) quasiparticle. We show how this quantity can be measured by comparing the ratio of spectral intensities at positive and negative energies.

  3. The uses of isospin in early nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Arianna

    2017-11-01

    This paper reconstructs the early history of isospin up to and including its employment in 1951sbnd 52 to conceptualize high-energy pion-proton scattering. Studying the history of isospin serves as an entry point for investigating the interplay of theoretical and experimental practices in early nuclear and particle physics, showing the complexity of processes of knowledge construction which have often been presented as straightforward both in physicists' recollections and in the historiography of science. The story of isospin has often been told in terms of the discovery of the first ;intrinsic property; of elementary particles, but I will argue that the isospin formalism emerged and was further developed because it proved to be a useful tool to match theory and experiment within the steadily broadening field of high-energy (nuclear) physics. Isospin was variously appropriated and adapted in the course of two decades, before eventually the physical-mathematical implications of its uses started being spelled out. The case study also highlights some interesting features of high-energy physics around 1950: the contribution to post-war research of theoretical methods developed before and during the war, the role of young theoretical post-docs in mediating between theorists and experimenters, and the importance of traditional formalisms such as those of spin and angular momentum as a template both for formalizing and conceptualizing experimental results.

  4. Structure and acidity of individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalyst particles studied by synchrotron-based infrared micro-spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurmans, I.L.C.; Soulimani, F.; Ruiz Martinez, J.; van der Bij, H.E.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    A synchrotron-based infrared micro-spectroscopy study has been conducted to investigate the structure as well as the Brønsted and Lewis acidity of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles at the individual particle level. Both fresh and laboratory-deactivated catalyst particles have been

  5. Particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluegge, G.

    1978-10-01

    In my talk I will just concentrate on one specific aspect of old hadrons, namely exotics. The main part of my report will then be devoted to the new quarks charm and beauty. I will also try to offer a jet tour, starting with 2 jets in e + e - reactions and leading eventually to a glimps on three gluon jets at the Ypsilon. (orig./WL) [de

  6. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanlin [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249 (China); Wang, Mi [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (China); Yao, Jun [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  7. Measuring the One-Particle Excitations of Ultracold Fermionic Atoms by Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.-L.; Georges, Antoine; Dalibard, Jean; Salomon, Christophe; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2007-01-01

    We propose a Raman spectroscopy technique which is able to probe the one-particle Green function, the Fermi surface, and the quasiparticles of a gas of strongly interacting ultracold atoms. We give quantitative examples of experimentally accessible spectra. The efficiency of the method is validated by means of simulated images for the case of a usual Fermi liquid as well as for more exotic states: specific signatures of, e.g., a d-wave pseudogap are clearly visible

  8. Impact of sensor metal thickness on microwave spectroscopy sensitivity for individual particles and biological cells analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen , Wenli; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of metal thickness of a microwave coplanar based sensor dedicated to the microwave dielectric spectroscopy of single particles and individual biological cells. A sensitivity study has therefore been achieved for metal thicknesses comprised between 0.3 and 20 µm. After the validation of electromagnetic simulations with measurements of 10 μm-diameter polystyrene bead, both capacitive and conductive contrasts have been defined f...

  9. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twentieth annual progress report, September 1, 1983-August 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Research under this continuing DOE contract centers on radioactive decay studies of nuclei far from stability produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). These investigations encompass three aspects of nuclear structure research: nuclear spectroscopic measurements involving detailed γγt, γe - t, and Xγt three-parameter coincidence spectrometry; on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift spectroscopy for determining quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and mean nuclear charge radii; and computer calculations of nuclear model predictions for comparison with the experimental level schemes. The focus of this research program is on odd-mass nuclei in which the odd nucleon probes the core, making possible observation of such phenomena as the onset of abrupt shape changes, the occurrence of shape coexistence, and shell-model intruder states. These phenomena are critical tests of concepts fundamental to an understanding of low-energy nuclear structure, such as nuclear deformations, shell models, collective models, and particle-core couplings

  10. National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics - IN2P3. 2001-2003 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel; Armand, Dominique

    2005-12-01

    The CNRS National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) acts as national leader and coordinator in the fields of nuclear, particle and astro-particle physics, technological advances and their related applications, especially in the health and energy sectors. This research aims to explore particle and nuclear physics, fundamental interactions, and the links between the infinitely small and the infinitely large. Scientific fields include: Particle physics and hadronic physics, Nuclear physics, Astro-particles and cosmology, Neutrinos, Instrumentation, Computing and data, Research and development of accelerators, Back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy, Medical applications. This document is IN2P3's activity report for the 2001-2003 period. It presents the strategic priorities of the Institute, the highlights and projects of the period

  11. Rationale of beings: Recent developments in particle, nuclear and general physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Kawazoc, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on particle physics and nuclear physics. The chapters are on gravity, particles and fields, quantum theories, field theories, nuclei and atoms and general physics. Recent developments in various fields of physics in general are discussed

  12. Charged-particle transfer reactions and nuclear astrophysics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, S.V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Burtebaev, N.; Duysebaev, A.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the report a review of the recent results of calculation of the astrophysical S-factors S(E) for the D(α, γ) 6 Li, 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 Be, 12,13 C(p, γ) 13, 14 N and 12 C(p,γ) 16 O* reactions at extremely low energies E, including value E=0 , performed within the framework of a new method taking into account the additional information about the nuclear vertex constant (Nc) (or the respective asymptotic normalization coefficient) are presented. The required values of Nc can be obtained from an analysis of measured differential cross-sections of proton and α-particle transfer reactions (for example A( 3 He,d)B, 6 Li(d, 6 Li)d, 6 Li(α, 6 Li)α, 12 C( 6 Li, d) 16 O* etc.). A comparative analysis between the results obtained by different authors is also done. Taking into account an important role of the NVC's values for the nuclear astrophysical A(p, γ)B and A(α, γ)B reactions, a possibility of obtaining the reliable NVC values for the virtual decay B→A+p and B→A+α from the analysis of differential cross sections both sub- and above-barrier A( 3 He, d) and A( 6,7 Li, 2,3 H)B reactions is discussed in detail. In this line the use the isochronous cyclotron U-150 M, the 'DC-60' heavy ion machine and electrostatic charge-exchanging accelerator UKP-2-1 of Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan for carrying out the needed experiments is considered and the possibility of the obtained data application for the astrophysical interest is also discussed

  13. Production and characterization of monodisperse uranium particles for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Environmental sampling is a very effective measure to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Generally, samples are taken as swipe samples on cotton. These swipes contain minute quantities of particulates which have an inherent signature of their production and release scenario. These inspection samples are assessed for their morphology, elemental composition and their isotopic vectors. Mass spectrometry plays a crucial role in determining the isotopic ratios of uranium. Method validation and instrument calibration with well-characterized quality control (QC)-materials, reference materials (RMs) and certified reference materials (CRMs) ensures reliable data output. Currently, the availability of suitable well defined microparticles containing uranium and plutonium reference materials is very limited. Primarily, metals, oxides and various uranium and plutonium containing solutions are commercially available. Therefore, the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Services (SGAS) cooperates with the Institute of Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6) at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH in a joint task entitled ''Production of Particle Reference Materials''. The work presented in this thesis has been partially funded by the IAEA, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH and the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) through the ''Joint Program on the Technical Development and Further Improvement of IAEA Safeguards between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the IAEA''. The first step towards monodisperse microparticles was the development of pure uranium oxide particles made from certified reference materials. The focus of the dissertation is (1) the implementation of a working setup to produce monodisperse uranium oxide particles and (2) the characterization of these particles towards the application as QC-material. Monodisperse uranium oxide particles were produced by spray pyrolysis. It was demonstrated that the particle size can be

  14. Annual review of nuclear and particle science. Vol. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 volume of the ''Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science'' ranges from the applied to the speculative, from the accomplished to the inchoate, bearing witness to the vitality and diversity of subatomic physics. Milla Baldo Ceolin's prefatory chapter , ''The Discreet Charm of the Nuclear Emulsion Era,'' takes us back to the rebirth of particle physics in Europe after World War II through international emulsion collaborations that revealed wonders unimagined. Gaisser and Honda detail progress toward understanding the flux of atmospheric neutrinos, which is crucial for interpreting evidence for neutrino oscillations and searching for extraterrestrial neutrino sources. Elliott and Vogel's status report on double beta decay explores the sensitivity frontier and the prospects for testing the notion that the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Kado and Tully take stock of searches for electroweak theory's Higgs boson at CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider. Lee and Redwine draw lessons from three decades' exploration of pion-nucleus interactions at meson factories. Bedaque and van Kolck review recent progress in effective field theories that permit systematic treatment of few-nucleon systems. El-Khadra and Luke describe the ways in which Quantum Chromodynamics makes possible a precise determination of the b-quark mass. Harrison, Peggs, and Roser report on Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, which explores new realms of collisions among heavy nuclei. Gomez-Cadenas and Harris introduce the scientific motivations and technical challenges of neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. The study of biological function through positron-emission tomography is a burgeoning application of antimatter. PET's history, practice, and promise are presented by Phelps. Michael Faraday's words, ''Nothing is too wonderful to be true,'' and ''Experiment is the best test,'' are especially apt for the delicious possibility that spacetime extends

  15. Blind intercomparison of nuclear models for predicting charged particle emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K.; Cierjacks, S.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation data are important for dosimetry, radiation-damage and production of long-lived activities. For fusion energy applications, it is required to develop 'low-activation materials' from the viewpoints of safety, maintenance and waste disposal. Existing evaluated activation cross-section libraries are to a large extent based on nuclear-model calculations. The former Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee, NEANDC, (presently replaced by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee) organized the working group on activation cross sections. The first meeting of the group was held in 1989, and it was then agreed that a blind intercomparison of nuclear-model calculations should be undertaken in order to test the predictive power of the theoretical calculations. As a first stage the working group selected the reactions 60g Co(n,p) 60 Fe and 60m Co(n,p) 60 Fe, for which no experimental data were available, in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The preliminary results compiled at the NEA Data Bank were sent to each participant and a meeting was held during the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology in Julich 1991 to discuss the results. Following the outcome of the discussion in Julich, it was decided to extend this intercomparison. In the second-stage calculation, the same optical-model parameters were employed for neutrons, protons and α-particles, i.e., V = 50 MeV, W = 10 MeV, r = 1.25 fm and a = 0.6 fm with the Woods-Saxon volume-type form factors. No spin-orbit interaction was considered. Concerning the level density, the Fermi gas model with a = A/8 MeV -1 was assumed without pairing corrections. Moreover, gamma-ray competition was neglected to simplify the calculation. This report describes the final results of the blind comparison. Section 2 deals with a survey of the received contributions. The final results are graphically presented in section 3. 67 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  16. Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, Maximilian; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; West, Adam H. C.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Signorell, Ruth, E-mail: rsignorell@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-14

    We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. First, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Second, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.

  17. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs by G. GABRIELSE / Harvard University, USA Experiments with atomic energy scales probe nature and its symmetries with exquisite precision. Particle traps allow the manipulation of single charged particles for months at a time, allow the most accurate comparison of theory and experiment, and promise to allow better measurement of fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant. Ions and atoms can be probed with lasers that are phase locked to microwave frequency standards via optical combs, thus calibrating optical sources in terms of the official cesium second. A series of three lectures will illustrate what can be measured and discuss key techniques.  ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  18. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin - poor tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Christian P; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Athale, Chaitanya; Herrmann, Harald; Eils, Roland

    2004-11-23

    The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL) for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 mum - wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M sorbitol. This effect correlated with the compaction of chromatin

  19. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...

  20. New Approaches to Quantum Computing using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvin, M; Krishnan, V V

    2003-01-01

    The power of a quantum computer (QC) relies on the fundamental concept of the superposition in quantum mechanics and thus allowing an inherent large-scale parallelization of computation. In a QC, binary information embodied in a quantum system, such as spin degrees of freedom of a spin-1/2 particle forms the qubits (quantum mechanical bits), over which appropriate logical gates perform the computation. In classical computers, the basic unit of information is the bit, which can take a value of either 0 or 1. Bits are connected together by logic gates to form logic circuits to implement complex logical operations. The expansion of modern computers has been driven by the developments of faster, smaller and cheaper logic gates. As the size of the logic gates become smaller toward the level of atomic dimensions, the performance of such a system is no longer considered classical but is rather governed by quantum mechanics. Quantum computers offer the potentially superior prospect of solving computational problems that are intractable to classical computers such as efficient database searches and cryptography. A variety of algorithms have been developed recently, most notably Shor's algorithm for factorizing long numbers into prime factors in polynomial time and Grover's quantum search algorithm. The algorithms that were of only theoretical interest as recently, until several methods were proposed to build an experimental QC. These methods include, trapped ions, cavity-QED, coupled quantum dots, Josephson junctions, spin resonance transistors, linear optics and nuclear magnetic resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely capable of constructing small QCs and several algorithms have been implemented successfully. NMR-QC differs from other implementations in one important way that it is not a single QC, but a statistical ensemble of them. Thus, quantum computing based on NMR is considered as ensemble quantum computing. In NMR quantum computing, the spins with

  1. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Henry J.; Engelage, Jon M.

    1999-01-01

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year

  2. Proceedings of the eighth Nuclear and Particle Physics Conference (NUPPAC-2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The proceeding contains of 287 pages, the available maertial of 50 contributions: and covering of conference topics: Plenary, Invited, Keynote Talks. Nuclear Structure and Spectroscopy. Nuclear Scattering and Reactions. Neutron and Reactor Physics. Relativistic and Quantum Physics. Detectors and Instrumentation. Nuclear Analytical Techniques. Radiation Measurement and Dosimetry.

  3. Trojan horse particle invariance: The impact on nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the current picture of nuclear astrophysics indirect methods and, in particular, the Trojan Horse Method cover a crucial role for the measurement of charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest, in the energy range required by the astrophysical scenarios. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The key to the method is the quasi-free break-up and some of its properties will be investigated in the present work. In particular, the Trojan Horse nucleus invariance will be studied and previous studies will be extended to the cases of the binary d(d, p)t and 6 Li(d,α) 4 He reactions, which were tested using different quasi-free break-up's, namely 6 Li and 3 He. The astrophysical S(E)-factor were then extracted with the Trojan Horse formalism applied to the two different break-up schemes and compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen spectator particle also for these reactions

  4. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  5. Trojan horse particle invariance: The impact on nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Universitá di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN (Italy); Bertulani, C. A. [Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lamia, L.; Spartá, R. [Universitá di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Tumino, A. [Universitá Kore, Enna (Italy)

    2014-05-02

    In the current picture of nuclear astrophysics indirect methods and, in particular, the Trojan Horse Method cover a crucial role for the measurement of charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest, in the energy range required by the astrophysical scenarios. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The key to the method is the quasi-free break-up and some of its properties will be investigated in the present work. In particular, the Trojan Horse nucleus invariance will be studied and previous studies will be extended to the cases of the binary d(d, p)t and {sup 6}Li(d,α){sup 4}He reactions, which were tested using different quasi-free break-up's, namely {sup 6}Li and {sup 3}He. The astrophysical S(E)-factor were then extracted with the Trojan Horse formalism applied to the two different break-up schemes and compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen spectator particle also for these reactions.

  6. Fluctuations of the single-particle density in nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, G.F.; Chomaz, P.; Randrup, J.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years semiclassical methods have been developed to study heavy-ion collisions in the framework of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory, in which the collisionless mean field evolution has been augmented by a Pauli-blocked Nordheim collision term. Since these models describe the average dynamic trajectory, they cannot be applied to describe fluctuations of one-body observables, correlations in the emission of light particles and catastrophic processes like multifragmentation. The authors have developed a new method in order to include the stochastic part of the collision integral into BUU-type simulations of the nuclear dynamics. They apply this method to a two-dimensional gas of fermions on a torus, for which the time evolution of the mean trajectory and the associated correlation function are calculated; the variance of the phase-space occupancy follows closely the predictions of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and relaxes towards the appropriate quantum-statistical limit. The breaking of the translational and spherical symmetry in the model permits the study of unstable situations in phase-space. The introduction of the nonlinear one-body field allows them to explore dynamical instabilities and bifurcations. Therefore the model can be appropriate for studying nuclear multifragmentation

  7. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    My introduction on fundamental research and innovation will explain how CERN, a laboratory which is a priori entirely dedicated to fundamental research, came to contribute to a major challenge of society: the energy problem. I will describe the motivation behind the original experimental effort carried out at CERN (FEAT and TARC experiments) and discuss some of the main elements of the energy problem. Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible nowadays to use a proton accelerator to produce energy and eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier proposed by Carlo Rubbia and his group is a subcritical fast neutron system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive as it could destroy, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The Energy Amplifier could also efficiently transform long lived fission fragments at minimal cost using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other domains of application (production of radioactive isotopes for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.)

  8. Nuclear-chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Eighteenth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported on nuclear spectroscopy studies including lifetimes of the g/sub 7/2/ shell-model intruder states in 107 109 Ag, lifetime of the new /sup 187m/Au isomer, the decay of 187 Au - 187 Pt, decay of /sup 201m,g/Po, 203 At, and 125 Ba, and L-shell orbital EC probability and decay energy in 207 Bi decay. Also progress on nuclear model calculations of nuclear structure is reported

  9. Theoretical and instrumental aspects of preparation of radioactive sources for precise nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, M.I.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Precise investigations of spectra from nuclear radiations are quite sensitive to quality of radiation sources used. In an ideal case a source should introduce no noticeable distortion into registered spectrum. In spectroscopy of low-energy gamma-quanta, electrons and alpha particles sample preparation quite frequently turns to be challenging independent scientific investigation. Source preparation is conventionally performed at two stages - extraction of activity from a target and its uniform distribution over a substrate. A general requirement to such radioactive layer is maximal total and specific activity. Unfortunately, there is no universal source preparation method currently available for precise spectroscopy. In a number of cases excellent results are provided by fractional sublimation method based on ability of some elements to evaporate from target material at heating. The method demonstrates a several advantages. The paper introduces a complex of experimental equipment for preparation of high-quality radioactive sources. This complex is arranged in a well-protected heavy box equipped with master-slave manipulators. Biological protection of the box makes it possible to handle activities up to 10 11 Bq. Main part of the complex is a special vacuum post that assures works with active samples in the vacuum up to 10 -7 mm Hg - the operations include fractional sublimation, thermal evaporation, thermal diffusion, evaporation by electron beam, etc. All units of the vacuum post arranged in the box are designed to work with master-slave manipulators. The post is mainly used for preparation of a high-quality beta sources and extraction of microamounts of radionuclides from reactor and cyclotron targets by the method of fractional sublimation. Another important unit of the complex is an equipment for selective chemisorption in vacuum. Complex comprises all required auxiliary equipment The entire complex operated at high rate of reliability. The paper pays

  10. The use of dielectric spectroscopy for the characterization of polymer-induced flocculation of polystyrene particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Vittrup; Keiding, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    in dilute suspensions. Thus, techniques usable for flocculation characterization in high-solids suspensions are desirable. This study investigates the use of dielectric spectroscopy to monitor the flocculation of polystyrene particles with a cationic polymer. The frequency-dependent permittivity is modeled......The flocculation of colloidal suspensions is an important unit operation in many industries, as it greatly improves the performance of solid separation processes. The number of available techniques for evaluating flocculation processes on line is limited, and most of these are only functional...... as a decrease in the magnitude of the dielectric dispersion. The use of dielectric spectroscopy is found to be valuable for assessing flocculation processes in high-solids suspensions, as changes in parameters Such as floc size and charge can be detected....

  11. Accelerated Detection of Viral Particles by Combining AC Electric Field Effects and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Robert Tomkins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detection method that combines electric field-assisted virus capture on antibody-decorated surfaces with the “fingerprinting” capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for the case of M13 virus in water. The proof-of-principle surface mapping of model bioparticles (protein coated polystyrene spheres captured by an AC electric field between planar microelectrodes is presented with a methodology for analyzing the resulting spectra by comparing relative peak intensities. The same principle is applied to dielectrophoretically captured M13 phage particles whose presence is indirectly confirmed with micro-Raman spectroscopy using NeutrAvidin-Cy3 as a labeling molecule. It is concluded that the combination of electrokinetically driven virus sampling and micro-Raman based signal transduction provides a promising approach for time-efficient and in situ detection of viruses.

  12. Accelerated detection of viral particles by combining AC electric field effects and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Matthew Robert; Liao, David Shiqi; Docoslis, Aristides

    2015-01-08

    A detection method that combines electric field-assisted virus capture on antibody-decorated surfaces with the "fingerprinting" capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for the case of M13 virus in water. The proof-of-principle surface mapping of model bioparticles (protein coated polystyrene spheres) captured by an AC electric field between planar microelectrodes is presented with a methodology for analyzing the resulting spectra by comparing relative peak intensities. The same principle is applied to dielectrophoretically captured M13 phage particles whose presence is indirectly confirmed with micro-Raman spectroscopy using NeutrAvidin-Cy3 as a labeling molecule. It is concluded that the combination of electrokinetically driven virus sampling and micro-Raman based signal transduction provides a promising approach for time-efficient and in situ detection of viruses.

