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Sample records for nuclear ore province

  1. Ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinlongshan Carlin type gold ore belt in Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Jinlongshan gold ore belt in southern Shaanxi Province contains a number of Carlin-type gold deposits in the Qinling collisional orogenic belt. Their fluid inclusions are of the Na+ - Cl- type. From the main metallogenic stage to later stages, the total quantity of anions and cations, temperature and deoxidation parameter (R) for fluid inclusions all gradu ally decreased, suggesting the gradual intensification of fluid oxidation, the reduction of met allogenic depth and the input of meteoric water and organic components. The deposits were formed during crustal uplifting and hence had similar tectonic settings to orogenic gold depos its. The CO2 contents and CO2/H2O values of the ore fluid increased from early to late sta ges, and the wall-rock alteration is represented by decarbonation, which is inconsistent with the characteristics of orogenic gold deposits. It is also discovered that Na + , K + ,SO42-, Cl-and the total amounts of anions and cations in the inclusions in quartz are higher than those in the coexisting calcite. The H, O and C isotope ratios indicate that the ore fluid was sourced from meteoric water and metamorphic devolatilisation of the sedimentary rocks that host the ores. The high background δ18O and δ13C values of wall rocks resulted in high δ18O and δ13 C values of ore fluid and also high δ 18 O and δ 13 C values of hydrothermal minerals such as quartz and carbonate. The carbon in ore fluid stemmed largely from the hosting strata. The δ 18O and δ13C values of Fe-calcite and the δD values of fluid inclusions are lower than those of calcite and quartz. In terms of the theory of coordination chemistry, all these differences can be ascribed to water-rock interaction in the same fluid system, instead, to the multi source of ore fluid.

  2. Analysis of Characteristics of Ore about Iron Deposit of Da Hong Mountain in Yun Nan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis aims to analyse the deposit characteristics about Da Hong Mountains Iron ore in Yunnan province. The texture and structure, especially the chemical composition, is different in every section of deposit after comparing. Moreover, the content of SiO2 is much higher than general iron ore. However, the content of other noble metals cannot reach the lowest industrial grade. Da Hong Mountains Iron ore has unique features because of metallogenic periods.

  3. Fossil bacteria in Xuanlong iron ore deposits of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yongding; SONG Haiming; SHEN Jiying

    2004-01-01

    Discovered in Early Proterozoic Xuanlong iron ore deposits are six genera of fossil iron bacteria, i. e. sphere (coenobium of) rod-shaped (monomer) Naumanniella, ellipsoid elliptical Ochrobium, sphere spherical Siderocapsa and chain spherical Siderococcus, chain rod-shaped Leptothrix and Lieskeella, and six genera of fossil blue bacteria, namely sphere spherical Gloeocapsa, Synechocystis and Globobacter, chain spherical Anabaena and Nostoc, and constrictive septate tubular Nodularia. The biomineralized monomers and coenobia of the two categories of bacteria, together with hematite plates made up the bacteria pelletal, bacteria silky,bacteria fibrous and clasty bacteria pelletal textural lamina. The bacteria pelletal laminae combined with other bacteria laminae to make up oncolite, stromatolite and laminate. The precipitation of iron oxide was accelerated due to iron and blue bacteria cohabiting on microbial film or mat. The Xuanlong iron ore deposits are microbial binding ore deposits of ocean source.

  4. Radiation Impact to Environment of Non-nuclear Industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Wei-jie; CHENG; Wei-ya

    2015-01-01

    According to the gas,liquid effluent monitoring and survey results of non nuclear industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi provinces,the radiation effects of which on the surrounding environment were analysis and evaluation.Evaluation industrials includes three coal-fired power plants,two rare earth ores,two cement factories,one

  5. Composition and origin of Early Cambrian Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Fan, D.; Ye, J.; Liu, T.; Yeh, H.-W.

    1999-01-01

    The Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores occur in the Early Cambrian Tananpo Formation in complexly folded and faulted rocks located in southern Shaanxi Province. About 65 x 106 tonnes of 17% P2O5 ore reserves exist and Mn-ore reserves are about 8.3 x 106 tonnes of +18% Mn. The stratigraphic sequence in ascending order consists of black phyllite, black to gray phosphorite ore, black phyllite, rhodochrostone ore, Mn mixed-carbonates, and dolostone. Data are presented from microprobe mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry, stable isotopes of carbonates, X-ray mineralogy, petrographic and SEM observations, and statistical analysis of chemical data. The dominant ore-forming minerals are hydroxy- and carbonate fluorapatite and Ca rhodochrosite, with Mg kutnahorite and dolomite comprising the Mn mixed-carbonate section. Pyrite occurs in all rock types and alabandite (MnS) occurs throughout the rhodochrostone section. The mean P2O5 content of phosphorite is 31% and argillaceous phosphorite is 16%, while the mean MnO content of rhodochrostone ore is 37%. Phosphorite ores are massive, spheroidal, laminated, and banded, while rhodochrostone ores have oolitic, spheroidal, and granular fabrics. The most distinguishing characteristics of the ores are high total organic carbon (TOC) contents (mean 8.4%) in the phosphorite and high P2O5 contents (mean 2.7%) in the rhodochrostone ore. The atypically high TOC contents in the Tiantaishan phosphorite probably result from very strong productivity leading to high sedimentation rates accompanied by weak reworking of sediments; poor utilization of the organic matter by bacteria; and/or partial replacement of bacterial or algal mats by the apatite. The depositional setting of the ores was the margin of an epicontinental seaway created as a direct consequence of global processes that included break-up of a supercontinent, formation of narrow seaways, creation of extensive continental shelves, overturn of stagnant, metal-rich deep

  6. Ore-forming and Exploration Models of the Baguamiao Gold Deposit, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Baguamiao superlarge gold deposit in Shaanxi Province is one of the typical cases in China that are hosted by sedimentary rocks. Explorers and researchers have discussed the gold mineralization enrichment conditions by studying sulphur, oxygen, carbon, silicon stable isotopes and mineralizing fluid features of the Baguamiao gold deposit and proposed a hydrothermal sedimentation-magmatic reconstructing gold mineralization model featuring multi-sources of ore-forming materials and multistage mineralizations. In addition, prospecting for "Baguamiao-type"gold deposits was started in the Fengtai Basin and a great number of important prospecting targets such as Tonglinggou, Simaoling, Guoansi and Dachaigou were discovered.

  7. Source of ore-forming material for the Huangtuliang gold deposit, Hebei Province and ore prospecting in the deep periphery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; WANG Baode; HAN Yuchou; WEI Minghui; ZHANG Hai; ZHANG Ge; SHI Ping; WANG Wenxing

    2008-01-01

    The Huangtuliang gold deposit is characterized by its wide and large ore belt, stable extension and closely spaced orebodies. Unfortunately, no orebody was found by deep drilling. As a result, ore prospecting in this region was once put into dilemma. Detailed analysis of ore-forming and ore-controlling structures in the mining district by the authors has revealed that the ore-forming and ore-controlling structure in this mining district is a steeply dipping (85°-110°/∠70°-85° N-NNE), spade-shaped ductile shear zone, and the ore-controlling structures are a series of nearly erected second-ordered faults which are developed in the upper part of the ductile shear zone, intersecting with the ductile shear zone. Deep cutting of the ductile shear zone made it possible the ascending of ore fluids from the mantle plume at depth and these ore fluids would migrate upwards along the ductile shear zone under certain temperature and pressure conditions. Along their ascending path, the ore fluids would extract ore-forming elements from the country rocks and the extracted ore-forming elements would be deposited as ores in the hanging-wall second-ordered faults. The reason why no orebody was found in early prospecting at depth is that northward-dipping drilling in the southern part of the shear zone extended so deeply as to be beneath the shear zone. Only shallow-level orebodies could be found by southward-dipping drilling practice in the northern part of the shear zone.The location where deep-seated orebodies occurred shifted northwards and the orebodies occurred at greater depth.Therefore, it is natural that no orebody could be found when drill core passed through the shear zone. After the ore-forming and ore-controlling structures were well understood, the focus of ore prospecting was placed on the deep-level, northward-penetrating veins. In this way a number of new blind orebodies of great thickness have been found. On the basis of research development in the mining

  8. Concentration Mechanism of Ore-Forming Fluid in Huize Lead-Zinc Deposits, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenliang; Huang Zhilong; Rao Bing; Guan Tao; Yan Zaifei

    2005-01-01

    The Huize Pb-Zn deposits of Yunnan Province, located in the south-central part of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou (SYG) Pb-Zn multimetal mineralization district (MMD), are strictly controlled by fault zones. The sources of ore-forming fluid in the deposits have been debated for a long time. Calcite, a gangue mineral, has uniform C and O isotopes. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values vary respectively from -2.1×10-3 to -3.5×10-3 (mean -2.8×10-3) and 16.7×10-3-18.6×10-3 (mean 17.7×10-3). No obvious difference can be found in C and O isotopes among occurrences and elevations and even ore-bodies. Types of inclusions include those of pure liquid (L), liquid-rich gas-liquid (L+V), and three-phase ones containing a daughter mineral (S+L+V) and immiscible CO2 with three-phases (VCO2+LCO2+LH2O). Their homogenization temperatures vary from 110 to 400 ℃, and two peaks are shown. (87Sr/86Sr)0 ratios of calcite in the deposits are higher than those in the mantle and Emeishan basalts, and slightly higher than those in the Baizuo Formation, which the Huize lead-zinc deposits are found in. All of the (87Sr/86Sr)0 are low relative to those in the basement rocks. Fractionation of Sr isotope did not occur in the ore-forming fluid during the precipitation of minerals. The results indicate that the ore-forming fluid is homogeneous and derived from the mixing of different fluids. Gas-liquid inclusions can be separated into two groups in 300-400 ℃ with a salinity of 5 %-6 % and 12 %-16 % NaCl respectively. However, the salinities of inclusions vary from 7 % to 23 % NaCl in 100-300 ℃, especially in 150-250 ℃. The formation pressures of faulted zones are (50-320)×105 Pa. The estimated pressures of the overlying rocks on the ore bodies are 574×105-640×105 Pa. The pressures of ore-forming processes would be 145×105 to 754×105 Pa. Therefore, pressure sharply reduced and boiling occurred when the ore-forming fluid flew into the fault zones. As a result, the ore-forming fluid was

  9. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparecida Ribeiro, Andreza; Quintao Lima, Diana; Anderson Duarte, Helio; Murad, Enver [ICEx, UFMG, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio Cesar, E-mail: mcpqui@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Tadeu de Freitas Suita, Marcos [UFOP, Departamento de Geologia (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil); Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaqua copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  10. Characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids of Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit (s) in Xiangyun, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; LIU Jiajun; LI Chaoyang

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of results of the studies of primary fluid inclusions, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data, the authors concluded that the early-stage ore-forming fluid from the Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit is a kind of sulfate type hot brine characterized by medium temperature and salinity, genetically related to the late-stage ore-forming fluid derived from an acidic and more reductive environment. However, the late-stage ore-forming fluid is a sort of low temperature and low salinity chloride-type hot brine which originated from a lower pressure, acidic and more oxidative environment. In general, the ore fluids were derived from the late-stage, or largely from the early-stage groundwater-derived meteoric water, which has a 12‰-17‰ heavier oxygen isotopic composition than the original rain water (δ 18 O= -15.3‰ ), and were formed during gold mineralization as a product of oxygen isotope exchange during the reaction between ore-forming fluid and wall rocks under a lower water/rock ratio condition.

  11. Geochemical Studies on Dachang Antimony Ore Deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启厚

    1999-01-01

    The Dachang antimony deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province,is strictly controlled by the “Dachang Layer” which is a complex altered rock occurring at unconformity between the Permian Emeishan basalt and the Maokou limestone.Based on the studies of the hanging-and foot-wall rocks,the trace elements and REE contents of the rocks and ores and heavy placer minerals in the basalt,this paper is focused on the relations between these data and the “Dachang Layer”and its hanging- and oot-wall rocks.The author pointed out that the “Dachang Layer” and basalt are the source-beds of antimony;ilmenite and magnetite are the major mineral carriers of antimony.In the processes of halmyrosis and burial metamorphism of the “Dachang Layer” an basalt,antimony was mobilized along with the mobilization of iron and was preliminarily concentrated in the“ Dachang Layer”.

  12. Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry of Laowan Gold Deposit in Henan Province: Trace to Source of Ore-Forming Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The compositions of REE in quartz and pyrite from the main stage of the Laowan gold deposit in Henan Province and that in quartz from Laowan granite were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) to trace the source of ore-forming materials. Meanwhile, the REE compositions of the deposit ore, granite and metamorphic wall rock were also considered for comparative studies in detail. The range of ∑REE of quartz and pyrite from the deposit ores is 4.18×10-6~30.91×10-6, the average of ∑REE is 13.39×10-6, and the average of ∑REE of quartz in the Laowan granite is 6.68×10-6. There is no distinct difference of REE parameters between the deposit ore quartz and granite quartz. The quartz in gold deposit has the same REE particular parameters as quartzes from Laowan granite, such as δEu, δCe, (La/Yb)N and (La/Sm)N, partition degree of LREE to HREE, especially, the chondrite-normalized REE patterns, but no similarity to those from metamorphic wall rock, which shows that ore-forming hydrothermal fluid is mainly the fluid coming from the Laowan granite magma, rather than metamorphic fluid. Meanwhile, comparison studies on REE features between minerals from the deposit ores and related geological bodies in the deposit show that REE characteristics of minerals can serve as an indicator of ore-forming fluid properties and sources, while the REE characteristics of the bulk samples (such as deposit ores, granites and wall rocks) can not trace the source of the ore-forming materials exactly.

  13. PGE geochemistry and Re Os dating of massive sulfide ores from the Baimazhai Cu Ni deposit, Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Shengwei; Sun, Weidong; Shi, Guiyong; Sun, Yali; Xiong, Dexin; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2008-09-01

    The Baimazhai deposit in Yunnan Province is one of the largest Cu-Ni sulfide deposits hosted in mafic-ultramafic intrusions in China. Concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) in massive sulfide ores and host rocks from Baimazhai were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following nickel sulfide fire assay pre-concentration. The results show that the total PGE (ΣPGE) are quite low, decreasing gradually from central massive ores (78.2-556 ppb) to olivine pyroxenite (0.472-67.0 ppb), gabbro (0.847 ppb) and, websterite (0.76-0.809). The intruded lamprophyre dykes also show low ΣPGE (2.98-4.07 ppb). The ΣPGE exhibit obvious positive correlations with Au, Ni and Cu contents. Primitive mantle normalized PGE patterns of the massive Cu-Ni ores are of the Pt-Pd type with relatively steep and trough-like patterns, which are similar to those of the host rocks. In addition, the Pt/Pd and Cu/Pd ratios of the massive sulfide ores are similar to those of olivine pyroxenite, gabbro and websterite. These characteristics suggest that sulfides in the massive ores are of magmatic origin, co-genetic with their host rocks. The relatively high Pt/Pd ratios of the Baimazhai massive sulfide ores (averaging 0.83) and their host rocks imply that the Baimazhai sulfides formed in a single sulfide saturation event, but not through multiple sulfide injections. High Ir contents (0.77-5.52 ppb, averaging 2.35 ppb) and dramatically variable Pd/Ir ratios (4.76-296, averaging 138) of the massive sulfide ores suggest that the Baimazhai sulfide ores might have suffered significant late stage hydrothermal alteration. The Baimazhai massive sulfide ores yield a Re-Os isochron age of 259 ± 20 Ma (MSWD = 0.025), which is the same as the major eruption stage of the Emeishan large igneous province and the Baimazhai intrusion, further supporting their magmatic origin. The initial 187Os/ 188Os value of 0.456 ± 0.026 indicates that crustal contamination has played

  14. From BIF to Iron Ore - A journey from nanocrystals to huge iron ore deposits of the Hamersley Province, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Egglseder, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are extraordinary rocks because they provide important information about the Precambrian atmosphere and hydrosphere, the global rise of oxygen, and they host the world’s major iron ore deposits. The unique texture and petrology of BIF, which mainly comprise alternating layers of iron oxides and chert remain poorly understood. Although the mineral assemblage is of diagenetic or metamorphic origin, BIF textures are interpreted as sedimentary st...

  15. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Aparecida; Lima, Diana Quintão; Duarte, Hélio Anderson; Murad, Enver; Pereira, Márcio César; de Freitas Suita, Marcos Tadeu; Ardisson, José Domingos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    Mössbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaquã copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  16. Ore-forming fluids in the Dongping gold deposit, northwestern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Hongrui

    2001-01-01

    -eralogical Magazine, 1993, 57: 407-422.[22]Fan, H. R., Groves, D. I., Mikucki, E. J. et al., Contrasting fluid types at the Nevoria gold deposit in the Southern Cross greenstone belt, Western Australia: Implication for the origin of auriferous fluids depositing ores within an Archean band-ed iron formation, Economic Geology, 2000, 95(7): 1527-1536.[23]Drummond, S. E., Ohmoto, H., Chemical evolution and mineral deposition in boiling hydrothermal system, Econ. Geol., 1985, 80: 126-147.[24]Diamond, L. W., Fluid inclusion evidence for P-V-T-X evolution of hydrothermal solutions in late-Alpine gold-quartz veins at Brussion, Val d'Ayas, Northwest Italian Alps, Am. J. Science, 1990, 290: 912-958.[25]Xu Xingwang, Cai Xinping, Qing Dajun et al, Fluid double-fracturing genetic mechanism and mineralization of gold-copper of the breccia pipe at Qibaoshan in Shandong Province, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 113-121.[26]Wang Yurong, Hu Shouxi, Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration North China platform gold deposit taken as an example, Science in China, Ser. D, 2001, 44(1): 64-76.[27]Jin Zhangdong, Zhu Jinchu, Ji Junfeng et al. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province, Science in China, Ser. D, 2001, 44(2): 177-184.[28]Fan Hongrui, Xie Yihan, Wang Yinglan, Fluid-Rock interaction geochemistry in lode gold deposits (in Chinese with Eng-lish Abstract), Mineral Deposits, 1998, 17(supp.): 1043-1046.[29]Fan Hongrui, Sheng Yuanchao, Jin Chengwei, Ore-forming fluid geochemistry of Hatu gold deposit in Xinjiang, north-west China, Mineral Deposits, 1998, 17(2): 135-149.[30]Lu Huanzhang, Ore-forming Fluids (in Chinese), Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press, 1997, 1-210.

  17. Application of Nuclear Microprobes towards Understanding Complex Ore Geo-electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanski R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on recent development on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe (NMP towards catering for long exposure mapping required for large area scanning. A new data collection system based on Labview FPGA highly co-ordinated with beam transport sits at the heart of the upgrade. These upgrades are discussed and an example of the systems use for μ-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE analysis in the area of complex ore geo-electrochemistry is briefly described.

  18. The Shilu Iron Ore Deposit in Hainan Province, South China: A Structurally and Hydrothermally Reworked and Re-Enriched Lake-Superior-Type BIF Iron Deposit%The Shilu Iron Ore Deposit in Hainan Province,South China: A Structurally and Hydrothermally Reworked and Re-Enriched Lake-Superior-Type BIF Iron Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU De-ru; WANG Zhi-lin; XIAO Yong; Bakun-Czubarow Nonna; LIU Zhao-lu; WANG Li; FU Qi-ji; WU Jun; Kusiak Monika Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Shilu iron ore deposit, located in the western Hainan Province, South China, is one of the most important iron-ore mining districts in China not only for its huge reserves of hematite- rich ores, but also for its potentially economic significance of associated metals of copper, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead and zinc, and of non-metals of dolomite, quartzite,barite,gypsum and sulfur.

  19. Analysis of Ore-Controlling Structures of the Xincheng-Hexi Gold Deposit, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on quantitative and semi-quantitative mathematical and mechanical analysis of the shape, motion, structural factors, stress field and deformation field of the ore-hosting faults in the Xincheng-Hexi gold deposit, the ore-controlling features of faults and mineralization mechanism are discussed. It is concluded that the mineralization is controlled by the main faults, subsidiary fractures, joint density, mechanical features and deformation of the faults. The ore bodies are mainly located in the lower part of the convex crest and upper part of the concave trough of the main undulating fault surface. Mineralization is positively correlated to the development of subsidiary fractures and joints, which correspond to zones of low internal stress and high body strain and shear strain. They are favourable positions for mineralization and alteration.

  20. Ore-controlling Factors and a Metallogenic Model for the Xianglushan Tungsten-Ore Field in Northern Jiangxi Province%赣北香炉山钨矿田矿床控制因素及成矿模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 周贤旭

    2012-01-01

    The Xianglushan tungsten-ore field is part of the Jiuling-Zhanggongshan W-Sn metallogenic belt in northern Jiangxi Province. Combining the ore field exploration in recent years, this paper researches the ore-controlling factors on the basis of geological background of this ore field. The result shows that the impure limestone combination in the Upper Sinian and Cambrian strata is closely related to mineralization in the area. Folds are the major controlling structures in the ore field. Faults and interlayer fracture zones control the ore body position. The Yanshanian magmatic activities provided ore -forming material sources and played an important role in the process of ore fluid migration and deposition. The main ore bodies, hosted in the pyroxene -biotite metamorphic belt, are related to greisenization alteration. This article establishes a metallogenetic model for the Xainghushan tungsten ore field. It may have important guiding significance for the prediction of ore deposit and resources prospecting and exploitation. It can be also used as a reference in searching for similar deposits in the southern margin of the Yangtze Plate.%香炉山矿田是赣北九岭—鄣公山钨锡成矿带的组成部分。本文结合近年来矿田的勘查找矿成果,在分析矿田地质背景的基础上,研究了矿床的控矿因素。认为该区震旦系上统和寒武系地层中的不纯灰岩类组合与成矿关系密切,控制矿田的主体构造是褶皱;断裂及层间破碎带控制矿体的定位,燕山期岩浆活动不仅提供成矿物质来源;同时在矿液的运移和淀积过程中发挥了重要作用,主要矿体均赋存在透辉石—黑云母变质带并与云英岩化等蚀变有关,在此基础上建立了成矿模式。对矿田下步的矿床预测和勘查开发具有重要的指导意义。同时,对扬子板块南缘相似类别矿床的找矿工作起着一定的借鉴作用。

  1. Application of Weights of Evidence to Mineral Potential Mapping of Yujiacun Ore Field in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Zhang Shouting

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate information comprehensive processing technique is especially important at present to the digital mineral prospecting. However, the GIS-based weights of evidence have provided us with a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mineral resource potential. In this paper, the mineralization model is established, based on the achievements made by previous researchers, to mend such deficiencies as few references on ore fields in Yujiacun, Yunnan Province and the shortage of quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources. In addition, the weights of evidence are used to make a systematic quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources there, so that 2 mineral prospecting target areas of grade I and 8 mineral prospecting target areas of grade Ⅱ are delineated,providing the further mineral resource exploration with the basis for the selection of mineral deposits.

  2. Telescoping ore targets by geochemical exploration at multiple scales in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Platinum has been one of the highly needed mineral resources in China.The geochemical exploration at two survey scales was applied in telescoping ore targets for the first time in Eastern Yunnan Pt geochemical province that was delineated using Pt data from flood plain sediments with extra-low sampling density.Our study was based on the delineations and assessments of both regional and local Pt anomalies using the Pt data by analyzing with C-OES the composite samples with two sampling densities.The composite samples were obtained by recomposing at two sampling densities the original stream sediment samples collected by the National Geochemical Mapping Project.Semivariograms were used to quantitatively describe the variability of Pt anomalies and further analyze the factors controlling the variability.Pt resource potentials of both the regional Pt anomalies and the local Pt anomalies in the study area were estimated based on the geochemical block methods,respectively.It comes to the conclusions as follows.(1) From the regional to local Pt anomaly,the factors controlling their variability from the deep seated faults-basalts turn into the basalts-branch faults,which suggest that Semivariograms could identify the geological factors controlling the variability of the Pt anomalies identified by the Pt data from the stream sediments with different sampling densities.(2) There exist two types of Pt anomalies in the study area.One is those displaying at sampling densities,and its average Pt concentration significantly increases with sampling density increasing.The other is getting weaker and/or disappears with sampling density increasing.This shows that TOTGEMS could gradu-ally eliminate non-ore anomalies and keep ore anomalies.(3) The average Pt concentration of the local Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from stream sediments with sampling density of one composite per 16 km2 is twice as much as that of the regional Pt anomaly blocks delineated using Pt data from

  3. An investigation into heterogeneity in a single vein-type uranium ore deposit: Implications for nuclear forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, A C; Scott, T B; Davis, S; Jones, C P; Turner, P

    2015-12-01

    Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in nuclear materials are important as they are used within the field of nuclear forensics as an indicator of sample origin. However recent studies into uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) have shown significant elemental and isotopic heterogeneity from a single mine site such that some sites have shown higher variation within the mine site than that seen between multiple sites. The elemental composition of both uranium and gangue minerals within ore samples taken along a single mineral vein in South West England have been measured and reported here. The analysis of the samples was undertaken to determine the extent of the localised variation in key elements. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyse the gangue mineralogy and measure major element composition. Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The results confirm that a number of key elements, REE concentrations and patterns used for origin location do show significant variation within mine. Furthermore significant variation is also visible on a meter scale. In addition three separate uranium phases were identified within the vein which indicates multiple uranium mineralisation events. In light of these localised elemental variations it is recommended that representative sampling for an area is undertaken prior to establishing the REE pattern that may be used to identify the originating mine for an unknown ore sample and prior to investigating impact of ore processing on any arising REE patterns.

  4. Environmental nuclear-geophysical ore monitoring in mines of Corporation Kazakhmys PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefimenko, Sergei; Yefimenko, Olga; Makarov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01

    An environmental monitoring of ore composition in complex deposits of Kazakhstan (the Zhezkazgan, Kusmuryn, Artemjevsk, Kounrad, Taskura and Zhaman-Aibat deposits) is carried out using EDXRF spectrometers RPP-12, RLP-21 and RLP-21T. The monitoring of ore concentrates in Satpaev, Balkhashsk and Zhezkazgan processing plants and in Zhezkazgan copper smelter continues at present time. The monitoring suggests data on new promising elements and environmental pollutants in ores and new trends in distribution of bound elements in ores.

  5. Processes of ore genesis at the world-class Yuchiling molybdenum deposit, Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Ye, Hui-shou; Zhou, Ke; Meng, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The Yuchiling molybdenum deposit is one of the most significant porphyry molybdenum systems in the eastern Qinling of central China. The mineralization is mainly hosted by a porphyritic granite and associated cryptoexplosive breccia. Hydrothermal alteration minerals include K-feldspar, sericite, pyrite, chlorite, epidote, carbonate, kaolinite, fluorite, and gypsum. Ore minerals are dominated by molybdenite and pyrite, with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite, galena, scheelite, wolframite, ilmenite, leucoxene, native gold, sphalerite, and hematite. The δ34S compositions of sulfide minerals range from -6.0‰ to +4.0‰. The deposit is characterized by four hydrothermal stages: quartz-K-feldspar (stage I), molybdenite-quartz (stage II), pyrite-sericite-quartz (stage III), and quartz-carbonate (stage IV). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions show that the fluids evolved gradually during the ore-forming process. Homogenization temperatures, salinities, and minimum pressure estimates for the inclusions from each mineralization stage evolved as follows: (1) stage I: homogenization temperatures = 203.7-525.8 °C, salinities = 2.96-10.49 and 29.66 wt.% NaCl equiv., and minimum pressures = 101.9-196.2 MPa; (2) stage II: homogenization temperatures = 173.6-448.6 °C, salinities = 1.81-9.74 wt.% NaCl equiv., and minimum pressures = 93.1-172.0 MPa; (3) stage III: homogenization temperatures = 130.1-386.0 °C, salinities = 1.40-9.73 and 34.07 wt.% NaCl equiv., and minimum pressures = 95.5-142.5 MPa; (4) stage IV: homogenization temperatures = 170-230 °C and salinities = 0.18-5.71 wt.% NaCl equiv. Various fluid inclusions were observed to contain H2O, CO2, CH4, SO2, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and (or) H2S, as well as solids that include halite, sylvite, anhydrite, chalcopyrite, hematite, molybdenite, and jamesonite. The δ18O and δD of the hydrothermal fluids vary from -4.4‰ to +8.5‰ and -81‰ to -61‰, respectively. Microthermometric and stable isotope data indicate that

  6. Ore-forming fluids in the Dongping gold deposit, northwestern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit is contained within an inner contacting zone of the Hercynian Shuiquangou alkali syenite. The ores occur as veins or as replacement bodies. Fluid inclusion observation shows that in early and main mineralizing stages inclusion types are gas and gas-liquid inclusions, respectively. Gas inclusions occur in isolation in vein quartz, their homogenization tem-perature is 372-306℃, and salinity 3.7-1.0 wt% NaCl. Gas-liquid inclusions occur in clusters or healed fractures but do not cut quartz boundary with homogenization temperature 342-267℃ and salinity 1.9-0.8 wt% NaCl. Stable isotope measurements show that at main gold mineralization, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of the mineralizing fluids are -70.8‰- -108.4‰ and 2.44‰-4.05‰, respectively. Primary ore fluids in Dongping are higher temperature and lower salinity NaCl-CO2-H2O fluids, and come from Yanshanian granitic magmatism. Fluid immiscibility, fluid-rock interactions and meteoric water adding were main reasons for gold deposition.