  13. SPOUTED BED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR COATED NUCLEAR FUEL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated nuclear fuel particles embedded in a carbon-graphite fuel body. TRISO coatings consist of four layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide that are deposited on uranium ceramic fuel kernels (350µm – 500µm diameters) in a concatenated series of batch depositions. Each layer has dedicated functions such that the finished fuel particle has its own integral containment to minimize and control the release of fission products into the fuel body and reactor core. The TRISO coatings are the primary containment structure in the HTGR reactor and must have very high uniformity and integrity. To ensure high quality TRISO coatings, the four layers are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using high purity precursors and are applied in a concatenated succession of batch operations before the finished product is unloaded from the coating furnace. These depositions take place at temperatures ranging from 1230°C to 1550°C and use three different gas compositions, while the fuel particle diameters double, their density drops from 11.1 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3, and the bed volume increases more than 8-fold. All this is accomplished without the aid of sight ports or internal instrumentation that could cause chemical contamination within the layers or mechanical damage to thin layers in the early stages of each layer deposition. The converging section of the furnace retort was specifically designed to prevent bed stagnation that would lead to unacceptably high defect fractions and facilitate bed circulation to avoid large variability in coating layer dimensions and properties. The gas injection nozzle was designed to protect precursor gases from becoming overheated prior to injection, to induce bed spouting and preclude bed stagnation in the bottom of the retort. Furthermore, the retort and injection nozzle designs minimize buildup of pyrocarbon and silicon carbide on the

  14. Fractionation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts reveals minor small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroemer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Upon chromatographic fractionation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts, small RNAs of 145 and 66/65 nucleotides, respectively, were detected that are distinct from the abundant small RNAs present in the extract. These RNAs are precipitated by antibodies directed against the trimethylguanosine cap structure, characteristic for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) of the U type. The RNAs of 145 and 66/65 nucleotides appear to be associated with at least one of the proteins common to the major small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles U1 to U6, since they are specifically bound by anti-Sm antibodies. These criteria characterize the RNAs that are 145 and 66/65 nucleotides in length as U-type snRNAs. Upon gel filtration, the RNAs are found within particles of molecular weights ≅ 150,000 and 115,000 respectively. The RNA of 145 nucleotides represents a different minor snRNA, designated U11, whereas the RNA of 66/65 nucleotides may correspond to either mammalian U7 or U10 RNA

  15. In-situ removal and characterisation of uranium-containing particles from sediments surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. G.; Griffiths, I.; Jones, C. P.; Stitt, C. A.; Davies-Milner, M.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Yamashiki, Y.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.

    2016-03-01

    Traditional methods to locate and subsequently study radioactive fallout particles have focused heavily on autoradiography coupled with in-situ analytical techniques. Presented here is the application of a Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope with both backscattered electron and energy dispersive spectroscopy detectors, along with a micromanipulator setup and electron-hardening adhesive to isolate and remove individual particles before synchrotron radiation analysis. This system allows for a greater range of new and existing analytical techniques, at increased detail and speed, to be applied to the material. Using this method, it was possible to erform detailed energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation characterisation of material likely ejected from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant found within a sediment sample collected from the edge of the 30 km exclusion zone. Particulate material sub-micron in maximum dimension examined during this work via energy dispersive spectroscopy was observed to contain uranium at levels between 19.68 and 28.35 weight percent, with the application of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy confirming its presence as a major constituent. With great effort and cost being devoted to the remediation of significant areas of eastern Japan affected by the incident, it is crucial to gain the greatest possible understanding of the nature of this contamination in order to inform the most appropriate clean-up response.

  16. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  17. Charged-particle spectroscopy in the microsecond range following projectile fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, M; Grzywacz, R; Janas, Z; Momayezi, M; Bingham, C; Blank, B; Chartier, M; Geissel, H; Giovinazzo, J; Hellström, M; Kurcewicz, J; Lalleman, A S; Mazzocchi, C; Mukha, I; Plettner, C; Roeckl, E; Rykaczewski, K; Schmidt, K; Simon, R S; Stanoiu, M; Thomas, J C

    2002-01-01

    We present a new approach to charged-particle spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei produced by relativistic projectile fragmentation. The system based on digital DGF-4C CAMAC modules and newly developed fast-reset preamplifiers was tested at the Fragment Separator of GSI. We were able to detect low-energy (approx 1 MeV) decay signals occurring a few microseconds after a heavy-ion implantation accompanied by a release of approx 1 GeV energy. Applications for the study of one- and two-proton radioactivity are discussed.

  18. Development of a Reference Database for Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    Ion beam analysis techniques are non-destructive analytical techniques used to identify the composition and structure of surface layers of materials. The applications of these techniques span environmental control, cultural heritage and conservation, materials and fusion technologies. The particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy technique in particular, is a powerful tool for detecting light elements in certain depths of surface layers. This publication describes the coordinated effort to measure and compile cross section data relevant to PIGE analysis and make these data available to the community of practice through a comprehensive online database.

  19. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  20. Experimental physics 4. Nuclear, particle and astrophysics. 5. ed.; Experimentalphysik 4. Kern-, Teilchen- und Astrophysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demtroeder, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Structure of atomic nuclei, unstable nuclei and radioactivity, experimental techniques in nuclear and high-energy physics, nuclear forces and nuclear models, nuclear reactions, physics of elementary particles, applications of nuclear and high-energy physics, foundations of experimental astronomy and astrophysics, our solar system, birth, life, and death of stars, the development and present structure of the universe. (HSI)

  1. Raman spectroscopy of carbon nano-particles synthesized by laser ablation of graphite in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, J. F.; Cadenbach, T.; Costa V, C.; Paz, J. L. [Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. 17-12-866, Ladron de Guevara E11-253, EC 170109, Quito (Ecuador); Zhang, Z. B.; Zhang, S. L. [Institutionen for teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillstandets elektronik, Angstromlaboratoriet, Lagerhyddsvagen, 1 Box 534, 751-21 Uppsala (Sweden); Debut, A.; Vaca, A. V., E-mail: cardenas9291@gmail.com [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui (Ecuador)

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been synthesized by laser ablation of polycrystalline graphite in water using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with a width of 8 ns. Structural and mesoscopic characterization of the CNPs in the supernatant by Raman spectroscopy provide evidence for the presence of mainly two ranges of particle sizes: 1-5 nm and 10-50 nm corresponding to amorphous carbon and graphite Nps, respectively. These results are corroborated by complementary characterization using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (Tem). In addition, large (10-100 μm) graphite particles removed from the surface are essentially unmodified (in structure and topology) by the laser as confirmed by Raman analysis. (Author)

  2. Particle identification by nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, Kais

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment will try to confirm the ν μ →ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the OPERA detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the OPERA experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in OPERA and to decrease the contamination by 30 pour cent. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (Author)

  3. Characterization of urban aerosol using aerosol mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, M. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter was measured during August and September of 2006 in Houston as part of the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project. Aerosol size and composition were determined using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer. Aerosol was dominated by sulfate (4.1 ± 2.6 μg m-3) and organic material (5.5 ± 4.0 μg m-3), with contributions of organic material from both primary (˜32%) and secondary (˜68%) sources. Secondary organic aerosol appears to be formed locally. In addition, 29 aerosol filter samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine relative concentrations of organic functional groups. Houston aerosols are less oxidized than those observed elsewhere, with smaller relative contributions of carbon-oxygen double bonds. These particles do not fit 1H NMR source apportionment fingerprints for identification of secondary, marine, and biomass burning organic aerosol, suggesting that a new fingerprint for highly urbanized and industrially influenced locations be established.

  4. Nuclear Ground State Properties in Strontium by Fast Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of strontium isotopes with A=78 to A=100 were measured by collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. Nuclear spins, moments and changes in mean square charge radii are extracted from the data. The spins and moments of most of the odd isotopes are explained in the framework of the single particle model. The changes in mean square charge radii show a decrease with increasing neutron number below the N=50 shell closure. Above N=50 the charge radii increase regularly up to N=59 before revealing a strong discontinuity, indicating the onset of strong ground state deformation. A comparison of the droplet model shows that for the transitional isotopes below and above N=50, the zero point quadrupole motion describes part of the observed shell effect. Calculations carried out in the Hartree-Fock plus BCS model suggest an additional change in the surface region of the charge distribution at spherical shape. From these calculations it is furthermore proposed, that the isotopes $^7

  5. Nuclear and atomic spectroscopy group. Dosimetry in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, M.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of radiation physics on the sector of atomic spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis in the Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics (University of Cordoba, Argentina),are presented, including dosimetric studies in radiodiagnostic: dosimetric determination using Monte Carlo method; distortion effect study on PET image and lasers in medicine. (C.G.C.)

  6. Nuclear laser spectroscopy with on-line ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ohtani, S.

    1996-01-01

    The hyperfine structure of atoms informs us various static characteristics of nuclei, particularly for electro-magnetic moments and their distributions. We have been developing an experimental method to perform laser-microwave double-resonance spectroscopy for the hyperfine structure of Be and Ca isotopes, including unstable nuclei. The purpose and the status of the experiments are described. (orig.)

  7. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined

  8. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  9. Study of a Particle Based Films Cure Process by High-Frequency Eddy Current Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Patsora

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle-based films are today an important part of various designs and they are implemented in structures as conductive parts, i.e., conductive paste printing in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries, solar cells or resistive paste printing in IC. Recently, particle based films were also implemented in the 3D printing technique, and are particularly important for use in aircraft, wind power, and the automotive industry when incorporated onto the surface of composite structures for protection against damages caused by a lightning strike. A crucial issue for the lightning protection area is to realize films with high homogeneity of electrical resistance where an in-situ noninvasive method has to be elaborated for quality monitoring to avoid undesirable financial and time costs. In this work the drying process of particle based films was investigated by high-frequency eddy current (HFEC spectroscopy in order to work out an automated in-situ quality monitoring method with a focus on the electrical resistance of the films. Different types of particle based films deposited on dielectric and carbon fiber reinforced plastic substrates were investigated in the present study and results show that the HFEC method offers a good opportunity to monitor the overall drying process of particle based films. Based on that, an algorithm was developed, allowing prediction of the final electrical resistance of the particle based films throughout the drying process, and was successfully implemented in a prototype system based on the EddyCus® HFEC device platform presented in this work. This prototype is the first solution for a portable system allowing HFEC measurement on huge and uneven surfaces.

  10. Softness of Nuclear Matter and the Production of Strange Particles in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 文德华; 刘良钢

    2003-01-01

    In the various models, we study the influences of the softness of nuclear matter, the vacuum fluctuation ofnucleons and σ mesons on the production of strange particles in neutron stars. Wefind that the stiffer the nuclear matter is, the more easily the strange particles is produced in neutron stars. The vacuum fluctuation of nucleons has large effect on strange particle production while that of σ meson has little effect on it.

  11. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of 170 Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements

  12. Preliminary Understanding of Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy by Single Particle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kangshu

    Monitoring chiral optical signals of biomolecules as their conformation changes is an important means to study their structures, properties, and functions. Most measurements, however, are ensemble measurements because chiral optical signals from a single biomolecule is often too weak to be detected. In this dissertation, I present my early attempts to study conformational changes of adsorbed proteins by taking advantage of the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field around a well-designed plasmonic nanofeature. In particular, I discuss the detection of protein adsorption and denaturation on metallic nanoparticles using single particle scattering and CD spectroscopic imaging. Particles of two distinctively different sizes were compared and two different sample protein molecules were studied. A combination of experimental and computational tools was used to simulate and interpret the collected scattering and CD results. The first chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-art research in CD spectroscopic studies at the single particle level. Three different means to make particles capable of chiral detection are discussed. Various applications beyond single particle imaging are presented to showcase the potential of the described research project, beyond our immediate goals. The second chapter describes my initial characterization of large, metallic, anisotropic nanorods and the establishment of experimental procedures used later for spectrum reconstruction, data visualization and analysis. The physical shape and structure of the particles were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and the optical properties by darkfield microscopy. An experimental protocol was developed to connect information collected from separate techniques for the same particle, with the aims of discovering any possible structural-property correlation. The reproducibility of the single particle imaging method was

  13. Determination of nuclear quadrupole moments – An example of the synergy of ab initio calculations and microwave spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellö, Vladimir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Comenius University, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-01-22

    Highly correlated scalar relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at nuclei in diatomic molecules in combination with accurate nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained from microwave spectroscopy are used for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments.

  14. Parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm in nuclear problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waintraub, Marcel; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a population-based metaheuristic (PBM), in which solution candidates evolve through simulation of a simplified social adaptation model. Putting together robustness, efficiency and simplicity, PSO has gained great popularity. Many successful applications of PSO are reported, in which PSO demonstrated to have advantages over other well-established PBM. However, computational costs are still a great constraint for PSO, as well as for all other PBMs, especially in optimization problems with time consuming objective functions. To overcome such difficulty, parallel computation has been used. The default advantage of parallel PSO (PPSO) is the reduction of computational time. Master-slave approaches, exploring this characteristic are the most investigated. However, much more should be expected. It is known that PSO may be improved by more elaborated neighborhood topologies. Hence, in this work, we develop several different PPSO algorithms exploring the advantages of enhanced neighborhood topologies implemented by communication strategies in multiprocessor architectures. The proposed PPSOs have been applied to two complex and time consuming nuclear engineering problems: reactor core design and fuel reload optimization. After exhaustive experiments, it has been concluded that: PPSO still improves solutions after many thousands of iterations, making prohibitive the efficient use of serial (non-parallel) PSO in such kind of realworld problems; and PPSO with more elaborated communication strategies demonstrated to be more efficient and robust than the master-slave model. Advantages and peculiarities of each model are carefully discussed in this work. (author)

  15. Nuclear fragmentation and the number of particle tracks in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    For high energy nuclei, the number of particle tracks per cell is modified by local nuclear reactions that occur, with large fluctuations expected for heavy ion tracks. Cells near the interaction site of a reaction will experience a much higher number of tracks than estimated by the average fluence. Two types of reaction products are possible and occur in coincidence; projectile fragments, which generally have smaller charge and similar velocity to that of the projectile, and target fragments, which are produced from the fragmentation of the nuclei of water atoms or other cellular constituents with low velocity. In order to understand the role of fragmentation in biological damage a new model of human tissue irradiated by heavy ions was developed. A box of the tissue is modelled with periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. The cross sections for projectile and target fragmentation products are taken from the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation code previously developed at NASA Johnson Space Center. Statistics of fragmentation pathways occurring in a cell monolayer, as well as in a small volume of 10 x 10 x 10 cells are given. A discussion on approaches to extend the model to describe spatial distributions of inactivated or other cell damage types, as well as highly organised tissues of multiple cell types, is presented. (authors)

  16. Nanoscale probing of bandgap states on oxide particles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianlang; March, Katia; Crozier, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Surface and near-surface electronic states were probed with nanometer spatial resolution in MgO and TiO 2 anatase nanoparticles using ultra-high energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) coupled to a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). This combination allows the surface electronic structure determined with spectroscopy to be correlated with nanoparticle size, morphology, facet etc. By acquiring the spectra in aloof beam mode, radiation damage to the surface can be significantly reduced while maintaining the nanometer spatial resolution. MgO and TiO 2 showed very different bandgap features associated with the surface/sub-surface layer of the nanoparticles. Spectral simulations based on dielectric theory and density of states models showed that a plateau feature found in the pre-bandgap region in the spectra from (100) surfaces of 60nm MgO nanocubes is consistent with a thin hydroxide surface layer. The spectroscopy shows that this hydroxide species gives rise to a broad filled surface state at 1.1eV above the MgO valence band. At the surfaces of TiO 2 nanoparticles, pronounced peaks were observed in the bandgap region, which could not be well fitted to defect states. In this case, the high refractive index and large particle size may make Cherenkov or guided light modes the likely causes of the peaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy studies of proteins-glycoconjugates interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis work has been focused on the analysis of the structural requisites for recognition and binding between proteins and glycoconjugates, essential for the comprehension of mechanisms of paramount importance in chemistry, biology and biomedicine. A large variety of techniques, such as crystallographic analysis, titration microcalorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence spectroscopy, allows the elucidation of molecular recognition events. In the last years...

  18. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  19. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  20. Fission 2009 4. International Workshop on Nuclear Fission and Fission Product Spectroscopy - Compilation of slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference is dedicated to the last achievements in experimental and theoretical aspects of the nuclear fission process. The topics include: mass, charge and energy distribution, dynamical aspect of the fission process, nuclear data evaluation, quasi-fission and fission lifetime in super heavy elements, fission fragment spectroscopy, cross-section and fission barrier, and neutron and gamma emission. This document gathers the program of the conference and the slides of the presentations

  1. Programme RAE: software that automates data acquisition in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, Luis F.

    1995-07-01

    A software for automatic acquisition and storing of nuclear spectra was developed. This program is to be used in a system composed of a radiation detector, a Spectrum-ACE or ADCAM and the Maestro II emulation software. In this paper the operating mode is fully described and several examples are given. (author). 2 refs

  2. High-temperature spectroscopy for nuclear waste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Robouch, P.; Torres, R.A.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Instrumentation has been developed to perform uv-vis-nir absorbance measurements remotely and at elevated temperatures and pressures. Fiber-optic spectroscopy permits the interrogation of radioactive species within a glovebox enclosure at temperatures ranging from ambient to >100 degree C. Spectral shifts as a function of metal- ligand coordination are used to compute thermodynamic free energies of reaction by matrix regression analysis. Pr 3+ serves as a convenient analog for trivalent actinides without attendant radioactivity hazards, and recent results obtained from 20 degree--95 degree C with the Pr-acetate complexation system are presented. Preliminary experimentation on Am(3) hydrolysis is also described. 16 refs., 1 tab

  3. Primary studies on particle recovery of swipe samples for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wang; Yan Chen; Yong-gang Zhao; Yan Zhang; Tong-xing Wang; Jing-huai Li; Zhi-yuan Chang; Hai-ping Cui

    2013-01-01

    Environmental sampling plays a significant role in nuclear safeguards. Isotopic ratio in uranium-bearing particles from swipe samples provides important information for detecting undeclared activities. Particle recovery which is the primary step of particle analysis, would affect the following analysis. The particle recovery efficiency of ultrasoneration recovery and vacuum suction-impact recovery were measured by alpha spectrometer with standard particles produced via aerosol spray pyrolysis method. The conditions of ultrasoneration were optimized and both recovery methods were evaluated. Finally, a procedure of particle recovery for unknown swipe samples was set up. (author)

  4. Measurement of fission track of uranium particle by solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. C.; Pyo, H. W.; Ji, K. Y.; Kim, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we discussed results of the measurement of fission tracks for the uranium containing particles by solid state nuclear track detector. Uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were prepared by uranium sorption onto silica powder in weak acidic medium and laser ablation on uranium pellet, respectively. Fission tracks for the uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were detected on Lexan plastic detector. It was found that the fission track size and shapes depend on the particle size uranium content in particles. Correlation of uranium particle diameter with fission track radius was also discussed

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, analytical chemistry by open learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.A.R.

    1986-01-01

    This elementary text on NMR spectroscopy is designed for self-study, primarily by those studying to be chemical technicians. The style is informal and direct. The basic elements of chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling, integrated intensities, and relaxation times are discussed briefly, with examples, but the emphasis is much more on this is the way it is than on providing a satisfying rationale. Quick introduction to sample preparation, NMR instrumentation, and signal enhancement techniques are included, but these are very sketchy. Only four pages are devoted to the Fourier Transform technique, hardly enough to give anyone a reasonable basis for understanding the technique and its power. About a third of the main part of the text is devoted to practical applications of 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, including structural assignments of peaks in the spectra of simple molecules and quantitative measurements of simple mixtures. The author provides a variety of questions and problems throughout the book, some of the simple memory-retention type but some more thought-provoking. The last 90 pages of the book are devoted to answering the questions and problems posed in the five chapters

  6. Large area avalanche MRS-photodiodes for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermalitski, F A; Zalesski, V B

    1996-12-31

    Problems of application of avalanche photodiodes (APD) in readout systems of nuclear spectrometers are considered. APD`s with a large sensitive area of a diameter 1-5 mm and a high multiplication coefficient 200-1000 are created. MPS-photodiodes provide for the energy resolution 80% at temperature 231 K for detecting gamma-quanta with energy 662 keV. 4 refs.

  7. Quantification of lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aru, Violetta; Lam, Chloie; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2017-01-01

    Lipoproteins and their subfraction profiles have been associated to diverse diseases including Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD). There is thus a great demand for measuring and quantifying the lipoprotein profile in an efficient and accurate manner. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is un...

  8. 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19F-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool to investigate host-guest complexation of some antidepressant drugs with natural and modified cyclodextrins. Leila Shafiee Dastjerdi1* and Mojtaba Shamsipur2. 1Faculty of Science, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 2Department of Chemistry, ...

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of living systems : Applications in comparative physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDenThillart, G; VanWaarde, A

    The most attractive feature of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the noninvasive and nondestructive measurement of chemical compounds in intact tissues. MRS already has many applications in comparative physiology, usually based on observation of P-31, since the levels of phosphorus

  10. [Studies of nuclear structure using neutrons and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains brief discussions on nuclear research done at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The major categories covered are: Fundamental symmetries in the nucleus; Dynamics in very light nuclei; D states in light nuclei; Nucleon-nucleus interactions; Nuclear structure and reactions; and Instrumentation and development

  11. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  12. Mean multiplicity of secondary particles in hadron-nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaverdyan, G.B.; Pak, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The mean multiplicity of secondary particles in hA interactions is examined in the framework of the multiplex scattering theory. The dependence of the secondary particle multiplicity coefficient Rsub(6)=anti nsub(hA)/anti nsub(hN) (where anti nsub(hA) and anti nsub(hN) are mean multiplicities of secondary relativistic particles in hA and hN interactions, respectively) on the energy and type of incident particles and atomic number of a target nucleus is analysed. It is shown that predictions of the leading particle cascade model are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data if the uncertainties of the inelasticity in hN interactions are taken into account. The value Rsub(A) weakly depends both on the incident particle energy and the form of parametrization anti nsub(hN)(E). Allowance of energy losses fluctuation of leading particle results in the Rsub(A) value decrease. From the model of leading particles it does not follow that Rsub(a) strictly depends on the type of incident particles at the fixed value of mean number of collisions. But quantitative values of Rsub(A) for different types of particles and at one value of anti ν, (i.e. at properly chosen value) coincide. The value of Rsub(A) is profoundly dependent on the values of inelasticity factor in hN interactions

  13. Nuclear spectroscopy of doubly-even130,132Ba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of some high-spin characteristic nuclear structure properties of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei has been made using two microscopic frameworks - CHFB and PSM. The yrast spectra, intrinsic quadrupole moment and deformation systematics of these nuclei have been successfully calculated. Further, the calculated data from both the frameworks is also compared with the available experimental data and a good agreement has been obtained. The present CHFB calculations describes very well the low spin structure of even-even 130,132Ba nuclei whereas PSM calculations provide a qualitative description of the high-spin band structure of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei.

  14. Impact of Oriented Clay Particles on X-Ray Spectroscopy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A. J. M. S.; Syazwani, R. N.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the engineering properties of the mineralogy and microfabic of clayey soils is very complex and thus very difficult for soil characterization. Micromechanics of soils recognize that the micro structure and mineralogy of clay have a significant influence on its engineering behaviour. To achieve a more reliable quantitative evaluation of clay mineralogy, a proper sample preparation technique for quantitative clay mineral analysis is necessary. This paper presents the quantitative evaluation of elemental analysis and chemical characterization of oriented and random oriented clay particles using X-ray spectroscopy. Three different types of clays namely marine clay, bentonite and kaolin clay were studied. The oriented samples were prepared by placing the dispersed clay in water and left to settle on porous ceramic tiles by applying a relatively weak suction through a vacuum pump. Images form a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was also used to show the comparison between the orientation patterns of both the sample preparation techniques. From the quantitative analysis of the X-ray spectroscopy, oriented sampling method showed more accuracy in identifying mineral deposits, because it produced better peak intensity on the spectrum and more mineral content can be identified compared to randomly oriented samples.

  15. Nanoscale probing of bandgap states on oxide particles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianlang [School for the Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85287 AZ (United States); March, Katia [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bâtiment 510, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Crozier, Peter A., E-mail: CROZIER@asu.edu [School for the Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85287 AZ (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Surface and near-surface electronic states were probed with nanometer spatial resolution in MgO and TiO{sub 2} anatase nanoparticles using ultra-high energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) coupled to a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). This combination allows the surface electronic structure determined with spectroscopy to be correlated with nanoparticle size, morphology, facet etc. By acquiring the spectra in aloof beam mode, radiation damage to the surface can be significantly reduced while maintaining the nanometer spatial resolution. MgO and TiO{sub 2} showed very different bandgap features associated with the surface/sub-surface layer of the nanoparticles. Spectral simulations based on dielectric theory and density of states models showed that a plateau feature found in the pre-bandgap region in the spectra from (100) surfaces of 60 nm MgO nanocubes is consistent with a thin hydroxide surface layer. The spectroscopy shows that this hydroxide species gives rise to a broad filled surface state at 1.1 eV above the MgO valence band. At the surfaces of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, pronounced peaks were observed in the bandgap region, which could not be well fitted to defect states. In this case, the high refractive index and large particle size may make Cherenkov or guided light modes the likely causes of the peaks. - Highlights: • Bandgap states detected with aloof beam monochromated EELS on oxide nanoparticle surfaces. • Dielectric theory applied to simulate the spectra and interpret surface structure. • Density of states models also be employed to understand the surface electronic structure. • In MgO, one states associate with water species was found close to the valence band edge. • In anatase, two mid-gap states associated with point defects were found.

  16. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance detection and spectroscopy of single proteins using quantum logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchinsky, I; Sushkov, A O; Urbach, E; de Leon, N P; Choi, S; De Greve, K; Evans, R; Gertner, R; Bersin, E; Müller, C; McGuinness, L; Jelezko, F; Walsworth, R L; Park, H; Lukin, M D

    2016-02-19

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the structural analysis of organic compounds and biomolecules but typically requires macroscopic sample quantities. We use a sensor, which consists of two quantum bits corresponding to an electronic spin and an ancillary nuclear spin, to demonstrate room temperature magnetic resonance detection and spectroscopy of multiple nuclear species within individual ubiquitin proteins attached to the diamond surface. Using quantum logic to improve readout fidelity and a surface-treatment technique to extend the spin coherence time of shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers, we demonstrate magnetic field sensitivity sufficient to detect individual proton spins within 1 second of integration. This gain in sensitivity enables high-confidence detection of individual proteins and allows us to observe spectral features that reveal information about their chemical composition. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Cross sections of nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles. Pt.6. Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobailem, Jacques.

    1981-11-01

    Cross sections are reviewed for nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles on phosphorus targets. When necessary, published experimental data are corrected, and, when possible, excitation functions are proposed [fr

  19. Continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in the collision of nuclear particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Solovyov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung arising at the scattering of various particles on a nucleus has been considered with the demonstration of an important participation of the nuclear polarization in the collision process

  20. Characterization of nuclear physics targets using Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubehn, T.; Wozniak, G.J.; Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Yu, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission have been utilized to precisely characterize targets used in nuclear fission experiments. The method allows for a fast and non-destructive determination of target thickness, homogeneity and element composition. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear Level Densities for Modeling Nuclear Reactions: An Efficient Approach Using Statistical Spectroscopy: Annual Scientific Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop and implement computer codes and input files to compute nuclear densities of state. Such densities are important input into calculations of statistical neutron capture, and are difficult to access experimentally. In particular, we will focus on calculating densities for nuclides in the mass range A ?????? 50 - 100. We use statistical spectroscopy, a moments method based upon a microscopic framework, the interacting shell model. In this report we present our progress for the past year

  2. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has been higher

  3. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  4. Development of a utility system for charged particle nuclear reaction data by using intelligentPad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF2, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the IntelligentPad architecture. By using the system, we can search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction of NRDF. Furthermore, we also see the experimental data by using graphic pads which was made through the CONTIP project. (author)

  5. Diagnosis of laser ablated carbon particles measured by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Atsumi; Yoda, Osamu; Ohyanagi, T.; Murakami, K.

    1995-01-01

    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using LPX as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20J/cm 2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibited several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak from 1s→2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C 0 ), C - , C + and C 2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C 0 was stronger as the probing position was closer to the sample surface and decreased rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C 2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speeds of highly charged ions were faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions were emitted from the sample even after laser irradiation. The spatial distributions of the laser ablated carbon particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume was depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  6. A single chip pulse processor for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilsenrath, F.; Bakke, J.C.; Voss, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high performance digital pulse processor, integrated into a single gate array microcircuit, has been developed for spaceflight applications. The new approach takes advantage of the latest CMOS high speed A/D flash converters and low-power gated logic arrays. The pulse processor measures pulse height, pulse area and the required timing information (e.g. multi detector coincidence and pulse pile-up detection). The pulse processor features high throughput rate (e.g. 0.5 Mhz for 2 usec gausssian pulses) and improved differential linearity (e.g. + or - 0.2 LSB for a + or - 1 LSB A/D). Because of the parallel digital architecture of the device, the interface is microprocessor bus compatible. A satellite flight application of this module is presented for use in the X-ray imager and high energy particle spectrometers of the PEM experiment on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite

  7. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iulianelli, Gisele C.V.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  8. High-temperature laser induced spectroscopy in nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmon, W.E.; Berthold, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for conducting optical spectroscopy in a hostile environment. It comprises: a source of high intensity light; an optical fiber connected to the source of high intensity light for transmitting light therefrom. The optical fiber having an end for discharging light onto a material to be spectroscopically analyzed; a sheath defining a space around at least a part of the optical fiber carrying the end of the optical fiber for shielding the optical fiber from the hostile environment; a window in the sheath for closing the space and for passing light transmitted through the end of the optical fiber out of the sheath; light detector means for detecting and spectroscopically analyzing emitted light from the material; an optical fiber means for transmitting the emitted light from the material to the light detector means; a standardization module for containing a sample having a known composition and being exposed to known temperature and pressure conditions; an additional optical fiber connected to the module for transmitting light to the sample in the module; multiplexer means; and additional optical fiber means for returning light from the module to the detector through the multiplexer means

  9. Monitoring the oxidation of nuclear fuel cladding using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Hongyi; Mikael, Solomon; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar; Butt, Darryl; Blanchard, James P.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) cladding oxidation within a spent fuel canister, cladding oxidized in air at 500 °C was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy to measure the oxide layer thickness. Systematic Raman scans were performed to study the relationship between typical Raman spectra and various oxide layer thicknesses. The thicknesses of the oxide layers developed for various exposure times were measured by cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results of this work reveal that each oxide layer thickness has a corresponding typical Raman spectrum. Detailed analysis suggests that the Raman scattering peaks around wave numbers of 180 cm −1 and 630 cm −1 are the best choices for accurately determining the oxide layer thickness. After Gaussian–Lorentzian deconvolution, these two peaks can be quantitatively represented by four peaks. The intensities of the deconvoluted peaks increase consistently as the oxide layer becomes thicker and sufficiently strong signals are produced, allowing one to distinguish the bare and oxidized cladding samples, as well as samples with different oxide layer thicknesses. Hence, a process that converts sample oxide layer thickness to optical signals can be achieved

  10. Method of using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy, wherein the resonance peaks of either .sup.1 H, .sup.13 C, .sup.15 N, or .sup.29 Si may be used as a reference.

  11. On inclusion of the Pauli principle in the quasi particle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The Pauli principle in odd-even, even-odd and even-even nuclei in the quasi particle-phonon nuclear model is considered. It is shown that the Pauli principle can excactly be taken into account. The exact and approximate secular equations are obtained for the wave function containing the one-quasi particle and quasi particle plus phonon components. The effect of the Pauli principle is discussed, when the wave function contains the one- and two-phonon components. In both the cases the poles are shifted in the secular equations and the quasi particle-phonon interaction terms are added. The number of quasi particles in the ground states is estimated. It is stated that in the majority of deformed nuclei the correlations in the ground states are small. It is shown that within the quasi particle-phonon nuclear model the calculations can be performed with the exact commutation relations

  12. Single-particle basis and translational invariance in microscopic nuclear calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehfros, V.D.

    1977-01-01

    The approach to the few-body problem is considered which allows to use the simple single-particle basis without violation of the translation invariance. A method is proposed to solve the nuclear reaction problems in the single-particle basis. The method satisfies the Pauli principle and the translation invariance. Calculation of the matrix elements of operators is treated

  13. Use of instrumental nuclear activation methods in the study of particles from major air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Gladney, E.S.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear methods have been used effectively in the study of particles emitted by a coal-fired power plant and a municipal incinerator. In the coal-fired plant there is appreciable fractionation of only five of the observed elements. By contrast, particles from the incinerator are highly enriched in several trace elements

  14. Production and characterization of monodisperse uranium particles for nuclear safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Environmental sampling is a very effective measure to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Generally, samples are taken as swipe samples on cotton. These swipes contain minute quantities of particulates which have an inherent signature of their production and release scenario. These inspection samples are assessed for their morphology, elemental composition and their isotopic vectors. Mass spectrometry plays a crucial role in determining the isotopic ratios of uranium. Method validation and instrument calibration with well-characterized quality control (QC)-materials, reference materials (RMs) and certified reference materials (CRMs) ensures reliable data output. Currently, the availability of suitable well defined microparticles containing uranium and plutonium reference materials is very limited. Primarily, metals, oxides and various uranium and plutonium containing solutions are commercially available. Therefore, the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Services (SGAS) cooperates with the Institute of Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6) at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH in a joint task entitled ''Production of Particle Reference Materials''. The work presented in this thesis has been partially funded by the IAEA, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH and the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) through the ''Joint Program on the Technical Development and Further Improvement of IAEA Safeguards between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the IAEA''. The first step towards monodisperse microparticles was the development of pure uranium oxide particles made from certified reference materials. The focus of the dissertation is (1) the implementation of a working setup to produce monodisperse uranium oxide particles and (2) the characterization of these particles towards the application as QC-material. Monodisperse uranium oxide particles were produced by spray pyrolysis. It was

  15. Particle production from nuclear targets and the structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    Production processes from nuclear targets allow studying interactions of elementary hadronic constituents in nuclear matter. The information thus obtained on the structure of hadrons and on the properties of hadronic constituents is presented. Both soft (low momentum transfer) and hard (high momentum transfer) processes are discussed. (author)

  16. Study of the Neutron Deficient Pb and Bi Isotopes by Simultaneous Atomic- and Nuclear-Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Kessler, T

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study systematically nuclear properties of the neutron deficient lead $^{183-189}$Pb, $^{191g}$Pb, $^{193g}$Pb and bismuth isotopes $^{188-200}$Bi by atomic spectroscopy with the ISOLDE resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) combined with simultaneous nuclear spectroscopy at the detection set-up. The main focus is the determination of the mean square charge radii of $^{183-190}$Pb and $^{188-193}$Bi from which the influence of low-lying intruder states should become obvious. Also the nuclear spin and magnetic moments of ground-states and long-lived isomers will be determined unambiguously through evaluation of the hyperfine structure, and new isomers could be discovered. The decay properties of these nuclei can be measured by $\\alpha$-$\\gamma$ and $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ spectroscopy. With this data at hand, possible shape transitions around mid-shell at N$\\sim$104 will be studied. This data is crucial for the direct test of nuclear theory in the context of intruder state influence (e.g. energy ...

  17. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of plasma lipoproteins in malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabholtz, J.M.; Rossignol, A.; Farnier, M.; Gambert, P.; Tremeaux, J.C.; Friedman, S.; Guerrin, J.

    1988-01-01

    A recent study described a method of detecting malignant tumors by water-supressed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) study of plasma. We performed a similar study of the W 1/2, a mean of the full width at half height of the resonances of the methyl and methylene groups of the lipids of plasma lipoproteins which is inversely related to the spin-spin apparent relaxation time (T 2 * ). W 1/2 values were measured at a fixed baseline width of 310 Hz. The study was prospective and blinded and comprised 182 subjects consisting of 40 controls, 68 patients with untreated malignancies, 45 with malignant tumors undergoing therapy and 29 benign tumor patients. No differences were seen between any groups that could serve as a basis for a useful clinical test. The major difficulty in the determination of W 1/2 was due to interference of metabolite protons (particularly lactate) within the lipoprotein resonance signal. Triglyceride level was seen to correlate inversely with W 1/2 within malignant patient groups. These discrepant results may be related to differing triglyceride-rich very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels in the ;atient populations of each study. We conclude that the water-suppressed 1H NMR of plasma lipoproteins is not a valid measurement for assessing malignancy. (orig.)

  18. Particle emission in the hydrodynamical description of relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Kodama, T.

    1994-09-01

    Continuous particle emission during the whole expansion of thermalized matter is studied and a new formula for the observed transverse mass spectrum is derived. In some limit, the usual emission at freeze out scenario (Cooper-Frye formula) may be recovered. In a simplified description of expansion, it is shown that continuous particle emission can lead to a sizable curvature in the pion transverse mass spectrum and parallel slopes for the various particles. These results are compared to experimental data. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs

  19. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: kada.wataru@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Shikata, S. [Kwansei Gakuin Univ., 2-1, Gakuen, Mita, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Makino, T.; Koka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  20. Repulsive four-body interactions of α particles and quasistable nuclear α -particle condensates in heavy self-conjugate nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of repulsive four-body interactions of α particles on nuclear α -particle condensates in heavy self-conjugate nuclei using a semianalytic approach, and find that the repulsive four-body interactions could decrease the critical number of α particles, beyond which quasistable α -particle condensate states can no longer exist, even if these four-body interactions make only tiny contributions to the total energy of the Hoyle-like state of 16O. Explicitly, we study eight benchmark parameter sets, and find that the critical number Ncr decreases by |Δ Ncr|˜1 -4 from Ncr˜11 with vanishing four-body interactions. We also discuss the effects of four-body interactions on energies and radii of α -particle condensates. Our study can be useful for future experiments to study α -particle condensates in heavy self-conjugate nuclei. Also, the experimental determination of Ncr will eventually help establish a better understanding on the α -particle interactions, especially the four-body interactions.

  1. Particle production in hot and dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, A.

    1992-08-01

    The charged particle production in heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV has been studied for projectiles of 16 O and 32 S on targets of Al, Cu, Ag and Au. Up to 700 charged particles are measured in the pseudorapidity region -1.7 32 S+Au. The measured particle density is used to estimate the energy density attained in central collisions and gives a values of ≅2 GeV/fm 3 . This is close to the energy density predicted for the phase transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. To measure the large number of charged particle produced, finely granulated detector systems are employed. Streamer tube detectors with pad readout and large area, multi-step avalanche chambers with optical readout have been developed for the measurements. The widths of the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles increase with decreasing centrality of the collision as well as with increasing mass of the target nucleus. This behaviour is assumed to be due to the target fragmentation. The Monte-Carlo model for nucleus-nucleus collisions, VENUS 3.11, which includes rescattering, is in reasonable agreement with the data. The yield of charged particles for central collisions of the heavy targets with 33 S is found to be proportional to the target mass, A, at target rapidity. At midrapidity it is approximately proportional to A 0.3 . At midrapidity the charged particle measurements are supplemented by measurements of the transverse energy. The dimensionless, normalized variances of the multiplicity and transverse energy distributions are, to a large extent, governed by the collision geometry. The change in the normalized variance when studying the charged particle distribution in a narrow angular region is explained as being of statistical nature. (au)

  2. A Medical Application of Nuclear Physics: Particle Radiotherapy with Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Jonathan B.

    2006-10-01

    Since the discovery of radiation, applications have been made to medicine. The advent of higher energy particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century enabled modern tele-therapy using relatively high energy x-rays and particles. Today mega-voltage (MV) x-rays are the most common modality of delivering high doses of potentially life saving radiation to a wide variety of disease, mostly malignant cancers. However, the maximum radiation dose that can be delivered is always limited by the effects to critical surrounding biologic structures. In many cases, due to their physical properties, ``heavy'' particle radiotherapy with protons and light ions may provide an advantage in this respect over MV x-rays allowing either a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the volume or, for the same dose, reducing the concomitant damage to critical structures. This motivation, together with recent advances in particle therapy systems that are making the technology more readily available, is serving to grow the field of particle therapy. In particular, treatment with fast protons is becoming more widespread with over 20 facilities operating worldwide and more under construction. This presentation will provide an introduction to heavy particle therapy and additional details specifically on proton therapy.

  3. Scientific opportunities in nuclear resonance spectroscopy from source-driven revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, G. K., E-mail: gks@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Roehlsberger, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, DESY (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    From the beginning of its discovery the Moessbauer effect has continued to be one of the most powerful tools with broad applications in diverse areas of science and technology. With the advent of synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the Super Photon Ring-8 (SPring-8), the tool has enlarged its scope and delivered new capabilities. The popular techniques most generally used in the field of materials physics, chemical physics, geoscience, and biology are hyperfine spectroscopy via elastic nuclear forward scattering (NFS), vibrational spectroscopy via nuclear inelastic scattering (NRIXS), and, to a lesser extent, diffusional dynamics from quasielastic nuclear forward scattering (QNFS). As we look ahead, new storage rings with enhanced brilliance such as PETRA-III under construction at DESY, Hamburg, and PEP-III in its early design stage at SLAC, Stanford, will provide new and unique science opportunities. In the next two decades, x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), based both on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE-XFELs) and a seed (SXFELs), with unique time structure, coherence and a five to six orders higher average brilliance will truly revolutionize nuclear resonance applications in a major way. This overview is intended to briefly address the unique radiation characteristics of new sources on the horizon and to provide a glimpse of scientific prospects and dreams in the nuclear resonance field from the new radiation sources. We anticipate an expanded nuclear resonance research activity with applications such as spin and phonon mapping of a single nanostructure and their assemblies, interfaces, and surfaces; spin dynamics; nonequilibrium dynamics; photochemical reactions; excited-state spectroscopy; and nonlinear phenomena.

  4. Studies of nuclear structure using neutrons and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, N.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: fundamental symmetries in the nucleus; internucleon interactions; internucleon dynamics in very light nuclei; the many-nucleon problem; developments in electronuclear physics; and nuclear instruments and methods

  5. Charged particle-induced nuclear fission reactions – Progress and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attracting the attention of the investigators right from the beginning of nuclear fis- ... the change from mass asymmetric division to symmetric division as A and N/Z values .... (a) Schematic of the fissioning nucleus showing the decision making.