  7. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Illite, a distinctive kind of clay minerals of potassiumalteration within the hydrothermal alteration zone, frequently occurs at the Tongchang porphyry copper deposit ore field. The illite crystallinity (IC) value and expandability are mainly affected by water/rock ratio or fluid flux. It was formed by illitization of plagioclase and micas during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction within the porphyry body and near the contact zone with wall rocks. Moreover, the negative correlation between illite index (IC) and copper grade indicates that within the alteration zone, the smaller the illite crystallinity value, the higher the alteration degree, and the higher the copper grade due to higher water/rock ratio. At lower levels of the porphyry body, however, the illite crystallinity (IC) values are mainly controlled by temperature and time duration.

  8. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Early in 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. During the search of the laboratory, a small glass jar labelled "Gamma Source" and containing a green powder was discovered. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterise and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine.

  9. ON SOME KEY GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE LINGLONG-JIAOJIA ORE-CENTRALIZED DISTRICT IN SHANDONG PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jincao; XIA Bin; TANG Jingru

    2003-01-01

    The Lingtong-Jiaojia ore-centralized district is controlled by the tectonic stress field characterized bY the combination of extension and strike-slip, and the dip, dip angle, pitch and pitch angle of the ore bodies are all constrained by the dynamic conditions of the tectonics. The metallotectonic series for the ore-centralized district belong to the type of a combination of extension and strike-slip and can be subdivided into four sub-series. The ore-forming process in the brittle regime can be disintegrated into two stages, i.e., the embryonic fracture stage and the megascopic fracture stage, and ore-forming process is rather common in the ore-centralized district at the former stage. Moreover, several key structural patterns and their features were discussed and a preliminary assessment about the ore-forming prospect in this district was made in the paper.

  10. REE Geochemistry of Sulfides from the Huize Zn-Pb Ore Field, Yunnan Province: Implication for the Sources of Ore-forming Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenbo; HUANG Zhilong; QI Liang

    2007-01-01

    REE abundances in sulfides from the Huize Zn-Pb ore field were determined with the ICPMS after preconcentration. The REE abundances in 26 sulfide samples (including pyrite, galena and sphalerite) are very low, with the ΣREE ranging from 1.6×10-9 to 166.8×10-9. Their LREE/HREE ratios range from 7.6 to 98, showing LREE enrichment relatively. The δEu values are below 1, indicating that they were deposited from an Eu-depleted and reducing fluid-system. Similar to the ore-hosting carbonate strata, calcite separates from carbonate veinlets filling in the fractures or faults crosscutting the carbonate strata also show clear Eu-depletion. This indicates that the carbonate veinlets and their parent fluid was possibly sourced from the strata and inherited the REE geochemical features of the strata. Therefore, REE-geochemical characteristics of both the sulfides and calcites, which were deposited from an ore-forming hydrothermal system, are similar to those of carbonate strata, and strongly suggest that the ore metals were mainly sourced from carbonate strata.

  11. Geology, Geochemistry and Ground Magnetic Survey on Kalateh Naser Iron Ore Deposit, Khorasan Jonoubi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Saadat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ground magnetometer surveys is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods used in identifying iron reserves. The correct interpretation of ground magnetic surveys, along with geological and geochemical data will not only reduce costs but also to indicate the location, depth and dimensions of the hidden reserves of iron (Robinson and Coruh, 2005; Calagari, 1992. Kalateh Naser prospecting area is located at 33° 19َ to 33° 19ََ 42" latitude and 60° 0' to 60° 9َ 35" longitude in the western side of the central Ahangaran mountain range, eastern Iran (Fig.1. Based on primary field evidences, limited outcrops of magnetite mineralization were observed and upon conducting ground magnetic survey, evidence for large Iron ore deposits were detected (Saadat, 2014. This paper presents the geological and geochemical studies and the results of magnetic measurements in the area of interest and its applicability in exploration of other potential Iron deposits in the neighboring areas. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units of the area, samples were taken and thin sections were studied. Geochemical studies were conducted through XRF and ICP-Ms and wet chemistry analysis. The ground magnetic survey was designed to take measurements from grids of 20 meter apart lines and 10 meter apart points along the north-south trend. 2000 points were measured during a 6-day field work by expert geophysicists. Records were made by Canadian manufactured product Magnetometer Proton GSM19T (Fig. 2. Properties of Proton Magnetometer using in magnetic survey in Kalateh Naser prospecting area is shown in Table 1. Total magnetic intensity map, reduced to pole magnetic map, analytic single map, first vertical derivative map and upward continuation map have been prepared for this area. Results The most significant rock units in the area are cretaceous carbonate rocks (Fig. 3. The unit turns to shale and thin bedded limestone in the

  12. Micro-scale characterization of iron ores from a banded iron formation in Yishui county, western Shandong province of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are widely distributed in North China Craton (NCC). Yishui BIF is located in Yishui county, western Shandong Province of NCC and is categorized as Algoma-type. The origin of iron and silica of BIFs in this region have been studied extensively for decades. The trace elemental concentrations of magnetite and hematite in iron ores from Yishui BIF are focused in this study to better understand the origins of BIF. To discuss micro-structural signatures of iron ores, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer, electron microprobe (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized. Overall geochemical data represents abundance of trace elements, oxygen fugacity (fO2) condition during the formation of iron oxides, depositional environment of Yishui BIF, implying the involvement of volcanic eruption and hydrothermal exhalation during the chemical deposition.

  13. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    ., Peacor, D. R., McDowell, S. D., Smectite-to-illite reactions in Salton Sea shales: a transmission and analytical electron microscopy study, Jour. Sed. Petrology, 1987, 57(2): 335.[15]Schiffman, P., Staudigel, H., The smectite to chlorite transition in a fossil seamount hydrothermal system: the basement complex of La Palma, Canary Islands, JMG, 1995, 13: 487.[16]Huang, W. L., Longo, J. M., Pevear, D. R., An experimentally derived kinetic model for smectite-to-illite conversion and its use as a geothermometer, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(2): 162.[17]Zhang Ligang, Liu Jingxiu, Chen Zhensheng et al., Hydrogen and oxygen evolution for water-rock system in super-huge Tongchang copper deposit, Jiangxi Province, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1996, 31(3): 250.[18]Bell, T. E., Microstructure in mixed-layer illite/smectite and its relationship to the reaction of smectite to illite, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1986, 34(1): 146.[19]Rask, J. H., Bryndzia, L. T., Braunsdorf, N. R. Et al., Smectite illitization in Pliocene-age gulf of Mexico mudrocks, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1997, 45(1): 99.

  14. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in the giant Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body (Quebec Province, Canada): source and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, O.; Diot, H.; Bascou, J.; Charlier, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body is a magmatic ilmenite deposit that crops out in the 1.06 Ga Lac Allard anorthosite which is part of the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite suite, one of many AMCG (Anorthosite-Mangerite-Charnockite-(rapakivi) Granite) suites from the Grenville province of North America. It is the world's largest hard-rock ilmenite deposit, with reserves still estimated at ca. 138 Mt after 60 years of mining exploitation (Charlier et al., 2010). The magnetic properties of the Lac Tio ore body were first studied in the 50s and 60s (e.g. Hargraves, 1959; Carmichael, 1961), and have recently been reinvestigated by McEnroe et al. (2007). All these works focused on the high and stable natural remanent magnetization of the hemo-ilmenite ore (up to 120 A/m) that was shown to reside in the exsolution intergrowths of hematite and ilmenite, following the theory of lamellar magnetism (McEnroe et al., 2007). The present study investigates the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS; e.g. Borradaile and Jackson, 2004) of 46 samples from the Lac Tio ore body and its anorthosite wall rocks. The bulk magnetic susceptibility (Km) in the ore, which is essentially made up of hemo-ilmenite (commonly >75 wt.%) and plagioclase, ranges from 5.3 to 115.9 x 10-3 SI. Not surprisingly, samples with high Km values (>7 x 10-3 SI) usually contain magnetite, either as small grains or as plates replacing some hematite exsolutions. Km ranges from 0.35 to 3.8 x 10-3 SI in the host anorthosite, as well as in plagicolase-rich layers found within the hemo-ilmenite ore. Such relatively low values reflect minor to trace amounts of Fe-Ti oxides (ilmeno-hematite, hemo-ilmenite, magnetite) and pyroxenes. The hemo-ilmenite ore displays a shape-preferred orientation of the hematite lamellae that exsolved parallel to the basal (0001) plane of the ilmenite host grains. Thus, the ore has a lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) for the hemo-ilmenite grains. Electron backscatter diffraction

  15. The Ore Control Factors and the Ore-prospecting Indicators of the Jianchaling Nickel Ore in Shaanxi Province%陕西煎茶岭镍矿床控矿因素及找矿标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 董王仓; 郭立宏; 朱伟; 陈艳; 郑向光

    2014-01-01

    Lying in the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone,Jianchaling nickel ore-forming belt locates inside the Jinjiahe-Tiantaishan Mn-P-Ni prospecting area in a subzone of Mn-P-Cr-Ni-Au mineralization of Mianxian-Lueyang Hercynian-Indosinian ophiolite rock;the origin of the deposit belongs to magmatic liquation-hydrothermal alteration. The main rock is the Proterozoic metamorphic ultrabasic rock, and early nickel-bearing ultrabasic main rock which was later transformed by acidic rocks is the basic metallogenic place.On the whole,the deposit is a large low-grade nickel sulfide ore deposit,associated with low-grade cobalt.By analyzing the ore geotectonic location,the rock body characteristics and the ore body characteristics,the ore control factors and ore-prospecting indicators are concluded.It is believed that the mineralization is controlled by the magnesium ultrabasic rock and the structural fracture zone, and the intermediate-acidic intrusive rock provided the reforming thermal dynamic power for the magnesium ultrabasic rock.%陕西略阳煎茶岭镍矿位于勉略结合带上,成矿区带属勉略华力西-印支蛇绿杂岩 Mn-P-Cr-Ni-Au成矿亚带之略阳金家河-汉中天台山锰磷镍远景区内;矿床成因为岩浆熔离-热液改造型,赋矿岩体为元古代(Pt3)变质(蚀变)超基性岩,早期含镍超基性主岩体是成矿基本场所,后期中酸性岩对超基性主岩体进行改造,总体上为低品位硫化镍大型矿床,伴生低品位Co。通过对矿床大地构造位置、岩体特征、矿体特征等分析,总结了矿床控矿因素及找矿标志特征,认为该矿床成矿作用主要受镁质超基性岩、构造破碎带控制,中酸性侵入岩提供了镁质超基性岩再造成矿所需的热动力。

  16. Studying phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores by method of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shayakhmetov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given article there are presented the results of studying the phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores of Zhomart and Zapadny Kamys deposits of by the method of Mossbauer spectroscopy. There is established a variety of iron location forms in the studied materials and their quantitative content that allows to define the degree of completing regenerative processes at magnetizing roasting, and also the processes of formation of solid solutions (Fe1-XMX3O4 and stabilization of Fe1-XO from eutectoid disintegration at cooling.

  17. East Scandinavian and Noril'sk plume mafic large igneous provinces of Pd-Pt ores: Geological and metallogenic comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, F. P.; Bayanova, T. B.; Korchagin, A. U.; Groshev, N. Yu.; Malitch, K. N.; Zhirov, D. V.; Mitrofanov, A. F.

    2013-09-01

    This paper compares the geological, geophysical, and isotopic geochemical data on the Paleoproterozoic East Scandinavian Pd-Pt province in the Baltic Shield and the Late Paleozoic Noril'sk Pd-Pt province in the Siberian Craton. Both provinces contain large magmatic PGE deposits: low-sulfide in the Baltic Shield and high-sulfide in the Siberian Craton. Multidisciplinary evidence shows that the East Scandinavian mafic large igneous province, which has a plume nature, is intracratonic and was not subjected to the crucial effect of subduction-related and other contamination processes, whereas the Noril'sk province is pericratonic with substantial crustal contamination of the intrusive processes. Low-sulfide Pd-Pt deposits dominate in the East Scandinavian province, while high-sulfide Ni-Cu-PGE deposits play the leading role in the Noril'sk province. The U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic data indicate multistage and long-term (tens of millions of years) geological history of mafic large igneous provinces. The plume magmatism with specific geochemistry and metallogeny is probably related to lower mantle sources.

  18. REE Geochemistry of Fluorite from the Maoniuping REE Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Implications for the Source of Ore-forming Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluorite is one of the main gangue minerals in the Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China. Fluorite with different colors occurs not only within various orebodies, but also in wallrocks of the orefield. Based on REE geochemistry, fluorite in the orefieid can be classified as the LREE-rich, LREE-flat and LREE-depleted types. The three types of fluorite formed at different stages from the same hydrothermal fluid source, with the LREE-rich fluorite forming at the relatively early stage, the LREE-flat fluorite in the middle, and the LREE-depleted fluorite at the latest stage. Various lines of evidence demonstrate that the variation of the REE contents of fluorite shows no relation to the color. The mineralization of the Maoniuping REE deposit is associated spatially and temporally with carbonatite-syenite magmatism and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from carbonatite and syenite melts.

  19. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  20. 辽宁邵家堡子地区金成矿地质条件及找矿前景%Ore-search prospects, ore-forming geological conditions and gold mineraliza tionin in shao jia of liaoning province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁纯才

    2011-01-01

    为了研究邵家堡子地区金及多金属矿的有利成矿区的成矿特征,通过对区域地质背景、区域地球物理、地球化学特征及成矿条件分析,研究表明:金矿化主要发育于燕山期侵入花岗岩体与鞍山群变质岩系接触部位的断裂构造中,燕山期构造运动和强烈的岩浆活动为成矿物质富集提供了充足的热源和赋矿空间,区域上形成了连续的金、铜等元素富集带,具备了矿集区的特征,具有良好的找矿前景.该研究对邵家堡子地区金及多金属矿的开发具有一定的参考价值和指导意义.%To study to main characteristics of gold mineralize tionin in the shaojia of liaoning province,Analysis of the geogical background, geophysical characterstics, geochemical characterstics and ore-forming conditions ,most investments showed that gold mineralization chiefly construeted in contact of Yanshannian granitic intrusions and metamorphic rock series of Anshan group, Yanshan construction movement and strong magma movement supply enougy energy and space for minerals.forming continuous such as gold, copper enrichment cincture, has the characters of mineral-gather, and has the good prospect for seeking mineral.The research has some instruction meaning and reference value to development in gold mineralize tionin in the shaojia of liaoning province.

  1. Conflict between constitutional norms: monopoly of nuclear ore and the social function of property in Brazil; Conflito entre normas constitucionais: monopolio do minerio nuclear e a funcao social da propriedade no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-de-Moura, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)

  2. Gold grade of epithermal gold ore at Lamuntet, Brang Rea, West Sumbawa District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, Rika; Idrus, Arifudin; TBMP, Himawan

    2017-06-01

    Lamuntet is one of gold ore mining area carried out by the Artisanal Small scale Gold Mining (ASGM) located in West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Most of the miners at this area are not the local miners but also those from other regions. Mineralization of this area is strong identified as low sulfidation epithermal system. There are two blocks of this mining location, namely, Ngelampar block with an area of 0.164 km2 and Song block with an area of 0.067 km2. This study was focused on Ngelampar block. The characteristic of epithermal system is the existence of quartz vein with comb, vuggy, and sugary texture. The aim of this research was to analyze the gold grade and other metals, such as Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. The research methods included literature study from previous researches, field work, laboratory work, and interpretation. The literature study was performed on previous researches with similar study area. The field work comprised of direct observation and sampling. Fieldwork was done for a week to obtain gold ore/vein. Sixteen samples were analyzed to obtain the grade of ore/metal. The Hg laboratory analysis was then performed on the six samples with the highest gold grade. Laboratory works were conducted at Intertek Jakarta by using Fire Assay (FA) for gold grade and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. Results of the analysis showed the range of Au was grade (0.1 ppm - 27.8 ppm), Cu was 26 ppm -1740 ppm, Pb was 101 ppm- >4000 ppm, Zn of 73 ppm- >10,000 ppm, Ag of 3 ppm -185 ppm, As was 150 ppm-6530 ppm, and Hg of 0.08 ppm - 1.89 ppm. L1 and L15 had high grade for all values (Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg). Gold mineralization was formed as electrum because of Ag content is higher than 20%. Associated minerals of the samples in the study area were galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite which showed the characteristic of rich base metal of Pb, Zn, and Cu at LS epithermal.

  3. Radiogenic lead from poly-metallic thorium ores as a valuable material for advanced nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Gennady G.; Apse, Vladimir A.; Kulikov, Evgeny G.; Kozhahmet, Bauyrzhan K.; Shkodin, Alexey O.; Shmelev, Anatoly N.

    2017-03-15

    Main purpose of the study is assessing reasonability for recovery, production and application of radiogenic lead as a coolant, neutron moderator and neutron reflector in advanced fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS). The following results were obtained: 1. Radiogenic lead with high content of isotope {sup 208}Pb can be extracted from thorium or mixed thorium-uranium ores because {sup 208}Pb is a final product of {sup 232}Th natural decay chain. 2. The use of radiogenic lead with high {sup 208}Pb content in advanced fast reactors and ADS makes it possible to improve significantly their neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic parameters. 3. The use of radiogenic lead with high {sup 208}Pb content in advanced fast reactors as a coolant opens the possibilities for more intense fuel breeding and for application of well-known oxide fuel instead of the promising but not tested enough nitride fuel under the same safety parameters. 4. The use of radiogenic lead with high {sup 208}Pb content in advanced fast reactors as a neutron reflector opens a possibility for substantial elongation of prompt neutron lifetime. As a result, chain fission reaction in the reactor core could be slowed down, and the reactor operation could become safer. 5. The use of radiogenic lead with high {sup 208}Pb content in ADS as a coolant can upgrade substantially the level of neutron flux in the ADS blanket. Thus, favorable conditions could be formed in the ADS blanket for effective transmutation of radioactive wastes with low cross-sections of radiative neutron capture.

  4. Geologic map of Kundelan ore deposits and prospects, Zabul Province, Afghanistan; modified from the 1971 original map compilations of K.I. Litvinenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2015-10-26

    This map and cross sections are redrafted modified versions of the Geological map of the Kundelan ore deposit area, scale 1:10,000 (graphical supplement no. 18) and the Geological map of the Kundelan deposits, scale 1:2,000 (graphical supplement no. 3) both contained in an unpublished Soviet report by Litvinenko and others (1971) (report no. 0540). The unpublished Soviet report was prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Royal Government of Afghanistan in Kabul during 1971. This redrafted map and cross sections illustrate the geology of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit, located within the Kundelan copper and gold area of interest (AOI), Zabul Province, Afghanistan. Areas of interest (AOIs) of non-fuel mineral resources within Afghanistan were first described and defined by Peters and others (2007) and later by the work of Peters and others (2011a). The location of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit (area of this map) and the Kundelan copper and gold AOI is shown on the index map provided on this map sheet.

  5. Geochemical evidence for contribution of ore-forming materials from peraluminous granite basement-- Taking Fucheng pluton and No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province as examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Bangtong(章邦桐); CHEN; Peirong(陈培荣); YANG; Dongsheng(杨东生); KONG; Xinggong(孔兴功)

    2003-01-01

    Using the induced fission-track method, mobile uranium leaching and lead isotope analysis, this work obtianed geochemical features of the peraluminous Fucheng granite basement and the host rock (shoshonite) of the No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province. (i) Uranium contents of the leucocratic rock-forming minerals (0.18 ?g/g for quartz, 0.36 ?g/g for feldspar) are lower than the uranium content of the whole rock (4.6 ?g/g). Biotite and some accessory mineral inclusions (zircon, monazite and uraninite) are the main uranium carriers of the Fucheng granite pluton. The fissure uranium in altered minerals (hydromica and chlorite) increased evidently. (ii) Leachable rate of mobile uranium in the biotite granite is 10.4%, while that in the altered granite increased to 31%. (iii) Caculation based on lead isotopes shows that during alteration the Fucheng granite lost uranium (?U = ?37% - ?65%), whereas the Caotaobei shoshonite gained uranium (?U = +37%- +58%). These features suggest that the ore-forming material of the No. 6722 uranium deposit was mainly derived from the altered peraluminous granite basement of Fucheng pluton.

  6. Ore-forming event and geodynamic setting of molybdenum deposit at Wenquan in Gansu Province,Western Oinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU LaiMin; DING ZhenJu; YAO ShuZhen; ZHANG GuoWei; SONG ShiGang; QU WenJun; GUO Bo; LEE Ben

    2009-01-01

    into the root of the lower crust,which could induce partial melting of the lower crust and generate Mo-enriched granitic magma.The ore-forming elements enriched in the fluid derived from the condensation and fraction of the magma resulted in the Mo mineralization.The Mo deposits in the QOB are mainly formed in two episodes,namely 220±Ma and 140±Ma.The two episodes of metalIogenesis were developed in the tectonic transition settings from compression to extension,but they were in the different stages of the tectonic evolution.The occurrence of the Wenquan Mo-bearing pluton indicates that the Triassic tectonic-magmatic belt of Western Qinling is another favorable region for Mo mineralization in the QOB.Therefore,it is significant to pay more attention to evaluation of the ore-forming potentiality in the Triassic granites in Western Qinling.

  7. Study on process mineralogy refractory molybdenum ore in Hebei province%河北某难选钼矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马驰; 卞孝东; 王守敬

    2013-01-01

    对河北某难选钼矿,通过光学显微镜、人工重砂、X射线衍射分析以及电子探针分析,确定了该矿主要矿物的组成及含量,详细研究了含钼矿物的化学成分和嵌布特征,以及钼的赋存状态,查清了该矿难选的原因.该矿性质复杂,氧化程度高,矿泥含量多,约71.2%的钼赋存在褐铁矿中.褐铁矿是钼的主要载体矿物,但是褐铁矿集合体多呈胶状、细脉-微细脉结构充填在矿石的裂隙、微裂隙中,粒度多在10um左右,这些不利于选矿富集.%There is a refractory molybdenum mine in Hebei province, Using a optical microscopy, manual artificial heavy concentrate, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), molybdenum minerals and accompany minerals category and content of samples were studied, including chemical compositions, species, grain size, embedded characteristics, modes of occurrence of molybdenum minerals. ,and the reasons of this refractory molybdenum mine. This mine is complex mineral assemblages. Results also showed high oxidation rate of molybdenum and mudding degree. Perlimonite is the main carrier mineral of molybdenum,but the perlimonite collection which is filling in the fissures,micro-cracks of the ore show colloidal structure and veinlets structure The grain size of perlimonite is more about l0um. These are not conducive to dressing enrichment.

  8. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian, Jilin Province, China: Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JingGui; ZHAO JunKang; CHEN JunQiang; KEISUKE Nagao; HIROCHiKA Sumino; SHEN Kun; MEN LanJing; CHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45-0.08 Ra, 10.2-8.8 and 306-430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123-102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition- crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as: (1

  9. Minimum critical thickness of dike for ore-bearing fluid injection: A new approach applied to the Shihu gold deposit, Hebei Province, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedong Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the metallogenic theory by transmagmatic fluid (TMF, one magmatic intrusion is a channel of ore-bearing fluids, but not their source. Therefore, it is possible to use TMF’s ability for injection into and for escaping from the magmatic intrusion to evaluate its ore-forming potential. As the ore-bearing fluids cannot effectively inject into the magmatic intrusion when the magma fully crystallized, the cooling time and rates viscosity varied can be used to estimate the minimum critical thickness of the intrusion. One dimensional heat transfer model is used to determine the cooling time for three representative dikes of different composition (granite porphyry, quartz diorite and diabase in the Shihu gold deposit. It also estimated the rates viscosity varied in these time interval. We took the thickness of dike at the intersection of the cooling time – thickness curve and the rates viscosity varied versus thickness curve as the minimum critical thickness. For the ore-bearing fluids effectively injecting into the magma, the minimum critical thicknesses for the three representative dikes are 33.45 m for granite porphyry, 8.22 m for quartz diorite and 1.02 m for diabase, indicating that ore-bearing dikes must be thicker than each value. These results are consistent with the occurrence of ore bodies, and thus they could be applied in practice. Based on the statistical relationship between the length and the width of dikes, these critical thicknesses are used to compute critical areas: 0.0003–0.0016 km2 for diabase, 0.014–0.068 km2 for quartz diorite and 0.011–0.034 km2 for granite porphyry. This implies that ore-bearing minor intrusions have varied areas corresponding to their composition. The numerical simulation has provided the theoretical threshold of exposed thickness and area of the ore-bearing intrusion. These values can be used to determine the ore-forming potentials of dikes.

  10. Feasibility study of Salt diapirs of Hormuzgan province for nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmehsadat Tabatabaei nia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Find safe manner for long-term disposal of nuclear waste not only for social security and environmental protection but also for the continued operation of nuclear reactors will be inevitable. Various methods such as burial in the ocean, space , layers of ice and deep wells has been used, that each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Disposal of sullage and hazardous wastes in salt caverns Including new technologies and modern in the wastewater and solid waste are management. And some countries have made significant progress in this area, and have a reasonable volume of waste disposed inside the cavern forever. Salt pluges due to the large volume of storage, very low permeability, the restoration of the salt and the lack of joints and gaps, are ideal options for storing all kinds of materials. Place salt pluges of Hormuzgan province in terms of tectonic stability and seismic were investigated. And their capacity for nuclear waste disposal were identified.

  11. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  12. Origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids in the Hemushan magnetite-apatite deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China, and their metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gan; Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Yangsong; Pang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Yongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in the northern Yangtze Block is one of the most important economic mineral districts in China. The Hemushan deposit is a medium-class Fe deposit located in the southern part of the Ningwu iron ore district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt. The Fe-orebodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between diorite and Triassic marble. The actinolite-phlogopite-apatite-magnetite ore shows metasomatic/filling textures and disseminated/mesh-vein structures. Based on evidences and petrographic observations, the ore-forming process can be divided into three distinct periods-the early metallogenic period (albite-diopside stage), the middle metallogenic period (magnetite stage and hematite stage), and the late metallogenic period (quartz-pyrite stage and carbonate stage). Fluid inclusion studies show four types of inclusions: type I daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L + V + S), type II vapor-rich two-phase inclusions (L + V), type III liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L + V), and minor type IV liquid-phase inclusions (L). Apatites from the magnetite stage contain type I, type II and type III inclusions; anhydrites from the hematite stage mainly contain abundant type II inclusions and relatively less type I inclusions; quartz and calcite from the late metallogenic stage are mainly characterized by type III inclusions. Laser Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry of fluid inclusions show that the ore-forming fluids broadly correspond to unsaturated NaCl-H2O system. From the magnetite stage to the carbonate stage, the ore-forming fluids evolved from moderate-high temperature (average 414 °C), moderate salinity (average 25.01 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions to low temperature (average 168 °C), low salinity (average 6.18 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic studies indicate that the ore-forming fluid during the early stage of middle metallogenic period was mainly of magmatic

  13. Kellad orelis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    18. VI Tallinna toomkirikus organist Ines Maidre (kaastegev Kristjan Mäeots) kontsert "Kellad orelis". Kontserdiga esitleb I. Maidre ka oma samanimelist CD-d (kujundaja Margus Haavamägi), mis on osaliselt sisse mängitud Tallinna toomkiriku Ladegasti-Saueri orelil. Tänavu tähistatakse toomkiriku Maarja kella ja Lunastaja kella 315. aastapäeva.

  14. Ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping Cu-Co-Ag polymetallic deposit in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiming; LIU Jiajun; ZHANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping copper-cobalt-silver polymetallic deposit have been studied in view of the S, Pb, C, O and H isotopic characteristics and the ratio of Co/Ni of cohaltite. The results showed that sulfur in metallic sulfides may have come from a mixed sulfur-source consisting of the sulfur-source from metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks and the sulfur-source from basin sulfates;lead in the ores was provided by the sedimentary rocks and basement rocks; CO2 in ore-forming fluids was derived from thermolysis of altered and normal marine facies carbonates and decarboxylation of sedimentary organic matter respectively; the ore-forming fluids belong to the SO4-Cl-Na-Ca-type basin thermal brines derived from paleo-meteoric waters; cobalt in the deposit may also be derived from the metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks.