  6. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography: Literature scanned from April 11, 1987 through November 10, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

    1988-12-01

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data. The reader is referred to a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and to ''A Source List of Nuclear Data Bibliographies, Compilations, and Evaluations'' for a more comprehensive list. Since this publication is not cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in this paper. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments. 190 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Characterization of airborne plutonium-bearing particles from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The elemental compositions, sizes, structures, and 239 Pu contents were determined for 299 plutonium-bearing particles isolated from airborne particles collected at various locations in the exhaust from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. These data were compared with data from natural aerosol particles. Most of the collected particles were composed of aggregates of crustal materials. Seven percent of the particles were organic and 3% were metallic, viz., iron, chromium, and nickel. High enrichment factors for titanium, manganese, chromium, nickel, zinc, and copper were evidence of the anthropic nature of some of the particles. The amount of plutonium in most particles was very small (less than one femtocurie of 239 Pu). Plutonium concentrations were determined by the fission track counting method. Only one particle contained sufficient plutonium for detection by electron microprobe analysis. This was a 1-μm-diameter particle containing 73% PuO 2 by weight (estimated to be 170 fCi of 239 Pu) in combination with Fe 2 O 3 and mica. The plutonium-bearing particles were generally larger than natural aerosols. The geometric mean diameter of those collected from the mechanical line exhaust point where plutonium is converted to the metal was larger than that of particles collected from the wet cabinet exhaust (13.7 μm vs. 4.6 μm). Particles from the mechanical line also contained more plutonium per particle than those from the wet cabinets

  8. Nuclear and x-ray spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Fifteenth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, R.W.; Wood, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Research during the year is summarized briefly for the following areas: nuclear spectroscopy (including nuclear systematics and models and experimental studies of heavy-nucleus decays), x rays from radioactive sources (including L-subshell x-ray fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields and the measurement of tailing corrections in low-energy coincidence intensity determinations), and miscellaneous topics concerning computer codes and equipment. One may assume publication of completed work in the usual channels. Lists of personnel, publications, etc., are included. 7 figures

  9. Billion-Fold Enhancement in Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Magnesium Ions in Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Gottberg, Alexander; Kowalska, Magdalena; Bissell, Mark L; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Blaum, Klaus; Helmke, Alexander; Johnston, Karl; Kreim, Kim; Larsen, Flemming H; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Garcia Ruiz, Ronald F; Szunyogh, Daniel; Thulstrup, Peter W; Yordanov, Deyan T; Hemmingsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    β-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is highly sensitive compared to conventional NMR spectroscopy, and may be applied for several elements across the periodic table. β-NMR has previously been successfully applied in the fields of nuclear and solid-state physics. In this work, β-NMR is applied, for the first time, to record an NMR spectrum for a species in solution. 31Mg β-NMR spectra are measured for as few as 107 magnesium ions in ionic liquid (EMIM-Ac) within minutes, as a prototypical test case. Resonances are observed at 3882.9 and 3887.2 kHz in an external field of 0.3 T. The key achievement of the current work is to demonstrate that β-NMR is applicable for the analysis of species in solution, and thus represents a novel spectroscopic technique for use in general chemistry and potentially in biochemistry.

  10. Evaluation of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and collagen by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paula de M.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers represent a new class of materials with better mechanical properties and biocompatibility than those of the single components. Collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) are well known for their important biological properties. The blending of collagen with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur. Do to the excellent biocompatibility of these polymers, this blend has been much studied intending biomedical applications. And a one technique that can provide important information on molecular mobility, compatibility and even evaluate the interactions that can occur with these polymers is the Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Thus, the purpose of this work is to evaluate collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. From the values of relaxation times obtained, we can conclude that these materials have different interactions, and different mobility domains, confirming the heterogeneity and complexity of these materials. (author)

  11. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  12. Laser assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy: A new method for studying neutron-deficient francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Kara Marie

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive decay studies of rare isotopes produced at radioactive ion beam facilities have often been hindered by the presence of isobaric and isomeric contamination. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE, CERN uses laser radiation to stepwise excite and ionize an atomic beam in a particular isomeric state. Deflection of this selectively ionized beam of exotic nuclei, from the remaining neutral contaminants, allows ultra-sensitive detection of rare isotopes and nuclear structure measurements in background-free conditions.\

  13. 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of erythrocyte extracts in myotonic muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadoth, N.; Grinblat, J.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Shvo, H.; Navon, G.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts freshly prepared from erythrocytes of patients with myotonic muscular dystrophy, their unaffected siblings, and normal control subjects were examined with both 1 H and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A moderate variability was found in the relative amounts of various nonphosphorylated compounds among patients and control subjects; however, no significant differences were found between the groups. As for the phosphorylated compounds, the sum of ADP+ATP was found significantly elevated in the myotonic muscular dystrophy patients

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the functional content of organic aerosols: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge deficit of organic aerosol (OA) composition has been identified as the most important factor limiting our understanding of the atmospheric fate and implications of aerosol. The efforts to chemically characterize OA include the increasing utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Since 1998, the functional composition of different types, sizes and fractions of OA has been studied with one-dimensional, two-dimensional and solid state proton and carbon-13 NMR. This led to the use of functional group ratios to reconcile the most important sources of OA, including secondary organic aerosol and initial source apportionment using positive matrix factorization. Future research efforts may be directed towards the optimization of experimental parameters, detailed NMR experiments and analysis by pattern recognition methods to identify the chemical components, determination of the NMR fingerprints of OA sources and solid state NMR to study the content of OA as a whole. - Highlights: • Organic aerosol composition by 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. • NMR fingerprints of specific sources, types and sizes of organic aerosol. • Source reconciliation and apportionment using NMR spectroscopy. • Research priorities towards understanding organic aerosol composition and origin. - This review presents the recent advances on the characterization of organic aerosol composition using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  15. Nuclear track detectors for charged particles and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    2006-01-01

    It was with great emotion that I accepted to be a guest speaker to this memorial section dedicated to my old-time friend, Prof. Radomir Ilic. In addition to being one of the most outstanding scientists in the field of nuclear tracks, Prof. Radomir Ilic has been always highly acclaimed by the scientific community for his enthusiasm, his warm friendship, and his great vitality. Through his successful editorial activities, Prof. Ilic has proved to be very able to address the field of nuclear tracks to very wide audiences with special regards to young students. It was here in Portoroz, that Prof. Radomir Ilic was our host as the organiser of the 21st International Conference on Nuclear Tracks in Solids. All the participants have great memories of this very successful international conference. For all these reasons, the 2006 edition of the International Conference on Nuclear Energy for new Europe, with its wide audience and its venue at Portoroz, can be considered as one of the most appropriate forum for the memorial lecture of Prof. Radomir Ilic. The present paper will be dealing with the solid state nuclear track detectors-SSNTDs and their successful applications for the measurements of cosmic-ray-neutrons and terrestrial radioactivity, namely radon. (author)

  16. A history of nuclear transmutations by natural alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Matteo

    2005-01-01

    A systematic account of the use of alpha particles up to the 1930s for promoting the disintegration of atoms is here provided. As will be shown, a number of different radium family alpha sources were used in the experiments that led to the discoveries of the proton (Rutherford E 1919 Phil. Mag. 37 581-7) and neutron (Chadwick J 1932 Nature 129 312). The reasons leading to the employment of a particular alpha particle source, as well as the relationship between these sources and the available methods of recording, will be closely addressed

  17. An attempt to observe directly beauty particles in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Arnold, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musset, P.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.J.; Ramello, L.; Sletten, H.; Allasia, D.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Baroni, G.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Liberto, S.; Manfredini, A.; Meddi, F.; Petrera, S.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Santonico, R.; Sebastiani, F.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Sacton, J.; Schorochoff, G.; Wickens, J.; Breslin, A.C.; Montwill, A.; O'Connor, A.; Davis, D.G.; Davis, D.H.; Downes, J.K.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt at the direct observation of the cascade decay of beauty particles, produced by π - of 350 GeV/c leading to 3 muons or 4 muons in the final state, has been made in an emulsion/counter hybrid experiment at CERN. Under the assumption that the lifetime of beauty particles is of the order of 10 - 13 s the non-observation of any candidates provides an upper limit for beauty production of approx.=90 nb at the 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles in different biological environments analyzed by magnetic particle spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löwa, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.loewa@ptb.de; Seidel, Maria; Radon, Patricia; Wiekhorst, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Quantification of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) in biological systems like cells, tissue, or organs is of vital importance for development of novel biomedical applications, e.g. magnetofection, drug targeting or hyperthermia. Among others, the recently developed magnetic measurement technique magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) provides signals that are specific for MNP. MPS is based on the non–linear magnetic response of MNP exposed to a strong sinusoidal excitation field of up to 25 mT amplitude and 25 kHz frequency. So far, it has been proven a powerful tool for quantification of MNP in biological systems. In this study we investigated in detail the influence of typical biological media on the magnetic behavior of different MNP systems by MPS. The results reveal that amplitude and shape (ratio of harmonics) of the MPS spectra allow for perceptively monitoring changes in MNP magnetism caused by different physiological media. Additionally, the observed linear correlation between MPS amplitude and shape alterations can be used to reduce the quantification uncertainty for MNP suspended in a biological environment. - Highlights: • MPS signal amplitude: allows for MNP quantification in physiological environment. • MPS signal shape: specifically detects changes due to MNP interaction. • Correlation between changes in MPS amplitude and shape were found. • MPS signal (shape/amplitude) correlation allow for a quantification correction. • Reliable quantification result if the dynamic magnetic behavior of MNP do not change.

  19. Nuclear Waste Removal Using Particle Beams Incineration with Fast Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    1997-01-01

    The management of nuclear waste is one of the major obstacles to the acceptability of nuclear power as a main source of energy for the future. TARC, a new experiment at CERN, is testing the practicality of Carlo Rubbia's idea to make use of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing to transmute long-lived fission fragments into short-lived or stable nuclides. Spallation neutrons produced in a large Lead assembly have a high probability to be captured at the energies of cross-section resonances in elements such as 99Tc, 129I, etc. An accelerator-driven sub-critical device using Thorium (Energy Amplifier) would be very effective in eliminating TRansUranic elements which constitute the most dangerous part of nuclear waste while producing from it large amounts of energy. In addition, such a system could transform, at a high rate and little energetic cost, long-lived fission fragments into short-lived elements.

  20. Development of an optimal filter substrate for the identification of small microplastic particles in food by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oßmann, Barbara E; Sarau, George; Schmitt, Sebastian W; Holtmannspötter, Heinrich; Christiansen, Silke H; Dicke, Wilhelm

    2017-06-01

    When analysing microplastics in food, due to toxicological reasons it is important to achieve clear identification of particles down to a size of at least 1 μm. One reliable, optical analytical technique allowing this is micro-Raman spectroscopy. After isolation of particles via filtration, analysis is typically performed directly on the filter surface. In order to obtain high qualitative Raman spectra, the material of the membrane filters should not show any interference in terms of background and Raman signals during spectrum acquisition. To facilitate the usage of automatic particle detection, membrane filters should also show specific optical properties. In this work, beside eight different, commercially available membrane filters, three newly designed metal-coated polycarbonate membrane filters were tested to fulfil these requirements. We found that aluminium-coated polycarbonate membrane filters had ideal characteristics as a substrate for micro-Raman spectroscopy. Its spectrum shows no or minimal interference with particle spectra, depending on the laser wavelength. Furthermore, automatic particle detection can be applied when analysing the filter surface under dark-field illumination. With this new membrane filter, analytics free of interference of microplastics down to a size of 1 μm becomes possible. Thus, an important size class of these contaminants can now be visualized and spectrally identified. Graphical abstract A newly developed aluminium coated polycarbonate membrane filter enables automatic particle detection and generation of high qualitative Raman spectra allowing identification of small microplastics.

  1. Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang; Sun, Bo; Steel, Duncan G; Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Sham, L J

    2009-06-25

    A single electron or hole spin trapped inside a semiconductor quantum dot forms the foundation for many proposed quantum logic devices. In group III-V materials, the resonance and coherence between two ground states of the single spin are inevitably affected by the lattice nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, while the dynamics of the single spin also influence the nuclear environment. Recent efforts have been made to protect the coherence of spins in quantum dots by suppressing the nuclear spin fluctuations. However, coherent control of a single spin in a single dot with simultaneous suppression of the nuclear fluctuations has yet to be achieved. Here we report the suppression of nuclear field fluctuations in a singly charged quantum dot to well below the thermal value, as shown by an enhancement of the single electron spin dephasing time T(2)*, which we measure using coherent dark-state spectroscopy. The suppression of nuclear fluctuations is found to result from a hole-spin assisted dynamic nuclear spin polarization feedback process, where the stable value of the nuclear field is determined only by the laser frequencies at fixed laser powers. This nuclear field locking is further demonstrated in a three-laser measurement, indicating a possible enhancement of the electron spin T(2)* by a factor of several hundred. This is a simple and powerful method of enhancing the electron spin coherence time without use of 'spin echo'-type techniques. We expect that our results will enable the reproducible preparation of the nuclear spin environment for repetitive control and measurement of a single spin with minimal statistical broadening.

  2. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  3. Nuclear planetology: understanding planetary mantle and crust formation in the light of nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Goetz

    2017-04-01

    conceptual model constraining the evolution of a rocky planet like Earth or Mercury from a stellar precursor of the oldest population to a Fe-C BLD, shifting through different spectral classes in a HR diagram after massive decompression and tremendous energy losses. In the light of WD/BLD cosmochronology [1], solar system bodies like Earth, Mercury and Moon are regarded as captured interlopers from the Galactic bulge, Earth and Moon possibly representing remnants of an old binary system. Such a preliminary scenario is supported by similar ages obtained from WD's for the Galactic halo [1] and, independently, by means of 187Re-232Th-238U nuclear geochronometry [3, 4], together with recent observations extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way [8]. This might be further elucidated in the near future by Th/U cosmochronometry based upon a nuclear production ratio Th/U = 0.96 [9] and additionally by means of a newly developed nucleogeochronometric age dating method for stellar spectroscopy [9-11]. The model shall stimulate geochemical data interpretation from a different perspective, to constrain the evolution and differentiation of planetary or lunar crusts and mantles in general. [1] Fontaine et al. (2001), Public. Astron. Soc. of the Pacific 113, 409-435. [2] Roller (2015), Abstract T34B-0407, AGU Spring Meeting 2015. [3] Roller (2016), Goldschmidt Conf. Abstr. 26, 2642. [4] Roller (2015), Goldschmidt Conf. Abstr. 25, 2672. [5] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 18, EGU2016-33. [6] Arevalo et al. (2010), Chem. Geol. 271, 70-85. [7] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-2399. [8] Howes et al. (2015), Nature 527, 484-487. [9] Roller (2016), JPS Conf. Proc., Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC XIV), Niigata, Japan, subm. (NICXIV-001); NICXIV Abstr. #1570244284. [10] Roller (2016), JPS Conf. Proc., Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC XIV), Niigata, Japan, subm. (NICXIV-002); NICXIV Abstr. #1570244285. [11] Roller (2016), JPS Conf. Proc., Nuclei in the

  4. Radioactive particles after different nuclear events in the USSR (overview and modern data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.K.; Stukin, E.D.; Kvasnikova, E.V. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Institute of Global Climate and Ecology participated in all stages of investigations concerning spreading of the radioactive particles formed after nuclear explosions. Since 1963 the radioactive particles from the surface nuclear explosions on the Semipalatinsk Test Site were investigated. Since 1964 the study of the environmental contamination from the underground nuclear explosions (including the cratering nuclear explosions) was carried out. Simultaneously the secondary radioactive aerosols released into the atmosphere from ventilated underground explosions were investigated. Since 1986 the forming and spreading of the radioactive aerosols from Chernobyl accident was studied. An overview of retrospective data will be presented. For example, the fragmentation radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 155}Eu, radionuclides induced by neutrons {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu and transuranium radionuclides {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were estimated in 15 particles of August, 29, 1949 explosion using the semiconductor spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. Data collection include the samples taken on local traces of ground and underground excavation nuclear explosions, this information will be added by the modern data from soil samples near '1004' explosion (lake Chagan), October 2003. The results of comparison of radionuclide fractionation in the radioactive particles in slag from cratering nuclear explosions and in melt samples will be presented. Main results obtained under the IAEA Research Contract no. 11468. (author)

  5. An empirical approach to the theory of particle and nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, ... brief review of some interesting consequences is presented here. ... generalization of the Gutzwiller trace formula for field theories may lead to a systematic semiclassi- ... There are two important gaps in the line, first being between Т.

  6. Symposium on nuclear particle accelerators in medicine: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This symposium deals with the cyclotron production of radiopharmaceuticals and the application of radionuclides and -pharmaceuticals produced this way. The use of positron emitters in nuclear medicine medical physics and radiobiology are discussed as well as radiotherapy and all the aspects of neutron radiation and dosimetry of neutron therapy

  7. On the momentum distribution of particles participating in nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear stopping is studied as a function of incident energy and charge of the ... Low and intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions; breakup and momentum ... it to be highly sensitive towards the N–N cross-section and weakly towards different ...

  8. Nuclear charge radii and nuclear moments of neutron deficient Ba isotopes from high resolution laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, G.; Bekk, K.; Goering, S.; Hanser, A.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1978-07-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the BaI 6s 2 1 S 0 -6s6p 1 P 1 transitions (lambda = 553.6 nm) in neutron deficient Ba nuclides (N 131 Ba, 128 Ba, in addition to remeasurements of all stable Ba nuclides. The extracted values of delta 2 >, the observed odd-even staggering and the nuclear moments are discussed in the light of other theoretical and experimental nuclear structure studies of the region 50 [de

  9. Shell-Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Single-Particle Energy Levels of Insulating Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Hens, Z.; Zunger, A.; Franceschetti, A; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Gurevich, L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of CdSe quantum dots are studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By varying the tip-dot distance, we switch from "shell-filling" spectroscopy (where electrons accumulate in the dot and experience mutual repulsion) to "shell-tunneling" spectroscopy (where electrons tunnel, one

  10. Skin Dose Assessment by Hot Particles in Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Yeol; Cho, Woon Kap; Lee, Jai Ki

    2009-01-01

    Since a contamination event by hot particles happened due to damaged nuclear fuel at a nuclear power plant (NPP) in the 1980's, skin exposure resulted from hot particles has gotten considerable attention from all the radiation workers in the nuclear industry. In particular, contamination incident caused by hot particles which happened at a NPP in Susquehanna proved that there existed hot particles with the radioactivity of 0.7 GBq, 0.78 GBq, and even 2.78 GBq at maximum. One of these particles was found on a worker's shoe and gave out a dose of 170 mSv. Although there has been no contamination event reported in domestic NPPs which are caused by hot particles, it is hard to conclude that there is no possibility of such contamination for radiation workers. The contaminated samples employed in this study were taken from local NPPs and supposes a case of a worker's skin contaminated by hot particles to evaluate the dose provided to the worker's skin

  11. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Nineteenth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Our effort is centered on radioactive decay studies of far-from-stable nuclides produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Progress is reported on the following studies: lifetime of the g/sub 7/2/ level in 109 Ag; halflife of the h/sub 9/2/ level in 187 Au; decay of 8.4 min 187 Au → 187 Pt; orbital EC probabilities and decay energy of 207 Bi; decay of 9 min /sup 201m/Po and 16 min /sup 201g/Po; decay of 2.5 min 125 Ba; decay of 7.4 min 203 At; exploration of neutron-deficient Sm, Pm, and Nd nuclides; preparation of thoron active deposit conversion electron sources; inception of nuclear laser spectroscopy at UNISOR; and nuclear structure calculations with nuclear models. Publications are listed

  12. ISINN-5. 5. International seminar on interaction of neutrons with nuclei. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The materials submitted at the fifth in a series of annual international seminar on interaction of neutrons with nuclei Neutron Spectroscopy, Nuclear Structure, Related Topics (ISINN-5) are given. The Seminar is organized by the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and took place in Dubna on May 14-17, 1997. About 130 specialists from Belgium, China, Germany, France, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Netherlands, Ukraine, 7 Russian research institutes and a number of JINR laboratories took part in the Seminar. The scope of the problems discussed is traditionally wide. It includes the problems of violation of fundamental symmetries in the interaction of neutrons with nuclei, the properties of the neutron as the fundamental particle, nonstatistical aspects of the radiation capture of neutrons by nuclei, topical problems of the theory of nucleus, and the fission mechanism of heavy nuclei. The latest results obtained with ultracold neutrons (UCN), in particular, different approaches to understanding of the cause of UCN anomalous leakage through the walls of the trap are considered as well. The wide spectrum of methodological aspects of neutron-aided experiments is also discussed in details

  13. Spectroscopy of few-particle nuclei around magic 132Sn from fission product γ-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    We are studying the yrast structure of very neutron-rich nuclei around doubly magic 132 Sn by analyzing fission product γ-ray data from a 248 Cm source at Eurogam II. Yrast cascades in several few-valence-particle nuclei have been identified through γγ cross coincidences with their complementary fission partners. Results for two-valence-particle nuclei 132 Sb, 134 Te, 134 Sb and 134 Sn provide empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions which, combined with single-particle energies already known in the one-particle nuclei, are essential for shell-model analysis in this region. Findings for the N = 82 nuclei 134 Te and 135 I have now been extended to the four-proton nucleus 136 Xe. Results for the two-neutron nucleus 134 Sn and the N = 83 isotones 134 Sb, 135 Te and 135 I open up the spectroscopy of nuclei in the northeast quadrant above 132 Sn

  14. Method to produce carbon-cladded nuclear fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturge, D.W.; Meaden, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    In the method charges of micro-spherules of fuel element are designed to have two carbon layers, whereby a one aims to achieve a uniform granulation (standard measurement). Two drums are used for this purpose connected behind one another. The micro-spherules coated with the first layer (phenolformaldehyde resin coated graphite particles) leave the first drum and enter the second one. Following the coating with a second layer, the micro-spherules are introduced into a grain size separator. The spherules that are too small are directly recycled into the second drum and those ones that are too large are recycled into the first drum after removing the graphite layers. The method may also be applied to metal cladded particles to manufacture cermet fuels. (RW) [de

  15. Measurement of particle size distribution and mass concentration of nuclear fuel aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1982-01-01

    The particle size distribution and particle mass concentration of a nuclear fuel aerosol is measured by admitting the aerosol into a vertically-extending container, positioning an alpha particle detector within the container so that its window is horizontal and directed vertically, stopping the admission of aerosol into the container, detecting the alpha-activity of the particles of the aerosol sedimenting onto the detector window (for example in a series of equal time intervals until a constant level is reached), and converting the alpha-activity measurements into particle size distribution and/or particle mass concentration measurements. The detector is attached to a pivotted arm and by raising a counterweight can be lowered from the container for cleaning. (author)

  16. Chlorine gas processing of oxide nuclear fuel particles containing thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Bildstein, H.; Falta, G.; Wagner, H.

    Experimental studies on the chloride extraction and separation of U and Th from coated Th--U oxide particles are reported. After a description of the chlorination equipment and the experimental procedures, the results are discussed. The yield of U is determined as a function of the reaction temperature. The results of a thermogravimetric analysis of the chlorination of uranium carbide and thorium carbides are reported and used to establish the reaction mechanism for the chlorination

  17. Nuclear fuel element containing particles of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles of alloy. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (Official Gazette)

  18. Analysis in nuclear power accident emergency based on random network and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Dichen; Fang Fang; Ding Weicheng; Chen Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The GERT random network model of nuclear power accident emergency was built in this paper, and the intelligent computation was combined with the random network based on the analysis of Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. The emergency process was divided into the series link and parallel link, and the parallel link was the part of series link. The overall allocation of resources was firstly optimized, and then the parallel link was analyzed. The effect of the resources for emergency used in different links was analyzed, and it was put forward that the corresponding particle velocity vector was limited under the condition of limited emergency resources. The resource-constrained particle swarm optimization was obtained by using velocity projection matrix to correct the motion of particles. The optimized allocation of resources in emergency process was obtained and the time consumption of nuclear power accident emergency was reduced. (authors)

  19. Intermittency in the particle production and in the nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1991-01-01

    Intermittency is a manifestation of scale invariance and randomness in physical systems. Intermittency in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and, in particular, the projectile dependence, multiplicity dependence and source-size dependence are discussed in the frame of the model of spatio-temporal intermittency. Moreover, recent theoretical results in intermittency studies of the nuclear multifragmentation are presented. (author) 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Charged particle radioisotope production at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1992-05-01

    A variable energy isochronous cyclotron (CV-28) was installed in 1974 at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, with the purpose, among others, of irradiating suitable targets to produce radioisotopes for medical diagnostic studies. This papers is an overview of the work done in the last two decades and reports the present status on the production of iodine-123 and gallium-67. (author)

  1. Time resolved measurement of laser-ablated particles by LAPXAS (Laser Plasma Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Atsumi; Yoda, Osamu; Murakami, Kouichi

    1999-01-01

    The time- and spatially-resolved properties of laser ablated carbon, boron and silicon particles were measured by LAPXAS (Laser Plasma Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy). The maximum speed of positively charged ions is higher than those of neutral atoms and negatively charged ions. The spatial distributions of the laser-ablated particles in the localized rare gas environment were measured. In helium gas environment, by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume depressed the ablation plume. There is no formation of silicon clusters till 15 μs after laser ablation in the argon gas environment. (author)

  2. Development of utility system of charged particle Nuclear Reaction Data on Unified Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yosihide; Kato, Kiyoshi; Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Chiba, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on a unified interface of Windows95, 98/NT. By using the system, we can easily search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction in NRDF and also see the graphic data on GUI (Graphical User Interface). Furthermore, we develop a mechanism of making a new index of keywords in order to include the time developing character of the NRDF database. (author)

  3. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  4. Scattering in particle-hole space: simple approximations to nuclear RPA calculations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) treatment of nuclear small amplitude vibrations including particle-hole continua is handled in terms of previously developed techniques to treat single-particle resonances in a reaction theoretical framework. A hierarchy of interpretable approximations is derived and a simple working approximation is proposed which involves a numerical effort no larger than that involved in standard, discrete RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  5. Multigroup constants for charged particle elastic nuclear (plus interference) scattering of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1977-01-01

    Multi-group averaged reaction rates and transfer matrices were calculated for charged particle induced elastic nuclear (plus interference) scattering. Results are presented using a ten group structure for all twenty-five permutations of projectile and target for the following charged particles: p, d, t, 3 He and alpha. Transfer matrices are presented in a simplified form for both incident projectile and the knock-ons; these matrices explicitly conserve energy

  6. Physical and chemical study of single aerosol particles using optical trapping cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    scope that views the trapped particle walking through the ringdown beam step by step. (b) An image that shows the traces of the particle (MWCNT... walking through the RD beam . 5 a b c Fig.3 The OT-CRDS single particle scope views oscillations of a trapped particle. (a) Image of a trapped...and walking single carbon- nanotube particles of ?50 µm in size and viewing those properties via changes of ringdown time. This single- aerosol

  7. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1959-12-01

    In the first part is studied the properties of atoms excited by the passage of α particles through the various rare gases at atmospheric pressure. A spectral analysis of the emitted light showed that certain impurities play an important part in producing the fluorescence, and it has led to the conclusion that the light emission contains at least two components - one very short - lived due to the direct deexcitation of the rare gas, the other relatively slower due to the energy transfers to the impurity. The measurement of the life-time of the excited states has confirmed this foregoing hypothesis, the rapid part of the impulse is extremely short: less than 2,25.10 -9 s in the case of xenon; the slower part has a life-time depending directly on the nitrogen concentration, nitrogen being the impurity giving the largest effect in all cases. The study of rare gases under the influence of an electric field has made it possible to show that the amount of light produced by an α particle can be multiplied (by 60, for example, in a field of 600 V:cm) so that the luminescent efficiency is greater than in the case of INaTI. In the second part the characteristics of the rare gases acting as scintillators is examined, the most important property being the absence of fluorescence saturation when the intensity of the excitation incident on the gas is very large. This, together with the very short time of scintillation has made it possible to study a certain number of nuclear physical applications (heavy particle energy-measurements, kinetic studies on nuclear reactors, neutron spectroscopy). (author) [fr

  8. Effects of nuclear structure in the spin-dependent scattering of weakly interacting massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, M. A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    1993-06-01

    We present calculations of the nuclear from factors for spin-dependent elastic scattering of dark matter WIMPs from123Te and131Xe isotopes, proposed to be used for dark matter detection. A method based on the theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the reduction of the single-particle spin-dependent matrix elements in the nuclear medium. Nucleon single-particle states were calculated in a realistic shell model potential; pairing effects were treated within the BCS model. The coupling of the lowest single-particle levels in123Te to collective 2+ excitations of the core was taken into account phenomenologically. The calculated nuclear form factors are considerably less then the single-particle ones for low momentum transfer. At high momentum transfer some dynamical amplification takes place due to the pion exchange term in the effective nuclear interaction. But as the momentum transfer increases, the difference disappears, the momentum transfer increases and the quenching effect disappears. The shape of the nuclear form factor for the131Xe isotope differs from the one obtained using an oscillator basis.

  9. Effects of nuclear structure in the spin-dependent scattering of weakly interacting massive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, M.A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1993-01-01

    We present calculations of the nuclear from factors for spin-dependent elastic scattering of dark matter WIMPs from 123 Te and 131 Xe isotopes, proposed to be used for dark matter detection. A method based on the theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the reduction of the single-particle spin-dependent matrix elements in the nuclear medium. Nucelon single-particle states were calculated in a realistic shell model potential; pairing effects were treated within the BCS model. The coupling of the lowest single-particle levels in 123 Te to collective 2 + excitations of the core was taken into account phenomenologically. The calculated nuclear form factors are considerably less then the single-particle ones for low momentum transfer. At high momentum transfer some dynamical amplification takes place due to the pion exchange term in the effective nuclear interaction. But as the momentum transfer increases, the difference disappears, the momentum transfer increases and quenching effect disappears. The shape of the nuclear form factor for the 131 Xe isotope differs from the one obtained using an oscillator basis. (orig.)

  10. $\\gamma$ and fast-timing spectroscopy of the doubly magic $^{132}$Sn and its one- and two-neutron particle/hole neighbours

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to use fast-timing and spectroscopy to study five nuclei including the doubly magic $^{132}$Sn and its four neighbours: two-neutron hole $^{130}$Sn, one-neutron hole $^{131}$Sn, one-neutron particle $^{133}$Sn and two-neutron particle $^{134}$Sn. There is an increasing interest in these nuclei since they serve to test nuclear models using state-of-the-art interactions and many body approaches, and they provide information relevant to deduce single particle states. In addition properties of these nuclei are very important to model the astrophysical $\\textit{r-process}$. The present ISOLDE facility provides unique capabilities to study these Sn nuclei populated in the $\\beta$-decay of In isomers, produced from a UCx target unit equipped with neutron converter and ionized with RILIS, capable of selective isomer ionization. The increased production yields for $^{132}$In are estimated to be 200 larger than in the previous work done at OSIRIS. We will use the recently commissioned Isolde Decay Station (I...

  11. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces (MPS2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions from the invited speakers at the 2014 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces held in Metz, France, from 15th to 18th July 2014. This biennial conference alternates with the ICPEAC satellite International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics, and is concerned with experimental and theoretical studies of radiation interactions with matter. These include many-body and electron-electron correlation effects in excitation, and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. More than 80 scientists, from 19 different countries around the world, came together to discuss the most recent progress on these topics. The scientific programme included 28 invited talks and a poster session extending over the three days of the meeting. Amongst the 51 posters, 11 have been selected and were advertised through short talks. Besides, Professor Nora Berrah gave a talk in memory of Professor Uwe Becker who sadly passed away shortly after co-chairing the previous edition of this conference. Financial support from the Institut Jean Barriol, Laboratoire SRSMC, Groupement de Recherche THEMS (CNRS), Ville de Metz, Metz Métropole, Conseil Général de la Moselle and Région Lorraine is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, I would like to thank the members of the local committee and the staff of the Université de Lorraine for making the conference run smoothly, the International Advisory Board for building up the scientific programme, the sessions chairpersons, those who gave their valuable time in carefully refereeing the articles of this volume and last, but not least, all participants for contributing to lively and fruitful discussions throughout the meeting.

  12. Sub-doppler spectroscopy based on the transit relaxation of atomic particles in a thin gas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmailov, Azad

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the review of methods, achievements and possibilities of the recently elaborated high-resolution laser spectroscopy based on sub-doppler absorption, fluorescence and polarization resonances, which arise because of the specific optical selection of comparatively slow-speed atoms in a thin cell with rarefied gas. It was considered two following mechanisms of such a velocity selection of atomic particles connected with their flight durations between walls of the thin cell : 1) optical pumping of sublevels of the ground atomic term and 2) optical excitation of long-lived quantum levels. Theoretical bases of elaborated spectroscopy methods are presented. In case of the optical pumping mechanism, experimental technique and results on the record of sub-doppler spectral structure of Cs and Rb atoms and on the frequency stabilization of diode lasers by given methods are described. Perspectives of further development and applications of this new direction of the high-resolution spectroscopy are discussed

  13. Solid-state 13C magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy characterization of particle size structural variations in synthetic nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state 13 C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy has been used to quantify the different carbon species observed in synthetically produced nanodiamonds. Two different diamond-like carbon species were observed using 13 C MAS NMR, which have been attributed to a highly ordered crystalline diamond phase and a disordered crystalline diamond phase. The relative ratio of these different diamond phases was found to vary with the particle size of the nanodiamond materials

  14. Exploratory study of nuclear reaction data utility framework of Japan charged particle reaction data group (JCPRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi; Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    Compilation, evaluation and dissemination are essential pieces of work for the nuclear data activities. We, Japan charged particle data group, have researched the utility framework for the nuclear reaction data on the basis of recent progress of computer and network technologies. These technologies will be not only for the data dissemination but for the compilation and evaluation assistance among the many corresponding researchers of all over the world. In this paper, current progress of our research and development is shown. (author)

  15. Shocks from high-energy nuclear-interacting particles in the mountain Chakaltajya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Experimental investigations of extensive air showers at the height of 5200 m above the sea level have been performed. The behaviour of high energy nuclear active particles in the cores of the showers has been studied using the nuclear knock-on method. The cross section of the proton inelastic interaction with the air is shown to increase with energy in the energy range of 3-9 TeV.

  16. Nuclear structure near the particle drip-lines and explosive nucleosynthesis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, K.L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Moeller, P.; Thielemann, F.K.; Wiescher, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the nuclear physics input for a selected set of explosive nucleosynthesis scenarios leading to rapid proton-- and neutron--capture processes. Observables (like e.g. luminosity curves or elemental abundance distributions) witness the interplay between nuclear structure aspects near the particle drip-lines and the appropriate astrophysical environments, and can give guidance to and constraints on stellar conditions and the associated nucleosynthesis. (authors)

  17. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  18. In-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes: From atomic physics to nuclear structure

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, S

    2014-01-01

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source RILIS [1] at the CERN-ISOLDE on-line radioactive ion beam facility is essential for ion beam production for the majority of experiments, but it is also powerful tool for laser spectroscopy of rare isotopes. A series of experiments on in-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes [2, 3] revealed the nuclear ground state properties of 191;211;216;218Po. However, limitations caused by the isobaric background of surface-ionized francium isotopes hindered the study of several neutron rich polonium isotopes. The development of the Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST) [4] and finally its integration at ISOLDE has led to a dramatic suppression of surface ions. Meanwhile, the RILIS laser spectroscopy capabilities have advanced tremendously. Widely tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers were installed to complement the established dye laser system. Along with a new data acquisition system [5], this more versatile laser setup enabled rst ever laser spectroscopy of the radioact...

  19. Collinear Laser Spectroscopy of Potassium Nuclear Charge Radii beyond N = 28

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078903; Jochim, Selim

    Nuclear ground-state properties, such as spin, charge radius, and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are important quantities to describe the nucleus. The comparison of experimental data to shell-model calculations gives insight in the underlying nuclear structure and composition of ground-state wave functions. Spins and charge radii can also be used to test the predictions of state-of-the-art microscopic models. This work contributes to these studies providing new measurements in the region of the nuclear chart around the magic proton number Z = 20. The data have been obtained at the collinear laser spectroscopy setup COLLAPS located at the radioactive-ion-beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. Using bunched-beam laser spectroscopy hyperne structure spectra of the potassium isotopes with mass number A = 48 51 could be recorded for the first time. Ground-state spins and isotope shifts could be deduced for 4851K contributing to the evolution of the d3=2 orbital beyond the shell closure at the magi...

  20. Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy in atomic and nuclear physics: applications to low energy ion-atom/molecule collisions and to beta-neutrino angular correlation in beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechard, X.

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1990's, Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy is an ideal tool for ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions study. We detail here the development of this experimental technique during the last twenty years, illustrated with some of the most striking results obtained at GANIL (Caen) and J.R. Mac Donald Laboratory (Kansas State University). Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy is also particularly well suited for β-ν angular correlation measurements in nuclear β decay. The LPCTrap experiment, installed at GANIL, is based on this technique, coupled to the use of a Paul trap for the radioactive ions confinement. The precise measurements performed with this setup allow both, to test specific aspects of the Standard Model of elementary particles, and to study the electron shake-off process following β decay. (author)

  1. Novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method using superfluid helium for measurement of spins and moments of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Takeshi; Wakui, Takashi; Yang, Xiaofei; Fujita, Tomomi; Imamura, Kei; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Tetsuka, Hiroki; Tsutsui, Yoshiki; Mitsuya, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Yoko; Yoshida, Naoki; Shirai, Hazuki; Ebara, Yuta; Hayasaka, Miki; Arai, Shino; Muramoto, Sosuke

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method using superfluid helium. • Observation of the Zeeman resonance with the 85 Rb beam introduced into helium. • Demonstration of deducing the nuclear spins from the observed resonance spectrum. -- Abstract: We have been developing a novel nuclear laser spectroscopy method “OROCHI” for determining spins and moments of exotic radioisotopes. In this method, we use superfluid helium as a stopping material of energetic radioisotope beams and then stopped radioisotope atoms are subjected to in situ laser spectroscopy in superfluid helium. To confirm the feasibility of this method for rare radioisotopes, we carried out a test experiment using a 85 Rb beam. In this experiment, we have successfully measured the Zeeman resonance signals from the 85 Rb atoms stopped in superfluid helium by laser-RF double resonance spectroscopy. This method is efficient for the measurement of spins and moments of more exotic nuclei

  2. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  3. Scaling of charged particle multiplicity distributions in relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamd, N.; Hushnud; Azmi, M.D.; Zafar, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, M.M.; Tufail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Validity of KNO scaling in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions has been tested by several workers. Multiplicity distributions for p-emulsion interactions are found to be consistent with the KNO scaling hypothesis for pp collisions. The applicability of the scaling law was extended to FNAL energies by earlier workers. Slattery has shown that KNO scaling hypothesis is in fine agreement with the data for pp interactions over a wide range of incident energies. An attempt, is, therefore, made to examine the scaling hypothesis using multiplicity distributions of particles produced in 3.7A GeV/c 16 O-, 4.5A GeV/c and 14.5A GeV/c 28 Si - nucleus interactions

  4. From pair correlations to the quasi-particle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Modern state of the nucleus theory is discussed. The main attention is paid to pair correlation theory of superconducting type and quasiparticle - phonon nucleus model. Pair correlation account allowed one to describe in detail a series of nucleus properties which did not fall within the framework of earlier known models as, for example, double-quasi-particle states in even-even deformed nuclei. To describe the wave function low-quasi-particle components at low, mean and high excitation energies, the nucleus quasi-particle-phonon model is formulated. The strength function method is used in the model and fragmentation of mono-quasi-particle, mono-phonon states and quasi-particle phonon state by many nuclear levels is calculated

  5. Functional integrals for nuclear many-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Yu.Yu.

    1996-04-01

    The new method for computation of the physical characteristics of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom is described. This method is based on the representation of the matrix element of the evolution operator in Euclidean metrics in a form of the functional integral with a certain measure in the corresponding space and on the use of approximation formulas which we constructed for this kind of integrals. The method does not require preliminary discretization of space and time and allows to use the deterministic algorithms. This approach proved to have important advantages over the other known methods, including the higher efficiency of computations. Examples of application of the method to the numerical study of some potential nuclear models as well as comparison of results with the experimental data and with the values obtained by the other authors are presented. (author). 25 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards and Forensic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; El-Jaby, A.; Doucet, F.; Bouchard, P.; Sabsabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Under the IAEA Task A1855, the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP) undertook the development of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technologies for safeguards applications. Collaboration between the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the National Research Council Canada, and the IAEA has demonstrated that the LIBS technique combined with chemometrics can determine the origins of yellowcake, identify maraging steels, aluminium alloys, and magnesium alloys, among other materials involved in the nuclear industry; and determine heavy water content as well as the isotope ratios of other actinides. As part of the task, the CSSP has developed a portable LIBS system to enable inspectors to characterize specific nuclear and non-nuclear material during complementary access and inspections. This device was recently tested by the IAEA in both Vienna and Siebersdorf for various metals and uranium bearing materials. The laser source proved to be stable and the chemometrics software was able to identify various materials. The device is ready for further in-depth testing. The chemometrics algorithm that has been developed for LIBS can also be adapted to nuclear forensics for the querying database. Multi-stage pattern recognition algorithms can reliably identify unknown materials among database populations (e.g., identify origins of yellowcake). Further work in this field is being undertaken as part of the CNSC's National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) development activities for the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project (CNNFCP). The paper will provide an overview of the LIBS techniques being developed for safeguards and forensic applications, and of progress in integrating all components into a compact unit. (author)

  7. Nuclear charge radii of 8,9Li determined by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewald, G.; Dax, A.; Goette, S.; Kirchner, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Kuehl, T.; Sanchez, R.; Wojtaszek, A.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Drake, G.W.F.; Yan, Z.C.; Zimmermann, C.

    2004-06-01

    The 2S → 3S transition of 6,7,8,9 Li was studied by high-resolution laser spectroscopy using two-photon Doppler-free excitation and resonance-ionization detection. The hyperfine structure splitting and the isotope shift were determined with precision at the 100 kHz level. Combined with recent theoretical work, the changes in nuclear charge radii of 8,9 Li were determined. These are now the lightest short-lived isotopes for which the charge radii have been measured. It is found that the charge radii monotonically decrease with increasing neutron number from 6 Li to 9 Li. (orig.)

  8. Studies of ultrathin magnetic films and particle-surface interactions with spin-sensitive electron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, G.K.; Dunning, F.B.

    1991-06-01

    Research during the current grant year has focused on: Investigation of probing depth in electron scattering from epitaxially grown paramagnetic films by means of Spin-Polarized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy; and studies of the dynamics of metastable He(2 3 S) deexcitation at surfaces utilizing Spin-Polarized Metastable Deexcitation Spectroscopy . This report discussed this research

  9. Characterization study of cesium concentrated particles in the soils near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated a vast area. Two types of contamination, spread and spot types, were observed in soils with autoradiography using an imaging plate. Other samples such as dust filters, vegetation, X-ray films, and so on, also indicate the spot type contamination in the early stage of the FDNPP accident. The source of spot type contamination is well known as hot particles at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986. Hot particles were divided into two groups, fuel hot particles and fission product particles, and they were emitted directly from reactor core with phreatic explosion and fire. In contrast, the official reports of the FDNPP accident did not conforme core explosion. In addition, the emitted total amount of Uranium was very few (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Thus, the spot type contaminations were not identified as the same of hot particles yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to pick up and identify the spot contaminations in soils. Surface soil samples were collected at 20 km northwest from the FDNPP in June 2013. Soils were spread in plastic bags for autoradiography with imaging plate analysis. Then, the soil particles were collected on a sticky carbon tape and analyzed by SEM-EDS to detect radioactive particles. Finally, particles were confirmed to contain photo peaks in the γ-spectrum by a germanium semiconductor detector. Four radioactive particles were isolated from the soil samples in the present study. Detected γ-ray emission radionuclides were only Cs-134 and Cs-137. The X-ray spectra on the SEM-EDS of all particles showed a Cs peak as well as O, Fe, Zn, and Rb peaks, and these elements were distributed uniformly within the particles. In addition, uniform distribution of Si was also shown. Moreover, U was detected from one of the particles, but U concentration was very low and existed locally in the particle. These characters are very similar to previous

  10. Calibrations of CR39 and Makrofol nuclear track detectors and search for exotic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)02249-7

    2003-01-01

    We present the final results of the search for exotic massive particles in the cosmic radiation performed with the MACRO underground experiment. Magnetic monopoles and nuclearites flux upper limits obtained with the CR39 nuclear track subdetector, the scintillation and streamer tube subdetectors are given. Searches at high altitude with the SLIM experiment are in progress.