  15. Source of Ore-Forming Materials of Tongchang Copper Ore Deposit in Southern Shaanxi Province, China%陕南铜厂铜矿床成矿物质来源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶霖; 杨玉龙; 高伟; 刘铁庚

    2012-01-01

    albite rocks in the mine. There are two kinds of chalcopyrites with different REE patterns, one is enriched in LREE and the other has relatively flat REE pattern. The pyrite grains hosted in internal and external contact zones of the diorite intrusion have different Co/Ni ratios, suggesting multiple sources of ore-forrning materials. Analyzing on the background values of those ore-forming elements in various geological bodies indicates that ore-forming material is mainly from the spilite and minor from the diorite. Secondly, the chalcopyrite is characterized by obvious negative Eu anomalies and its δEu value is much lower than those of the diorite and spilite. The depletion of Eu is likely related to greisenization and albitization caused by volatile fluids during mineralization. Furthermore, Y/Ho ratios of the chalcopyrite are similar to those of albite rocks, implying the close relationship between copper mineralization and Na replacement. Thirdly, due to the inheritance of the trace elements feature from source of ore-forming mineralizing materials, the Ni and Co content in the chalcopyrite is n-n×10 times than in the pyrite, corresponding to that in Cu - Ni sulfide type deposit and different from that in skarn-type, porphyry-type, volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal type as well as VMS Cu deposit. The metallogenic model of Tongchang copper deposit can be listed as following. During the Hercynian period, with the closure, subduction and collision of Mian-Lue ancient oceanic basin, the dutile-brittle thrusting nappe structure and strike-slip fault were formed in Mian-Lue-Ning area. The metasomatism of mixed hydrothermal by regional metamorphic fluid and rainwater, which rich in Na+ , K+ and CO2, resulted in the translation of ore-forming materials (e. G. Cu and Ni) from strata of Guojiagou Group and spilite (and diorite) to form the metallogenic hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluid was characterized by low temperature and salinity, and enriched in ore

  16. Experimental study on Fioatation for a certain gold-silver ore containing lead in Jilin province%吉林省某矿含铅金银矿石浮选工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏; 邢洪波; 王学哲; 任洪胜

    2011-01-01

    Experimental study on floatation is carried out for a certain gold-silver ore containing lead in Jilin province.According to the low grade of gold, silver and lead, the experimental flowsheet is chosen as follow, raw ore bulk floatation-concentrate cyanidation-leaching residue floatation for lead.Ideal recovery rates are obtained as follow, gold 83.80 %, silver 51.19 % , lead 77.91% and sulfur 73.59 %.The flowsheet can produce gold and silver on the spot, meanwhile lead and sulfur can be recovered comprehensively.%对吉林省某矿含铅金银矿石进行了浮选工艺试验研究.根据矿石性质,针对矿石中金、银、铅品位较低的特点,试验采用原矿混合浮选-精矿氰化-浸渣浮选铅工艺流程,获得回收率:金83.80%,银51.19%,铅77.91%,硫73.59%.采用该工艺流程可实现就地产金银,同时综合回收铅硫.

  17. Mineral processing test for a fine grain disseminated gold ore from Gansu Province%甘肃某细粒浸染型金矿石选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳建平; 向虹; 吴天骄; 万宏民; 齐晓东

    2016-01-01

    甘肃某细粒浸染型金矿石中金主要以包裹金形态存在,且载金矿物黄铁矿与脉石矿物连生关系复杂.针对该矿石的性质,进行了选矿试验研究.其结果表明:在最佳试验条件下,采用阶段磨矿-阶段浮选工艺,可获得金品位30.17 g/t、金回收率81.23%的较好指标;硫精矿经氧化焙烧—氰化浸出,金对原矿的回收率为6.96%,金总回收率达88.19%.%Mineral processing test was carried out for a fine grain disseminated gold ore from Gansu Province.The gold-carrying mineral is pyrite and it is connected with gangue minerals in a complex way.The test results under opti-mal test conditions,a stage grinding-stage flotation process can obtain a gold grade of 30.17 g/t and a gold recovery rate of 81.23 %.Sulfur concentrates go through roasting-cyanide leaching process,the recovery of primary gold ores is 6.96 %and the total recovery rate of gold is 88.19 %.

  18. Application of the angle measure technique as image texture analysis method for the identification of uranium ore concentrate samples: New perspective in nuclear forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Lorenzo; Ho, Doris Mer Lin; Kvaal, Knut; Mayer, Klaus; Rondinella, Vincenzo V

    2016-05-15

    The identification of interdicted nuclear or radioactive materials requires the application of dedicated techniques. In this work, a new approach for characterizing powder of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) is presented. It is based on image texture analysis and multivariate data modelling. 26 different UOCs samples were evaluated applying the Angle Measure Technique (AMT) algorithm to extract textural features on samples images acquired at 250× and 1000× magnification by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). At both magnifications, this method proved effective to classify the different types of UOC powder based on the surface characteristics that depend on particle size, homogeneity, and graininess and are related to the composition and processes used in the production facilities. Using the outcome data from the application of the AMT algorithm, the total explained variance was higher than 90% with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), while partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied only on the 14 black colour UOCs powder samples, allowed their classification only on the basis of their surface texture features (sensitivity>0.6; specificity>0.6). This preliminary study shows that this method was able to distinguish samples with similar composition, but obtained from different facilities. The mean angle spectral data obtained by the image texture analysis using the AMT algorithm can be considered as a specific fingerprint or signature of UOCs and could be used for nuclear forensic investigation.

  19. 青海某铁帽型金银矿石氰化浸出试验研究%The Experimental Study on Cyanidation Leaching of a Gossan Type Gold-Silver Ores in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊萌

    2015-01-01

    为开发利用铁帽型金银矿产资源,对青海某铁帽型金银矿石进行了氰化法浸出试验研究,考察了磨矿细度、浸出时间、矿浆浓度、NaCN 用量、石灰用量和醋酸铅用量等因素对金银浸出率的影响,进而确定了最佳浸出条件。试验结果表明:在磨矿细度-0.074 mm 占98.23%,矿浆浓度33.33%,石灰用量10 kg/t,氰化钠用量2.5 kg/t,醋酸铅用量100 g/t 以及浸出时间24 h 条件下,该矿石中金、银浸出率分别达到93%和83%以上。该研究成果为青海某铁帽型金银矿的开发利用提供了技术支撑,并对同类型矿石资源的高效开发具有重要的借鉴意义。%In order to develop and utilize mineral resources in gossan type gold and silver ores,cyanide leaching was applied to study the gossan type gold and silver ores in Qinghai Province.We investigated the effect of grinding fineness,leaching time,pulp density,dosage of sodium cyanide,lime and lead acetate to leaching rate for gold and silver,finally the optimum leaching condition was determined.The results showed that grinding fineness of -0.074 mm accounted for 98.23%,pulp density around 33.33%,lime dosage of 10 kg/t,the dosage of sodium cyanide of 2.5 kg/t,lead acetate of 100 g/t,and under the leaching time of 24 h,the leaching rate of gold and silver was above 93% and 83%,respectively.The results provided technical support for the development and utilization of gossan type gold silver ores in Qinghai Province,and it is of great significance for the efficient development of the same kind of resource.

  20. 云南省澜沧县南竹铅锌矿区地质特征及控矿因素%Lead-zinc Ore Geological Characteristics and Ore-controlling Factors in Nanzhu Mine of Lancang Country, Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏远

    2014-01-01

    云南省澜沧县南竹铅锌矿区地处扬子板块兰坪-思茅微板块的昌宁-孟连晚古生代裂谷带内,南竹铅锌矿体均产于元古界澜沧群惠民组二段上亚段的层间裂隙中,矿化与区域动力变质作用和热液变质作用关系密切。矿区内惠民组的云英片岩地层、强烈的硅化围岩蚀变及铁帽是该矿床的控矿因素。%Lead-zinc mine in Nanzhu mine of Lancang country,Yunnan province is located in the Yangtze plate, Lanping - Simao micro-plate, Changning - Menglian Late Paleozoic rift zone. Nanzhu lead-zinc body is come from the sub-second section of Huimin Formation, its mineralization has a close relationship with regional dynamic metamorphism and hydrothermal metamorphism. Mica quartz schist, silicified rock alteration and gossan in Huimin Formation are ore-controlling factors in the mine.

  1. 山西代县金红石矿的成因新认识%New Genesis Recognition to Rutile Ore in Dai County, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱加慧; 李瑞彪; 葛斐

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduced rutile mine geological background and characteristics of the Dai county, and analyzed the predecessors' understanding of the cause of the ore deposit. Combined with the latest zircon chronology and rock geochemical study, the authors proposed the rutile ore was formed by basic rock occurred by the sea hydrothermal al-teration and metamorphism of middle-high pressure amphibolite facies. Characteristics of rich Ore Mg (Fe) and poor Ca (al-kali) was caused by hydrothermal alteration. The characteristics of rich Ti mainly inherited from original basic rock, and pos-sibly further enriched in the process of hydrothermal alteration.%介绍了代县金红石矿区地质背景和矿石特征,分析了前人对该矿床的成因认识。结合最新的锆石年代学和岩石地球化学研究,提出该金红石矿是由发生海水热液蚀变的基性岩石再经历中高压角闪岩相的变质作用形成。矿石中富Mg (Fe)和贫Ca (碱)的特征由水热蚀变引起。矿石中富Ti的特征主要继承自原始基性岩,并可能在热液蚀变过程中进一步富集。

  2. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 3 Koongarra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowson, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    The Koongarra ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located ∼30 m below the surface. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) for the ground water and the amorphous phase of the solid have been analysed for the ore zone and dispersion halo as a function of depth. The results display a (234)U/(238)U AR signature with depth which may be common to all U ore bodies. The (234)U/(238)U AR is depressed below secular equilibrium in the weathered material above the redox front; rises significantly above secular equilibrium in the vicinity of the redox front; and is followed by a gradual decrease with depth below the redox front. The amplitude of the profile is a function of local conditions. A model is proposed for the signature in which oxidising waters preferentially leach the (234)U sites at the redox front due to preconditioning of the (234)U sites by α recoil during the decay of (23)(8)U to (23)(4)U. Mass balance requires the solid material left behind the redox front to have a (234)U/(238)U AR reduced below 1. Local second order effects may be superimposed on the signature. The signature may have application to calibrating scenarios for nuclear waste repositories, assisting in understanding historical climates, economic evaluation of U ore bodies and U exploration.

  3. Ore fluid of the Tieluping silver deposit of Henan Province and its illustration of the tectonic model for collisional petrogenesis, metallogenesis and fluidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋颖慧; 王海华; 高秀丽; 陈华勇; 李震

    2000-01-01

    The Tieluping silver deposit, located in the NE-trending faults within the metamorphic basement of the Xiong’er Mountain, is a typical altered fracture type deposit. Its ore-forming process includes three stages with temperatures concentrated at 373℃, 223℃ and 165℃ respectively. With δD=90‰, δ13CCo2 =2.0‰ and δ18O=8.94‰, the early stage fluid was generated from reworking and metamorphism of the carbonate rich formation; the late one, with δD=-70‰, δ13CCo2 =-1.2‰, δ18O=-1,89‰, was meteoric hydrothermal solution; and the middle, δD=-109‰, δl3CCO2=0.1‰, δ18O=1.79‰, might be a hybrid mixed by reworking-metamorphic fluid and meteoric hydrothermal solution. Crystallized rapidly in the condition of fluid-boiling and fluid-mixing, the middle stage minerals have far more fluid inclusions with higher content of ions, higher ratios of H2O/CO2 and KN/MC. Consequently, they have much more ore elements such as gold compared with those of the early and late stages. It was the northward intracontin

  4. Experimental Study on Recovery of Copper Oxide Ore from a Tailing in Yunnan Province%云南某尾矿中氧化铜矿回收试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋禄; 戈保梁; 伏彦雄; 冯致; 杨春刚; 王显强; 郑明峰

    2015-01-01

    After preconcentration , the grade of Cu of a copper oxide ore from Yunnan Province was 2 .70%, and the oxidation rate of copper was 32 .22%.According to ore properties , two stages flo-tation were applied and influence of flotation parameters such as fine grinding , types and dosages of reagents were investigated .The results showed that optimum grinding fineness was 90% -0 .074 mm by using xanthate as collector , sodium sulfide as activating agent , sodium silicate and sodium hexametaphosphate as depressant , respectively .The suitable flotation flowsheet was: three rough-ings, one scavenging and two cleanings .The obtained concentrate contained 15.21%Cu with re-covery of 83 .19%.%云南某地区铜尾矿经预先富集后,含铜2.70%,氧化率为32.22%,属氧化铜矿。根据矿石特点,采用硫化铜与氧化铜分选工艺流程,研究结果表明,在磨矿细度-0.074 mm含量为90%、丁黄药为捕收剂、硫化钠为活化剂、水玻璃和六偏磷酸钠为抑制剂的条件下,采用三次粗选一次扫选二次精选的浮选流程获得了铜精矿品位为15.21%、回收率为83.19%的选别指标。

  5. 贵州省册亨县尾若金矿点地质特征及找矿方向%Geological Characteristics and Ore-searching Directions of Weiruo Gold Occurrence in Ceting County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁俊; 张洪信; 罗建均; 肖波

    2014-01-01

    贵州册亨县尾若金矿产于北东向F2断裂破碎带内,含金地层为三叠系许满组,矿化围岩为泥灰岩、泥质粉砂岩,围岩蚀变有硅化、黄铁矿化、碳酸盐化、黏土化、毒砂化、脱钙;矿体呈扁豆状、透镜状、脉状产出,矿化体(带)长200 m,矿化带(体)水平厚度1.00 m~5.20 m,平均品位Au为0.50×10-6~6.37×10-6。%The Weiruo gold ore in Ceting County of Guizhou Province is produced within NE trend F2 faulted fracture zone, the gold-bearing beds belong to Xuman Group of Triassic System, the mineralized surrounding rocks are mud-limestone and argillaceous siltstone, and the alteration of surrounding rocks includes the siliconization, pyritization, carbonatization, argillization, arsenopyritization and decalcification;the ore body presents the lenticular, lenticular and vein output, the length of mineralized body(belt) is 200 m, the the level thickness of mineralized belt(body) is 1.00 m~5.20 m, and the average grade of Au is 0.50×10-6~6.37×10-6.

  6. 甘肃两当某高硫金矿石选矿试验研究%Beneficiation Experiment on a High Sulfur Gold Ore from Liangdang in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫在阳; 张飞飞; 马鹏程; 张志刚; 王文辉; 王路平

    2016-01-01

    There is 0.93 g/t gold in a high sulfur gold ore from Liangdang region in Gansu Prov-ince.76.71 % of the gold exists in form of packages and fissure gold in pyrite,fine disseminated,diffi-cult to be liberated.For fully recycling of gold in the ore,the flotation test research was conducted.Test results show that with Na2 S and Na2 SO3 as segmented sulfur inhibitor,CuSO4 as activator,butyl xanthate+ammonium butyl aerofloat as combination collector,via two roughing two scavenging-regrinding on the rough concentrate-four cleaning closed circuit separation process,gold concentrate with 20.74 g/t gold, 39.33% sulfur,gold recovery of 70.90%,tailings of 0.29 g/t gold was finally obtained,concentration of the gold was obtained,reduce the influence of sulfur on the gold concentrate quality.The test results provide technical basis for the determination of dressing process on the gold ore.%甘肃两当地区某高硫金矿石,金品位0.93 g/t,硫含量较高。76.71%的金以包裹金、裂隙金的形式嵌布在黄铁矿中,嵌布粒度细,单体解离困难。为充分回收利用矿石中的金,进行了浮选试验研究。试验结果表明,以 Na2 S 和 Na2 SO3分段抑制硫,CuSO4为活化剂,丁基黄药+丁基铵黑药为组合捕收剂,原矿经2粗2扫—粗精矿再磨—4次精选闭路试验选别,最终可获得金品位20.74 g/t、含硫39.33%,金回收率70.90%的金精矿,尾矿金含量仅0.29 g/t,实现了金的富集,降低了硫对金精矿质量的影响。选矿试验结果为该金矿石选别流程的最终确定提供技术依据。

  7. Geochemical and Nd isotopic constraints on provenance and depositional setting of the Shihuiding Formation in the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district, Hainan Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Shaohao; Cai, Jianxin; Xu, Deru; Zou, Fenghui; Wang, Zhilin; Wu, Chuanjun; Liu, Meng

    2016-04-01

    The Shihuiding Formation, a subordinate succession hosting the Fe-Co-Cu ores, is a suite of Neoproterozoic terrigenous clastic rocks occurring in the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district of the Hainan Island, South China. Integrated petrographical, geochemical, and Nd isotopic analyses have been carried out on 23 sandstone specimens of the Shihuiding Formation in order to understand their provenance and the tectonic setting of their deposition. The samples can be divided into two groups, quartzose sandstones (13 samples) and ferruginous sandstones (10 samples). The ferruginous sandstones have average SiO2 and Fetotal contents of 77.23 wt.% and 18.09 wt.%, respectively, and this contrasts with the higher average SiO2 (94.04 wt.%) and lower Fetotal (2.67 wt.%) contents of the quartzose sandstones. The bivariant Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios indicate a predominantly recycled sedimentary provenance, and the low to medium degrees of weathering are commonly indicated by an average chemical index of maturity (CIM) of 81 and an average chemical index of alteration (CIA) of 68. The Shihuiding Formation sandstones have REE contents of 21-249 ppm, with LREE/HREE = 9.18 and δEu = 0.67. The εNd (970 Ma) values of -5.7 to -3.4, and model (TDM) ages of 2099-1773 Ma are compatible with a source mainly from the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group, a suite of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks intruded by ca. 1450 Ma granites. Quantitative provenance modeling indicates that the Shihuiding Formation sandstones are best modeled with a mixture of 29% plagioclase-amphibole gneiss (29 P), 38% quartz-muscovite schist (38 Q), and 33% granite (33 G) detritus. Mixing the εNd values of the sandstones, calculated at 970 Ma, indicates that the sediment received 22-47% (average 34%) of its detritus from the Baoban Group quartz-muscovite schists. Components from hydrothermal fluids may also have been involved during deposition of the Shihuiding Formation sandstones, as revealed by a bivariant Al/(Al + Fe + Mn

  8. 吉林荒沟山金矿床成矿流体特征%Geochemical Characteristics of Ore-Forming Fluid in Huanggoushan Gold Deposit,Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向斌; 李剑锋; 王可勇; 梁一鸿; 张淼; 韦烈民; 王志高

    2016-01-01

    荒沟山金矿床为吉南老岭金-多金属成矿带内较具代表性矿床之一,产于元古宇老岭群珍珠门组地层之中,受韧性剪切带构造控制。按地质特征、矿物组合及矿脉之间的穿切关系,将荒沟山金矿床热液成矿作用划分为Ⅰ黄铁矿-毒砂-石英阶段和Ⅱ晚期辉锑矿-乳白色石英两个阶段。系统的流体包裹体岩相学及显微测温研究表明:Ⅰ阶段石英中发育含 CO 2三相、碳质及气液两相3种类型的原生流体包裹体,成矿流体属不混溶的中低温、低盐度 NaCl-H 2 O-CO 2体系热液,在成矿过程中发生过不混溶作用而导致金等有用元素沉淀富集;Ⅱ阶段石英颗粒中主要发育气液两相包裹体,成矿流体属均匀的 NaCl-H 2 O 体系热液。碳、氢、氧同位素研究表明,Ⅰ阶段成矿流体主要来源于岩浆热液,Ⅱ阶段流体除继承早阶段的热液外,还有大气降水的混入;δD 和δ13 CV-PDB 值分析结果证明两个成矿阶段流体均与地层发生过较强的水岩反应。矿床成因属于中温岩浆热液矿床。%Occurred in Zhenzhumen Formation of Laoling Group of Proterozoic Era and controlled by ductile shear belt,the Huanggoushan gold deposit is one of the most representative deposits in Laoling gold-polymetallic metallogenic belt in southern Jilin Province.Based on the geological characteristics,mineral assemblage and the crosscutting relationship between different kinds of veins,the hydrothermal mineralization processes can be divided into two main stages,namely,stageⅠpyrite arseno-pyrite quartz and stageⅡ later stibnite-milky quartz.Systematic study on petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions shows that quartz of Stage Ⅰcontains three types of primary fluid inclusions,which are CO 2 bearing three phases,carbonic and aqueous two phases inclusions respectively,and the ore forming fluid is of medium to low temperature and low salinity NaCl-H 2 O-CO 2 kind of

  9. Microstructural observation and chemical dating on monazite from the Shilu Group, Hainan Province of South China: Implications for origin and evolution of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Deru; Kusiak, Monika A.; Wang, Zhilin; Chen, Huayong; Bakun-Czubarow, Nonna; Wu, Chuanjun; Konečný, Patrik; Hollings, Peter

    2015-02-01

    New monazite chemical U-Th-total-Pb (CHIME) ages, combined with microstructural observations, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemistry, indicate that the large-scale, banded iron formation (BIF)-type Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province, South China is a multistage product of sedimentation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration associated with multiple orogenies. Two types of monazite, i.e. "polygenetic" and "metamorphic", were identified. The "polygenetic monazite" comprises a magmatic and/or metamorphic core surrounded by a metamorphic rim, and shows complex zoning. Breakdown corona structure, with a core of monazite surrounded by a mantle of fluorapatite, allanite, and/or epidote as concentric growth rings, is commonly observed. This type of monazite yielded three main CHIME-age peaks at ca. 980 Ma, ca. 880 Ma and ca. 450 Ma. The ages which range up to ca. 880 Ma for detrital cores, record a pre-deformational magmatic and/or metamorphic event(s), and is considered to be the depositional time-interval of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs in a marine, back-arc foreland basin likely due to the Grenvillian or South China Sibao orogeny. After deposition, the Shilu district was subjected to an orogenic event, which is recorded by the syndeformational metamorphic monazite with ca. 560-450 Ma population. Probably this event not only caused amphibolite facies metamorphism and associated regional foliation S1 but also enriched the original BIFs, and most likely corresponds to the "Pan-African" and/or the South China Caledonian orogeny. The post-deformational "metamorphic" monazite occurs mostly as inclusions in garnet and shows ca. 260 Ma age. It likely represents the Late Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal and related retrograde event(s) initiated by the Indosinian orogeny due to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys. The breakdown of monazite to secondary coronal mineral phases as well as the Fe-remobilization and associated skarnization

  10. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  11. A tentative discussion on ore-controlling factors, ore genesis and metallogenic model of Houwanling Pb-Zn deposit in Hainan Province%海南省后万岭铅锌矿床控矿因素、矿床成因及成矿模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付王伟; 许德如; 傅杨荣; 杨昌松; 周迎春; 杨东生; 吴传军; 王智琳

    2012-01-01

    统的顶端或远端,最终归纳总结出了后万岭铅锌矿床成矿模式图.%The discovery of the Houwanling Pb-Zn deposit in Ledong County of Hainan Province has been a very im-portant achievement in ore exploration of Hainan Province in recent years. The Houwanling deposit contains proved Pb + Zn metal reserves of 290 thousand tons with average grades of Zn 2.23 % and Pb 0.95 % . The deposit is hosted by the Cretaceous Qianjia pluton which had a crust mantle mixed origin due to intermittent mag-matic intrusion and was produced in a post-collisional extensional environment in middle-late Jurassic period. This calc-alkaline-dominated pluton, which is extremely depleted in Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti and relatively enriched in Rb, K and Pb, shows a shift from high-K to shoshonite association and is characterized by obvious succession in composition and structure. The Qianjia pluton comprises the monzogranite-granodiorite-syenogran-ite association and is geochemically characterized by high REE content (ranging from 122 × 10-6 to 411 × 10-6), moderate to high negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.13~0.69) and relatively high LREE/HREE ratios (6.74~16.32). There existed lots of hydrothermal fluids during the evolution of granitic magmas. Furthermore, the abundances of Pb and Zn in rock-forming minerals of the Qianjia pluton's granites are much higher than those in the earth's crust. Deep heat and high content of radioactive heat-producing elements (such as K, Rb) in the shallow part caused convective circulation of hydrothermal fluids in the shallow part, which continuously extracted metallogenic material in a fairly long time. At last, sphalerite and galena were deposited. The deposit is strictly controlled by both the Qianjia pluton and the NNW-nearly SN trending transtensional faults, whereas the ore bodies are largely hosted in the NNW-nearly SN transtensional fault zones or distributed adjacent to the fault zones. Based on thin section observation, the authors

  12. A Research of Ore-Forming Conditions of Nipu Gold Deposit in Guizhou Province, China%贵州泥堡金矿床成矿地质条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军; 聂爱国; 黄思涵; 付斌; 陈世委

    2012-01-01

    The Nipu gold deposit is one of the important components of Carlin-type gold mining area, which is located in Southwest of Cuizhou Province. However, Nipu has its remarkable characteristics in host rocks, gold bearing formation and lithofacies palaeogeography. By researching the forming conditions of Nipu gold deposit, it is found that the mater and heat sources of Nibao gold deposit come from the Emei mantle plume's activities whichis the prerequisites of forming and activating the Ore-bearing hydrothermal. Also the location and formation of Nibao gold deposit are ultimately determined by a large scale of orogenic movements in Yanshanian period.%泥堡金矿是黔西南卡林型金矿矿集区的重要组成部分,但在赋矿岩石、含金建造和岩相古地理位置方面,泥堡金矿具有显著的特殊性.本文通过对贵州泥堡金矿床成矿地质条件的研究,分析认为峨眉山地幔热柱的活动为泥堡金矿的形成提供了物质来源和热能来源,为含矿热液的形成和活动创造了前提条件,燕山期大规模的构造造山运动最终决定了泥堡金矿的定位和形成.

  13. Assessment of the level of knowledge of Physicians in Bushehr Province about preparedness and response for Nuclear Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Abbasi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Responses to recent incidents involving radiation indicate that most general practitioners are uncertain about the health consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and the medical management of exposed patients. Acute radiation syndrome is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire body by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time. In order to assess the level of knowledge of physicians in Bushehr province about preparedness and response for nuclear emergency, we used a questionnaire based on IAEA-WHO protocol. A total of 233 doctors (47 of specialist and 186 of general practitioners participated in a cross-sectional study. The mean of score for doctors was 3.99 (from 13 3.7 score for general practitioners and 4.28 scores for specialists. Overall, the doctors did not gain the acceptable scores in subjects like physics of radiation, diagnosis and management of acute radiation syndrome, triage and management of nuclear accidents. In conclusion, the level of doctors’ knowledge in Bushehr province about preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergency is deficient. Therefore, medical education and postgraduate training programs for doctors should be designed.

  14. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian,Jilin Province,China:Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEISUKE; Nagao; HIROCHIKA; Sumino

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45―0.08 Ra, 10.2―8.8 and 306―430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123―102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition-crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as

  15. Relationship between magmatic carbonatite and copper mineralization in the Ruina copper ore field, central province of Zambia%赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区碳酸岩及其与成矿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希文; 边千韬; 王作琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区钻孔岩芯的系统研究,作者认为该区的含矿围岩为典型的火成碳酸岩,详细的岩矿相学研究也揭示瑞娜铜矿为碳酸岩岩浆型铜矿床.岩浆发生液态不混溶作用,溶离出碱性硅酸盐熔体、金属硫化物熔体和挥发份(CO2、H2O、F、Cl、B、P等)等流体,岩浆所携带的碱质使接触带地层交代蚀变成霓长岩,挥发份以络合物的形式携带部分Cu、Au、Ag、Ga、Co、REE、Ni等金属元素在外接触带地层碎裂岩和内接触带处成矿.%Through the systematic observation of drill core samples collected from Ruina copper ore field in central province of Zambia,the authors conclude that the copper-bearing country rock is a typical carbonatite with magnetic origin.The detailed study of mineral assemblages and petrographical characteristics also indicate that the Ruina copper deposit is a magmatic carbonatite-type cooper mineralization.When the magma evolved into the immiscible stage,the alkali-containing silicate melt,sulfides melt and volatile components (including CO2,H2O,F,Cl,B,P)are dissolved.The alkali compositions accompanying the magma reacted with the contact host rock,then the fenite was formed; and the volatile components which contain mineralization elements such as Cu,Au,Ag,Ga,Co,REE and Ni in the form of chemical complex deposited in the fractures of host rocks within the outlier contact zone as well as inner contact zone.The result of this study will be useful and meaningful for mineral prospecting in this region.