  11. NRABASE 2.0. Charged-particle nuclear reaction data for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    For 30 targets between H-1 and Ag-109, differential cross sections for reactions induced by protons, deuterons, He-3 and alpha particles are given in tabular and graphical form. The data were compiled from original experimental references. The database was developed under a research contract with the IAEA Physics Section and is available on diskette from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  12. Reactions of charged and neutral recoil particles following nuclear transformations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1980-12-01

    A summary is given of the various activities conducted as part of the research on the chemical reactions of energetic particles generated in nuclear reactions. Emphasis was on hot atom chemistry in gases and liquids. A bibliography of 110 publications published as part of the program is included

  13. Single Particle Potential of a Σ Hyperon in Nuclear Matter. II Rearrangement Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The rearrangement contribution to the real part of the single particle potential of a Σ hyperon in nuclear matter, U Σ , is investigated. The isospin and spin dependent parts of U Σ are considered. Results obtained for four models of the Nijmegen baryon-baryon interaction are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. The maximum entropy determination of nuclear densities of calcium isotopes from elastic scattering of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Y.M.; Friedman, E.; Levine, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radial moments of the real part of the optical potential for elastic scattering of 104 MeV α particles are used as constraints, in determining the nuclear density of maximal entropy. The potential is related to the density by the folding model. (orig.)

  15. A nuclear field treatment of the 3-particle system outside closed-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, R.J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear field treatment of the 3-particle system is carried out to all orders of perturbation theory but without including hole-excitations. It is shown that the theory properly corrects both the Pauli principle violations and the overcompleteness of the basis

  16. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-12-31

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  17. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Methylmalonic aciduria and propionic acidaemia studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iles, R A; Hind, A J; Chalmers, R A

    1986-12-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor changes in urinary metabolites in a patient with propionic acidaemia over a period of 10 months and in a patient with methylmalonic aciduria over a period of 11 days. Results could be obtained within 5-10 min of sample receipt. In the spectra on the patient with propionic acidaemia not only could fluctuations in 3-hydroxypropionate and propionylglycine excretion be followed, but also variations in creatine, glycine and betaine, which were often present at millimolar concentrations. The patient with methylmalonic aciduria had an acute episode of severe ketoacidosis during which the glycine excretion fell but creatine excretion rose and then fell on recovery from the episode. The changes in the creatine excretion may reflect disorders in intracellular energy supply. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful technique for monitoring metabolic perturbations in the organic acidurias in 'real-time', allowing the planning and evaluation of therapy. (Auth.). 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs.

  19. Methylmalonic aciduria and propionic acidaemia studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, R.A.; Hind, A.J.; Chalmers, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor changes in urinary metabolites in a patient with propionic acidaemia over a period of 10 months and in a patient with methylmalonic aciduria over a period of 11 days. Results could be obtained within 5-10 min of sample receipt. In the spectra on the patient with propionic acidaemia not only could fluctuations in 3-hydroxypropionate and propionylglycine excretion be followed, but also variations in creatine, glycine and betaine, which were often present at millimolar concentrations. The patient with methylmalonic aciduria had an acute episode of severe ketoacidosis during which the glycine excretion fell but creatine excretion rose and then fell on recovery from the episode. The changes in the creatine excretion may reflect disorders in intracellular energy supply. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful technique for monitoring metabolic perturbations in the organic acidurias in 'real-time', allowing the planning and evaluation of therapy. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear microprobe analysis and source apportionment of individual atmospheric aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, P.; Rabello, M.L.C.; Watt, F.; Grime, G.; Swietlicki, E.

    1993-01-01

    In atmospheric aerosol reserach, one key issue is to determine the sources of the airborne particles. Bulk PIXE analysis coupled with receptor modeling provides a useful, but limited view of the aerosol sources influencing one particular site or sample. The scanning nuclear microprobe (SNM) technique is a microanalytical technique that gives unique information on individual aerosol particles. In the SNM analyses a 1.0 μm size 2.4 MeV proton beam from the Oxford SNM was used. The trace elements with Z>11 were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method with detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are measured simultaneously using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at the Brazilian Antarctic Station and at biomass burning sites in the Amazon basin tropical rain forest in Brazil. In the Antarctic samples, the sea-salt aerosol particles were clearly predominating, with NaCl and CaSO 4 as major compounds with several trace elements as Al, Si, P, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb. Factor analysis of the elemental data showed the presence of four components: 1) Soil dust particles; 2) NaCl particles; 3) CaSO 4 with Sr; and 4) Br and Mg. Strontium, observed at 20-100 ppm levels, was always present in the CaSO 4 particles. The hierarchical cluster procedure gave results similar to the ones obtained through factor analysis. For the tropical rain forest biomass burning aerosol emissions, biogenic particles with a high organic content dominate the particle population, while K, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Si are the dominant elements. Zinc at 10-200 ppm is present in biogenic particles rich in P and K. The quantitative aspects and excellent detection limits make SNM analysis of individual aerosol particles a very powerful analytical tool. (orig.)

  1. Estimation of the sizes of hot nuclear systems from particle-particle large angle kinematical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ville, J.L.; Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Jin, G.M.; Rosato, E.

    1990-06-01

    Light fragment emission, when triggered by large transverse momentum protons shows specific kinematical correlations due to recoil effects of the excited emitting source. Such effects have been observed in azimuthal angular distributions of He-particles produced in collisions induced by 94 MeV/u 16 0 ions on Al, Ni and Au targets. A model calculation assuming a two-stage mechanism (formation and sequential decay of a hot source) gives a good description of these whole data. From this succesfull confrontation, it is possible to estimate the size of the emitting system

  2. Pulse pile-up in nuclear particle detection systems with rapidly varying counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datlowe, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse pile-up in nuclear particle detection systems is the distortion of the measured pulse height distribution which occurs when there is a significant probability that more than one particle will arrive within the detector resolving time. This paper treats the problem in cases where the probability of pile-up varies on a time scale comparable to the rise time of the detector system electronics. These variations introduce structure into the pulse height distributions which cannot occur for a time-independent pile-up probability. Three classes of problems which exemplify these effects are as follows: 1) Pile-up rejection circuits. 2) Cascaded nuclear decays, in which the lifetime for emission of a second X-ray is comparable to the detector rise time. 3) Bursts of particles where the intensity is modulated on a time scale comparable to the detector rise time. These problems are solved computationally by an extension of a numerical technique previously developed. (Auth.)

  3. Characterizing physical properties and heterogeneous chemistry of single particles in air using optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Wang, C.; Pan, Y. L.; Videen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of solid particles in a gaseous environment are of increasing interest; however, most of the heterogeneous chemistry studies of airborne solids were conducted on particle ensembles. A close examination on the heterogeneous chemistry between single particles and gaseous-environment species is the key to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of hydroscopic growth, cloud nuclei condensation, secondary aerosol formation, etc., and reduce the uncertainty of models in radiative forcing, climate change, and atmospheric chemistry. We demonstrate an optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy (OT-RS) system to study the heterogeneous chemistry of the solid particles in air at single-particle level. Compared to other single-particle techniques, optical trapping offers a non-invasive, flexible, and stable method to isolate single solid particle from substrates. Benefited from two counter-propagating hollow beams, the optical trapping configuration is adaptive to trap a variety of particles with different materials from inorganic substitution (carbon nanotubes, silica, etc.) to organic, dye-doped polymers and bioaerosols (spores, pollen, etc.), with different optical properties from transparent to strongly absorbing, with different sizes from sub-micrometers to tens of microns, or with distinct morphologies from loosely packed nanotubes to microspheres and irregular pollen grains. The particles in the optical trap may stay unchanged, surface degraded, or optically fragmented according to different laser intensity, and their physical and chemical properties are characterized by the Raman spectra and imaging system simultaneously. The Raman spectra is able to distinguish the chemical compositions of different particles, while the synchronized imaging system can resolve their physical properties (sizes, shapes, morphologies, etc.). The temporal behavior of the trapped particles also can be monitored by the OT-RS system at an indefinite time with a resolution from

  4. Identification of nuclear power plant transients using the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos; Schirru, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to help nuclear power plant operator reduce his cognitive load and increase his available time to maintain the plant operating in a safe condition, transient identification systems have been devised to help operators identify possible plant transients and take fast and right corrective actions in due time. In the design of classification systems for identification of nuclear power plants transients, several artificial intelligence techniques, involving expert systems, neuro-fuzzy and genetic algorithms have been used. In this work we explore the ability of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) as a tool for optimizing a distance-based discrimination transient classification method, giving also an innovative solution for searching the best set of prototypes for identification of transients. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was successfully applied to the optimization of a nuclear power plant transient identification problem. Comparing the PSO to similar methods found in literature it has shown better results

  5. Identification of nuclear power plant transients using the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canedo Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE, UFRJ, Ilha do Fundao s/n, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE, UFRJ, Ilha do Fundao s/n, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2008-04-15

    In order to help nuclear power plant operator reduce his cognitive load and increase his available time to maintain the plant operating in a safe condition, transient identification systems have been devised to help operators identify possible plant transients and take fast and right corrective actions in due time. In the design of classification systems for identification of nuclear power plants transients, several artificial intelligence techniques, involving expert systems, neuro-fuzzy and genetic algorithms have been used. In this work we explore the ability of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) as a tool for optimizing a distance-based discrimination transient classification method, giving also an innovative solution for searching the best set of prototypes for identification of transients. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was successfully applied to the optimization of a nuclear power plant transient identification problem. Comparing the PSO to similar methods found in literature it has shown better results.

  6. Investigation of the production of slow particles in 60 A GeV 16O induced nuclear emulsion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Donghai

    2001-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions and correlations of grey track producing particles (N g ), black track producing particles (N b ) and heavy track producing particles (N h ) have been studied in 60 A GeV 16 O induced nuclear emulsion reaction. The multiplicity distributions of grey particles, black particles and heavy track producing particles can be reproduced by FRITIOF (version 1.7) taking cascade mechanism in to account and DTUNUC2.0 with an incident energy of 200 A GeV. The mean multiplicity of black particles (N b ) increases with the number of grey particle N g up to 10 and then exhibits a saturation for peripheral, central and mini-bias events; the average values of grey particles g > (heavy track producing particles h > increase with increasing values of black particle N b (grey particle N g )

  7. Removal of toxic uranium from synthetic nuclear power reactor effluents using uranyl ion imprinted polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, Chandrika Ravindran; Gladis, Joseph Mary; Rao, Talasila Prasada; Venkateswaran, Gopala

    2006-05-01

    Major quantities of uranium find use as nuclear fuel in nuclear power reactors. In view of the extreme toxicity of uranium and consequent stringent limits fixed by WHO and various national governments, it is essential to remove uranium from nuclear power reactor effluents before discharge into environment. Ion imprinted polymer (IIP) materials have traditionally been used for the recovery of uranium from dilute aqueous solutions prior to detection or from seawater. We now describe the use of IIP materials for selective removal of uranium from a typical synthetic nuclear power reactor effluent. The IIP materials were prepared for uranyl ion (imprint ion) by forming binary salicylaldoxime (SALO) or 4-vinylpyridine (VP) or ternary SALO-VP complexes in 2-methoxyethanol (porogen) and copolymerizing in the presence of styrene (monomer), divinylbenzene (cross-linking monomer), and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). The resulting materials were then ground and sieved to obtain unleached polymer particles. Leached IIP particles were obtained by leaching the imprint ions with 6.0 M HCl. Control polymer particles were also prepared analogously without the imprint ion. The IIP particles obtained with ternary complex alone gave quantitative removal of uranyl ion in the pH range 3.5-5.0 with as low as 0.08 g. The retention capacity of uranyl IIP particles was found to be 98.50 mg/g of polymer. The present study successfully demonstrates the feasibility of removing uranyl ions selectively in the range 5 microg - 300 mg present in 500 mL of synthetic nuclear power reactor effluent containing a host of other inorganic species.

  8. Dark current spectroscopy of space and nuclear environment induced displacement damage defects in pinned photodiode based CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are envisioned for an increasing number of high-end scientific imaging applications such as space imaging or nuclear experiments. Indeed, the performance of high-end CMOS image sensors has dramatically increased in the past years thanks to the unceasing improvements of microelectronics, and these image sensors have substantial advantages over CCDs which make them great candidates to replace CCDs in future space missions. However, in space and nuclear environments, CMOS image sensors must face harsh radiation which can rapidly degrade their electro-optical performances. In particular, the protons, electrons and ions travelling in space or the fusion neutrons from nuclear experiments can displace silicon atoms in the pixels and break the crystalline structure. These displacement damage effects lead to the formation of stable defects and to the introduction of states in the forbidden bandgap of silicon, which can allow the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs. Consequently, non ionizing radiation leads to a permanent increase of the dark current of the pixels and thus a decrease of the image sensor sensitivity and dynamic range. The aim of the present work is to extend the understanding of the effect of displacement damage on the dark current increase of CMOS image sensors. In particular, this work focuses on the shape of the dark current distribution depending on the particle type, energy and fluence but also on the image sensor physical parameters. Thanks to the many conditions tested, an empirical model for the prediction of the dark current distribution induced by displacement damage in nuclear or space environments is experimentally validated and physically justified. Another central part of this work consists in using the dark current spectroscopy technique for the first time on irradiated CMOS image sensors to detect and characterize radiation-induced silicon bulk defects. Many types of defects are detected and two of them are identified

  9. Time differentiated nuclear resonance spectroscopy coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupenko, I., E-mail: kupenko@esrf.fr; Strohm, C. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); McCammon, C.; Cerantola, V.; Petitgirard, S.; Dubrovinsky, L. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Glazyrin, K. [Photon Science, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Vasiukov, D.; Aprilis, G. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Material Physics and Technology at Extreme Conditions, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Developments in pulsed laser heating applied to nuclear resonance techniques are presented together with their applications to studies of geophysically relevant materials. Continuous laser heating in diamond anvil cells is a widely used method to generate extreme temperatures at static high pressure conditions in order to study the structure and properties of materials found in deep planetary interiors. The pulsed laser heating technique has advantages over continuous heating, including prevention of the spreading of heated sample and/or the pressure medium and, thus, a better stability of the heating process. Time differentiated data acquisition coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells was successfully tested at the Nuclear Resonance beamline (ID18) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We show examples applying the method to investigation of an assemblage containing ε-Fe, FeO, and Fe{sub 3}C using synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy, FeCO{sub 3} using nuclear inelastic scattering, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} using nuclear forward scattering. These examples demonstrate the applicability of pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells to spectroscopic techniques with long data acquisition times, because it enables stable pulsed heating with data collection at specific time intervals that are synchronized with laser pulses.

  10. Heat shock-induced interactions among nuclear HSFs detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Chan-Gi, E-mail: changipack@amc.seoul.kr [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Dept. of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    The cellular response to stress is primarily controlled in cells via transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well-known to form homotrimers for activation upon heat shock and subsequently bind to target DNAs, such as heat-shock elements, by forming stress granules. A previous study demonstrated that nuclear HSF1 and HSF2 molecules in live cells interacted with target DNAs on the stress granules. However, the process underlying the binding interactions of HSF family in cells upon heat shock remains unclear. This study demonstrate for the first time that the interaction kinetics among nuclear HSF1, HSF2, and HSF4 upon heat shock can be detected directly in live cells using dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). FCCS analyses indicated that the binding between HSFs was dramatically changed by heat shock. Interestingly, the recovery kinetics of interaction between HSF1 molecules after heat shock could be represented by changes in the relative interaction amplitude and mobility. - Highlights: • The binding interactions among nuclear HSFs were successfully detected. • The binding kinetics between HSF1s during recovery was quantified. • HSF2 and HSF4 strongly formed hetero-complex, even before heat shock. • Nuclear HSF2 and HSF4 bound to HSF1 only after heat shock.

  11. Radiation doping methods of semiconductor materials: the nuclear doping by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Zakharenkov, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the state of the art in one of the current topics in radiation doping of semiconductors, which is process of nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) by charged particles. In contrast to the neutron and photonuclear transmutation doping, which have been dealt with in monograths and reviews, NTD caused by the action of charged particles is a subject growing very rapidly in the last 10-15 years, but still lacking systematic accounts. The review consists of three sections. The first section deals with the characteristics of nuclear reactions in semiconductors caused by the action of charged particles: the main stress is on the modeling of NTD processes in semiconductors under the action of charged particles. In the second section the state of the art of experimental investigations of NTD under the influence of charged particles is considered. An analysis is made of the communications reporting experimental data on the total numbers of dopants which are introduced, concentration of the electrically active fraction of the impurity, profiles of the dopant distributions, and conditions for efficient annealing of radiation defects. The third section deals with the suitability of NTD by charged particles for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. (author)

  12. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin – poor tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athale Chaitanya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. Results We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 μm – wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Conclusions Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M

  13. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin – poor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Christian P; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Athale, Chaitanya; Herrmann, Harald; Eils, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Background The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. Results We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL) for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 μm – wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Conclusions Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M sorbitol. This effect correlated

  14. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance; Espectroscopia de alta resolucao em solidos por ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonagamba, T J

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120{sup 0} C to +160{sup 0} C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author).

  15. Aerosol particle transport modeling for preclosure safety studies of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, F.

    1989-01-01

    An important concern for preclosure safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository is the potential release to the environment of respirable aerosol particles. Such particles, less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, may have significant adverse health effects if inhaled. To assess the potential health effects of these particles, it is not sufficient to determine the mass fraction of respirable aerosol. The chemical composition of the particles is also of importance since different radionuclides may pose vastly different health hazards. Thus, models are needed to determine under normal and accident conditions the particle size and the chemical composition distributions of aerosol particles as a function of time and of position in the repository. In this work a multicomponent sectional aerosol model is used to determine the aerosol particle size and composition distributions in the repository. A range of aerosol mass releases with varying mean particle sizes and chemical compositions is used to demonstrate the sensitivities and uncertainties of the model. Decontamination factors for some locations in the repository are presented. 8 refs., 1 tab

  16. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  17. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  18. Determination of bound and unbound water in dental alginate irreversible hydrocolloid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, C M; Thomas, G A

    2009-04-01

    Alginate materials are considered unsuitable for precise fixed prosthetic rehabilitation due to their tendency to undergo spontaneous syneresis. Commercial alginate impression materials were investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy to probe the relation between changes in the microscopic water environment and dimensional change to obtain a better understanding of spontaneous syneresis. NMR was used to measure the spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of (1)H nuclei in water in alginate matrices to characterize changes in gel structure over time. These results were related to the dimensional stabilities of the alginate impression materials, their chemical compositions, and the Moisture Sorption Isotherms (MSI) obtained by incubation at fixed relative humidities. The rate of change of T(1) with time was found to be a better predictor of dimensional stability than MSI. The greatest dimensional stability for the alginate powders investigated was associated with a high filler:alginate ratio and a high Ca:Na ratio. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may used to measure changes in alginate impression materials under conditions where no dimensional change can be observed directly. Changes occurred rapidly even at 100% humidity, suggesting the dimensional stability of alginate impression materials is partially independent of the rate of dehydration. The results may open a way to formulate alginate impression materials more suitable for precise fabrication of dental prostheses.

  19. Quantifying Young's moduli of protein fibrils and particles with bimodal force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jay; Charnley, Mirren; Cheng, Christopher; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Jones, Owen G

    2017-10-19

    Force spectroscopy is a means of obtaining mechanical information of individual nanometer-scale structures in composite materials, such as protein assemblies for use in consumer films or gels. As a recently developed force spectroscopy technique, bimodal force spectroscopy relates frequency shifts in cantilevers simultaneously excited at multiple frequencies to the elastic properties of the contacted material, yet its utility for quantitative characterization of biopolymer assemblies has been limited. In this study, a linear correlation between experimental frequency shift and Young's modulus of polymer films was used to calibrate bimodal force spectroscopy and quantify Young's modulus of two protein nanostructures: β-lactoglobulin fibrils and zein nanoparticles. Cross-sectional Young's modulus of protein fibrils was determined to be 1.6 GPa while the modulus of zein nanoparticles was determined as 854 MPa. Parallel measurement of β-lactoglobulin fibril by a competing pulsed-force technique found a higher cross-sectional Young's modulus, highlighting the importance of comparative calibration against known standards in both pulsed and bimodal force spectroscopies. These findings demonstrate a successful procedure for measuring mechanical properties of individual protein assemblies with potential use in biological or packaging applications using bimodal force spectroscopy.

  20. 1-3 Nuclear In-medium Effects of Strange Particles in Proton-nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Zhaoqing[1

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of the in-medium properties of strange particles from heavy-ion collisions is very complicated, since he nuclear density varies in the evolution of nucleus-nucleus collisions. To avoid the uncertainties of the baryon ensities during the stage of strange particle production, one can investigate proton-nucleus collisions where the uclear density is definite around the saturation density. Dynamics of strange particles produced in the protoninduced uclear the reactions near the threshold energies has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum olecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. The in-medium modifications on particle production in densenuclear matter are considered through the corrections to the elementary cross sections via the effective mass and he mean-field potentials[1].