  16. Characteristics of Ore Quality of Zirconium Ilmenite Deposit in Eastern Coastal Area of Mozambique——Setting 5004 C Mining Area in Zambezia Province as an Example%莫桑比克东部沿海锆钛砂矿矿石质量特征 ——以赞比西亚省5004C矿区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令华; 崔庆岗; 孔德金; 杜小亮

    2015-01-01

    Marginal marine placer is one of the mineral resources with the most largest potentiality in the world. It is only next to oil and gas. The marginal marine placer are rich in eastern coastal areas in Mozambique, and occu-pies an important position in the world. In this paper, combining with zirconium ilmenite deposit in 5004C mining area of Zambezia province in Mozambique, characteristics of ore quality, such as ore structures, ore compositions, contents and changes have been analyzed. It wll provide favorable information for the exploration and development of zirconium ilmenite deposit in eastern coastal areas of Mozambique.%滨海砂矿是目前全球最大的潜在海洋矿产资源之一,仅次于石油与天然气. 莫桑比克东部沿海滨海砂矿资源丰富,在世界上占有重要地位. 该文结合莫桑比克赞比西亚省5004C矿区锆钛砂矿,分析矿石结构与构造、矿石物质组成、矿物含量及变化等矿石质量特征,为莫桑比克东部沿海锆钛砂矿的勘探和开发提供有利信息.

  17. Stable isotope characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids in copper-gold-polymetallic deposits within strike-slip pull-apart basin of Weishan-Yongping continental collision orogenic belt, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; HOU Zengqian; MO Xuanxue; DONG Fangliu; BI Xianmei; ZENG Pusheng

    2007-01-01

    More than 140 middle-small sized deposits or minerals are present in the Weishan-Yongping ore concentra-tion area which is located in the southern part of a typical Lanping strike-slip and pull-apart basin. It has plenty of mineral resources derived from the collision between the Indian and Asian plates. The ore-forming fluid system in the Weishan-Yongping ore concentration area can be divided into two subsystems, namely, the Zijinshan subsystem and Gonglang arc subsystem. The ore-forming fluids of Cu, Co deposits in the Gonglang arc fluid subsystem have δD values between -83.8‰ and -69%0, δ18O values between 4.17‰ and 10.45‰, and δ13C values between -13.6‰ and 3.7‰,suggesting that the ore-forming fluids of Cu, Co deposits were derived mainly from magmatic water and partly from formation water. The ore-forming fluids of Au, Pb, Zn, Fe deposits in the Zijinshan subsystem have δD values between-117.4‰ and-76‰, δ18O values between 5.32‰ and 9.56‰,and δ13C values between -10.07‰ and -1.5‰. The ore-forming fluids of Sb deposits have 6D values between -95%0 and -78‰, δ18O values between 4.5‰ and 32.3‰, and δ13 Cvalues between -26.4‰ and -1.9‰. Hence, the ore-forming fluids of the Zijinshan subsystem must have been derived mainly from formation water and partly from magmatic water.Affected by the collision between the Indian and Asian plates,ore-forming fluids in Weishan-Yongping basin migrated con-siderably from southwest to northeast. At first, the Gonglang arc subsystem with high temperature and high salinity was formed. With the development of the ore-forming fluids, the Zijinshan subsystem with lower temperature and lower salinity was subsequently formed.

  18. Mining and processing of uranium ores at the Streltsovsky ore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovseytchuk, V.A.; Litvinenko, V.G.; Kultishev, V.I. [Joint Stock Company, Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union, Krasnokamensk, Chita Region (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The uranium deposits of Streltsovsky ore fields provide raw materials for Russian nuclear industry. For this region, it is important to achieve continued and increased activities in the recovery of mineral resources of uranium. Similarly, maintaining the mining and processing of uranium ores ensures the supply of raw materials for the nuclear industry. With the current operations, increasing the mining and processing activities would increase the cost of production of uranium oxides due to decreasing grades of ore body. After a review of the existing economic, technological and natural factors, a solution was proposed based on the joint application of underground mining and ore enrichment and processing with the help of hydrometallurgical process, in-situ leaching. Reduction of operation coasts and creation of radiation-safe working conditions could be achieved with the application of these systems involving concrete hardening in the mines and in-situ leaching of ore. With the help of economic-mathematical modeling, methods for rational application of various technologies could be determined and their processing parameters were specified. A reduction of coasts could be obtained and favorable conditions could be established for improvement in the treatment of lower grade ores by heap leaching. Application of purification of mine waters and tailing pond reduces the influence of the radiation and the impact on the natural environment. (author)

  19. Study on isotope geochemistry compositions of the Baiyangping silver-copper polymetallic ore deposit area, Yunnan Province%云南白秧坪银铜多金属矿集区成矿流体的稳定同位素地球化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志超; 胡瑞忠; 毕献武; 武丽艳; 冯彩霞; 唐永永

    2012-01-01

    白秧坪银铜多金属矿集区位于滇西兰坪中-新生代沉积盆地中北部,由东矿带(上三叠统碳酸盐岩建造内的铅锌银铜矿床)和西矿带(下白垩统碎屑岩建造内的银铜钴铅锌矿床)两部分组成.本研究对该矿集区东、西矿带不同矿段、不同矿化类型矿石样品进行了硫-碳-氧同位素的研究.硫同位素研究表明,东矿带硫主要为地层硫,西矿带热液硫为沉积地层硫、有机硫及深源硫或地幔硫的混合.碳同位素显示,东矿带碳酸盐矿物δ13CPDB值为-3.0‰~+3.1‰,接近于海相碳酸盐,明显区别于其他各类地质体,暗示成矿流体的碳应来自碳酸盐岩;西矿带各矿段的δ13CpDB值变化范围小,除白秧坪少量样品外,其余均为负值(-5.1‰~-1.5‰),表明该区热液流体中碳的来源复杂,存在有机碳、地壳碳酸盐的碳及深源(地幔)碳.综合分析表明,西矿带成矿流体是一种混入深源流体的盆地热卤水,形成了下白垩统碎屑岩建造内的银铜钴铅锌矿床;东矿带成矿流体则是源于大气降水的盆地热卤水,形成了上三叠统碳酸盐岩建造内的铅锌银铜矿床.%Baiyangping silver-copper polymetallic ore-concentration area were developed on the northern border of the Lanping Basin, Yunnan Province. S-C-O isotopic compositions were analyzed to trace sources of ore-forming materials of the eastern ore-belt (limestone and dolomite of Upper Triassic Sanhedong Formation) and the western ore-belt (sandstone and fine-grained sandstone of Lower Cretaceous Jingxing Formation). Sulfur isotope analysis shows that the reduced sulfur of the eastern ore-belt mainly comes from the strata sulfate. The sulfur in the western ore-belt is derived from deep-seated mantle sufur mixed by crustal sufur. C and O isotopic analyses of silver-copper polymetallic ore concentration area show that the δ13CPDB values range from -3.0‰ to +3.1‰ in hydrothermal minerals such as calcite and

  20. Feasibility study of Salt diapirs of Hormuzgan province for nuclear waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Najmehsadat Tabatabaei nia; Mohammad Reza Espahbod; Nader Kohansal Ghadimvand; Hamid Askari Bagherabadi

    2016-01-01

    Find safe manner for long-term disposal of nuclear waste not only for social security and environmental protection but also for the continued operation of nuclear reactors will be inevitable. Various methods such as burial in the ocean, space , layers of ice and deep wells has been used, that each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Disposal of sullage and hazardous wastes in salt caverns Including new technologies and modern in the wastewater and solid waste are management. And s...

  1. On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Linkeng tungsten molybdenum ore in Jiangle County, Fujian Province%福建将乐林坑钨钼矿地质特征及成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元廉

    2011-01-01

    林坑钨钼矿产于燕山早期黑云母花岗岩中,岩浆期后含矿热液在裂隙带中沉淀形成石英脉型钨钼矿。该区在成矿前多次遭受区域北西一南东向的应力作用,先后形成了北东向的挤压带及构造裂隙带,对成矿极为有利。%The Linkeng tungsten molybdenum ore deposit exists in the early yanshanian biotite granite, and the quartz veined tungsten molybdenum ore formed from the volcanogene ore bearing hydrothermal in the fractured zone. The area repeatedly suffered from stress function of the regional NW-SW before function, then formed the NW extrusion and tecton ic fracture zone. It is extremely benefical for mineralization.

  2. Fluid inclusion study of the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan ore field, Xinjiang Province%新疆东天山白山钼矿床流体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项楠; 杨永飞; 吴艳爽; 周可法

    2013-01-01

    The Baishan Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang Province, is a large-giant porphyry deposit discovered in the eastern Jueluotag tectonic belt According to paragenesis and crosscutting relationship of the stockworks, ore-forming veinlets in order from early to late are the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets, quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets and the late stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets. The hydrothermal quartz in the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets mainly contain pure CH4 (PC-type), CH4-H2O (Cl-type) and NaCl-H2O (W-type); these fluid inclusions mainly homogenize at temperatures of 320℃ to 420℃ , and yield salinities of 1. 98% to 8. 79% NaCleqv. The quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets contain daughter mineral-bearing (S-type) and W-type fluid inclusions, with homogenization temperatures ranging from 260℃ to 400℃ and salinities of 1. 49% to 8. 65% NaCleqv. The quartz-molybdenite veinlets and quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets contain W-, S- and C2 (CO2-H2O) types of fluid inclusions that are generally homogenized at temperatures of 200℃ to 240℃ and 140℃ to 240℃ , with salinities of 2. 14% to 8. 10% NaCleqv and 0. 33% to 10. 22% NaCleqv, respectively. The late-stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets only contain the W-type fluid inclusions mainly which homogenize at l00℃ to 160℃ , yielding salinities of 0. 17% to 4. 86% NaCleqv. The estimated pressures range from 105 ~ 221 MPa for the early-stage veinlets to 15 ~ 285MPa for the quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets. In a word, the ore-forming fluids evolve from high temperature, carbonic and reducing magmatic to low temperature and low salinity meteoric. The decrease of temperature and the reduction of high-valent molybdenum of HMoO4- result in the precipitation of molybdenite.%白山钼矿位于东天山觉罗塔格成矿带东段,是新疆极具代表性的大型-超大型斑

  3. Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution and its Influence on Uranium Ore-forming Processes in the Xiazhuang Ore Field, Northern Guangdong Province%粤北下庄矿田新生代构造演化及其对铀成矿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 赖中信; 张辉仁; 汤世凯; 杨坤光

    2011-01-01

    The Nanling area in northern Guangdong Province is important for its granitic uranium deposits. The characteristics of the structures and ESR ages of the hydrothermal quartz show that the ore field underwent three stages of structural deformation in Cenozoic; (65. 5 -55. Oma) differential uplifting of land mass and colossal faults movements; Ⅱ (40.3 The Earth is a dynamic system in which rocks deform under various physical and chemical conditions. A continuous improvement of the related testing and analysis techniques during the past decades has enabled the rheology of the Earth materials to be studied successfully in the laboratory and made important advances in the interpretation of natural deformation and structure in the crust and upper mantle. The goal of this paper is to provide a succinct overview on technical developments of experimental rock deformation equipment with a particular focus on the Paterson High-Pressure High-Temperature Testing System ( HPT). The HPT is an internally-heated gas-confining medium high temperature (up to~1500℃ ) and high pressure (up to 700MPa) triaxial deformation apparatus. Unlike the solidmedium Criggs apparatus, the HPT can measure temperature, confine pressure, differential stress and strain with great accuracy and precision so that high quality mechanical data can be obtained. The HPT allows various types of tests to be carried out in compression, extension and torsion: constant strain rate, creep (constant stress), relaxation, etc. , depending on the capabilities of the actuator system fitted. Using the pore fluid system equipped with the apparatus, one can also automatically control the pore fluid pressure and measure the volume of pore fluid entering or leaving the specimen, and subsequently the volume change of the specimen during an experimental deformation. The apparatus is regarded as the most powerful testing tool in the research of mechanical behavior and physical properties of minerals and rocks. This paper

  4. Mineralogical Study on Iron Copper Polymetallic Ore of a Volcano Rock Type Originated from QingHai Province%青海某火山岩型铁铜多金属矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延照; 黄碧云; 曹成刚

    2014-01-01

    T he iron and copper polymetallic ore is a typical mineral deposit of volcano rock type ,the main characteristic is that the deposit is large in size and low in grade .Optional study on mineral is carried out by process mineralogy in order to comprehend performance of milling of ore ,on the other hand ,the develop-ment and utilization can be done early .The conclusion is that the ore is refractory .More than anything , it can provide reference to milling of similar ore .%某铁铜多金属矿为典型的火山岩型矿床,其主要的特点是矿床规模大、品位低,为了解其矿石的选矿性能,及早开发利用,进行了可选性试验,得出该矿床矿石属难选矿石,为相似矿石的选矿提供参考。

  5. The Study of the Ore Character of Luoba Gold Deposit Gansu Province%甘肃省徽县洛坝金矿床矿石特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国柱

    2011-01-01

    洛坝金矿床矿石工艺类型为贫硫化物全氧化含金矿石类型,矿石中金矿物为自然金及银金矿,有害元素炭品位为>0.1%,金矿物粒度细小,赋存状态以裂隙金为主,次为粒间金、包裹金;载金矿物主要为褐铁矿,粒度粗细不均,大部分粒度较细;通过对矿石质量研究,为选矿试验提供必要参数,并为矿床下步开发提供依据.%The technical types of the ore of the Luoba deposit is the gold ore types of poor sulfide and all oxidation, the gold mineral in the ore is gold and electrum, the content of Carbon as the deleterious element is above 0.1%, The gold mineral's granularity is exiguous, its beigng state is fissures at first, and then is intergranulars and entrainments; the mineral which carrying the gold element is limonite,it's granularity is asymmetrical, but exiguous in a great measure. By studying the ore quality, this article offered the necessary parameter for mill run and offered the gist for the exploitation of the deposit.

  6. The Geological Characteristics and Deep Ore-searching Prospects of Gold Deposit in Yindongpo Tongbai, Henan Province%河南桐柏银洞坡金矿床特征及深部找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗炜; 刘伟芳; 刘伟頡; 刘国范; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    The Henan Yindongpo gold deposit is situated in the conjunction area between the North China plate and yangtze plate, and is in the Tongbai-Dabieshan metallogenic sub-belt east of Qinling polymetallic mineralization belt. This tectonic line extends in NWW direction. The ore-deposit stratum is strictly controlled by Neoproterozoic Waitoushan Formation and ore-bearing structures. The ore deposit earth surface and shallow industry ore show saddle-shape and stratiform. As deep ore-searching going deep, it is found that gold ore does not disappear below former planned deep, besides it downward extend, and the gold ore become much thicker, grade higher, thus it shows a three layer floor metallogenic model.%河南省桐柏县银洞坡金矿床位于华北板块与扬子板块的接合部位、秦岭多金属成矿带东段桐柏—大别山成矿亚带内,区内构造线呈NWW向展布.矿床严格受新元古界歪头山岩组地层和赋矿构造双重因素控制.矿床地表及浅部主要工业矿体呈鞍状、似层状,分布在歪头山岩组厚层碳质绢云石英片岩内的朱庄背斜(形)转折端、倾伏端的虚脱部位中;随着深部找矿工作的进一步开展,发现原勘探深度标高以下,金矿体不但没有尖灭,反而向深部沿断裂呈似层状稳定延伸,金矿体厚度增大、品位增高,因而显示"三层楼"式成矿模式.扩大了找矿视野,为在该区寻找金多金属矿床开辟了广阔前景.

  7. 安徽省霍邱铁矿成矿特征及构造控矿的深部找矿意义%Metallogenic features and deep exploration implications of the structurally controlled Huoqiu iron ore deposit, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志勇; 陆三明; 王启才; 杜贞保; 杨晓勇

    2012-01-01

      The Huoqiu iron ore deposit, Anhui is a big BIF iron ore field, where ore bodies are all hosted in late Archae-an high-grade metamorphic iron formation, NS-trending trough banded ferrosilicon formation, tectonically located in an EW sag at the southern fringe of the Songji-Dangshan Old Nuclei. Major ore bodies are found from bottom to top in A+B zone and D zone, the former being granulite-schist-magnetic quartzite formation, and latter schist-marble-hematite (specularite) quartzite formation. This paper made an in-depth analysis of geological setting, ore body occurrence condi-tions and structural pattern, inferred structure and ore-control factors in the periphery of the mine and depth. With all relevant geological conditions being taken into consideration, we think that there probably is a new hidden ore deposit in the surrounding area.%  安徽霍邱铁矿是一个大型BIF铁矿田,矿体均赋存于一套晚太古代中高级变质作用的含铁建造,为南北向海槽条带状硅铁建造,大地构造位置位于嵩箕-砀山古陆核南缘东西向凹陷区。主要矿体自下而上可分为 A+B矿带和D矿带:前者为变粒岩-片岩-磁铁石英岩建造;后者为片岩-大理岩-赤铁(镜)铁石英岩建造。本文对该矿田的地质背景、矿体赋存条件、构造型式进行深入分析,推测矿区周边及深部构造与控矿因素,综合相关地质情况,我们推测其周边还可能存在新的隐伏矿床,该研究对霍邱铁矿的外围成矿规律研究与找矿预测具有参考价值。

  8. Preliminary exploration of ore-controlling conditions of Huichungoubei Gold Deposit in Luoning County,Henan Province%河南省洛宁县回春沟北金矿床控矿条件初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范少军

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes geological achievements in the prospecting phase of Huichungoubei Gold Depos-it,introduces and analyzes the metallogenic geological background and geological characteristics of the deposit(body), and the ore-controlling factors in the district are explored.It is pointed out that the mineral source,the magmatic activi-ty and favorable tectonics are decisive ore-controlling factors.It is necessary to further study the space and time rela-tion between the tectonics in mineralization stage and Yanshanian granite,and to find out the ore-conducting,ore-de-positing structures and the transportation direction and channels of ore-bearing fluids.Also,investment in deep explora-tion should be enlarged to find high and medium temperature hydrothermal deposits near the contact zone of granite and surrounding rocks.%总结了回春沟北金矿床地质找矿的阶段地质成果,对所处的成矿地质背景、矿床(体)地质特征进行了介绍和分析,探讨了本区的控矿条件. 指出矿质来源、岩浆活动、有利的构造3个因素是决定性的控制条件,加强研究成矿期构造和燕山期花岗岩的时空关系,厘清导矿、赋矿构造及含矿热液的运移方向和通道,并应加大深部找矿投入,在花岗岩与围岩接触带附近寻找中高温热液矿床.

  9. 广西某微细粒浸染型金矿石提金试验研究%Experimental study on extraction of one ultra fine disseminated gold ore in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 任洪胜

    2013-01-01

    Experimental study on extraction of one ultra fine disseminated gold ore was conducted .The results show that with the crude ore grade of 12.00 g/t,the crude ore flotation-flotation tailings cyanidation process achieved a flotation concentrate grade of 41.30 g/t,gold recovery rate of 29.93%,gold leaching rate by flotation tailings cyani-dation of 71.24 %and the overall gold recovery rate of 79.85 %,indicating a satisfactory index.%  对广西某微细粒浸染型难处理金矿石进行了提金试验研究。其结果表明:在原矿金品位12.00 g/t时,采用原矿浮选—浮选尾矿氰化工艺流程,获得浮选精矿金品位41.30 g/t,金回收率29.93%,浮选尾矿氰化金浸出率71.24%,金总回收率为79.85%的较好指标。

  10. 印度尼西亚西加里曼丹省吉打邦县马拉乌铅锌矿床地质特征%Geologic characteristics of the Marau lead-Zinc ore deposit in Ketapang of Kalimantan Province,Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲友; 杨献忠; 赵牧华; 袁平峰

    2011-01-01

    The Marau deposit is a newly discovered lead-zinc ore deposit in Ketapang of Kalimantan Province in Indonesia.The deposit is distinctly controlled by fissures in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics.The hanging wall of the deposit is formed of pyritized carbargilites,and the bottom wall of chalcedonized silicalites.The ore bodies show pinnate,vein and lenticular shapes.The main wall rock alterations of the deposit are silication,argillization and chloritization.The mineral assemblages are complex and are composed of galena,sphalerite,pyrite,pyrrhotite,chalcopyrite,bornite,stibnite,gold,electrum and argentite.Basing on the analyses of mineral assemblages and chemical compositions of ores,it is clarified that the ore bodies obviously show a zonation in both horizontal and vertical directions,indicating that the formation of the deposit is related to the hydrothermal alteration,caused by intrusion(injection) of subvolcanic rocks,and the hydrothermal solution is derived from late calc-alkaline volcanic rock formations.%马拉乌铅锌矿床为印度尼西亚西加里曼丹(Kalimantan)省吉打邦县近年来发现的铅锌银矿床。该矿矿体顶板为黄铁矿化含碳质泥砂岩,矿体底板为玉髓状硅质岩。矿体呈侧羽状、脉状及透镜状。矿区通常发育的蚀变有硅化、泥化和绿泥石化等。主要矿物组合有方铅矿、闪锌矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、黄铜矿、斑铜矿、辉锑矿以及自然金、银金矿、辉银矿等,通过对矿石组构等综合分析,表明该矿床的成因是岩浆期后热液充填交代矿床。

  11. Geological characteristics and ore-searching directions of copper-cobalt deposit KS in Katanga province of Congo(King)%刚果(金)加丹加省堪苏祁铜钴矿床地质特征及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 陈玉华; 付小锦; 张启军; 张宝华; 宋小军; 陈怀亮; 陈丹明

    2012-01-01

    copper-cobalt deposit KS in Katanga province of Congo(King) is located in Katanga copper-cobalt belt in the NW-trending branch of the west part of the middle Great Eastern Africa Rift Valley. Genetically, there are two types of ore. One is sedimentary copper-cobalt ore similar to the regional copper-cobalt deposit with Cu dominant and controlled by early sedmentary sandy shale and Co by-product occurring maily at foliation in the ductile-brittle shear zone and controled by late tectonics. The other is hydro-thermal copper-cobalt ore resulted from hydrothermal fluid which is companied by the ductile-brittle shear zone. Co is in high grade in such ore. Based on the geological condition and EH4 dada interpretation it is potential for further exploration to depth and surroundings of the Cu-Co deposit.%刚果(金)堪苏祁铜钴矿床位于东非大裂谷中段西侧NW向分支内,属于加丹加铜钴铀矿带一部分.该矿床具有2种成矿类型:一种是沉积岩型铜钴矿,以铜为主,伴生钴,铜矿早期受沉积型砂页岩地层的控制,钴矿赋存于韧脆性剪切构造带中,受后期构造的控制,剪切构造面理是钴矿的主要富集场所;另一种是后期伴随韧脆性剪切带生成的热液型钴铜矿,以钴的品位较高为特征.根据成矿地质条件及EH4物探解译成果分析,矿区深部及外围尚有该类型矿床的找矿潜力.

  12. Study on the multi-sources of ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids in the Huize lead-zinc ore deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenliang; HUANG Zhilong; GUAN Tao; YAN Zaifei; GAO Derong

    2005-01-01

    The Huize large-sized Pb-Zn deposit in Yunnan Province, China, is characterized by favorable metallogenic background and particular geological settings. This suggested that the ore-forming mechanism is relatively unique. On the basis of geological features such as the contents of mineralization elements, the REE concentrations of gangue calcites, the REE concentrations of calcite veins in the NE-trending tectonic zone and the Pb, Sr, C, H and O isotopic compositions of different minerals, this paper presents that the ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids of the deposit were derived from various types of strata or rocks. This is a very significant conclusion for us to further discuss the mineralization mechanism of the deposit at depth and establish an available genetic model.

  13. 广东那程银金多金属矿地质特征及找矿方向研究%Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Direction of Nacheng Silver Gold Polymetallic Ore in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌明; 范震宇

    2013-01-01

    那程银金多金属矿是武警黄金第九支队在广东云开地区发现的一个中等规模的银金多金属矿,矿区位于华南褶皱系西段,云开隆起核部和吴川-四会深大断裂中部。矿区断裂发育,岩浆活动强烈,成矿地质条件良好,脉体较多且有成群产出特征,矿脉主要受次一级张扭性断裂控制,其空间排列具雁式左行规律。通过近几年大量的研究工作,共圈定银金多金属矿体10个,且深部呈现银金多金属元素富集程度增高的趋势,显示了较好的找矿前景。通过研究矿体赋存特征、矿石质量、矿石结构构造、矿石化学成分和成矿阶段矿物生成顺序,探讨矿床成因并总结找矿标志,为在该矿区深部和边部进一步开展找矿勘探、扩大其远景规模提供了较为详实的地质资料。%Nacheng silver-gold polymetallic ore mine found in Yunkai area,Guangdong,is a medium scale mine.It is located in the core of Yunkai uplift and the centre of Wuchuan-Sihui fault,in the western section of South China fold system.It has good ore-forming geological conditions around the mining area,along with faults developing and strong magma action.A lot of veins with characteristic of ore output in groups,which is mainly controlled by the lower-level tensorshear faulting,as a result,its space arrangement showing the pattern of intensively left addressed.In recent years,through the large research work,outlining 10 mine areas for the gold-silver polymetallic ore,all of which present an increase trend of silver gold polymetallic ore enrichment,showing a good prospect for finding mineral resources.Through the study of ore deposition,quality,texture and structure, chemical composition and metallogenic stages of mineral formation sequence,we discussed the deposit genesis, summarized the prospecting marks,and provided detailed geological data for further prospecting and mining scale expanding in deep and edge.

  14. 青海省兴海县铜峪沟铜矿床成矿物质和流体来源的地球化学探讨%Geochemistry Constraint on Ore-forming Material and Ore-forming Fluids of Tongyugou Copper Deposit in Xinghai County,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小华; 周宗桂

    2014-01-01

    青海铜峪沟铜矿床位于祁漫塔格-鄂拉山成矿亚带鄂拉山多金属矿带东南段。通过对铜峪沟铜矿床的矿石矿物微量元素地球化学研究及矿石矿物的稳定同位素研究,探讨该矿床的成矿物质及流体来源,确定矿床的成因。从测试结果来看,稀土元素配分模式为轻稀土较富集、重稀土亏损、分馏程度较高、Eu中度-强烈亏损,显示矿石物质来源为混合来源;硫同位素δ34 S测试结果全为负值,属轻硫型,总体上揭示出硫主要来自地层的沉积硫;铅同位素测试数据表明矿石铅部分来自沉积成岩阶段,部分与印支期造山运动有关,表明成矿物质混合来源的特征,富成矿流体在成矿之前存在均一化过程。氢、氧、硅同位素研究表明成矿热液为原生岩浆水和变质热液水,反映成矿物质来源与岩浆热液活动有关。通过研究认为,铜峪沟铜矿床为矽卡岩型铜矿床。%Tongyugou copper deposit is located in the southeast segment of the Elashan polymetallic belt in Qimantage-Elashan ore-forming subzone.Based on the trace element geochemistry and the stable isotopes of Tonyugou copper deposit,this paper studied the source of ore-forming material and ore-forming fluids,identified the genesis of Tongyugou copper deposit.From the test results,the rare earth element distribution patterns are approximately consistent,the REE patterns are enriched in LREE and are depleted in HREE with high fraction-ation and negative Eu anomaly,demonstrating that the ore material comes from multi-source;sulfur isotope compositions δ34S measurement are full-negative,belong to light sulfur type,revealing that the whole S was from the sedimentary sulfur;the demographics of Pb isotopic compositions showing that the lead was mainly from the ore deposition diagenetic stage,and partly from the Indosinian orogeny,which is closely related to Indo-Chinese orogenic movement

  15. GOLD MINERALIZATION AND ITS EVOLUTION IN THE MOUPING- RUSHAN GOLD ORE BELT, SHANDONG PROVINCE,CHINA%山东牟乳金矿带成矿演化机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高太忠; 赵伦山; 杨敏之

    2001-01-01

    山东牟乳金矿带位于华北地台东缘活化区。区内荆山群和胶东群变质绿岩建造是金矿化的矿源层。区内主要控矿构造为北北东、北东向构造。金矿床主要为含金硫化物石英脉型。成矿流体来源于地壳深部和后期大气降水的加入。对矿带成矿演化机理的研究表明,金矿形成经历了 3个阶段:①新太古至古、中元古代金初始矿源层形成阶段;②中元古代末期区域变质—混合岩化金再富集阶段和③燕山期构造—流体—金成矿作用阶段。%The Mouping- Rushan gold ore belt lies in the activated region on the eastern margin of the North China Craton.The Jingshan and Jiaodong Groups metamorphic green formation is the source bed of the gold mineralization in this region.The main controlling structures are the NNE,and NE - trending faults.Gold ore main type is auriferous quartz vein type.Ore- forming fluid rooted in the deep crust mixed with meteoric water.The research for metallogenic evolution mechanism in the region indicates that gold ore formation has undergone three stages:① gold elementary source bed formation stage from the Neo- Archean to the Paleo- Proterozoic and Meso- Proterozoic,② regional metamorphism- migmatization gold reenrichment stage at the late Meso- Proterozoic,③ structure- fluid- gold mineralization stage at the Yanshan Period.

  16. 江西香炉山钨矿床构造-流体-成矿系统浅析%Analysis the Structure-Fluid-Ore Forming System of the Xianglushan Skarn Tungsten Deposit in Xiushui, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 李峰; 范敦宾

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of deepening the understanding of the ore-forming process, and offered the thinking for prospecting work in the future, this paper analyzed the structure and fluid of the Xianglushan tungsten deposit, and the relationship of structure-fluid-ore forming. The Xianglushan tungsten deposit is obviously controlled by the structure, fold, fracture (fault and cleavage), contact zone structure, interlayer fracture zone and wall-rock lithology, which affect the formation of the ore-body. Fluid is also closely related to the formation of the deposit with the phase of the quartz-scheelite and quartz-sulfide-scheelite occuring during metallization period. The structure-fluid-ore forming systems have a high degree of coordination and connection, which is the key to form large scheelite deposit in the Xianglushan.%通过对香炉山钨矿床的构造及流体进行剖析,研究了其构造-流体-成矿系统三者之间的关系,旨在加深对其成矿的过程认识,并为今后矿山的研究及找矿工作提供思路。香炉山夕卡岩型白钨矿床受构造控制明显:隐伏岩体顶面接触带构造为最重要的控矿构造,褶皱控岩,为成矿物质的来源提供保障,裂隙及层间破碎带不仅为成矿物质的运移提供运移通道,也是较重要的储矿场所,但后期发育的裂隙具破矿性;流体与该矿床的形成息息相关,其中的石英-白钨矿阶段及石英-硫化物-白钨矿阶段为矿床的主要成矿期;香炉山夕卡岩型白钨矿床的构造-流体-成矿三者之间具有高度的协调性及关联性,对形成香炉山大型白钨矿床极为有利。

  17. 安徽某金铅锌硫化矿选矿新工艺试验研究%Experimental Study on a New Mineral Processing Technology for a Gold -Lead-Zinc Sulfide Ore in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯章标; 俞献林; 陈江安

    2016-01-01

    For a gold-lead-zinc complex polymetallic sulfide ore in Anhui has a problem such as the low ore dressing indexes,the dosage of reagent system is complex and big.The mineral composition and ore characteristic of raw-ore is analyzed and a large number of exploratory experiments is explored.The last put forward the principle of process to deal with the ore by magnetic separation removal of pyrrhotite,gold-lead bulk flotation,gold-lead separation flotation,activation of tailings flotation zinc.By closed circuit texts can obtain the good indicators,and the gold concent rate with the Au grade of 43.67×10-6 and recovery rate of 46.11%;lead concentrate with the Au grade of 162.00×10-6 and recovery rate of 35.39%, Pb grade of 38.53% and recovery rate of 72.24%,the accumulation of the gold recovery rate is 81.50%;zinc concent rate with the Zn grade of 42.76% and recovery rate of 67.46%.This new method has a better index than the traditional process,as it can not only improve dressing indexes,but reduce a lot reagents dosage.%针对安徽某金铅锌复杂多金属硫化矿选矿指标较低、药剂制度复杂且用量大等问题,分析了原矿的矿物组成及矿石性质,并开展了大量探索性试验,最后提出采用磁选脱除磁黄铁矿—金铅混合浮选—金铅分离浮选—尾矿活化选锌的原则流程处理该矿石。结果显示:闭路试验可获得金含量为43.68×10-6,回收率为46.12%的金精矿;铅精矿中金含量为162.00×10-6,回收率为35.39%,铅含量为38.53%,回收率为72.24%,金的累积回收率达81.51%;锌精矿中锌含量为42.79%,回收率为67.51%。与原有选矿工艺相比,新工艺不仅提高了选矿指标还大幅减少了药剂用量。

  18. Ore features and gold occurrence in Yinwagou Gold Deposit,Gansu Province%甘肃阴洼沟金矿床矿石特征及金的赋存状态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵民; 郭月琴; 赵国斌; 温志亮; 杨鹏飞; 李普涛; 吴天娇

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of gold minerals and the occurrence of gold have been determined in Yinwagou Gold Deposit ,on the basis of systematic laboratory study ,such as electron microscope observation ,multi-element analysis ,e-lectronic microprobe energy spectrum analysis , electronic microprobe wavelength spectrum analysis , mineral phase a-nalysis .The result shows the gold ores mainly have three different mineralogical types ,that is low sulphide altered rock type gold ore,low sulphide cataclastic quartz-vein type gold ore and low sulphide ankerite -albite-quartz-vein type gold ore ,and Au is the only one industrially valuable element;the metallic mineral content in the ore is low and they are mainly limonite ,hematite and pyrite;non-metallic minerals are mainly quartz ,followed by sericite ,carbonate min-erals,feldspar,chlorite and kaolinite; gold minerals are native gold,and the average fineness of native gold is 975;The main type of dissemination is fissure gold ,followed by inclusion gold ,few in the form of the intergranular gold;grain size of native gold is dominated by fine visible gold ,followed by microgranular gold .Native gold is primarily visi-ble gold,followed by microscopic gold .%为了查清阴洼沟金矿床矿石特征及金的赋存状态,采用电子显微镜、多元素分析、电子探针能谱分析、电子探针波谱分析、物相分析等技术方法,对阴洼沟金矿床的金矿石、金矿物进行了系统的研究.研究结果表明:金矿石工艺类型主要有少硫化物蚀变岩型金矿石、少硫化物碎裂石英脉型金矿石和少硫化物铁白云石-钠长石-石英脉型3种,且有工业价值的元素只有Au;矿石中金属矿物含量较低,主要是褐铁矿、赤铁矿及黄铁矿,非金属矿物主要是石英,其次是绢云母、碳酸盐矿物、长石、绿泥石及高岭石;金矿物为自然金,金成色平均为975;金的嵌布类型以裂隙金为主,其次为包裹金,粒间金含量较少;自然金以细

  19. The Ore-Controlling Factors, Metallogenic Condition and Prospecting in West Part of Tawenchahan Polymetallic ore District,East Kunlun Mountains , Qinghai Province%东昆仑它温查汉铁多金属矿床控矿因素、找矿前景及方向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德智; 王军; 杨伟毅; 彭中发; 李延庆; 汪成萍; 赵胜楠

    2012-01-01

    从矿床成矿地质背景和矿床基本特征入手,探讨了它温查汉西铁多金属矿形成的基本条件和找矿前景,并指出了进一步找矿的方向.它温查汉西铁多金属矿矿床是一处隐伏于广厚覆盖层下的矽卡岩型矿床,位于柴南缘祁漫塔格成矿带,华力西期的酸性侵入岩和滩间山群(OST)碳酸盐岩接触带形成典型的矽卡岩型铁铜锌金等工业矿体.发现该矿主要是根据1∶1万高磁测量圈定的11处异常,今后找矿思路应逐步由磁异常导向找矿向地质规律和异常结合找矿的方向改变,并总结成矿规律和异常-矿体空间分布规律,不断探索和使用新方法.认为C5异常东段、C11异常正负异常伴随处、C6异常、C8异常南侧东西两端相对游离于大面积异常的地段都是找矿的有利地段.%The based on the ore-forming geological background and characteristics of the Tawenchahan de-posite , its metallogenic condition and prospecting are inquired into and its prospecting criteria are summa-rized. Tawenchahan polymetallic ore mineral deposits is a thick coating lurks in the wide under the skarn deposit, located on the south edge of the wood-forming zone Qimantag, ore-controlling factors is the acid-ity of the Variscan Hills between intrusive rocks and the beach (OST) carbonate rocks, forming a typical contact zone between the two skarn iron ore copper zinc gold and other industries. Its findings are mainly based on 1/10 000 high magnetic measurements delineated 11 anomalies in the future prospecting ideas should be gradually driven by the magnetic anomalies to geological prospecting and unusual combination of law to change the direction of exploration and summary of the law and abnormal mineralization - spatial distribution of ore bodies, and constantly explore new methods. That abnormal eastern C5, Cll positive and negative anomalies associated with abnormal location, C6 abnormal, C8 is relatively separated from the abnormal

  20. Processing of lateritic ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, D.E.; Ring, R.J. [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia); McGill, J.; Russell, H. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Ranger Mine, Jabiru, Northern Territory (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Highly weathered or lateritic ores that contain high proportions of fine clay minerals present specific problems when they are processed to extract uranium. Of perhaps the greatest significance is the potential of the fine minerals to adsorb dissolved uranium (preg-robbing) from leach liquors produced by processing laterites or blends of laterite and primary ores. These losses can amount to 25% of the readily soluble uranium. The clay components can also restrict practical slurry densities to relatively low values in order to avoid rheology problems in pumping and agitation. The fine fractions also contribute to relatively poor solid-liquid separation characteristics in settling and/or filtration. Studies at ANSTO have characterised the minerals believed to be responsible for these problems and quantified the effects of the fines in these types of ores. Processing strategies were also examined, including roasting, resin-in-leach and separate leaching of the laterite fines to overcome potential problems. The incorporation of the preferred treatment option into an existing mill circuit is discussed. (author)

  1. 云南马厂箐铜多金属矿床的成岩成矿时代及成矿动力学背景%Diagenetic and metallogenic epoch and ore-forming dynamic setting of Machangqing copper-polymetallic deposit, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治华; 郭晓东; 葛良胜; 范俊杰; 徐涛

    2011-01-01

    The Machangqing copper-polymetallic deposit in Yunnan Province is a well-known typical ore deposit related to alkaline porphyry of the Himalayan epoch. Intimately relevant to the polymetallic mineralization of copper,molybdenum and gold, the Machangqing complex alkaline-rich rock body has experienced several magmatic activities: the earliest one began at 54 ~ 56 Ma, the middle one occurred at 45~49 Ma, the late one (the most vident one) at 29~37 Ma, and the last one at 23~25 Ma. Re-Os dating of molybdenite from the copper-molybdenum-type ore in the Machangqing deposit yields precise Re-Os model age of (35.3 ± 0.7) Ma. 40 Ar-39 Ar dating of hydrothermal muscovite from the skarn-type copper-molybdenum ore in the Luandongshan ore segment and alteration-type gold ore in the Rentouqing ore segment yields plateau age of (35.25 ± 0.36) Ma, isochron and reverse isochron ages of (35.0±1.8) Ma and (34.8±1.9) Ma for the first type ore, and (35.35±0.32)Ma, (34.44±0.99) Ma and (34.4±1.2) Ma for the second type ore, respectively. These data suggest that the mineralization of copper, molybdenum and gold deposit occurred in the same diagenetic-metallogenic geological event, and the ore-forming process was closely related to late magmatic activity, under the global dynamic background of the late collision-slip stage after collisional orogeny between Indian and Eurasian continents, thus overall belonging to the first summit of mineralization in Sanjiang region of southwestern China, i.e., the oreforming peak of copper-molybdeunm porphyry(65~35 Ma).%云南马厂箐铜多金属矿床是西南三江成矿带上著名的与喜马拉雅期富碱斑岩有关的典型矿床.与铜、钼、金等多金属成矿关系密切的马厂箐富碱斑岩为一复式岩体,存在多期次岩浆侵入活动,早期岩浆活动始于54~56 Ma,中期岩浆活动时间为45~49 Ma,晚期岩浆活动最强烈,发生在29~37 Via,末期岩浆活动时间为23~25Ma.采用辉钼矿Re

  2. 江西省九瑞矿集区宝山铜多金属矿床地质特征及其成因探讨%Discussion on the Geological Characteristics of Baoshan Cu Polymetallic Deposit and Its Genesis in Jiujiang-Ruichang Ore Concentration Area, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 王先广; 李吉明; 曾庆权; 胡正华; 王德亮; 王木顺

    2015-01-01

    Baoshan copper polymetallic deposit is located in the town of Ruichang City, Jiangxi Province,Xia fan is the first as large or medium-sized copper polymetallic deposit newly found in Baoshan-Jiujiang Ruichang ore metallogenic belt in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Bridge in areas dorsal nucleus of department. Mainly by the porphyry copper(silver) deposit, contact skarn type copper, molybdenum (silver) deposit, hornfels andmetamorphic siltstone hydrothermal filling type copper (molybdenum, silver and gold) ore bodies. The miner-alization is closely related with the North East to the F1 fault and the NW trending F2 fault. The Baoshan deposit of porphyry copper ore bodies are veinletdisseminated-dense, sparse contaminated products out of granodiorite porphyry, orebody shape stratoid, lenticular. Skarn type copper polymetallic ore with disseminated and veinlet-net vein in the granodiorite porphyry and the Ordovician carbonate rocks in the contact zone and fractured sur-rounding rock, stratoid, lenticular output. Hornfels and hydrothermal fillingsilty sandstone copper polymetallic ore, ore body in the smaller scale, with thin vein stockworkchalcopyrite, molybdenite quartz veins in the form of distribution to and granodiorite porphyrycontact zone near the temple back group, water group of Silurian argilla-ceous siltstone, alens occurrence. Three types of ore bodies are associated in genesis, the mineralization is mainly controlled by the granodiorite porphyry, is just the space position of ore-forming material precipitation difference. The Baoshan deposit metallogenic mechanism of tectonicand high potassium calc alkaline remelting type granodi-orite porphyry origin closely relatedmagmatic rocks"Trinity", that is, the ore bodies are hosted in the porphyry and skarnhornfels formed rocks, argillaceous siltstone in the porphyry skarn hydrothermal filling"composite type deposit.%经过对宝山铜多金属矿床的野外地质调查,认为该矿床主要由斑

  3. 云南某黄金选矿厂工艺技术改造及生产实践%Process optimization and its production practice in one gold ore-dressing plant,Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志斌; 汪勇; 高起方

    2015-01-01

    云南某金矿是中国西南地区最大的黄金多金属共伴生矿山,其选矿厂原采用“全泥氰化浸出—弱磁选—强磁选”工艺对该矿多金属氧化矿石中的金、银、铁进行回收。为了提高金、银浸出率和铁回收率,对该选矿厂进行了控氰抑铜富氧浸出—差异化优先浸吸—脱泥梯级磁选的技术改造。生产实践表明:改进工艺实际生产指标与原工艺流程比较,金浸出率提高了12.16百分点,银浸出率提高了15.14百分点,总铁回收率提高了18.44百分点,经济效益显著。%The gold mine in Yunnan is the largest gold poly-metallic mine in southwest China .A whole ore cyani-dation leaching-low intensity magnetic separation -strong magnetic separation process is used to recover gold ,silver and iron from the poly-metallic oxide ores in the ore-dressing plant .To increase the leaching rate of gold and silver as well as the recovery rate of iron ,a renovation process of cyanide control copper suppression atmospheric leaching -dif-ferential preferential leaching and adsorption -desliming stepped magnetic separation is applied in the plant .Produc-tion practice show that the renovated process compared to the previous one increases gold leaching rate by 12.16 percent points,silver leaching rate by 15.14 percent points,iron recovery rate by 18.14 percent points,achie-ving satisfactory profits .

  4. Ore Prospecting Prospect Analysis of the Gold Polymetallic Deposit at Fourteen Section Region in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江十四工段地区金多金属矿找矿前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓敏

    2016-01-01

    The gold polymetallic deposit at fourteen section region located at middle part of the Zhangguangcailing-Taipingling edge uplift belt.It was found that the volcano-magmatic activity was frequent in the area,together with structure development and good ore-forming geological conditions.Through 1/50 000 stream sediment survey work in the study area,approximately 205 ingle element anomalies of stream sediments were identified,additionally,26 combination anomalies of stream sediments were also defined and these include the Hs-18 combination anomalies. In order to search for gold dominated polymetallic ore at the fourteen section area,verification work was carried out at the Hs-18 combination anomalies.The methods applied in this study including 1/20 000 soil measurement,1/20 000 geological detection,1/2 000 high-precision magnetic measurement,IP ladder measurement and methods of trenching.Finally,we defined 89 single element anomalies for soil,8 combination anomalies,one low grade gold ore body,one gold mineralization body, which suggested that the area has good ore prospects.%十四工段地区金多金属矿处于张广才岭—太平岭边缘隆起带中部。区内火山—岩浆活动频繁,构造发育,具备良好的成矿地质条件。在该区通过开展1/5万水系沉积物测量工作,圈出水系沉积物单元素异常205处,水系沉积物组合异常26处,其中 Hs-18号组合异常位于研究区内。为在十四工段地区寻找以金为主的多金属矿产,对 Hs-18号组合异常进行了查证,采用1/2万土壤测量、1/2万地质简测、1/2万高精度磁法测量、激电中梯测量及槽探等方法,在区内圈定出土壤单元素异常89处,组合异常8处,发现低品位金矿体1条、金矿化体1条,表明该区具有较好的找矿前景。

  5. Thermoelectric characteristics of pyrite from the main ore zone of the Huachanggou gold deposit, Shaanxi Province and its significance%陕西省铧厂沟金矿床主矿带黄铁矿热电性特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冲昊; 刘家军; 王建平; 吴杰; 王维钰; 王立新; 于康伟; 陈冬; 李志国

    2013-01-01

    陕西省铧厂沟金矿是一个主要赋存于海底基性火山喷流细碧岩中的金矿床.文中系统研究了该矿床主矿带黄铁矿的热电性特征.主矿带成矿温度主要集中在130~330℃,属中—低温矿床;黄铁矿导电类型从早期到晚期由N型向P型转变;P型黄铁矿出现频率从浅部到深部呈减小趋势;金品位高值区与P型黄铁矿的高值区及热电系数离散度的低值区相对应;主矿带黄铁矿热电导型及热电性参数特征反映出主矿带开采区位于矿体中部偏下,向深处仍有一定规模的延伸.综合分析认为,0至2勘探线深部以及22~26勘探线深部发现新的富矿段的可能性较大.%The Huachanggou gold deposit in Shaanxi Province mainly occurs in the submarine basic volcanic effusive spilite.On the basis of a study of the thermoelectric characteristics of pyrite,the authors put forward the following conclusions.The main ore zone is a low-medium temperature gold deposit,whose pyrite crystallization temperature is in the range of 130-330 ℃.The electric conduct assemblage type of the pyrite changes in the order of N-type to P-type from the early stage to the late stage.The frequence of P-type pyrites gradually decreases from the shallow part to the deep.The high average gold grade corresponds to the high frequence of P-type pyrites and low value of thermoelectrical coefficient dispersions.The characteristics of thermoelectricity imply that the lower to middle parts of the ore body have been exhumed until now,and there exists an extension of the main ore zone in the deep.Furthermore,the authors suggest that the better exploring prospect would be expectable in the depth of exploration line Nos.0,2 and Nos.22-26.

  6. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  7. Analysis on the risk factors of caries in primary teeth among the children aged 3 ~ 6 years old in phosphorus ore area of Guizhou province%贵州省磷矿区3~6岁儿童乳牙龋病危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雄伟; 丁舒; 郑慧; 张承宁; 谢义阳

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To explore the risk factors of caries in primary teeth among the children aged 3-6 years old in phosphorus ore area of Guizhou province. Methods: A case - control study was conducted to examine the prevalence of caries among 1 620 children aged 3 ~6 years old , all the children were divided into caries free group (596 children with dmft =0) and caries group (1 024 children with dmft &6) ; the levels of streptococcus mutans in saliva, saliva flow rates, buffer capacities and debris indexes were detected in the two groups; their mothers were asked to finish a unified questionnaire. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of caries in primary teeth among the children included age, duration of residence, the weaning time, the level of streptococcus mutans in saliva, debris index, the frequency of consumption of sweets, the frequency of intake of soft drinks, use of sweetened food in nursing, gingival index and presence or absence of final brushing. Conclusion; The incidence of caries in primary teeth among the children aged 3 ~ 6 years old in phosphorus ore area of Guizhou province increases with age, bad living habits are the risk factors of caries.%目的:探讨贵州省磷矿区3~6岁儿童乳牙龋病的危险因素.方法:采用病例对照研究方法,对1620名3~6岁儿童进行龋齿检查,其中dmft =0的596名为无龋组,dmft≥6的1024名为高龋组,测定两组儿童唾液变形链球菌水平、唾液流速和缓冲力、软垢指数,并由儿童母亲回答统一问卷.结果:Logistic回归分析显示与儿童乳牙龋病发生相关的危险因素有:年龄、磷矿区居住年限、断奶年龄、唾液变形链球菌、软垢指数、每天吃甜食与喝甜饮料的次数、奶瓶内容物含糖、牙龈指数、睡前是否刷牙.结论:贵州省磷矿区3~6岁儿童乳牙龋病随着年龄的增加而增加,不良的生活习惯是致龋的危险因素.

  8. Metallogenic system of Machangqing Cu-Mo-Au polymetallic ore concentration area in Yunnan Province%云南省马厂箐Cu-Mo-Au多金属矿集区成矿系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓东; 牛翠袆; 王治华; 王梁; 夏锐

    2012-01-01

    As a typical porphyry Cu-Mo-Au ore concentration area related to alkaline-rich intrusive rocks in western Yunnan ore belt, Machangqing has many mineralization types such as porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization, contact metasomatic Cu-Mo-Au mineralization and hydrothermal Au-Ag-Pb-Zn lodes. Alteration-mineralization types and ore-forming element associations show clear spatial zones around the porphyry. The magmatic activity is synchronous to Cu-Mo-Au mineralization. The three types are genetically controlled by the Machangqing porphyry magma system which supplied material, fluid and dynamic force for the mineralization. Based on a detailed analysis of the mineralization evidence and the structure of the ore system, the authors have concluded that the thermal dynamic force from Machangqing intrusion caused the migration of the are-forming fluid from the magma outwards, With the variation of physical and chemical conditions of fissures in the intrusive body as well as contact structures and fracture zones in the wall rock, there occurred different mineralization types and metallogenic element associations under different conditions. In general, with the evolution of hydrothermal mineralization, the mineralization was developed from porphyry through the contact zone to the wall rock, and from high-T to low-T correspondingly. The establishment of the Cu-Mo-Au polymetallic metallogenic system for the Machangqing ore concentration area will help the study of mineralization theory and the exploration practice in the west Yunnan metallogenic belt.%马厂箐地区是滇西成矿带内一个典型的与喜马拉雅期富碱侵入岩有关的斑岩型铜-钼-金多金属矿集区,发育有斑岩型钼铜、接触交代型铜钼(金)和热液脉型金银铅锌等多种类型矿化.其矿化和蚀变类型及成矿元素组合,在空间上具有明显的以岩体为中心的分带性;岩浆活动与铜钼金成矿作用具有同时性.这3种矿化类型的形成受控于马厂箐

  9. Evolution of Ore-forming Fluids in the Anqing Copper-iron Deposit, Anhui Province, and Its Ore-forming Implications%安徽安庆铜铁矿床成矿流体演化特征及其成矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      安庆铜铁矿床是长江中下游成矿带内重要的矽卡岩型矿床之一。本文对该矿床中的成矿流体进行了系统研究,分析了成矿流体性质、来源及其演化过程,探讨了成矿机制。流体包裹体岩相学观察显示,矿床中的包裹体类型有Ⅰ型含子矿物三相包裹体(L+V+S)、Ⅱ型气液两相包裹体(L+V)及少量Ⅲ型气相包裹体(V);气成-高温热液期的透辉石与石榴子石中流体包裹体数量相对较少,以Ⅰ型包裹体为主;而热液期的石英与方解石中流体包裹体大量发育,以Ⅱ型包裹体为主。激光拉曼探针分析和流体包裹体显微测温结果表明,成矿流体可近似地看作不饱和的NaCl-H2O体系。从早矽卡岩阶段至碳酸盐阶段,成矿流体经历了从高温(456.1~578.1℃)、高盐度(39.37%~54.58% NaCleq)向低温(112.3~312.4℃)、低盐度(7.59%~31.75% NaCleq)的持续演化。演化过程中经历了流体沸腾作用和岩浆热液与大气降水的混合作用,其中,早矽卡岩阶段的水-岩作用、沸腾作用与矽卡岩成岩作用有关,水-岩作用,而石英-硫化物阶段的沸腾作用与混合作用可能是铜矿形成的重要机制。氢、氧同位素研究表明气成-高温热液期的成矿流体以岩浆水为主,而在热液期中石英-硫化物阶段至碳酸盐阶段大气降水在成矿流体中的比重逐渐增大。%Anqing copper-iron deposit is one of the most important skarn-type deposits along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. In this study, the ore-forming fluids of this deposit are systematically researched by analyzing their properties, and evolution, and discussing the ore-forming mechanism. The petrographic observation of fluid inclusions shows that inclusions of the deposit consist of I-type daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L+V+S), II-type gas-liquid two-phase inclusions (L+V), and a few

  10. 湖北蛇屋山红土型金矿床PSDs特征及其意义%PSDs characteristics and its significance of Shewushan lateritic gold ore deposit, Hubei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高帮飞

    2011-01-01

    土壤颗粒粒度分布(PSDs)是复杂物理化学作用的结果,研究表明,分形理论是刻画这一复杂过程的有利工具.通过对蛇屋山金矿床赋矿红土的PSDs研究发现,赋矿红土颗粒平均粒度在3.42~28.53μm之间,同时从风化壳浅部到深部有增加的趋势.分形统计学研究表明,赋矿红土PSDs,在1.71~9.46μm范围内具有分形特征(R2>0.94),分维值(D)变化范围为2.86~2.22.红土剖面样品的矿物组成、伊利石结晶度Kubler指数以及样品颗粒粒级的综合分析认为,随着Kubler指数不断增加,流体-土壤作用增强,黄铁矿的氧化、长石的黏土化等导致土壤颗拉由粉粒向私粒的转化.D值与黏粒/粉粒含量的良好相关性指示了流体-土壤相互作用而导致红土颗粒的细粒化这一过程,具有一定的普适性.因此,颗粒粒度分形特征可以作为评价红土型风化成土过程的重要指标.%Previous studies showed that particle-size distributions (PSDs) of soil were resulted from complex physical-chemical processes and could be efficiently described by fractal theory.According to the research on PSDs of the ore-hosting laterite of Shewushan gold deposit, we found that the average particle sizes of the laterite are varied from 3.42 to 28.53 μm and the values increase as the altitude decreases.Fractal statistics studies showed that the ore-hosting laterite has the fractal characteristics ranging between 1.71 and 9.46 μm (R2 >0.94) and the fractal dimensions(D) change from 2.22 to 2.86.Moreover, the mineral composition, Kübler index of illite crystallinity and panicle size fraction data suggested that as the increasing of the Kübler index, fluid-soil reaction becomes strong and the oxidation of pyrite and the argillization of feldspar may result in the transformation from the silt to clay.The fine correlations between the D values and caly/silt indicated that the processes of fluid-soil interaction which caused the particle size

  11. The Ore-controlling Factors and Prospecting Indicator of Qingshuiquan Gold Deposit in Xinjiang Province%新疆清水泉金矿床控矿因素及找矿标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海滨; 田红彪; 张希兵; 韦定君; 田璐

    2013-01-01

    清水泉金矿床位于新疆东准噶尔地区重要的金及多金属成矿带--卡拉麦里成矿带西段,产于清水-苏吉泉大断裂与卡拉麦里深断裂之间。区内构造活动强烈,次级断裂及裂隙发育,构成以NW向为主的强蚀变碎裂岩带;岩浆活动频繁,老鸦泉岩体呈岩基状分布于区内北部,构成金属元素迁移活化富集的强大热源;出露地层主要为中石炭统清水组浅变质岩系,并均已接受后期强烈的变形变质作用,发育塑性流动变形石香肠和剪切褶皱等构造形迹。清水泉金矿床类型属破碎蚀变岩夹石英脉型,矿体呈带状和透镜状赋存于与近EW向主构造体系相交的次级构造组中,富集不均匀,矿体形态、分布和矿化富集受地层、构造密切控制,并与岩浆活动热源有关。含金地质体与构造、脉岩分布及矿化蚀变是主要的找矿标志。%Qingshuiquan gold deposit is located in the west of gold and polymetallic ore belt,Kalamaili metallogenic belt in eastern Junggar,and outputted between Qingshui-Sujiquan big break and Kalamaili deep faults. In this region,the violent tectonic activities and the secondary faults and fracture development which constitute a strongly altered cataclasite zone mainly along northwest direction.Magmatic activity is frequent.Laoyaquan rock is distributed in the north and showed rock foundation appearance,which is powerful heat source for the migration of activated metals enrichment in the region.Outcropping strata are mainly middle Carboniferous Qingshui Formation which is a shallow metamorphic rock,has accepted the latter strongly deformed and metamorphosed,and developmental the boudin and shear fold.Qingshuiquan gold deposit is a broken altered rock-quartz vein type deposits.Ore bodies are banded and lenticular which occur in the secondary structure group intersected at nearly EW main structural system.Ore enrichment is uneven,its morphology

  12. Hunting for Iron Ore Bargains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    One of China’s leading steel mills has turned to smaller mines for long-term, lowcost iron ore supplies china’s oldest steel producer is looking to South America to fulfill its iron ore needs in the face of rising prices from

  13. THE GEOCHEMISTRY AND ORE-PROSPECTING POTENTIAL OF THE ZUOJIAZHUANG GOLD MINERALIZATION IN FENGXIAN, SHAANXI PROVINCE%陕西省凤县佐家庄金矿床地球化学特征及找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成杰

    2011-01-01

    佐家庄金矿床是通过对1:10万的水系沉积物测量预测的金矿远景区开展的1:2.5万土壤地球化学测量发现的。通过分析研究金及其指示元素的异常特征和分带特征等地球化学特征来预测金矿体的空间位置和找矿潜力。佐家庄金矿床属中型的三台山金矿床。%Based on prediction of gold mineralized potential obtained by stream sediment survey at 1 : 100, 000, geochemical soil survey at 1 : 25, 000 commenced in this area discovered the Zuojiazhuang gold deposit. Analysis and researches of anomaly and zoning features of gold mineralization and its indicative elements have made a prediction of the spatial positions and ore-prospecting potential of gold orebodies. Geological investigation and exploration over ten years has developed and renamed Zuojiazhuang gold deposit into the mediumsized Santaizi gold deposit.