  1. A comparison of single particle tracking and temporal image correlation spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of endosome motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, F. W.; Wustner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) is becoming a standard method to extract transport parameters from time-lapse image sequences of fluorescent vesicles in living cells. Another method to obtain these data is temporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS), but this method is less often used for measu......Single particle tracking (SPT) is becoming a standard method to extract transport parameters from time-lapse image sequences of fluorescent vesicles in living cells. Another method to obtain these data is temporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS), but this method is less often used...... for measurement of intracellular vesicle transport. Here, we present an extensive comparison of SPT and TICS. First we examine the effect of photobleaching, shading and noise on SPT and TICS analysis using simulated image sequences. To this end, we developed a simple photophysical model, which relates spatially...... varying illumination intensity to the bleaching propensity and fluorescence intensity of the moving particles. We found that neither SPT nor TICS are affected by photobleaching per se, but the transport parameters obtained by both methods are sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the number...

  2. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  3. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles

  4. Verification of nuclear data for DT neutron induced charged-particle emission reaction of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Murata, I.; Ochiai, K.; Kubota, N.; Miyamaru, H.; Takagi, S.; Shido, S.; Konno, C.; Nishitani, T.

    2007-01-01

    Double-differential cross-section (DDX) for emitted charged particles is necessary to estimate material damage, gas production and nuclear heating in a fusion reactor. Detailed measurements of the cross-sections for beryllium, carbon and fluorine, which are among the composition materials of expected fusion blankets and first walls, were carried out with a charged-particle spectrometer using a pencil-beam DT neutron source. As verification of the cross-sections evaluated in three nuclear libraries (JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI and JEFF-3.1), our measured data were compared with the data evaluated in the libraries. From the comparison, the following problems were pointed out: Beryllium: Remarkable differences in energy and angular distribution for α-particles were observed between the measured data and the libraries. The estimated total cross-section for α-particle production well agreed with the libraries. Carbon: There was a discrepancy of about 20% between JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI (JEFF-3.1) for α-particle production cross-section, and no DDX for α-particles is given in the libraries. Our obtained total cross-section for α-particle production was rather consistent with ENDF/B-VI (JEFF-3.1), and the value evaluated in JENDL-3.3 seemed too large. Fluorine: The remarkable differences for DDX of protons and α-particles were observed between the obtained result and JENDL-3.3, although detailed DDX was stored only in JENDL. The obtained total cross-sections mostly supported the evaluation of ENDF/B-VI (JEFF-3.1)

  5. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy: correlated, homonuclear-correlated, and nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy. January 1975-December 1988 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1975-December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the enhanced analytical techniques of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2-D NMR). Applications to specific molecules, biomolecules, and compounds as well as comparisons of three 2-D NMR techniques: correlated spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser (NOSEY), and homonuclear-correlated spectroscopy (HOMCOR). (Contains 190 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Internet accessible hot cell with gamma spectroscopy at the Missouri S and T nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Edwin [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Mueller, Gary, E-mail: gmueller@mst.edu [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Castano, Carlos; Usman, Shoaib; Kumar, Arvind [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 203 Fulton Hall, 300 W. 13th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility has been built. > The facility allows distance users to analyze neutron irradiated samples remotely. > The Missouri S and T system uses computer automation with user feedback. > The system can analyze multiple samples and assist several researchers concurrently. - Abstract: A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility with pneumatic access to the University of Missouri Science and Technology (Missouri S and T) 200 kW Research Nuclear Reactor (MSTR) core has been built and is currently available for irradiation and analysis of samples. The facility allows authorized distance users engaged in collaborative activities with Missouri S and T to remotely manipulate and analyze neutron irradiated samples. The system consists of two shielded compartments, one for multiple sample storage, and the other dedicated exclusively for radiation measurements and spectroscopy. The second chamber has multiple detector ports, with graded shielding, and has the capability to support gamma spectroscopy using radiation detectors such as an HPGe detector. Both these chambers are connected though a rapid pneumatic system with access to the MSTR nuclear reactor core. This new internet-based system complements the MSTR's current bare pneumatic tube (BPT) and cadmium lined pneumatic tube (CPT) facilities. The total transportation time between the core and the hot cell, for samples weighing 10 g, irradiated in the MSTR core, is roughly 3.0 s. This work was funded by the DOE grant number DE-FG07-07ID14852 and expands the capabilities of teaching and research at the MSTR. It allows individuals who do not have on-site access to a nuclear reactor facility to remotely participate in research and educational activities.

  7. Internet accessible hot cell with gamma spectroscopy at the Missouri S and T nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Edwin; Mueller, Gary; Castano, Carlos; Usman, Shoaib; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility has been built. → The facility allows distance users to analyze neutron irradiated samples remotely. → The Missouri S and T system uses computer automation with user feedback. → The system can analyze multiple samples and assist several researchers concurrently. - Abstract: A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility with pneumatic access to the University of Missouri Science and Technology (Missouri S and T) 200 kW Research Nuclear Reactor (MSTR) core has been built and is currently available for irradiation and analysis of samples. The facility allows authorized distance users engaged in collaborative activities with Missouri S and T to remotely manipulate and analyze neutron irradiated samples. The system consists of two shielded compartments, one for multiple sample storage, and the other dedicated exclusively for radiation measurements and spectroscopy. The second chamber has multiple detector ports, with graded shielding, and has the capability to support gamma spectroscopy using radiation detectors such as an HPGe detector. Both these chambers are connected though a rapid pneumatic system with access to the MSTR nuclear reactor core. This new internet-based system complements the MSTR's current bare pneumatic tube (BPT) and cadmium lined pneumatic tube (CPT) facilities. The total transportation time between the core and the hot cell, for samples weighing 10 g, irradiated in the MSTR core, is roughly 3.0 s. This work was funded by the DOE grant number DE-FG07-07ID14852 and expands the capabilities of teaching and research at the MSTR. It allows individuals who do not have on-site access to a nuclear reactor facility to remotely participate in research and educational activities.

  8. Proceedings of the nuclear and particle physics on the light cone workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.; Kisslinger, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book deals with phenomena in nuclear and particle physics that occur at high energy and at high momentum transfer. At high energy, particles move near the light cone, and the topics covered deal with the physics from this perspective. The light-cone description is familiar in particle physics, but until recently it has not been used in nuclear physics. In view of the fact that nuclear physicists are increasingly looking to questions that can be answered only by experiments in the range of energy where the light-cone description seems to be of advantage, and that the ideas involved are new to many people in the nuclear physics community, efforts were made to ensure that each main speaker would give an introduction to the subject as well as present recent developments. The book should, therefore, be valuable to those who want to learn about light-cone approaches, in particular experimentalists and students, as well as to specialists. The volume is divided into eight chapters. The first chapter is an overview of the meeting and an introduction to the subject of light-cone physics. The remaining chapters encompass various applications and current topics in nuclear and particle physics where use of light-cone methods leads to understanding of high-energy phenomena and their connection to the quark and mesonic substructure of the nucleus. These include the main talks containing the introductory material, as well as shorter papers on the more specialized topics of current interest in both experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject. 38 papers have been cataloged separately

  9. Influence of particle size distribution on the analysis of pellets of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel; Santos Jr, Dário; Silva Gomes, Marcos da; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Guerra, Marcelo Braga Bueno; Krug, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Pellets of sieved plant materials (150, 106, 75, 53 and 20 μm sieve apertures) were prepared and analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the results for Ca, K, Mg, P, B and Mn were discussed as a function of particle size distribution. This parameter is of key importance for appropriate test sample presentation in the form of pressed pellets for quantitative analysis by LIBS. Experiments were carried out with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, and a spectrometer with Echelle optics and an intensified charge-coupled device. Results indicated that smaller particles yielded up to 50% emission signal intensities' enhancement and attained better measurements' precision (site-to-site variation). Moreover, matrix effects were reduced by analyzing pellets prepared from < 75 μm sieved fractions (mean particle size = 32 μm; d 95 = 102 μm) and by using a 50 J cm −2 laser fluence (220 mJ per pulse; 750 μm laser spot size). The preparation of pellets from laboratory samples with monomodal particle size distributions, where most particles were smaller than 100 μm, was decisive for improving analyte micro-homogeneity within the test samples and for attaining lower coefficients of variation of measurements, typically lower than 10% (n = 10 sites per pellet; 20 laser pulses per site). - Highlights: • First systematic study on the effects of particle size distribution. • Most appropriate particle sizes for pellet preparation depend on laser fluence. • Data can be used for sampling strategies aiming at LIBS analysis of plant materials

  10. Influence of particle size distribution on the analysis of pellets of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos Jr, Dário [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Silva Gomes, Marcos da; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Guerra, Marcelo Braga Bueno [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    Pellets of sieved plant materials (150, 106, 75, 53 and 20 μm sieve apertures) were prepared and analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the results for Ca, K, Mg, P, B and Mn were discussed as a function of particle size distribution. This parameter is of key importance for appropriate test sample presentation in the form of pressed pellets for quantitative analysis by LIBS. Experiments were carried out with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, and a spectrometer with Echelle optics and an intensified charge-coupled device. Results indicated that smaller particles yielded up to 50% emission signal intensities' enhancement and attained better measurements' precision (site-to-site variation). Moreover, matrix effects were reduced by analyzing pellets prepared from < 75 μm sieved fractions (mean particle size = 32 μm; d{sub 95} = 102 μm) and by using a 50 J cm{sup −2} laser fluence (220 mJ per pulse; 750 μm laser spot size). The preparation of pellets from laboratory samples with monomodal particle size distributions, where most particles were smaller than 100 μm, was decisive for improving analyte micro-homogeneity within the test samples and for attaining lower coefficients of variation of measurements, typically lower than 10% (n = 10 sites per pellet; 20 laser pulses per site). - Highlights: • First systematic study on the effects of particle size distribution. • Most appropriate particle sizes for pellet preparation depend on laser fluence. • Data can be used for sampling strategies aiming at LIBS analysis of plant materials.

  11. Nuclear spectroscopy of exotic nuclei with the SARA/IGISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, R.; Emsallem, A.; Astier, A.; Duffait, R.; Aerje, J.; Aeystoe, J.; Jauho, P.; Barneoud, D.; Genevey, J.; Gizon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent decay studies of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei are presented for nuclear structure investigations far off the valley of stability. The experiments, carried out at SARA, are based either on charged particle-induced fission of 238 U or on HI-induced fusion-evaporation reactions in combination with the IGISOL technique. The basic principle of this latter is recalled together with its advantages and limitations. The spectroscopic results obtained in three different regions of the chart of nuclei are sketched. (authors). 30 refs., 7 figs

  12. Experimental evidence of independence of nuclear de-channeling length on the particle charge sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagli, E.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Sytov, A.I. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); De Salvador, D. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Berra, A.; Prest, M. [Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Under coherent interactions, particles undergo correlated collisions with the crystal lattice and their motion result in confinement in the fields of atomic planes, i.e. particle channeling. Other than coherently interacting with the lattice, particles also suffer incoherent interactions with individual nuclei and may leave their bounded motion, i.e., they de-channel. The latter is the main limiting factor for applications of coherent interactions in crystal-assisted particle steering. We experimentally investigated the nature of de-channeling of 120 GeV/c e{sup -} and e{sup +} in a bent silicon crystal at H4-SPS external line at CERN. We found that while channeling efficiency differs significantly for e{sup -} (2 ± 2%) and e{sup +} (54 ± 2%), their nuclear de-channeling length is comparable, (0.6 ± 0.1) mm for e{sup -} and (0.7 ± 0.3) mm for e{sup +}. The experimental proof of the equality of the nuclear de-channeling length for positrons and electrons is interpreted in terms of similar dynamics undergone by the channeled particles in the field of nuclei irrespective of their charge. (orig.)

  13. Design of particle bed reactors for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Todosow, M.; Maise, G.; Barletta, R.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) that was considered for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program. The methods of analysis and their validation are outlined first. Monte Carlo methods were used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms were developed for the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and transient analysis; and commercial codes were used for the stress analysis. We carried out a critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR to validate the reactor physics; blowdown experiments with beds of prototypic dimensions were undertaken to validate the power-extraction capabilities from particle beds. In addition, materials and mechanical design concepts for the fuel elements were experimentally validated. (author)

  14. Dark-field scanning confocal microscope for vertical particle tracks in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, S.V.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The principle of the DArk-FIeld Scanning CONfocal (DAFISCON) microscope for selective observation of the vertical particle tracks in nuclear emulsion is described. The construction of the DAFISCON microscope, built on the basis of the 2D measurement microscope, is described. The results of the experimental testing of the DAFISCON microscope, accomplished at high density of the vertical particle tracks, are presented. The 2D plot and the 1D plot of the CCD dark-field image are given. The spatial resolution of our microscope can be increased by using the objective with higher aperture

  15. Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and in-situ applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Allman, Steve; Brice, Deanne J.; Martin, Rodger C.; Andre, Nicolas O.

    2012-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to determine the limits of detection of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), common nuclear fission products. Additionally, detection limits were determined for cerium (Ce), often used as a surrogate for radioactive plutonium in laboratory studies. Results were obtained using a laboratory instrument with a Nd:YAG laser at fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, frequency doubled to 532 nm with energy of 50 mJ/pulse. The data was compared for different concentrations of Sr and Ce dispersed in a CaCO3 (white) and carbon (black) matrix. We have addressed the sampling errors, limits of detection, reproducibility, and accuracy of measurements as they relate to multivariate analysis in pellets that were doped with the different elements at various concentrations. These results demonstrate that LIBS technique is inherently well suited for in situ analysis of nuclear materials in hot cells. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) can be evaluated; (2) nuclear materials can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation; and (3) samples can be remotely analyzed very rapidly (ms-seconds). Our studies also show that the methods can be made quantitative. Very robust multivariate models have been used to provide quantitative measurement and statistical evaluation of complex materials derived from our previous research on wood and soil samples.

  16. Statistical methods applied to gamma-ray spectroscopy algorithms in nuclear security missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Deborah K; Robinson, Sean M; Runkle, Robert C

    2012-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a critical research and development priority to a range of nuclear security missions, specifically the interdiction of special nuclear material involving the detection and identification of gamma-ray sources. We categorize existing methods by the statistical methods on which they rely and identify methods that have yet to be considered. Current methods estimate the effect of counting uncertainty but in many cases do not address larger sources of decision uncertainty, which may be significantly more complex. Thus, significantly improving algorithm performance may require greater coupling between the problem physics that drives data acquisition and statistical methods that analyze such data. Untapped statistical methods, such as Bayes Modeling Averaging and hierarchical and empirical Bayes methods, could reduce decision uncertainty by rigorously and comprehensively incorporating all sources of uncertainty. Application of such methods should further meet the needs of nuclear security missions by improving upon the existing numerical infrastructure for which these analyses have not been conducted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the chemical effects of nuclear transformations by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy proved to be a very successful method for the investigation of the effect of nuclear transformations in solid matrixes. This method makes possible the observation of the atoms to be investigated without the dissolution of the sample i.e. without interfering with the eventual intermediates or their environment, ensuring thus ''in situ'' analysis. The method besides the informations concerning the chemical state of the derivative gives data concerning its immediate environment and its site in the crystal lattice. Products having a very short lifetime can be observed, too. Though the method is suitable only for the investigation of such nucleogenetic nuclei which are at the same time also Moessbauer atoms, the method has several times given fundamental information on the chemical and crystal-structural effects of transformations in solid compounds. Isotopes from nuclear reactions are in general pushed back at a high kinetical energy during their formation, and the method makes possible to deduce the consequences of this push-back effect and of radioactive decays and nuclear reactions. A separate chapter summarizes the recent statements concerning the consequences of the electron capture in solid cobalt compounds, the consequences of the isomer transition of Sn-119 in solid tin compounds etc. (P.J.)

  18. Atomic spectroscopy study of nuclear properties of francium and cesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, A.

    1986-04-01

    This work is based on the study of cesium ( 118,146 Cs) and francium ( 207-213 Fr, 220-228 Fr) isotopes by hyperfine atomic spectroscopy and on the interpretation of these results from the nuclear physics point of view. The measured nuclear quantities are: the spin, the magnetic moment, the electric quadrupole moment and the mean square charge radius. The experimental method which is based on hyperfine optical pumping with a tunable laser, followed by magnetic analysis of the atoms is described in the first part. Results related to atomic physics are also presented. In the second part, these data are interpreted in the framework of nuclear models. The deformation of light cesium isomers are compared to values obtained from a theoretical self-consistent calculation. Heavy francium isotopes are situated in an area where the existence of static octupole deformations have been predicted. The odd-even staggering measured on the mean square radius is abnormal in this region. However, on the basis of experimental data, no definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding the nature of these deformations. (author)

  19. Development of charged particle nuclear reaction data retrieval system on IntelligentPad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbayashi, Yosihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    An newly designed database retrieval system of charged particle nuclear reaction database system is developed with IntelligentPad architecture. We designed the network-based (server-client) data retrieval system, and a client system constructs on Windows95, 98/NT with IntelligentPad. We set the future aim of our database system toward the 'effective' use of nuclear reaction data: I. 'Re-produce, Re-edit, Re-use', II. 'Circulation, Evolution', III. 'Knowledge discovery'. Thus, further developments are under way. (author)

  20. Nuclear matter with a pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of gaussians per nucleon and the gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-12-31

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a Gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of Gaussian per nucleon and the Gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs.

  2. Nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a Gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of Gaussian per nucleon and the Gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Nuclear matter with a pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Benhassine, B. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Farine, M. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Remaud, B. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Sebille, F. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France))

    1993-11-15

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of gaussians per nucleon and the gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (orig.)

  4. light charged particles induced nuclear reaction on some medium weight nuclei for particles applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsena, B.M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The radioisotopes of indium, cadmium and tin have many practical and medical applications. Their standard routes for production are proton or deuteron induced reactions on natural or enriched cadmium or tin. The production via 3 He induced reactions on natural or enriched cadmium was rarely discussed. In this study 3 He induced reactions on natural cadmium were measured utilizing the stacked-foil technique. The primary incident beam energy was 27 MeV extracted from the MGC- 20E cyclotron, Debrecen, Hungary.the exciatation functions for the reactions n atCd( 3 He,x) 115g,111m Cd, 117m,g,116m,115m,114m,113m,111g,110m,g,109g,108g,107g In and 117m,113,111,110 Sn were evaluated. The data were compared with the available literature data.Different theoretical nuclear reaction models were also used to predict the cross sections for those reactions. The used models were ALICE-IPPE, TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-03. The experimental data were compared also to the theoretical model calculations. The theoretical models did not describe most of the experimental results.The isomeric cross section ratios for the isomeric pairs 117m,g In and 110m,g In were calculated. The isomeric cross section ratio depends on the spins of the states of the interested isomeric pair. The calculated isomeric ratios helped to identify the mechanisms of the reactions involved.The integral yields for some medically relevant isotopes were calculated using the excitation function curves

  5. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-01

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  6. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-28

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  7. Particle induced X-ray emission and complementary nuclear methods for trace element determination; Plenary lecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, S A.E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1992-03-01

    In this review the state-of-the-art of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods for the determination of trace elements is described. The developmental work has mostly been carried out in nuclear physics laboratories, where accelerators are available, but now the increased interest has led to the establishment of other dedicated PIXE facilities. The reason for this interest is the versatility, high sensitivity and multi-element capability of PIXE analysis. A further very important advantage is that PIXE can be combined with the microbeam technique, which makes elemental mapping with a spatial resolution of about 1 {mu}m possible. As a technique, PIXE can also be combined with other nuclear reactions such as elastic scattering and particle-induced gamma emission, so that light elements can be determined. The usefulness of PIXE is illustrated by a number of typical applications in biology, medicine, geology, air pollution research, archaeology and the arts. (author).

  8. Full nuclear field theory treatment of two-particle-one-hole-excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Liotta, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear field theory series is summed up to all orders of perturbation theory including only Tamm-Dancoff vertices for the case of two-particle-one-hole-excitations. It is found that the theory gives the same results as those provided by the shell-model method, but only if all possible basis states are included in the formalism. Applicability of the theory is discussed in a simple model

  9. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James R.; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified.

  10. Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG). Progress report. P10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Executive Committee of JCPRG

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 the following activities were carried out: compilation of the CNDP (Charged Particle Nuclear Reaction Data); translation of NRDF data into EXFOR data; making of the retrieval systems using Internet and Intelligent Pad for the CPND in both NRDF and EXFOR; distributing the CPND and promoting utilization in Japan; making a new system to transform from NRDF to EXFOR. Preliminary version of a new editing system for compiling and inputting the NRDF data was completed

  11. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Maise, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified

  12. Exploration of X-ray and charged-particle spectroscopy with CCDs and PSDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.P.L.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Voigt, de M.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two alternative detector types have been studied for use in the Eindhoven Scanning Ion Microprobe set-up. First, the applicability of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) system for X-ray spectroscopy has been explored. Second, some properties of the SiTek type 1L30 Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) for

  13. Precision spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen ions : Towards frequency metrology of particle masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Koelemeij, J.; Schiller, S.; Hilico, L.; Karr, Jean Philippe; Korobov, V.I.; Bakalov, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the current status of high-precision ab initio calculations of the spectra of molecular hydrogen ions (H2+ and HD+) and of two experiments for vibrational spectroscopy. The perspectives for a comparison between theory and experiment at a level of 1 part in 109 are considered.

  14. Nuclear structure studies on indium and tin isotope chains by means of laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberz, J.