  14. SOURCES OF ORE-FORMING METALS AND FLUIDS,AND MECHANISM OF MINERALIZATION,MAOZU LARGE CARBONARE-HOSTED LEAD-ZNIC DEPOSIT,NORTHEAST YUNNAN PROVINCE%滇东北茂租大型铅锌矿床成矿物质来源及成矿机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家喜; 黄智龙; 高建国; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    茂租铅锌矿床地处扬子地块西缘,是川滇黔铅锌成矿域内赋存于震旦系灯影组白云岩中大型铅锌矿床的典型代表.其工业矿体呈似层状、脉状和不规则状.热液方解石和矿石硫化物(闪锌矿、方铅矿和黄铁矿)是主要矿物,其形成贯穿整个成矿过程.在矿床地质特征解析基础上,获得了热液方解石C-O同位素和矿石硫化物S-Pb同位素数据,结果表明热液方解石δ13CpDB值和δ18OSMOW值变化范围较窄,分别为-3.73‰~-1.95‰和+13.80‰~+14.95‰,在δ13 CPDB与δ18OSMOW图上介于海相碳酸盐岩和原生碳酸岩范围间,呈弱负相关趋势,表明成矿流体中的CO2主要由海相碳酸盐岩溶解作用形成,并存在慢源和有机CO2加入;硫化物δ34 SCDT值介于+13.35‰~+15.37‰,暗示成矿流体中的硫是海相硫酸盐岩热化学还原的产物,而含硫有机质热降解也有贡献;硫化物Pb同位素组成稳定,206 pb/204 Pb,207 pb/204 Pb和208 pb/204 Pb值范围,分别为18.129~18.375,15.644~15.686和38.220~38.577,位于上地壳和造山带Pb演化线之间,落入基底岩石(昆阳群和会理群)Pb同位素组成范围内,表明成矿物质具有壳源特征,主要由基底岩石提供.综合各类地质-地球化学信息,认为茂租铅锌矿床成矿流体中不同组分来源不同,具有“多来源混合”特征,其成矿机制可以用“流体混合”模式来解释.%The Maozu Pb-Zn deposit, a typical large Pb-Zn deposit in Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn metallogenic province, is located on the western margin of Yangtze Block and hosted in the dolomite of Dengying Formation of Upper Sinian. The industrial ore-bodies are stratiform-like, vein and irregular shaped. Hydrothermal calcite and sulfide (sphalerite,galena and pyrite) are the main gangue and ore minerals, which were formed throughout the ore-forming process. C-0 iso-topic compositions of hydrothermal calcites,S-Pb isotopic compositions of sulfides were

  15. Experimental study of ore gabbro liquid immiscibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG; Zunan; XIA; Bin; ZHOU; Yongsheng; JIN; Zhenmin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a preliminary experimental study on partial melting of fine-grained gabbro, Panzhihua, Sichuan Province, China. Experiments were conducted under (confining) pressure ranging from 450 to 500 MPa and temperature of 900-1200℃. The results show that the initial melt is distributed along grain boundaries and triple junctions. Liquid immiscibility phenomena are noted in the melt with two compositional different melt phases, i.e. matrix and sphere phases. The matrix phase is relatively rich in Si, Al and K, and is depleted in Mg, Fe, Ca, Na and Ti, whereas the sphere phase shows opposite trends. The calculation of the melt free energy indicates that the liquid immiscibility is governed by the rule of thermodynamics, as the liquid immiscibility would result in the decrease in free energy of the melt system. The field relationships suggest that the liquid immiscibility may have played an important role in the generation of ore magma of Panzhihua V-Ti magnetite ore deposit. This study thus provides experimental constraints on the mechanism of the formation of V-Ti magnetite deposite.

  16. 甘肃拾金坡金矿床成因:来自40Ar/39Ar定年、成矿流体及H-O-S同位素证据%Ore Genesis of the Shijinpo Gold Deposit in Gansu Province, NW China:40Ar/39Ar Dating, Ore-Forming Fluid and H-O-S Isotopes Constrains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 吕新彪; 莫亚龙; 曹晓峰; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    , variably coexisting with minor amounts of galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Laser incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar analysis of hydrothermal sericite yields a plateau age of (364. 6 ± 3) Ma (2σ) , which suggests that the gold mineralization took place in the late Devonian period. The comprehensive fluid inclusion study shows that there are three major types of fluid inclusions in the early stage: liquid-rich, gas-rich aqueous and CO2-bearing fluid inclusions, with intermediate homogenization temperature (280 - 325℃) , and low salinity (7. 86%- 9. 21% NaCl eqv). The fluid boiling is evidenced by the co-existence of three types of fluid inclusions with similar homogenization temperatures. There is only liquid-rich aqueous fluid inclusions in the late stage, with hqmogenization temperatures and salinities varying from 160℃ to 230℃ , 9. 47% to 11. 10%Nacl equivalent. Fluid pressures declined from ca. 113 MPa to ca. 11 MPa through the early stage to the late stage, and the ore-forming fluids are assumed to undergo boiling in a transitional setting (from compression to extension). Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic contents in the ore-forming fluid range from 1. 39%o to 3. 39%o and - 71%o to -99%o, respectively, suggesting that the ore-forming fluid was mainly derived from the metamorphic water, and mixed by the meteoric water in the late stage. The measured δ34 S values in sulfide minerals range from 4. 44%o to 11. 33%o. Both the Precambrian metamorphic rock and granitic wall-rock might be the sulfur sources. Based on the paper and the regional geologic data, we conclude that the Shijinpo gold deposit belongs to the orogenic-type gold deposit.

  17. Zircon U-Pb geochronology,Hf isotopic composition and geological implications of the rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry in the Xiangshan uranium ore field,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Xiangshan uranium ore field is the largest volcanic rock hosted uranium deposit in China.The host rock is a volcanic intrusive complex,including rhyodacite,porphyroclastic lava and late stage sub-volcanic rocks.In this study,zircons from an early stage rhyodacite and a late stage rhyodacite porphyry were dated by SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb methods,and their Hf isotopic compositions were measured by LA-MC-ICP-MS.206Pb/238U ages of 135.1±1.7 and 134.8±1.1 Ma were obtained for the rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry,respectively.These accurate ages indicate that the Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex formed in the Early Cretaceous rather than in the Late Jurassic,as concluded in some previous studies.By the Early Cretaceous,the tectonic setting of the area has evolved into a back-arc extensional setting,possibly related to subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate.The close ages of the(early) eruptive rhyodacite and the(late) hypabyssal rhyodacitic porphyry shows that the Xiangshan volcanism was intensive and concentrated in a short time.Zircons from the rhyodacite show negative εHf(t) values of-5.7 to-8.5,with Hf depleted mantle model ages between 1550 and 1720 Ma,whereas zircons from the rhyodacitic porphyry yield εHf(t) values of-6.9 to-10.1 and Hf model ages between 1621 and 1823 Ma.These zircon Hf model ages are similar to the whole rock Nd model ages(1486 to 1911 Ma).Combined with other geochemical characteristics,the Xiangshan rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry may have been derived from partial melting of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks from the Xiangshan basement,without any significant addition of mantle-derived magma.Contribution of basement of this age is also supported by finding a Paleoproterozoic xenocrystic zircon core in the rhyodacite sample.

  18. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  19. Inclusiones fluidas e isotopos estables en la ganga de los yacimientos de manganeso del norte de la provincia de Córdoba Fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in non-ore minerals of the manganese ore deposits in the north of the Córdoba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Leal

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las características físico-químicas asociadas a la precipitación de la ganga de yacimientos epitermales de manganeso. Estos minerales fueron formados principalmente durante la etapa póstuma del sistema, el cual es posible dividir espacialmente en tres sectores en función del mineral más abundante. En esta oportunidad se estudia el sector austral donde el mineral más común es la calcita. El análisis microtermométrico de las inclusiones fluidas sobre muestras de calcita, baritina y fluorita, hizo posible obtener salinidades del fluido de 2,7 y 4% eq. en peso NaCl y temperaturas inferiores a 100°C. Los estudios de isótopos de 13C, 18O y 34S en calcita y baritina permitieron determinar la fuente meteórica de los fluidos asociados a su precipitación. Al mismo tiempo los valores de d13C en calcita se consideran el resultado de un fluido en equilibrio con CO2 atmosférico y cantidades menores de carbono producto de la disolución de compuestos orgánicos. Por otro lado, los valores de d34S de la baritina pueden ser explicados por un fluido con H2S que resulta de la disolución de sulfuros de las rocas de caja. Finalmente, se postula la presencia de dos fluidos. Un fluido ascendente fue el responsable de la precipitación de la baritina en la zona donde el H2S se oxida a SO4=; al mismo tiempo, éste pudo también formar fluorita y variedades de sílice conforme su temperatura desciende. La existencia de un fluido descendente permite explicar la generación de calcita por calentamiento del mismo.In this paper the non-ore minerals of the southern sector of this deposit are studied. Microthermometric analysis on calcite, barite and fluorite show fluid salinities of 2.7 and 4% wt eq. NaCl, and temperatures below 100°C. Isotopes of 13C, 18O and 34S allow to determine a meteoric source for the fluids associated to their precipitation. The d13C values obtained in calcite are considered the result of a fluid in

  20. 贵州东南部含金刚石钾镁煌斑岩找矿远景区预测%Ore-search Prospecting Areas of Diamond-bearing Lamproite in Southeastern Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 陶平

    2012-01-01

    Lamproite is the mother rock of diamond,and it is the basic substance for forming pipe.This work is based on the features of the regional gravitational and magnetic anomalies in the southeast of Guizhou Province,and the clues of exposed lamproite in Zhenyuan county and adjacent counties(Shibing,Sansui,Leishan,Jianhe and Majiang) and basic-ultrabasic rocks in the Congjiang area in the south.Combining the gravitational and magnetic responses of these exposed rocks with the original mineral of diamond,placer,indicator minerals,and heavy sand abnormity distribution on the surface,we delineate several basic-ultrabasic rock bodies.Integrated with the magmatite belt,volcano institution,plate conjunction belt,and deep fault zones derived from geophysical and geological data,this work determines 6 prospecting areas for searching diamond.It is inferred that in the Taijiang-Jianhe-Jinping-Liping areas,one large-scale gravitational and magnetic positive anomaly area should be regarded as a very important target area for diamond search and a key breakthrough spot for seeking original diamond mineral with industry values.And its anomaly area G3 is very likely the critical place to find original diamond mineral in Guizhou Province as well as the favorable section to remove the mystery veil of diamond deposits with pipes.%钾镁煌斑岩是金刚石的成矿母岩、组成岩筒的基本物质。基于区内区域重磁异常分布特征,以北部镇远马坪及周边县域(施秉、三穗、雷山、剑河、麻江)出露的钾镁煌斑岩和南部从江一带镶嵌的基性-超基性岩为线索及岩体露头上的重磁场异常特征响应值为标尺,与地表出现的金刚石原生矿、砂矿、指示矿物、重砂异常分布为依据,圈定了数个基性-超基性岩体(带),结合物探资料推断的岩浆岩带、火山机构、板块结合带、深大断裂带以及地质矿产资料,共划分了6个金刚石找矿远景区。预测在台江-剑

  1. REE Characteristics of Microfine Disseminated Gold Ores in Danzai,Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆年; 周丕康; 等

    1998-01-01

    Described in this paper are the fundamental characteristics of mineralization of gold ores in the Sandu-Danzhai Hg-Sb-Au ore belt of Guizhou Province,Through systematic sampling of the industrial orebody and alteration zone,the total amount of the rare-earth elements,that of the light rare-earth elements,Eu depletion and other parameters are clarified.There have been distinguished two types of REE distribution patterns:the"Clay type"and the "quartz type" .High-grade orebodies are closely related with silicification,illitization and pyritization.The seven-component diagram of the REEs of even numbers in the periodic table(Bal-asov,1966)is capable of distinguishing ore-bearing from ore-barren deposits.

  2. Nuclear Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will begin to build the world’s first third-generation nuclear power plant at the Sanmen Nuclear Power Project in Sanmen City, coastal Zhejiang Province, in March 2009, accord-ing to the State Nuclear Power Technology Corp.

  3. Discussion on the Ore-Forming Material Sources of Mujicun Copper (Molybdenum)Polymetallic Orefield in Laiyuan County,Hebei Province,China%河北省涞源县木吉村铜(钼)多金属矿田成矿物质来源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建珍; 张福祥; 马宝军; 孙爱群; 王海涛; 马国玺; 陈志宽; 王自力; 陈超; 王宝德; 牛树银

    2015-01-01

    The Mujicun copper (molybdenum)polymetallic orefield in the Taihang Mountains,is located in the secondary faulted basin developed in the upper block of detachment zone on the west side of the neck of the dumbbell shaped Laiyuan igneous complex,the northeastern pitching end of the Fuping mantle branch structure.It is composed of porphyry copper (molybdenum)deposit,skarn iron-copper deposit and hydrothermal vein lead-zinc-silver deposit in periphery, and become the most perspective large-scale copper (molybdenum ) polymetallic orefield in Hebei Province at present. Considering the study of ore-forming material sources is crucial for further understanding the metallogenesis of the deposit and the direction of ore-prospecting,authors tested and analyzed sulfur, lead,carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,silicon,and rhenium isotopic compositions in such minerals from the ore as chalcopyrite,galena,pyrite,molybdenite,magnetite,quartz and gypsum.The data showed that the major value ofδ34 S changes from - 3.5‰ to 3.2‰,with the average of 0.3‰;206 Pb/204 Pb from 15.566 0 to 17.072 0,with the average of 1 6.547 0;207 Pb/204 Pb from 15.031 0 to 15.523 0,with the average of 15.258 0;208 Pb/204 Pb from 36.292 0 to 37.375 0,with the average of 36.721 0;δ1 3 C from-2.94‰ to -2.18‰,with the average of -2.62‰;δ30 Si from -0.3 ‰ to 0.2 ‰,with the average of 0.0‰;w (Re)from 23.65 μg/g to 266.50 μg/g,with the average of 142.33 μg/g;δ1 8 OH2 O from-10.64‰ to 7.70‰,with the average of -1.47%,δD from -148.4‰ to -89.0‰,with the average of -1 13.7‰ which is less than that of the standard magmatic water.These isotopic data mentioned above show that the ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the deep source and the ore-forming solutions are mainly composed of magmatic water and partly of atmospheric water.%木吉村铜(钼)矿田位于太行山脉中、北段阜平幔枝构造的北东倾伏端,涞源哑铃状杂岩体连接处西侧上盘拆离带的次级断

  4. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  5. A possible synsedimentary origin for the Cala Magnetic Iron Ores (Western Sierra Morena). A thermodynamical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez, Benjamín Calvo

    1981-01-01

    The Magnetic Metallogenic Province of southwestern Spain has a large number of iron mines, in which magnetite and pyrite are the main ores. The largest of these mines, the Cala Mine, is placed in a Lower Cambrian environment, in the contact between a granitic apophysis and limestones. As a result,

  6. A possible synsedimentary origin for the Cala Magnetic Iron Ores (Western Sierra Morena). A thermodynamical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez, Benjamín Calvo

    1981-01-01

    The Magnetic Metallogenic Province of southwestern Spain has a large number of iron mines, in which magnetite and pyrite are the main ores. The largest of these mines, the Cala Mine, is placed in a Lower Cambrian environment, in the contact between a granitic apophysis and limestones. As a result, a

  7. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  8. 滇西北红山铜矿床成矿流体地球化学特征及矿床成因%Geochemical characteristics of ore-forming fluids and genesis of Hongshan copper deposit in northwestern Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文昌; 王可勇; 尹光侯; 秦丹鹤; 余海军; 薛顺荣; 万多

    2013-01-01

    The Hongshan copper deposit is a large porphyry-skarn type polymetallic deposit in northwestern Yunnan Province. It occurred in quartz diorite porphyry of Indo-Chinese Period and quartz monzonite porphyry of Yanshanian Period as well as their neighbouring wall rocks. The formation of it experienced superimposition of mutiphases/stages hydrothermal mineralization. Comprehensive study on petrography, microthermometry and carbon-hydrogen-oxygen isotope of fluid inclusions showed that the ore-forming fluids of early metallogenic stages are of medium to high temperature, high salinity NaCl-H2 O type solutions and mainly came from arc magmatism of Indo-Chinese Period, they were responsible for the formation of skarn type mineralization. The ore-forming fluids of later metallogenic stages are of medium to high temperature, high salinity NaCl-CO2 -H2 O type solutions and mainly came from the buried granitic magmatism of post orogenic extension environment, and they played important role in the formation of porphyry type Cu, Mo and relevant Pb, Zn mineralization. So the Hongshan copper deposit is of superimposed poyphyry-skarn type deposit that originated from the metallogenic superimposition of two phases of magmatic hydrothermal fluids.%红山铜矿床为滇西北地区一大型斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床,它产于印支期石英闪长玢岩及燕山期石英二长斑岩体内及其周边地层中,其形成经历了多期次热液叠加成矿作用过程.流体包裹体岩相学、显微测温及碳、氢、氧稳定同位素综合研究表明,矿区早期成矿流体为中高温、高盐度NaCl-H2O体系热液,主要来源于印支晚期岛弧型岩浆活动,对区内矽卡岩型矿化形成起了重要作用;晚期成矿流体为中高温、高盐度NaCl-CO2-H2O体系热液,主要来源于隐伏的燕山期后造山伸展型花岗质岩浆侵入体,形成了区内斑岩型Cu、Mo及相关的Pb、Zn多金属矿化.因此,红山铜矿床是

  9. 山东招平断裂带及其外围地区遥感蚀变提取与找矿预测%Extraction of Remote Sensing Alteration And Ore Prediction in Zhaoping Fault Belt And Its Periphery, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李守生; 叶珂; 杨斌; 王慧; 张建国

    2011-01-01

    招平断裂带是胶东地区重要的控矿构适之一,文章中遥感地质研究的范围包括其北段、中段及外围区,测区面积1200km2.ETM多光谱遥感数据来源于美国7号陆地卫星.选择ETM7、4、1三个波段进行彩色合成制作测区基础遥感图像.采用Crosta法,选择ETM1、4、5、7波段作为输入波段进行主成分变换,获取泥化蚀变遥感信息.选择ETM1、3、4、5波段进行主成分变换,提取铁化蚀变信息.沿招平断裂带在玲珑、大尹格庄、蒋家窑、夏句等矿田(床)发育规模大、连续性好的泥化蚀变.在招平断裂带下盘玲珑型花岗岩出露区域泥化蚀变较发育.铁化蚀变主要分布在测区南部和中部,在招平断裂带上盘胶东群和荆山群变质岩系出露地区铰亿蚀变规模较大,连续性较好.根据遥感泥化蚀变和铁化蚀变的空间分布、规模和连续性,结合金矿点、断裂和出露地质体等因素的地质分析,共图定找矿靶区12处,按成矿条件的有利性和找矿潜力分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ三级.%Zhaoping faulted zone is an important ore-controlling structure in eastern Shandong province. The surveying areas of remote sensing geology include the fault belt's central and north sections in a range of 1200km2 area. The ETM multispectral remote-sensing data came from Landsat 7 of USA. The basic remote sensing images were made by pseud colour composing of ETM 7,4,1 bands. The argilation alteration was obtained by Crosta method on principal component transform of ETM 1,4,5,7 bands. The iron alteration was obtained by Crosta method on principal component transform of ETM 1,4,5,7 bands. There are large scale and consecutive argilation alteration in the deposits along Zhaoping fault belt, such as Linglong, Day-ingezhuang, Jiangjiayao, Xiadian. And argilation alteration often appears in the footwall of Zhaoping fault belt where there are cropping-out of Linglong granite. The iron alteration is distributed mainly

  10. Research on Magnesite Ore Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berisha, K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite ore, consisting mainly of magnesite, MgCO3 is a chief mineral source for production of high quality refractory materials based on highly pure MgO. However, the presence of calcium and silicium mineral impurities in the ore adversely affect refractoriness. The removal of silicate minerals is now a routine process but it is not so for calcium minerals impurities. In this work, the new method for the removal of calcium mineral impurities from magnesite ore has been investigated. It is based on extraction of calcium hydroxide from the calcined hydrated ore with the solution of magnesium nitrate. The results show that it is possible to remove up to 65–83 % of calcium oxide (CaO within five minutes, and up to 88–95 % within an hour. The process itself is complex, but mainly under mass transfer control. It is possible to use waste materials produced as fertilizer in agriculture thus helping in environmental protection.

  11. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.

  12. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  13. Analytical fingerprint for tantalum ores from African deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, F.; Graupner, T.; Sitnikova, M.; Oberthür, T.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Gäbler, E.; Rantitsch, G.

    2009-04-01

    Illegal mining of gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt and, in the last decade, "coltan" has fuelled ongoing armed conflicts and civil war in a number of African countries. Following the United Nations initiative to fingerprint the origin of conflict materials and to develop a traceability system, our working group is investigating "coltan" (i.e. columbite-tantalite) mineralization especially in Africa, also within the wider framework of establishing certified trading chains (CTC). Special attention is directed towards samples from the main Ta-Nb-Sn provinces in Africa: DR Congo, Rwanda, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Egypt and Namibia. The following factors are taken into consideration in a methodological approach capable of distinguishing the origin of tantalum ores and concentrates with the utmost probability: (1) Quality and composition of coltan concentrates vary considerably. (2) Mineralogical and chemical compositions of Ta-Nb ores are extremely complex due to the wide range of the columbite-tantalite solid solution series and its ability to incorporate many additional elements. (3) Coltan concentrates may contain a number of other tantalum-bearing minerals besides columbite-tantalite. In our approach, coltan concentrates are analyzed in a step-by-step mode. State-of-the-art analytical tools employed are automated scanning electron microscopy (Mineral Liberation Analysis; MLA), electron microprobe analysis (major and trace elements), laser ablation-ICP-MS (trace elements, isotopes), and TIMS (U-Pb dating). Mineral assemblages in the ore concentrates, major and trace element concentration patterns, and zoning characteristics in the different pegmatites from Africa distinctly differ from each other. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns vary significantly between columbite, tantalite, and microlite, and also relative to major element compositions of columbites. Some locations are characterized by low REE concentrations, others are highly enriched. Samples with

  14. 湖南省常宁市狮形岭锡矿区地质特征及控矿因素分析%Analysis on the ore controlling factors and geological features of Shixingling tin mining area in Changning city,Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁勇云

    2014-01-01

    狮形岭锡矿赋存于大义山复式花岗岩体内,矿化类型以云英岩脉型为主。通过矿区地质特征的研究,在构造、岩浆岩、蚀变等方面分析矿脉控矿因素。郴州-邵阳 NW向深断裂带及“大义山式断裂构造带”形成的次级断裂构成了深断裂控矿-区域性断裂导矿-次级断裂容矿的构造成矿配套体系;岩浆岩,特别是晚期介头单元为矿区成矿母岩,与锡矿形成密切相关,为矿体形成提供成矿物质及热源。%The Shixingling tin deposit,a greisen mineralization type,is located in the Dayishan granite body. The study is focus on the geological characteristics,ore controlling factors with the analysis of vein struc-ture,magmatite,alteration,etc.Chenzhou-Shaoyang deep fracture zone in NW and"secondary fracture fault of Dayishan trend tectonic belt"formed a metallogenic system of which deep fault as ore controll region-al faults as lead ore structure,and the secondary faults as ore bearing structure.The magmatite,especially the advanced medium head unit of the ore-forming mother rock,is closely related to the formation of ore bodies.It provided ore-forming material and heat source as well.

  15. Study on rich iron ore for martin steel and the by-products of Cu and Co in Zhangjiawa iron deposit of Shandong province%山东莱芜张家洼铁矿平炉富矿和伴生的铜、钴组分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗信德; 李卫; 王建; 乔伟; 张俊峰; 刘纪涛

    2012-01-01

    Zhangjiawa iron deposit is located at the plunge of Kuangshan arc anticline with proven rich I-ron ore resources of 7 060 X 104 t for martin steel making and by-product Cu 217 256. 1 t and Co 48 548. 3 t. According to the general occurrence of the rich iron ore and the by-products at the disconformity and structural superimpositions and tremendous high iron (copper) and sulfur contents of ore deposits (bodies) occrring in Benxi formation we consider that the ore materials are related to the high background values of Fe,Cu,Co of Shanxi style iron ore and Fe-Al shale of Benxi formation in Yuemengou group. Shanxi style iron ore and Fe-Al shale were in situ reworked and superimposed by hydrothermal fluid to form composite ore bodies at or near the disconformity and local rich iron ore for martin steel making and the by-product resources, or strutures channeled the hydrothermal fluid and transport the ore materials into contact zones and the wall rocks leading to bi-replacement filtration and formation of composite ore bodies at contact zone or nearby and small volume of rich iron ore for martin steel making and the by-products resources. Therefore, Shanxi style iron ore and Fe-Al shale are the main source for the rich iron ore for martin steel making and the by-products of Cu, Co.%山东莱芜张家洼铁矿赋存于矿山弧形背斜倾没端,已查明平炉富矿资源储量7 060×104t,伴生组分铜金属资源储量217 256.1 t,钴金属资源储量48 548.3 t.根据平炉富矿、伴生组分铜钴主要分布在假整合面及其复合部位,以及赋存在本溪组中的矿床(体)铁(铜)硫特高的特点,认为矿质与月门沟群本溪组中的山西式铁矿以及铁铝页岩层位中Fe,Cu,Co元素的高背景值有关.山西式铁矿和铁铝页岩层位或因热液作用就地改造叠加,在假整合面及附近形成复合矿体,并局部构成平炉富矿和伴生的铜、钻资源;或因构造沟通,被活化迁移至接触带与围岩中,产生

  16. Ore deposits in Africa and their relation to the underlying mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    African magmatism is largely related to the tensional stress regimes of the crust which are induced by the hotter upwelling mantle rocks. These mantle rocks may provide emanating forces and thermal energy for the upward movements of primary ore bodies with fluid inclusions in the tensional stress regimes of the crust. In this paper, the Goddard Earth Gravity Model is used to calculate a detailed subcrustal stress system exerted by mantle convection under Africa. The resulting system is found to be correlated with the African metallogenic provinces. Recognition of the full spectrum of ore deposits in Africa that may be associated with the hotter upwelling mantle rocks has provided an independent evidence to support the hypothesis of mantle-derived heat source for ore deposits.

  17. Deep-Source Ore-Forming Materials and Prospecting of Gold Deposits in Eastern Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝德; 牛树银; 孙爱群; 李红阳

    2003-01-01

    Eastern Hebei Province is one of the important gold mineralization areas in North China, and detailed investigations have been made in this area. Different mineralization models and different ore-forming sources have been proposed for the gold deposits in this area. As more detailed work was made and more information has been accumulated, it is necessary to make a new investigation on gold metallogenesis and its source. This paper presents the data about 13 gold deposits (occurrences). It is concluded that the element gold came from the deep mantle.Different models of metallogenesis substantially describe such processes that ore-forming fluids were involved in metallogenesis in different favorable loci. Gold ore prospecting should be focused on fluid channel ways and favorable structures.