    1986-11-01

    In a collaboration with GSI in Darmstadt and ISOLDE in Geneva the hyperfine structure (HFS) and the isotope shift (IS) of the indium isotopes from 104 In - 127 In in their ground and isomeric states could be studied. Additionally the tin isotopes 109 Sn and 111 Sn could be measured. In tin the transition 5p 2 1 S 0 → 5p6s 3 P 1 with λ = 563 nm was studied. In indium the transition 5p 2 P 1/2 → 6s 2 S 1/2 with λ = 410 nm and 5p 2 P 3/2 → 6s 2 S 1/2 with λ = 451 nm could be measured. The magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments determined from the measurements of the HFS can be sufficiently explained in the framework of the single-particle model. From the moments the configurations and spins of the studied nuclear states can be stated. In 109 Sn the nuclear spin was determined to I = 5/2. The measurement of the IS in two lines in 108 In allowed regarding the coupling rules for nuclear moments the determination of the nuclear spin. The spin of the 40 m isomers of the 108m In can be stated to I = 2. The mean square nuclear charge radius exhibits a parabolic slope the quadratic part of which with a maximum in the shell center at N = 66 between the neutron numbers N = 50 and N = 82 can be understood as sum of contributions of a surface correlation, i.e. a quadrupole deformation as well as eventually present higher order terms or a change of the surface skin density. The deformation determinable by this description is both for tin and for indium essentially larger than the deformation from the B(E2) values of tin or from the intrinsic quadrupole moments in indium derived from the HFS. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. A low-power, CMOS peak detect and hold circuit for nuclear pulse spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Simpson, M.L.; Britton, C.L.; Allen, M.D.; Kroeger, R.A.; Inderhees, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    A low-power CMOS peak detecting track and hold circuit optimized for nuclear pulse spectroscopy is presented. The circuit topology eliminates the need for a rectifying diode, reducing the effect of charge injection into the hold capacitor, incorporates a linear gate at the input to prevent pulse pileup, and uses dynamic bias control that minimizes both pedestal and droop. Both positive-going and negative-going pulses are accommodated using a complementary set of track and hold circuits. Full characterization of the design fabricated in 1.2μm CMOS including dynamic range, integral nonlinearity, droop rate, pedestal, and power measurements is presented. Additionally, analysis and design approaches for optimization of operational characteristics are discussed

  16. Gamma-ray tracking - A new detector concept for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gast, W.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of an European collaboration the nest generation of large efficiency, high resolution spectrometers for nuclear spectroscopy is under development. The new spectrometers are large volume, segmented Ge-detectors featuring 3D position sensitivity in order to allow Gamma-Ray Tracking. That is, knowing the interaction positions and the energies released at each interaction, the track each gamma-ray follows during its scattering process inside the detector volume can be reconstructed on basis of the Compton-scattering formula. The resulting high add-back efficiency an effective granularity significantly improves peak-to-total ratio, efficiency, and Doppler-broadening of the spectrometer. In this contribution the states of the project concerning detector design and development of digital signal processing techniques to achieve an optimal 3D position sensitivity is presented. (authors)

  17. Determination of nuclear fuel burnup by non-destructive gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of nuclear fuel burnup by the non-destructive gamma spectroscopy method is studied. A MTR (Materials Testing Reactor) -type fuel element is used in the measurement. The fuel element was removed from the reactor core in 1958 and, because of the long decay time, show only one peak in is gamma spectrum at 661.6 Kev. Corresponding to 137 Cs. Measurements are made at 330 points of the element using a Nal detector and the final result revealed that the quantity of 235 U consumed was 3.3 +- 0,8 milligram in the entire element. The effect of the migration of 137 Cs in the element is neglected in view of the fact that it occurs only when the temperature is above 1000 0 C, which is not the case in IEAR-1. (Author)

  18. Testing FLUKA on neutron activation of Si and Ge at nuclear research reactor using gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazo, J.; Rojas, J. M.; Best, S.; Bruna, R.; Endress, E.; Mendoza, P.; Poma, V.; Gago, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    Samples of two characteristic semiconductor sensor materials, silicon and germanium, have been irradiated with neutrons produced at the RP-10 Nuclear Research Reactor at 4.5 MW. Their radionuclides photon spectra have been measured with high resolution gamma spectroscopy, quantifying four radioisotopes (28Al, 29Al for Si and 75Ge and 77Ge for Ge). We have compared the radionuclides production and their emission spectrum data with Monte Carlo simulation results from FLUKA. Thus we have tested FLUKA's low energy neutron library (ENDF/B-VIIR) and decay photon scoring with respect to the activation of these semiconductors. We conclude that FLUKA is capable of predicting relative photon peak amplitudes, with gamma intensities greater than 1%, of produced radionuclides with an average uncertainty of 13%. This work allows us to estimate the corresponding systematic error on neutron activation simulation studies of these sensor materials.

  19. Assessment of higher order structure comparability in therapeutic proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Carlos A; Szabo, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly assess higher order structure (HOS) comparability in protein samples. Using a variation of the NMR fingerprinting approach described by Panjwani et al. [2010. J Pharm Sci 99(8):3334-3342], three nonglycosylated proteins spanning a molecular weight range of 6.5-67 kDa were analyzed. A simple statistical method termed easy comparability of HOS by NMR (ECHOS-NMR) was developed. In this method, HOS similarity between two samples is measured via the correlation coefficient derived from linear regression analysis of binned NMR spectra. Applications of this method include HOS comparability assessment during new product development, manufacturing process changes, supplier changes, next-generation products, and the development of biosimilars to name just a few. We foresee ECHOS-NMR becoming a routine technique applied to comparability exercises used to complement data from other analytical techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Determination of 17 impurity elements in nuclear quality uranium compounds by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andonie, O.; Smith, L.A.; Cornejo, S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of 17 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in the ppm level, in nuclearly pure uranium compounds by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analysis is performed by first dissolving the uranium sample in nitric acid and then extracting the uranium with tributyl phosphate solution. The aqueous phase, free of uranium, which contains the elements to analyze is inspirated into the flame of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer using air-acetylene or nitrous oxide-acetylene flame according to the element in study. This method allows to extract the uranium selectively in more than 99.0% and the recovery of the elements sudied was larger 90% (for K) to 100% (for Cr). The sensitivity of the method vary from 0.096 μg/g U (for Cd) to 5.5 μg/g U (for Na). (Author)

  1. Direct reactions and nuclear spectroscopy; forward into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.

    2006-01-01

    The use of direct reactions of the (d,p) (3He,d) etc. type in nuclear spectroscopy has a long history. The availability of beams of exotic nuclei has seen a resurgence of interest in the technique as a means of probing the structure of nuclei close to, or even beyond, the driplines. Analysis of these reactions to extract spectroscopic information has usually been performed with standard DWBA. However, while the DWBA is still useful, as it is based on first-order perturbation theory it should only be used where couplings are weak and proceed predominantly in a single step. Examples where either or both of these conditions are violated, with important consequences for the spectroscopic information extracted, are presented. Some of the sources of uncertainty that remain in the derived quantities are also discussed, along with possible means of reducing them

  2. Reactive surface organometallic complexes observed using dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva; Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Samantaray, Manoja; Hamzaoui, Bilel; Gurinov, Andrei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gajan, David; Lesage, Anne; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.

  3. Reactive surface organometallic complexes observed using dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.

  4. Monitoring of the insecticide trichlorfon by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebpour, Zahra; Ghassempour, Alireza; Zendehzaban, Mehdi; Bijanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein

    2006-01-01

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus insecticide, which is extensively being used for protection of fruit crops. Trichlorfon is a thermal labile compound, which cannot be easily determined by gas chromatography (GC) and has no suitable group for sensitive detection by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study, a 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR) has been described for monitoring of trichlorfon without any separation step. The quantitative works of 31 P NMR spectroscopy has been performed in the presence of an internal standard (hexamethylphosphoramide). Limit of detection (LOD) for this method has been found to be 55 mg L -1 , without any sample preparation, and the linear working range was 150-5500 mg L -1 . Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%) of the method for three replicates within and between days was obtained ≤9%. The average recovery efficiency was approximately 99-112%. This method was applied for monitoring trichlorfon in a commercial insecticide sample and tomato sample

  5. Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Development and analysis of startup strategies for particle bed nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David E.

    1993-06-01

    The particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine concept is the focus of the Air Force's Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. While much progress has been made in developing the concept, several technical issues remain. Perhaps foremost among these concerns is the issue of flow stability through the porous, heated bed of fuel particles. There are two complementary technical issues associated with this concern: the identification of the flow stability boundary and the design of the engine controller to maintain stable operation. This thesis examines a portion of the latter issue which has yet to be addressed in detail. Specifically, it develops and analyzes general engine system startup strategies which maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel elements while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The PBR engine studies are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. The computer program utilized is an augmented version of SAFSIM, an existing nuclear thermal propulsion modeling code; the augmentation, dubbed SAFSIM+, was developed by the author and provides a more complete engine system modeling tool.

  7. LXII International conference NUCLEUS 2012. Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic power engineering and nuclear technologies (LXII Meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasnikov, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications. The recent results of experimental investigations of atomic nuclei properties and nuclear reaction mechanisms are presented. The theoretical problems of atomic nuclei and fundamental interactions as well as nuclear reactions are discussed. The new techniques and methods of nuclear physical experiments are considered. The particular attention is given to fundamental problems of nuclear power and qualitative training of russian and foreign specialist in field of nuclear physics and atomic power engineering [ru

  8. Experimental study of the burned of nuclear fuel by the gamma spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador V, P.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate information on nuclear fuel burnup is of vital importance in reactor operation, fuel management and fuel-characteristics studies. Conventionally fuel management of the TRIGA III Reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is done through the thermal balance method (management) of the power generated during reactor operation, since it is known that with 1.24 grams of 235 U is possible to generate a power or 1 MW per day during the reactor operation. On the other hand, it is possible to calculate the operation time in days during a power of 1 MW with the help of the data registered in logs. With the information just mentioned one can calculate the quantity of 235 U consumed in the fuel during a complete period of irradiation. In order to compare and prove that the burnup values, calculated through the thermal balance method, are correct, the ININ implemented, for the first time, the gamma-ray spectroscopy method as an experimental technique to calculate the burnup of several fuel elements. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a nondestructive method, so that the integrity of the fuel element is not affected which is of great importance. Since there is a direct relation between the activity of 137 Cs contained in the fuel elements and a series of constants which are unique for the radioisotope and for the high resolution system, the problem just simplifies in measuring the 137 Cs activities. Furthermore the 137 Cs concentration equation was developed theoretically and I wrote a computer program (AMAVAL) in Fortran. The task of this program is to calculate the concentrations and the activity through the use of the equation just mentioned and the history of each fuel element. The purpose of this is to compare and validate the experimental activities with the theoretical ones for each fuel element. (Author)

  9. Application of two-dimensional J-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to differentiation of beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Alfi; Wilson, Erica G.; Kim, Hye Kyong; Lefeber, Alfons W.M.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A number of ingredients in beer that directly or indirectly affect its quality require an unbiased wide-spectrum analytical method that allows for the determination of a wide array of compounds for its efficient control. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a method that clearly meets this description as the broad range of compounds in beer is detectable. However, the resulting congestion of signals added to the low resolution of 1 H NMR spectra makes the identification of individual components very difficult. Among two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques that increase the resolution, J-resolved NMR spectra were successfully applied to the analysis of 2-butanol extracts of beer as overlapping signals in 1 H NMR spectra were fully resolved by the additional axis of the coupling constant. Principal component analysis based on the projected J-resolved NMR spectra showed a clear separation between all of the six brands of pilsner beer evaluated in this study. The compounds responsible for the differentiation were identified by 2D NMR spectra including correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation spectra together with J-resolved spectra. They were identified as nucleic acid derivatives (adenine, uridine and xanthine), amino acids (tyrosine and proline), organic acid (succinic and lactic acid), alcohol (tyrosol and isopropanol), cholines and carbohydrates

  10. Accelerating two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance correlation spectroscopy via selective coherence transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qimiao; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Wenqi; Lin, Liangjie; Sun, Huijun; Cai, Shuhui; Wei, Zhiliang; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of various systems in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, applications of one-dimensional 1H NMR are often restrained by the presence of severe overlap among different resonances. The advent of two-dimensional (2D) 1H NMR constitutes a promising alternative by extending the crowded resonances into a plane and thereby alleviating the spectral congestions. However, the enhanced ability in discriminating resonances is achieved at the cost of extended experimental duration due to necessity of various scans with progressive delays to construct the indirect dimension. Therefore, in this study, we propose a selective coherence transfer (SECOT) method to accelerate acquisitions of 2D correlation spectroscopy by converting chemical shifts into spatial positions within the effective sample length and then performing an echo planar spectroscopic imaging module to record the spatial and spectral information, which generates 2D correlation spectrum after 2D Fourier transformation. The feasibility and effectiveness of SECOT have been verified by a set of experiments under both homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Moreover, evaluations of SECOT for quantitative analyses are carried out on samples with a series of different concentrations. Based on these experimental results, the SECOT may open important perspectives for fast, accurate, and stable investigations of various chemical systems both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  11. Nuclear Spectroscopy with Copper Isotopes of Extreme N/Z Ratios

    CERN Multimedia

    La commara, M; Roeckl, E; Van duppen, P L E; Schmidt, K A; Lettry, J

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration aims to obtain detailed nuclear spectroscopy information on isotopes close to the magic proton number Z=28 Very neutron-rich and neutron-deficient copper isotopes are ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) to provide beams with low cross contamination.\\\\ \\\\On the neutron-deficient side the high $Q_\\beta$-values of $^{56}$Cu (15~MeV) and $^{57}$Cu (8.8~MeV) allow to study levels at high excitation energies in the doubly magic nucleus $^{56}$Ni and the neighbouring $^{57}$Ni. On the neutron-rich side the spectroscopy with separated copper isotopes allows presently the closest approach to the doubly magic $^{78}$Ni at an ISOL facility. Up to now no suitable target material with a rapid release was found for nickel itself. A slow release behaviour has to be assumed also for the chemically similar elements iron and cobalt.\\\\ \\\\Using a narrow-bandwidth dye laser and tuning of the laser frequency allows to scan the hyperfine splittings of the copper isotopes and isome...

  12. Method for calculating the characteristics of nuclear reactions with composite particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskaya, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the lectures is to attempt to give a brief review of the present status of the theory of nuclear reactions involving composite particles (heavy ions, 6 Li, 7 Li, and 9 Be ions, α-particles). In order to analyze such reactions, one should employ and ''exact'' method of distorted waves with a finite radius of interaction. Since the zero radius approximation is valid only at low momentum transfer, its rejection immediately includes all possible transferred momenta and consequently, the reaction mechanisms different from the usual cluster stripping we shall discuss a sufficiently general formalism of the distorted waves method, which does not use additional assumptions about the smaliness of the region of interaction between particles and about the possible reaction mechanisms. We shall also discuss all physical simplifications introduced in specific particular codes and the ranges of their applicability will be established. (author)

  13. Sub-doppler spectroscopy based on the transit relaxation of atomic particles in a thin gas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Izmailov

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the review of methods, achievements, and possibilities of the recently elaborated high-resolution laser spectroscopy based on sub-doppler absorption, fluorescence and polarization resonances (on centers of quantum transitions), which arise because of the specific optical selection of comparatively slow-speed atoms or molecules in a thin cell with a rarefied gas. It is considered two following mechanisms of such velocity selection of atomic particles connected with their flight durations between walls of the thin cell : 1) optical pumping of sublevels of the ground atomic term and 2) optical excitation of long-lived metastable quantum levels. Theoretical bases of elaborated spectroscopy methods are presented. In case of the optical pumping mechanism, experimental technique and results on the record of sub-doppler spectral structure of Cs and Rb atoms and on the frequency stabilization of diode lasers by given methods are described. Perspectives of further development and applications of this new direction of the high-resolution spectroscopy are discussed

  14. The particle analysis based on FT-TIMS technique for swipe sample under the frame of nuclear safeguard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianli; Liu Xuemei; Liu Zhao; Tang Lei; Long Kaiming

    2008-06-01

    Under the frame of nuclear safeguard, the particles analysis for swipe sample is an advance mean to detect the undeclared uranium enriched facilities and undeclared uranium enriched activity. The technique of particle analysis based on fission track-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS) for swipe sample have been built. The reliability and the experimental background for selecting particles consisting of uranium from swipe sample by FT method have been verified. In addition, the utilization coefficient of particles on the surface of swipe sample have also been tested. These works have provided the technique support for application in the area of nuclear verification. (authors)

  15. Effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution on plasma nuclear fusion rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution derived by Galitskii and Yakimets (GY) on nuclear reaction rates in plasma. We derive an approximate semi-analytical formula for nuclear fusion reaction rate between nuclei in a plasma (quantum plasma nuclear fusion; or QPNF). The QPNF formula is applied to calculate deuteron-deuteron fusion rate in a plasma, and the results are compared with the results calculated with the conventional Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. As an application, we investigate the deuteron-deuteron fusion rate for mobile deuterons in a deuterated metal/alloy. The calculated deuteron-deuteron fusion rates at low energies are enormously enhanced due to the modified tail of the GY's generalized momentum distribution. Our preliminary estimates indicate also that the deuteron-lithium (D+Li) fusion rate and the proton-lithium (p+Li) fusion rate in a metal/alloy at ambient temperatures are also substantially enhanced. (author)

  16. Magnetic resonances spectroscopy of nanosize particles La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, Vladimir; Konstantinova, Tat'yana; Mazur, Anton; Prokhorov, Andrey; Varyukhin, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Using a co-precipitation method, perovskite-type manganese oxide La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 nanoparticles (NPs) with particle size 12 nm were prepared. Detailed studies of both 55 Mn nuclear magnetic resonance and superparamagnetic resonance spectrum, completed by magnetic measurements, have been performed to obtain microscopic information on the local magnetic structure of the NP. Our results on nuclear dynamics provide direct evidence of formation of a magnetically dead layer, of the thickness ∼2 nm, at the particle surface. Temperature dependences of the magnetic resonance spectra have been measured to obtain information about complex magnetic properties of La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 fine-particle ensembles. In particular, electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum at 300 K shows a relatively narrow sharp line, but as the temperature decreases to 5 K, the apparent resonance field decreases and the line width considerably increases. The low-temperature blocking of the NPs magnetic moments has been clearly observed in the electron paramagnetic resonances. The blocking temperature depends on the measuring frequency and for the ensemble of 12 nm NPs at 9.244 GHz has been evaluated as 110 K

  17. An estimation of percentage of pion, kaon and other particles produced in nuclear emulsion - a simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Multiparticle production in both high-energy nuclear and particle collisions is still a mystery, as far as the understanding of the dynamics of the production of secondary particles, especially of the soft varieties, is concerned. Of the various types of particles produced, mesons, especially the π-mesons, constitute, in practical terms, the near totality of the produced particles. Along with pions, in high-energy interactions kaons, hyperons and other mesons are also produced. In online experiments such as RHIC or LHC all the mesons can be detected. However, in emulsion experiments, there is no identification of the produced particles making a study of particle ratio fluctuations or net charge fluctuations impossible. In emulsion experiments, therefore, it is not possible to distinguish between pions and other mesons. There is one way to look at the compositions of the particles produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions in nuclear emulsion track detector

  18. Reflectance spectroscopy from TiO2 particles embedded in polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a physical simulation carried out using TiO2-Polyurethane composite coating on bright aluminium surface to understand the light scattering effect for designing white surfaces. Polyurethane matrix is selected due to the matching refractive index (1.7) with Al2O3...... layer on anodized aluminium surfaces. Three different TiO2 particle distributions were dispersed in polyurethane and spin coated onto high gloss and caustic etched aluminium substrates. Reflectance spectra of TiO2-polyurethane films of various concentrations were analysed using an integrating sphere....... The results show that the TiO2-polyurethane coatings have a high diffuse reflectance as a result of multiple scattering from TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance spectra of TiO2 containing films vary weakly with particle concentration and reach a steady state value at a concentration of 0.75 wt.%. Using...

  19. Characterization of Nuclear Materials Using Complex of Non-Destructive and Mass-Spectroscopy Methods of Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, A.; Kramchaninov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Information and Analytical Centre for nuclear materials investigations was established in Russian Federation in the February 2 of 2009 by ROSATOM State Atomic Energy Corporation (the order #80). Its purpose is in preventing unauthorized access to nuclear materials and excluding their illicit traffic. Information and Analytical Centre includes analytical laboratory to provide composition and properties of nuclear materials of unknown origin for their identification. According to Regulation the Centre deals with: · identification of nuclear materials of unknown origin to provide information about their composition and properties; · arbitration analyzes of nuclear materials; · comprehensive research of nuclear and radioactive materials for developing techniques characterization of materials; · interlaboratory measurements; · measurements for control and accounting; · confirmatory measurements. Complex of non-destructive and mass-spectroscopy techniques was developed for the measurements. The complex consists of: · gamma-ray techniques on the base of MGAU, MGA and FRAM codes for uranium and plutonium isotopic composition; · gravimetrical technique with gamma-spectroscopy in addition for uranium content; · calorimetric technique for plutonium mass; · neutron multiplicity technique for plutonium mass; · measurement technique on the base of mass-spectroscopy for uranium isotopic composition; · measurement technique on the base of mass-spectroscopy for metallic impurities. Complex satisfies the state regulation requirements of ensuring the uniformity of measurements including the Russian Federation Federal Law on Ensuring the Uniformity of Measurements #102-FZ, Interstate Standard GOST R ISO/IEC 17025-2006, National Standards of Russian Federation GOST R 8.563-2009, GOST R 8.703-2010, Federal Regulations NRB-99/2009, OSPORB 99/2010. Created complex is provided in reference materials, equipment end certificated techniques. The complex is included in accredited

  20. Radioactive Pollution Estimate for Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by a Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and deposit speeds. The