  18. Flotation of indium-beard marmatite from multi-metallic ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiong; SONG Shaoxian; HE Jian; Alejandro Lopez-Valdivieso

    2008-01-01

    Flotation of indium-beard marmatite from Dulong multi-metallic ore in Yunnan Province of China was studied to improve the grades and recoveries of zinc and indium of the zinc concentrate in Dulong concentration plant.The experimental results indicated that copper sulfate mixed with a chemical reagent X-1 as the activator in the marmatite flotation produced a much better beneficiation than copper sulfate alone,increasing the zinc and indium recoveries of 10% and 6%,respectively,while the concentrate grades remained unchanged.Also,the new activator acted well around pH 10,allowing large savings on lime consumption in the rnarmatite flotation.In addition,it has been found that a sufficient activated lime of activator with ore slurry in the flotation is needed to achieve good beneficiation of the marmatite ore.

  19. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  20. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  1. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  2. Up-dated ore composition data (Central ore-field, Kuznetsk Alatau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushmanov A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive microanalyzer and X-ray ray fluorescence microscope the ore mineral composition in Central gold-ore field ore field (Kuznetsk Alatau was investigated. Eleven new minerals were detected in this ore field. The differentiated behavior of mineral formation stages in veinsand near-veined beresites was determined. The composition of native gold was studied, as well as the distribution of trace elements in pyrite.

  3. Origin of Gold-Bearing Fluid and Its Initiative Localization Mechanism in Xiadian Gold Deposit, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 王庆飞; 孙忠实

    2002-01-01

    The composition of quartz inclusions and trace elements in ore indicate that gold bearing fluid in the Xiadian gold deposit, Shandong Province, stemmed from both mantle and magma, belonging to a composite origin. Based on theoretical analysis and high temperature and high pressure experimental studies, gold-bearing fluid initiative localization mechanism and the forming environment of ore-host rocks are discussed in the present paper. The composite fluid extracted gold from rocks because of its expanding and injecting forces and flew through ore-conducive structures, leading to the breakup of rocks. The generation of ore-host faults and the precipitation of gold-bearing fluid occurred almost simultaneously. This study provides further information about the relationships between gold ore veins and basic-ultrabasic vein rocks and intermediate vein rocks, the spatial distribution of gold ore veins and the rules governing the migration of ore fluids.

  4. Hageri alustas oreli taastamisega / Inge Põlma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põlma, Inge

    2009-01-01

    1851. aastal eesti orelimeistri Carl Tantoni valmistatud ja 1892. aastal Gustav Terkmanni poolt kohendatud Hageri Lambertuse kiriku oreli restaureerimisest, ekspertiisi tegi rootsi organist Göran Grahn

  5. Features and genetic significance of olivine from Heishan magmatic sulfide ore-bearing intrusion in Beishan area, Gansu Province%甘肃北山黑山岩浆铜镍硫化物矿床橄榄石特征及成因意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚; 汤中立; 王亚磊; 闫海卿; 焦建刚; 王建中

    2012-01-01

    Heishan is one of the important sulfide-bearing mafic- ultramafic intrusions in Beishan area of Gansu Province. The intrusion is composed mainly of ore-bearing peridotite and amphibole gabbro distributed at the southern edge of the intrusion. Electron microprobe analyses of the olivine show that almost all olivine crystals are chrysolite with the forsterite content (Fo) ranging from 81.54 to 86.87 and Ni content varying from 801.53 × 10-6 to 2 703.19× 10-6. The main components of the primitive magma are ω(MgO) = 11.65%, ω(FeO) = 10.12% , suggesting relatively high MgO basaltic magma. Based on modeling of olivine fractional crystallization and sulfide segregation, the authors hold that the sulfide segregation (about 0.12%~0.17%) and olivine fractional crystallization occurred almost at the same time during the magma evolution. The results also show that less than 3 % fractional crystallization of olivine has been separated from magma and their minimum mass ratio is 14:1. In addition, the re-equilibration of the olivine crystals from the trapped silicate liquid or sulfide liquid seems to be an important factor for the variation of olivine composition.%黑山铜镍硫化物矿床是近年在甘肃北山发现的大型岩浆铜镍硫化物矿床,含矿岩体主要由含矿橄榄岩相和南部边缘的角闪辉长岩相构成.研究发现含矿岩体中的橄榄石属贵橄榄石(Fo值为81.54~86.87),其w(Ni)介于(801.53~2 703.19)×10-6;利用橄榄辉长岩中最高Fo值和主量元素反演,表明原始岩浆属高镁玄武质岩浆,w(MgO)=11.65%,ω(FeO)=10.12%;橄榄石分离结晶模拟计算结果表明,橄榄石结晶过程中伴随有0.12%~0.17%硫化物熔离,深部岩浆房中橄榄石分离结晶程度小于3%,橄榄石与硫化物最小质量比约14∶1;隙间硅酸盐熔浆和硫化物熔浆作用明显,是造成早期结晶橄榄石成分变化的重要原因.

  6. Zircon U-Pb Dating and Ore-bearing Properties Evaluation of Yanshanian Shuitou Pluton in Southern Jiangxi Province%赣南燕山期水头岩体的锆石铀-铅年代学研究及其含矿性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于扬; 陈振宇; 陈郑辉; 侯可军; 赵正; 许建祥; 张家菁; 曾载淋

    2012-01-01

    水头岩体是目前赣南地区缺少精确年龄数据的复式岩体之一.对赣南水头岩体中的锆石样品进行了U-Pb法年代学研究,测年结果显示该岩体主体年龄为(142.7±0.6)Ma,属于燕山期的产物,并不是前人认为的加里东期.但也存在前期(海西期和加里东期)的同位素年龄信息记录,说明该岩体是复式岩体,存在至少三期岩浆活动.对水头岩体进行了岩石学、地球化学研究,简要论述了岩石成因及含矿性.水头岩体主体为黑云母花岗岩,为过铝质钾玄岩系,轻稀土和重稀土中等分馏,负Eu异常明显.初步认为水头岩体是原地重熔交代作用形成的复式岩体.岩石化学资料数据显示,该岩体具备稀土成矿母岩的基本条件.%The Shuitou pluton is one of the composite plutons without accurate dating age in Southern Jiangxi province. Zircon samples taken from the Shuitou pluton were selected for U-Pb dating. The obtained age of (142.7 ± 0.6) Ma confirmed that this granitic pluton belongs to the Yanshanian era and not the Caledonian era as a previous study has reported. Other old ages were also obtained for this pluton (such as Hercynian and Caledonian), which indicates that there were at least three periods of magmatic activity. This study indicates that Shuitou pluton is a composite pluton. Combining the pelrological and geochemical study on this pluton, petrogenesis and ore-bearing properties are illustrated briefly in this paper. The Shuitou pluton mainly consists of biotite granites, which can be attributed to the peraluminous shoshonitic series with a middle fraclionation of light rare earth element (LREE) and heavy rare earth element (HREE), and obvious Eu anomalies. These data indicate that the Shuitou pluton is a composite pluton formed by the result of in-situ-melting of granite. The geochemical data from this study show that this pluton has major mineralization conditions of mother rock for REE deposits.

  7. The potential for ore and industrial minerals in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Hardy [MIRAB Mineral Resurser AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been made of existing information concerning the potential for ore and industrial minerals in and near the candidate area for a deep repository in Forsmark. A deep repository for spent nuclear fuel should not be located in a rock type or an area where mineral extraction might be considered in the future, since this would make it impossible to exploit this natural resource. Avoiding such areas reduces the risk that people in the future will come into contact with the deep repository through mineral prospecting or mining activities. The survey has made use of all the geoscientific information that was compiled in the more regional investigations in Oesthammar Municipality in 1996-97. In cooperation with the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), a new, more detailed mineral resources map has been prepared. The map shows areas with an ore potential that may be unsuitable or unfavourable for siting of a deep repository. The results of the recently completed geophysical helicopter surveys of the Forsmark area are presented in a special chapter. The judgement of the area's ore potential is in part based on the geophysical evaluation of these measurements. Furthermore, the survey obtained information from ongoing deep drillings from the site investigation in Forsmark. In order to better be able to judge the ore potential, the survey has initiated a geochemical investigation of activated soil samples, plus an ore geology sampling of a section in the deep borehole KFM02A, where a hydrothermally altered zone was detected in 2003.The first results from these samplings are presented in the report, which also discusses prospecting efforts in the area as well as relevant Swedish mining legislation. Some suggestions are made for further ore geology investigations. The mineral resources map shows that there is an elongate northwest-southeast zone south and southwest of the candidate area which has a potential for skarn iron ore, and possibly for copper and zinc

  8. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  9. The Luster of Iron Ore Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China battles its way out of an iron ore stalemate by finding alternative supplier After months of seesawing, China’s iron ore negotiators appear to be breaking through the tight encirclement of suppliers. On August 17, the China Iron and Steel Association (CISA) announced that Fortescue

  10. Fuzzy Comprehensive Appraisal of Concealed Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the transformation from the fuzzy to the accurate process is exemplified by the Jiaodong gold ore deposits concentrated region where the mathematical analysis is used to appraise and forecast regional concealed gold ore deposits. In this sense, this paper presents a new way to the appraisal of the non-traditional mineral resources.

  11. Application of lead and strontium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Keegan, Elizabeth; Millet, Sylvain

    2009-10-15

    Lead and strontium isotope ratios were used for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. A simple and low-background sample preparation method was developed for the simultaneous separation of the analytes followed by the measurement of the isotope ratios by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The lead isotopic composition of the ore concentrates suggests applicability for the verification of the source of the nuclear material and by the use of the radiogenic (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio the age of the raw ore material can be calculated. However, during data interpretation, the relatively high variation of the lead isotopic composition within the mine site and the generally high contribution of natural lead as technological contamination have to be carefully taken into account. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratio is less prone to the variation within one mine site and less affected by the production process, thus it was found to be a more purposeful indicator for the origin assessment and source verification than the lead. The lead and strontium isotope ratios measured and the methodology developed provide information on the initial raw uranium ore used, and thus they can be used for source attribution of the uranium ore concentrates.

  12. Biomass for iron ore sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, M.; Martinez-Pacheco, M.; Fray, T.A.T. [Corus Research Development & Technology, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Within an integrated steelworks, iron ore sinter making is an energy intensive process. In recent years, biomass is becoming an attractive alternative source of energy to traditional fossil fuels such as coal. In this study, commercially available biomass materials suited to sinter making have been identified as an alternative source of fuel to coke breeze. Olive residues, sunflower husk pellets, almond shells, hazelnut shells and Bagasse pellets have been characterised and prepared for sintering. A laboratory sinter pot has been employed for studying sintering behaviour of biomass material. On average, the calorific values of selected biomass materials, on a dry basis, are about 65% of dry coke breeze. It was found that less of this energy would be available in sinter making due to the evaporation of some of the volatile matter ahead of the flame front. At a replacement rate of 25%, the crushed sunflower husk pellets showed the closest thermal profile to that of coke breeze alone in the size range of -0.8 to +0.6 mm. A specification of less than 1 mm has been recommended for the studied biomass materials when co-firing biomass with coke breeze for iron ore sintering.

  13. Uranium recovery from Uro area phosphate ore, Nuba Mountains, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid A. Adam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a laboratory scale to recover uranium from Uro area phosphate ore in the eastern part of Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Phosphate ore samples were collected, and analyzed for uranium abundance. The results showed that the samples contain a significant concentration of uranium with an average of 310.3 μg/g, which is 2.6 times higher than the world average of phosphate. The green phosphoric acid obtained from the samples was found to contain uranium in the range of 186–2049 μg/g, with an average of 603.3 μg/g, and about 98% of uranium content of the phosphate ore was rendered soluble in the phosphoric acid. An extraction process using 25% tributylphosphate, followed by stripping process using 0.5 M sodium carbonate reported that more than 98% of uranium in the green phosphoric acid exists as uranyl tricarbonate complex, moreover, sodic decomposition using 50% sodium hydroxide showed that about 98% of the uranium was precipitated as sodium diuranate concentrate that is known as the yellow cake (Na2U2O7. Further purification and calcinations of the yellow cake led to the formation of the orange powder of uranium trioxide (UO3. The chemical analysis of the obtained uranium concentrates; yellow cake and uranium trioxide proved their nuclear purity and that they meet the standard commercial specification. The obtained results proved that uranium from Uro phosphate ore was successfully recovered as uranium trioxide with an overall recovery percentage of 93%.

  14. 提升浙江省企业和高校在国家核电建设中的作用%On Enhancement of Role of Enterprises and Universities in Zhejiang Province in National Nuclear Power Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章利特; 施红辉; 贾会霞; 王丽丽; 杨咏梅

    2013-01-01

    Considering the requirement of sustainable development and the responsibility of world climate change, China has established a nuclear power construction plan for the next ten years costing over 100 billion Yuan, which makes Zhejiang Province which is lacking in energy resources and developed in manufacture face great business opportunities of nuclear power industry and upgrading and transformation opportunities. Zhejiang nuclear power enterprises need to give full play to the function of policy orientation of the government and guidance and coordination of nuclear power industry association, extends the technical qualification of nuclear power construction by adding R& D input and promoting resources integration, master independent core technologies and improve the overall actual strength and core competitiveness of nuclear power enterprises. Zhejiang Province can establish nuclear engineering college and department and set up majors related to nuclear electricity generation in 1 or 2 provincial universities, and provide talent and intelligence guarantee for the development of its nuclear power industry through professional talent cultivation. technical upgrading R&D and technical service support.%鉴于自身可持续发展的需要和对世界气候变化的责任,中国制订了未来10年超过千亿元的核电建设计划,使能源缺乏、制造业发达的浙江省面临核电产业的巨大商机和升级转型契机.浙江省核电企业需要充分发挥政府的政策导向和核能行业协会的牵引协调作用,通过增加研发投入、促进资源整合,拓展核电建设制造的技术资格,掌握自主的核心技术,提升核电企业整体实力与核心竞争力.浙江省可以在1~2所省属高校建立核能工程院、系,开设核能发电相关专业,通过专业人才培养、技术升级研发、技术服务支持等方式为浙江省核电产业的发展提供人才和智力保障.

  15. Contrast in Fluid Metallogeny between the Tianmashan Au-S Deposit and the Datuanshan Cu Deposit in Tongling, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive contrast of ore-forming geological background and ore-forming fluid features, especially fluid ore-forming processes, has been performed between the Tianmashan and the Datuanshan ore deposits in Tongling, Anhui Province. The major reasons for the formation of the stratabound skarn Au-S ore deposit in Tianmashan and the stratabound skarn Cu ore deposit in Datuanshan are analyzed in accordance with this contrast. The magmatic pluton in Tianmashan is rich in Au and poor in Cu, but that in Datuanshan is rich in Cu and Au. The wallrock strata in Tianmashan contain Au-bearing pyrite layers with some organic substance but those in Datuanshan contain no such layers. Moreover, the ore-forming fluids in Tianmashan are dominantly magmatic ones at the oxide and sulfide stages, but those with high content of Cu in Datuanshan are mainly groundwater fluids. In addition, differences in compositional evolution and physicochemical condition variation of the ore-forming fluids result in gradual dispersion of Cu or Au in the late stage of the fluid ore-forming process. This is also an important metallogenic factor for the stratabound skarn Au-S ore deposit in Tianmashan and stratabound skarn Cu ore deposit in Datuanshan.

  16. Spatial data mining system for ore-forming prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The authors designed the spatial data mining system for ore-forming prediction based on the theory and methods of data mining as well as the technique of spatial database, in combination with the characteristics of geological information data. The system consists of data management, data mining and knowledge discovery, knowledge representation. It can syncretize multi-source geosciences data effectively, such as geology,geochemistry, geophysics, RS. The system digitized geological information data as data layer files which consist of the two numerical values, to store these files in the system database. According to the combination of the characters of geological information, metallogenic prognosis was realized, as an example from some area in Heilongjiang Province. The prospect area of hydrothermal copper deposit was determined.

  17. Advances in research of sulphide ore textures and their implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Lianxing; ZHENG Yuanchuan; TANG Xiaoqian; WU Changzhi; HU Wenxuan

    2006-01-01

    Important advances in research of sulphide ore textures in recent years have deepened our understanding of ore genesis of related mineral deposits. Pressure solution of sulphide minerals has been suggested as a mechanism for remobilization of ore materials,whereas pressure solution of the gangues is believed to raise the grade of the primary ores. We have known that precipitation of base metal sulphides from fluids prefers crystal and crack surfaces of pyrite to form overgrowth. Therefore, pyrite-bearing embryo beds in a sedimentary sequence can be acted as effective crystal seed beds and are favorable for fluid overprinting to form huge statabound deposits. Texture studies of various sulphides can be used to interpret the entire history of sedimentation, diagenesis, deformation and metamorphism of the ores. The study of chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite has brought about the idea of zone refining, and given a new explanation to metal zonation in massive sulphide deposits. Ductile shearing of sulphide ores may form ore mylonites, which will become oreshoots enriched in Cu, Au and Ag during late-stage fluid overprinting. Despite that various modern analytical techniques are being rapidly developed, ore microscopy remains to be an unreplaceable tool for ore geologists. Combined with these modern techniques, this tool will help accelerate the development of theories on ore genesis.

  18. Nitrile O-ring Cracking: A Case of Vacuum Flange O-ring Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Craig

    2016-07-01

    A review of recent nitrile O-ring failures in ISO-KF vacuum flange connections in glovebox applications is presented. An investigation of a single “isolated” o-ring failure leads to the discovery of cracked nitrile o-rings in a glovebox atmospheric control unit. The initial cause of the o-ring failure is attributed to ozone degradation. However, additional investigation reveals nitrile o-ring cracking on multiple gloveboxes and general purpose piping, roughly 85% of the nitrile o-rings removed for inspection show evidence of visible cracking after being in service for 18 months or less. The results of material testing and ambient air testing is presented, elevated ozone levels are not found. The contributing factors of o-ring failure, including nitrile air sensitivity, inadequate storage practices, and poor installation techniques, are discussed. A discussion of nitrile o-ring material properties, the benefits and limitations, and alternate materials are discussed. Considerations for o-ring material selection, purchasing, storage, and installation are presented in the context of lessons learned from the nitrile o-ring cracking investigation. This paper can be presented in 20 minutes and does not require special accommodations or special audio visual devices.

  19. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 1 Ranger 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Ranger 3 ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located between 30 and 50 m below the surface. The ground water U concentration and (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the top 10 m of the weathered zone are reported for 357 samples collected over 4 wet seasons, at 5 depths, along a transect in-line with the hydraulic gradient and along the centre line of the ore body and its associated dispersion halo. The results show that the weathered zone displays a general U isotope feature for this type of ore body with the (234)U/(238)U AR for the ground water and amorphous phase of the solid matrix being less than 1. The ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is independent of the annual monsoonal climate and depth within the range surface to 10 m. In the vicinity of the U ore body the ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is 0.75 and is very similar to the (234)U/(238)U AR of the amorphous phase of the solid (0.76). The (234)U/(238)U ARs of the amorphous phase and ground water rise and separate to values of 0.88 and 1.02 at the end of the transect. The rise and separation in (234)U/(238)U AR are interpreted as evidence that the source of the U in the ground water is from the water-soluble sub-phase of the amorphous phase and that the ground water flow is too fast to allow the processes occurring across the solid-water interface to reach chemical equilibrium. The data set is a robust characterisation of the coarse and fine detail of the (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the weathered zone of U ore bodies.

  20. Oolitic ores in the Bakchar iron-ore cluster (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, M. A.; Mazurov, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Oolitic iron ores are typified, and their morphology and composition are studied. Special attention is focused on the character of distribution of valuable and harmful admixtures and determination of the principal minerals concentrating these elements. As a result of this study, three types of ores are identified, such as "loose" ores, cemented ores with glauconite-chlorite-clay cement, and well-cemented ores with siderite cement. The morphology and composition of the ore oolites are characterized. The forms of occurrence of calcium phosphates (anapaite) and phosphates of rare-earth elements (monazite, cularite) that are related to the harmful phosphorus admixture are described. According to the analysis of the elemental composition, the fractions of (-1…+0.2) and (-1…+0.1) mm in the western and eastern segments, respectively, may be promising for processing.

  1. Standard practices for sampling uranium-Ore concentrate

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These practices are intended to provide the nuclear industry with procedures for obtaining representative bulk samples from uranium-ore concentrates (UOC) (see Specification C967). 1.2 These practices also provide for obtaining a series of representative secondary samples from the original bulk sample for the determination of moisture and other test purposes, and for the preparation of pulverized analytical samples (see Test Methods C1022). 1.3 These practices consist of a number of alternative procedures for sampling and sample preparation which have been shown to be satisfactory through long experience in the nuclear industry. These procedures are described in the following order. Stage Procedure Section Primary Sampling One-stage falling stream 4 Two-stage falling stream 5 Auger 6 Secondary Sampling Straight-path (reciprocating) 7 Rotating (Vezin) 8, 9 Sample Preparation 10 Concurrent-drying 11-13 Natural moisture 14-16 Calcination 17, 18 Sample Packaging 19 Wax s...

  2. Endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and ore-bearing potentiality of strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baode; NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; XIE Yan; LUO Yi; LIU Hailong; WANG Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    The problem of ore-bearing potentiality of the strata involves metallogenic theory and ore-search orientation. Studies of the spatial distribution of endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in North Hebei indicated that the strata in which ore deposits occurred range in age from Paleozoic, Proterozoic to Mesozoic. In addition the ore deposits are characterized as being strata-bound in nature. The arise and establishment of "extracting" viewpoint may be attributed to the following three reasons: 1) influence by the idea of "ore-source bed"; 2) limitation of analytical techniques in the 1980s' (especially gold element); and 3) a small number of samples (sampling locations were mostly disturbed by mineralization). Studies have shown that ore-forming materials would most probably come from the deep interior of the Earth. Deep-seated ore-bearing materials including Au-Ag polymetals were brought to the shallow levels by way of mantle plume-mantle sub-plume-mantle branch structure multi-stage evolution, finally leading to the formation of ore deposits.

  3. Geological Characteristics of Epithermal Ore Concentrated Areas and Epithermal Ore Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The epithermal ore concentrated area is located in Southwestern China. We systematically study the regional geological characteristics such as the basement of Proterozoic, the capping bed, Moho, geothermal feature and tectonics, and discuss the relationship between distributed characteristics of the epithermal ore deposits and ore-control factors in this paper. It is concluded that the conditions, under which the epithermal ore deposits form, are huge thick basement of Proterozoic, long-time and wide-scope developed capping bed and weak magmatic activity. The basement of Proterozoic that enriches volcanic matters and carbon and the carbonaceous-bearing and paleo-pool-bearing capping bed provides main ore source. The large and deep faults and paleopool accordance with gravity anomaly gradient control the distribution of epithermal ore deposits. The lithologic assembles of microclastic rocks and carbonate rocks in the capping bed provide spaces of ore precipitation and create conditions of ore precipitation. The coincidence of many geological factors above forms the epithermal ore concentrated area.

  4. The sources of our iron ores. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  5. Understanding Lateritic Ore Agglomeration Behaviour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    istics, low grade lateritic ores require more aggressive but costly chemical and hydrometallurgical techniques (e.g., leaching in ... Isothermal, batch agglomeration tests involving 30 and 44 % w/w sulphuric acid ... *Loss of ignition. Table 2: ...

  6. Research of Geochemical Associations of Nephelin Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulf, M.; Simonov, K.; Sazonov, A.

    The instant paper concerns research of distribution petrogenic chemical members in urtit ore body of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit. Rocks of the deposit are ore for producing alum earth. Actuality of the subject based on outlooks of detection noble metal ore-bearing (Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru) in alkaline rocks of Siberia, including rocks of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit (Kuznetsk Alatau). The main purpose of analysis of distribution of members is directed to detection of a non-uniformity of distribution of substance and segments enriched with alum earth and noble members. The basic solved problems are following: o Creation regression models of ore body; o Definition of cumulative distribution functions of members in a contour of ore body; o The analysis of the obtained outcomes in geologic terms. For construction regression models the full-scale data was used, which was presented by the results of the spectral and silicate analyses of gold and petrogenic members containing 130 assays arranged in ore body. A non-linear multiparameter model of the ore body based on components of nephelin ore using neural net approach was constructed. For each member the corresponding distribution function is produced. The model is constructed on the following members: Au, Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, R2O ((Na2O+K2O) -1) and losses of burning. The error of model forecasting membersS concentrations was from 0.02 up to 20%. Large errors basically connected with assays located near contact of ore body and ad- jacent strata or with very high concentrations of members; also they can be connected with different genesis of rocks or superposition of other processes. The analysis of concentrations of members and normalised absolute errors of the fore- cast has shown, that all members can be sectioned into two groups: first: Al2O3, SiO2, R2O, Fe2O3 and second: Au, losses of burning, CaO, MgO, SO3. The distribution of 1 gold is tightly connected with calcium and losses of burning and spatially linked with zones

  7. Research on Technology of Pressure Pretreatment with Oxygen for Refractory Gold Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shengming; Sun Tichang; Chen Jinghe; Wang Dianzuo

    2007-01-01

    An combined technology of pressure pretreatment with oxygen on refractory gold ores is pointed out and discussed on this paper, according to the experiments included the test in 1kg grade batch pressure pretreatment with oxygen of the concentrate from the refractory gold ores of Dongbeizhai in Sichuan province, which is called the most refractory gold ores in China. It is shown that gold recovery reach 91.73% in the combined process which is described as follows: The flotation of the sulphide gold ores is under controlled conditions, producing the concentrate for pressure pretreatment with oxygen in acidic medium and the middling for the pressure pretreatment with oxygen in alkaline medium. The thickening and washing process substitute the pressure filtration process of the pulp after pressure pretreatment. The thick slimes of the two kinds of pressure pretreatment were mixed and then enter the CIL process for simplifying the flowsheet. The possible superabundance of acid of pressure pretreatment with oxygen in acidic medium was neutralized by the tailings of flotation and the cost of neutralization will be lower. The combined technology of pressure pretreatment with oxygen has the same advantages as the normal technology of pressure pretreatment and both is helpful for environment protection.

  8. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms.

  9. Mechanism of mechanical activation for sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-ping; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; HE Yue-hui; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Structural changes for mechanically activated pyrite, sphalerite, galena and molybdenite with or without the exposure to ambient air, were systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD), particle size analysis, gravimetrical method, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy(XPS) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. Based on the above structural changes for mechanically activated sulfide ores and related reports by other researchers, several qualitative rules of the mechanisms and the effects of mechanical activation for sulfide ores are obtained. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and incomplete cleavage plane or extremely incomplete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed, and lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with excellent thermal stability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For sulfide ores with high toughness, good thermal stability and very excellent complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation, but the lattice deformation ratio is very small. The effects of mechanical activation are worst.

  10. How Many Ore-Bearing Asteroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e. commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (= US$1 B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is ~20,000 (Mainzer et al. 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in ~1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water (~20%) expected in ~25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to ~9000 out of th...

  11. Ores and Climate Change - Primary Shareholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2015-04-01

    Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of

  12. 金属矿床的卤素元素异常及其形成机理——以粤西茶洞银金矿床为例%HALOGEN ANORMALY AND ITS FORMING MECHANISM IN THE METAL ORE DEPOSITS: AS EXAMPLIFIED BY CHADONG Ag-Au DEPOSIT IN WESTERN GUANGDONG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乾; 邵树勋; 潘家永

    2001-01-01

    金属矿床中卤素元素参与了金属元素的活化、迁移到沉淀成矿的全过程。然而,除F能作为萤石和云母类矿物的组成部分有时富集于矿石中外,Cl、Br、I很难在矿石中富集。在成矿过程中尤其在成矿的后期,它们能在矿体上部形成范围较广的卤素扩散晕。在茶洞矿床,这种上部扩散晕范围可达200m。其中以I扩散范围最大,Br扩散晕在距矿体50m~130m的范围内最明显,Cl扩散晕在距矿体30m~110m范围内最明显。卤素元素的这种变化特点,一方面可用来解释成矿热液的演化过程,另一方面可用来作为勘查深部隐伏矿体的地球化学标志。成矿流体中卤素元素与金属元素的配合物随着成矿条件的改变而不断被破坏,金属元素作为硫化物等矿物的组成部分沉淀下来,随着热液蚀变的发生和进行,部分卤素元素被带入蚀变带,大部分仍残留在流体相,在成矿的后期,和残余热液一道,以排泄和渗透等方式,在矿体上方或残余热液流经的途中形成大范围的异常。%Halogen may participate in the whole processe of activation, migration and mineralization of ore-forming metals. However, only F can be usually fixed in the ore as the component of fluoride and mica, Cl, Br and I are difficult to fix in the ore. In the post-stage of mineralization, they may form a halogen halo in the wall rocks in the upper part of the orebody. Such the halo extends over a distance of 200m from the buried orebody to the surface in the Chadong Ag-Au deposit. The iodine halo has the largest scope, Br halo is located over a distance of 50m to 100m and Cl halo, 30~110m away from the buried orebody. These characteristics of halogen halo can be used not only to explain the ore-forming fluid evolution, but also to prospect buried orebody as an effective geochemical indicator. The compounds of metal with halogen in the ore-forming fluid are decomposed

  13. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  14. PREDICTION OF LOCATION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN THE AGED ORE FIELDS:AN EXAMPLE FROM FENGHUANGSHAN ORE FIELD,TONGLING,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Liang-ming; PENG; Sheng-lin; YIANG; Qun-zhou; SHAO; Yong-jun; WANG; Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for successfully predicting the location of potential hidden ore bodies in aged ore field,and presents the result of location prediction of hidden ore bodies in Fenghuangshan ore field,Tongling.Innovative conceptual targeting procedures based on a genetic understanding of mineralization systems,carefully geological investigation and correct deduction,together with new geochemical and geophysical technology and integrating of comprehensive information are all very important for the successful prediction.In the aged Fenghuangshan ore field,through researching by application of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposits and triple-frequency induced polarization method and exploration tectono-geochemical method,we predicted location and quality of hidden ore bodies.According to the prediction,hidden high quality Cu-Au ore bodies of skarn type and porphyry type have been discovered.

  15. Application of neodymium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Yalcintas, Ezgi; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    A novel procedure has been developed for the measurement of (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotope ratio in various uranium-bearing materials, such as uranium ores and ore concentrates (UOC) in order to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of variations of (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotope ratio for provenance assessment in nuclear forensics. Neodymium was separated and pre-concentrated by extraction chromatography and then the isotope ratios were measured by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The method was validated by the measurement of standard reference materials (La Jolla, JB-2 and BCR-2) and the applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of uranium samples of world-wide origin. The investigated samples show distinct (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratio depending on the ore type, deposit age and Sm/Nd ratio. Together with other characteristics of the material in question, the Nd isotope ratio is a promising signature for nuclear forensics and suggests being indicative of the source material, the uranium ore.

  16. Mobility factors of cracked ore in vibrating-ore draw shafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-xiang; JIANG Li-chun; CHEN Jia-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The mobile factors of cracked ore in vibrating-ore draw shafts were analyzed. The results show that the mobile coefficient of cracked ores will be mainly influenced by the combination of ore physical factors if the structure dimension and parameters of vibrating ore-draw shafts are sure. It decreases with increasing the cohesion, lump content, lump size and powder content and increases with increasing the porosity. The coefficient decreases with increasing the moisture content, but increases after the moisture content reaches a certain value. Uniform grain leads to better mobility, non-uniform grain leads to worse mobility. The value of the mobile coefficient should be in a range of 0.31.1 when designing the vibrating ore-draw shafts. According to correlation degree of grey system theory, the effects of factors on the mobility of cracked ore are given in the weight decreasing consequence as follows: moisture content, lump content, distribution of grain size, lump size, porosity, cohesion and powder ore content. It is unreasonable to neglect any one because the values of their weights are not obvious.

  17. Contrasting REE Signatures on Manganese Ores of Iron Ore Group in North Orissa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution pattern of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in three categories of manganese ores viz.stratiform, stratabound-replacement, and detrital of Precambrian Iron Ore Group from north Orissa, India was reported.These categories of Mn-ore differed in their major and trace chemistry and exhibited contrasting REE signature.The stratiform ores were relatively enriched in REE content (697 μg·g-1) and their normalized pattern showed both positive Ce and Eu anomalies, whereas the stratabound-replacement types were comparatively depleted in REE content (211 μg·g-1) and showed negative Ce and flat Eu signatures.The detrital categories showed mixed REE pattern.The data plotted in different discrimination diagrams revealed a mixed volcaniclastic and chemogenic source of material for stratiform categories, and LREE (Light Rare Earth Elements) and HREE (Heavy Rare Earth Elements) are contributed by such sources, respectively.In contrast, the stratabound ore bodies were developed during the remobilization of stratiform ores, and associated Mn-containing rocks under supergene condition followed by the redeposition of circulating mineralized colloidal solutions in structurally favorable zones.During this process, some of the constituents were found only in very low concentration within stratabound ores, and this is attributed to their poor leachability/mobility.The detrital ores did not exhibit any significant characteristic in respect of REE as their development was via a complex combination of processes involving weathering, fragmentation, recementation, and burial under soil cover.

  18. 小型核反应堆在江西发展前景%Development Prospect of Small Nuclear Reactor in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彪; 涂志远

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了小型反应堆在全球发展现状,并详细阐述小型反应堆的优点和特点。针对江西省能源需求现状,通过理论研究与探讨,分析了小型堆在江西省发展的必要性和可行性。研究结果表明:小型反应堆技术成熟,投资成本低,可减轻江西省节能减排压力、满足多样化能源需求,具有广阔的发展前景。%The development of small reactors in the global has been briefly introduced. The advantages and features of small reactors also have been analyzed. In view of the present situation of energy demand of Jiangxi province, the necessity and feasibility of small reactors development in Jiangxi province is analyzed by theoretical research. The research results indicate that small reactors technology is mature and the investment cost is lower, which can reduce the pressure of energy-saving and emission reduction in Jiangxi province and meet the diverse demand of energy, so the development prospect of small reactors is broad.

  19. Selective Flocculation of Dilband Iron Ore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaque Abro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective flocculation for long is known as one of the beneficiation techniques applicable to the concentration of finely disseminated ores. The success of this technique is based on the selective adsorption of an organic polymer on the mineral particles to be flocculated. In present study beneficiation of finely disseminated Dilband iron ore using selective flocculation has been attempted. The effect of pH, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, sodium hexametaphosphate (Na2OP2O5, sodium trypolyphosphate (Na5P3O10, ethylediaminetretracetae (NaCH2-CH2N, flocculant doses, and flocculant mixing method on the selective adsorption of corn starch on hematite, the chief iron mineral, was studied comprehensively. Improvement in grade was assessed by XRF analysis of the flocculation products. The selective flocculation upgraded the ore from 52% hematite (i.e. 39% Fe to 60% hematite (i.e. 45% Fe with an average hematite recovery of 15%. Appreciable increase in ore grade with sufficiently poor recovery suggested that selective flocculation process is not adequate beneficiating technique to upgrade the Dilband iron ore due to heavily intergrowth of impurities.

  20. Sandbox experiments on Uraninite Ore: ERT and SP measurments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear energy, considering its own intrinsic merits, would be a leading source for meeting the energy requirement in present and future scenario. Concealed Uranium deposits under sedimentary cover, with poor surface indications calls for reorientation of survey with large inputs involving integrated geophysical approach. Sand Box experiments have been carried out over Uraninite ore. The tank is a glass fish tank (height 39 cm, length 75 cm, width 30 cm). It was filled with sand up to 35 cm high. The sand was saturated from below to minimize the entrapment of the gas bubbles. The average size for sand grains is ~ 0.295mm. The formation factor of the sand is 3.5, with a negligible surface conductivity because of the coarse nature of the sand grains. The dimension of considered Uraninite ore sample is 4cm x 4cm x 4cm. The depth of top of the ore sample is kept at 3cm. In this paper both resistivity and self-potential measurements were carried out for possible detection of Uraninite. The resistivity measurements were made with 64 non-polarizable electrodes using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) equipment of FlashRes Universal developed by ZZ Resistivity Imaging Pty. Ltd. We have used screws of length 3cm as electrodes. The separation between these electrodes are ~ 1cm. The resistivity tomography results clearly outlines the target Uraninite body. The resistivity tomography results also detects small heterogeneities associated with air bubbles possibly due to unsaturated pore spaces. SP measurements were made using two non-polarizing Pb/PbCl2 electrodes and a Fluke 289 voltmeter (sensitivity 0.001 mV, internal impedance 100 MOhm). The reference electrode was located on the corner of the sandbox. The other electrode was used to scan the electrical potential at the surface of the sand. SP measurements were made with a spacing of 3 cm over the same ERT profile. The SP results also shows a dip (or a low SP anomaly) over the target ore body sample. Thus, both SP and

  1. Emergency Monitoring of Air Radioactivity in Zhejiang Province after Fukushima Nuclear Accident in Japan%福岛核事故期间浙江地区空气中放射性水平应急监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向元益; 刘鸿诗; 羊佳; 周彦; 杨阳; 项永利

    2012-01-01

    福岛核事故发生后,浙江省辐射环境监测站在浙江省境内开展了空气中放射性水平的应急监测。本文介绍此次应急监测的内容,对测量结果进行了分析,为类似辐射应急监测提供了几点建议。%Environmental emergency monitoring of air concentration of radioactivity had been conducted in Zhejiang Province after Fukushima Nuclear accident in Japan. The results are analyzed in detail and some ad- vises are given for similar emergency monitoring in this paper.

  2. 滇西北衙多金属矿田矿床成因类型及其与富碱斑岩关系初探%Genetic types and the relationship between alkalirich intrusion and mineralization of Beiya gold-polymetallic ore field, western Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和文言; 喻学惠; 莫宣学; 和中华; 李勇; 黄行凯; 苏纲生

    2012-01-01

    北衙金多金属矿田是与金沙江-哀牢山新生代富碱斑岩有关的成矿作用的典型代表之一,近年来在矿产勘查方面又有重大突破,金已达到超大型矿床,伴生铁、铜、银、铅、锌也达到了大-中型矿床规模.本文基于野外观察与室内研究,结合前人研究成果,对北衙多金属矿的成因类型,富碱斑岩与成矿作用的关系及成矿机制进行了系统总结,对与成矿相关的富碱斑岩进行了主量元素及锆石LA-ICP-MS的测试,探讨了铁矿的成因.研究表明,矿田原生金属矿床可分为:斑岩型铜金矿化,夕卡岩型铁、金、铜、铅、锌矿化,爆破角砾岩筒中的铁、金、铅、锌矿化以及热液型金、银、铅、锌矿化.其中夕卡岩型和热液型矿床是该区最主要的成矿类型.新生代富碱斑岩(石英正长斑岩)的年龄分别34.92±0.66Ma和36.24±0.63Ma.属于钾质碱性岩系列.它不仅为含矿流体的上升提供了动力和热能,而且还是成矿物质和成矿流体的主要来源,因此形成以斑岩体为中心,由斑岩型、夕卡岩型、热液型等矿床构成的一个连续的成矿系统.钾质碱性岩及矿床是在碰撞造山走滑构造系统深部壳幔相互作用的产物.本区岩体接触带中发育大量由菱铁矿和磁铁矿组成的铁矿体,其中大部分的磁铁矿是一种具有赤铁矿的板状晶或聚片双晶假象的穆磁铁矿.时磁铁矿和菱铁矿形成条件的分析表明,磁铁矿和菱铁矿主要是在碱性环境下交代含铁夕卡岩矿物形成的.当热液中H+的浓度降低时,赤铁矿被还原为磁铁矿,但仍保留了赤铁矿的晶形,于是成为穆磁铁矿.由此推测,本区成矿作用是在成矿流体及夕卡岩化交代作用长时间反复持续进行的条件下发生的,这可能是本区得以形成巨量金属堆积的重要原因之一.%The Beiya gold-polymetallic ore field is one of the typical deposits related to the Jinshajiang

  3. STUDY ON BIOLEACHING OF PRIMARY CHALCOPYRITE ORE WITH THERMOACIDOPHLIC ARCHAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Zou; W.B. Zhang; T. Lei; J.K. Wang

    2006-01-01

    A high temperature-tolerating thermoacidophilic archae (TA) was isolated from water samples collected from a hot sulfur-containing spring in the Yunnan Province, China, and was used in bioleaching experiments of a low-grade chalcopyrite ore. The TA grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80℃, with 65℃ being the optimum temperature, and at pH values of 1.5 to 4.0, with an optimum pH value of 2.0. The bioleaching experiments of the chalcopyrite ore were conducted in both laboratory batch bioreactors and leaching columns. The results obtained from the bioreactor experiments showed that the TA bioleaching rate of copper reached 97% for a 12-day leaching period, while the bioleaching rate was 32.43% for thiobacillus ferrooxidans (Tf) leaching for the same leaching time. In the case of column leaching, tests of a two-phase leaching (196 days), that is,a two-month (56 days) Tf leaching in the first phase, followed by a 140-day TA leaching in the second phase were performed. The average leaching rate of copper achieved for the 140-day TA leaching was 195mg/(L· d), while for the control experiments, it was as low as 78mg/(L· d) for the Tf leaching, indicating that the TA possesses a more powerful oxidizing ability to the chalcopyrite than Tf. Therefore, it is suggested that the two-phase leaching process be applied to for the heap leaching operations, whereas, the TA can be used in the second phase when the temperature inside the heap has increased, and the primary copper sulfide minerals have already been partially oxidized with Tf beforehand in the first phase.

  4. 基于IKONOS数据的赣南离子吸附型稀土矿非法开采监测研究%The Investigation of Unauthorized Mining of Ion-absorbed Rare Earth Ore Deposits in South Jiangxi Province Based on IKONOS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晶晶; 王瑞江; 王登红; 陈郑辉

    2014-01-01

    Unauthorized mining of ion-absorbed rare earth ore deposits have become more and more serious with the rising of the price of rare earth. The quick and accurate investigation of unauthorized mining has thus become government administrators’ major concern. High resolution remote sensing technology provides an idea for solving this problem. In this paper, ion-absorbed rare earth ore district in Xunwu area of south Jiangxi was selected as the study area, and IKONOS remote sensing data was used for investigation. The interpretation criteria were built with the help of the mining right data, and the vital monitoring areas were mentioned using the geological rock mass data. The results indicate that high resolution remote sensing processing can provide a good method for quick, accurate and dynamic investigation of ion-absorbed rare earth ore deposits.%随着稀土价值的不断攀升,稀土资源乱采滥挖现象日益严重,如何快速准确地进行稀土矿山非法开采监测成为相关政府部门管理的重中之重,高空间分辨率遥感技术为解决上述问题提供了思路。本文选取赣南寻乌地区离子吸附型稀土矿区为研究区,运用IKONOS遥感数据结合矿权资料建立了离子吸附型稀土矿山非法开采解译标志,结合地质岩体资料分析了稀土矿山开采重点监测区域。研究表明高空间分辨率遥感数据处理与分析为离子吸附型稀土矿矿山非法开采快速、准确、动态监测提供了良好的技术手段。

  5. Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson, L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.

  6. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Kicking Horse and Monarch Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, southeast British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeginste, Veerle; Swennen, Rudy; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Ellam, Rob M.; Osadetz, Kirk; Roure, François

    2007-11-01

    Two Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits, Kicking Horse and Monarch, have been studied with the aim of comparing the ores at the two localities and to characterize the origin of the mineralizing fluids and the ore formation process(es). Both deposits are hosted by the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation carbonate host rocks, Kicking Horse on the north and Monarch on the south flank of the Kicking Horse valley near Field (SE British Columbia). The ore bodies are situated at the transition of (western) basinal to (eastern) shallow-water strata of the paleo-Pacific passive margin succession in the Cordilleran Foreland Province of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Both deposits are related spatially to normal faults. In both localities, the ore minerals are dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Dolomite, minor quartz, and calcite are also present in close association with the ores. The salinity (21-30 wt% NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures (63-182°C) measured in fluid inclusions in carbonate, quartz, and sphalerite lie within the typical range of MVT fluid conditions. The good stoichiometry (50-53 mol% CaCO3), low δ18O values (-21 to -14‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) and relatively high homogenization temperatures (>95°C) of the dolomite suggest the dolomites were formed under burial diagenesis. The ore-forming fluids probably interacted with siliciclastic units, based on elevated Li contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are highest in the dolomite type after the main ore stage. We propose that the ores formed from the mixing of a downward-infiltrating, sulfur-bearing halite-dissolution fluid with an upward-migrating, metal-rich evaporated seawater fluid, which had already undergone minor mixing with a dilute fluid.

  7. Geology and geochemistry of the Macheng Algoma-type banded iron-formation, North China Craton: Constraints on mineralization events and genesis of high-grade iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Niu, Xianglong; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Luo, Huabao; Qin, Feng; Cui, Minli; Wang, Changle; Qi, Min

    2015-12-01

    The Macheng iron deposit is located in the eastern Hebei province of the North China Craton (NCC). It is hosted in Neoarchean metamorphic rocks of Baimiaozi formation in the Dantazi Group, consisting of biotite-leptynite, plagioclase-gneiss, plagioclase-amphibolite, migmatite, migmatitic granite and quartz schist. Geochemical analyses of the host biotite leptynite and plagioclase amphibolites show that their protoliths are both volcanics, inferred to be trachytic basalt and basaltic andesite, respectively. Based on the geochemical signature of the host rocks, together with geology of the iron deposit, it is inferred that the Macheng BIF is an Algoma-type iron exhalative formation, formed in an arc-related basin in the Neoarchean. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) plus yttrium (Y) concentrations of different BIF ores with gneissic, striated and banded structure in the Macheng deposit, show similar patterns with depletions in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and middle rare earth elements (MREEs) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and with apparently positive La, Y and Eu anomalies. Y/Ho ratios of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores vary from 37 to 56. These geochemical features of the BIF ores reveal their affinity with the sea water and the presence of a high-temperature hydrothermal component, indicating that both the seawater and high temperature hydrothermal fluids derived from alteration of oceanic basalts and komatiites may contribute to formation of the Macheng BIF. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Macheng deposit recognized two kinds of high-grade iron ores. One is massive oxidized high-grade ore (Fe2O3T = 74.37-86.20 wt.%), mainly consisting of hematite with some magnetite, which shows geochemical characteristics of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores. The other type is magnetite high-grade ore, also massive and consisting of magnetite, with distinct characteristics

  8. Main types of gold ore forming systems and their relationship with the paleogeodynamic settings on the Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurnin, Vasiliy; Anatoly, Gavrish; Aleksandra, Bagaeva; Petrushkov, Boris; Shneider, Alexey; Saltanov, Vasily; Stepunina, Maria; Proskurnina, Alina

    2014-05-01

    Within the Taimyr - Severnaya Zemlya mineragenic province, the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Kara rare-metal - gold and Byrrangsky coal-bearing - polymetallic mineragenic areas are distinguished. Main geological commercial types of the Kara mineragenic area include manifestations of gold-quartz, gold sulphide-quartz (proper gold ore), and gold-rare metal, gold-bearing copper-molybdenum-porphyry formations. The Riphean - Vendian subduction - collisional and Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic repeated collisional (deuterogenic) ore-forming systems play a leading role in their formation. Regardless of the age and formation features, manifestations of proper gold ore formations are controlled by a common factor, the degree of metamorphism of host rocks - not above the sericite-biotite subfacies of the greenschist facies, and belong to the group of hydrothermal-metasomatic ore forming systems conditioned by alkali-acid differentiation of matter in temperature gradient field with ore concentration in mesozone. Depending on the host Precambrian formations, Kara Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic mineragenic area is subdivided into Mininsky-Bolshevistsky flysch-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with manifestation of zonal regional metamorphism of the andalusite-sillimanite type (Arctida passive margin) and Shrenk-Faddey volcanogenic-carbonate-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with ophiolites (accretion prism of Siberia). For the Riphean - Early Vendian endogenous manifestations, the following main types of gold ore forming systems are distinguished: in the passive marginal Mininsky-Bolshevistsky zone - early collisional metamorphic-hydrothermal in terrigenous carbonaceous complexes (Valterovsky, Voskresensky, Litkensky ore zones) and late collisional plutonic-hydrothermal in allochthonous granitoids of S-type (Martovsky-Nikitinsky ore cluster); in the accretionary Shrenck-Faddey zone - subduction-collisional plutonic-metamorphic-hydrothermal (Zhilninsky, Leningradsky ore zones) in

  9. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.

  10. A new radiation shielding material: Amethyst ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkut, Turgay, E-mail: turgaykorkut@hotmail.co [Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Physics, Ibrahim Cecen University, Agri (Turkey); Korkut, Hatun [Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Physics, Ibrahim Cecen University, Agri (Turkey); Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Budak, Goekhan [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes a new radiation shielding material, amethyst ore. We have determined the elemental composition of amethyst using WDXRF spectroscopy technique. To see the shielding capability of amethyst for several photon energies, these results have been used in simulation process by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Linear attenuation coefficients have been calculated according to the simulation results. Then, these values have been compared to a fine shielding concrete material. The results show that amethyst shields more gamma beams than concrete. This investigation is the first study about the radiation shielding properties of amethyst ore.

  11. METALLOGENIC SYSTEM OF DACHANG TINPOLYMETALLIC ORE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-bin; DAI Ta-gen; WANG Zhi-bin; FANG Sheng-kui

    2001-01-01

    The Dachang tin-polymetallic ore field in northern Guangxi,China,lies in a mid-late Paleozoic rift that borders up the southern boundary of the Jiangnan-Xuefeng Massif.As a giant ore deposit,it deposited in middle of the Nandang-Hechi metallogenic zone.The orehosting strata are of the Devonion,which shows the evident characteristics of polymetallic elements,i.e: ,Sn,Zn,Pb,Sb,As,Cu,Ag,In,Ge,Cd,et al.,and over 1 000 000 t tin reserves.

  12. Partitioning properties of rare earth ores in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Ru'an; LI Zhongjun; PENG Cui; ZHU Guocai; XU Shengming

    2005-01-01

    The properties of rare earth partitioning in Chinese industrial rare earth ores were analyzed. Rare earth ores can be divided into the single-mineral type ore with bastnaesite, the multi-mineral type ore with bastnaesite and monazite, and the weathering crust type. Both the Bayan Obo rare earth ore and the Zhushan rare earth ore are a kind of mixed ore, consisting of bastnaesite and monazite. Their rare earth partitionings are strongly enriched in light rare earths, where CeO2 is 50% and the light rare earth partitioning is totally over 95%. The Mianning rare earth ore as well as the Weishan rare earth is a kind of rare earth ore only having bastnaesite. Their rare earth partitionings are also strongly enriched in light rare earths,in which CeO2 is 47% and the light rare earth partitioning is totally over 94%. For the weathering crust type rare earth ore,there are the Longnan rare earth ore, the Xunwu rare earth ore, and the middle yttrium and rich europium ore. In the Longnan rare earth ore, which is strongly enriched in heavy rare earths, Y2O3 is 64.83%, and the heavy and light rare earth partitionings are 89.40% and 10.53%, respectively. In the Xunwu rare earth ore, which is strongly enriched in light rare earths, CeO2 is 47.16%, and the light rare earth partitioning is totally 93.25%. Y and Eu are enriched in the middle yttrium and rich europium ore. Its middle rare earth partitioning is totally over 10%, and Eu2O3 and Y2O3 are over 0.5% and 20%,respectively, which are mainly industrial resources of the middle and the heavy rare earths.

  13. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral

  14. Sintering Properties and Optimal Blending Schemes of Iron Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dauter0liveira; WUSheng—li; DAIYu—ming; XUJian; CHEN Hong

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain good sintering performance, it is important to understand sintering properties of iron ores. Sintering properties including chemical composition, granulation and high-temperature behaviors of ores from China, Brazil and Australia. Furthermore, several indices were defined to evaluate sintering properties of iron ores. The results show that: for chemical composition, Brazilian ores present high TFe, low SiOz, and low Alz03 con- tent. For granulation, particle diameter ratio of Brazilian ores are high; particle intermediate fraction of Chinese con- centrates are low; and average particle size and clay type index of Australian ores are high. For high-temperature properties, ores from China, Brazil and Australia present different characteristics. Ores from different origins should be mixed together to obtain good high-temperature properties. According to the analysis of each ore's sintering prop- erties, an ore blending scheme (Chinese concentrates 20 ~-1- Brazilian ores 400//oo -k Australian ores 40 ~) was sugges- ted. Moreover, sinter pot test using blending mix was performed, and the results indicated that the ore blending scheme led to good sintering performance and sinter quality.

  15. HANDLING, STORAGE AND IRON ORE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fonseca Fortes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify handling and storage impact in iron ore quality, in their physical and chemical characteristics most important for a mining. It is tried to show the interferences in iron ore quality caused by the handling equipment and stockpiling. The research is restricted to Complexo Vargem Grande (Vale. The timeline was demarcated based on the formation of stockpiling. The fieldwork enables data collection and distinction of the routine procedures of casual operations handling. The quantitative analysis is conducted by the statistical method. As a conclusion, handling and storage identified are able to insert changes in physical and chemical characteristics of iron ore. Storage contributes to reduce variability of silica and alumina concentrations, but contributes too particle size deterioration. The handling induces degradation and segregation. However, there is the possibility to decrease handling of the ore and to establish the ideal size of stocks on the system in study, improving the efficiency of the system and consequent in global costs.

  16. Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

  17. Hydrogen Reduction of Hematite Ore Fines to Magnetite Ore Fines at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surplus coke oven gases (COGs and low grade hematite ores are abundant in Shanxi, China. Our group proposes a new process that could simultaneously enrich CH4 from COG and produce separated magnetite from low grade hematite. In this work, low-temperature hydrogen reduction of hematite ore fines was performed in a fixed-bed reactor with a stirring apparatus, and a laboratory Davis magnetic tube was used for the magnetic separation of the resulting magnetite ore fines. The properties of the raw hematite ore, reduced products, and magnetic concentrate were analyzed and characterized by a chemical analysis method, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicated that, at temperatures lower than 400°C, the rate of reduction of the hematite ore fines was controlled by the interfacial reaction on the core surface. However, at temperatures higher than 450°C, the reaction was controlled by product layer diffusion. With increasing reduction temperature, the average utilization of hydrogen initially increased and tended to a constant value thereafter. The conversion of Fe2O3 in the hematite ore played an important role in the total iron recovery and grade of the concentrate. The grade of the concentrate decreased, whereas the total iron recovery increased with the increasing Fe2O3 conversion.

  18. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  19. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  20. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-06-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  1. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-03-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  2. An Overview of Process Monitoring Related to the Production of Uranium Ore Concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, Brent [Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC

    2014-04-01

    Uranium ore concentrate (UOC) in various chemical forms, is a high-value commodity in the commercial nuclear market, is a potential target for illicit acquisition, by both State and non-State actors. With the global expansion of uranium production capacity, control of UOC is emerging as a potentially weak link in the nuclear supply chain. Its protection, control and management thus pose a key challenge for the international community, including States, regulatory authorities and industry. This report evaluates current process monitoring practice and makes recommendations for utilization of existing or new techniques for managing the inventory and tracking this material.

  3. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  4. 福建紫金山矿田五子骑龙铜矿床矿化与蚀变分带研究%The Mineralization and Alteration Zonation of the Wuziqilong Copper Deposit in the Zijinshan Ore Field, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛凯

    2013-01-01

    The Wuziqilong copper deposit is a transitional-type between porphyry-and epithermal-type deposit located inside of the Zijinshan Au-Cu-Mo polymetallic ore field.Alteration and mineralization in the deposit are pervasive and intensive,which show typical zonation both horizontally and vertically.Based on the sulfide assemblages,the deposit can be divided into the South,Middle,and North mineralization zones.Ore bodies mainly occur between the elevation of 300~480 m in the Middle mineralization zone,and was controlled by the Northeast-and Northwest-trending faults and fractures.Near infrared spectroscopy technique was utilized for identifying alteration minerals in drill cores and determining the alteration zones in the mining area.Combining with the drill core logging and geological mapping,alunite-dickite-silicic alteration zone,dickite-sericite-silicic alteration zone,and sericite-silicic alteration zone were recognized.The type of mineralization is closely related to different alteration types,i.e.,the typical pyrite-covellite-digenite assemblage is constrained in the alunite-dickite-silicic zone,while the pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite assemblage is pervasively observed in the dickite-sericite-silicic alteration zone.The overprinting zones of the forementioned two alteration types host high-grade ores,which was used for exploration of"bonanza" ores.These two alteration zones and their close relationship with mineralization were used as indicators for exploration and deep prospecting in the area.%五子骑龙铜矿床是紫金山斑岩-浅成低温热液型金铜钼多金属矿田的一个重要矿床,属于斑岩型矿床和浅成中-低温热液型矿床的过渡类型.该矿床矿化和蚀变具有明显的分带特征.根据金属矿物共生组合,五子骑龙铜矿床自南往北、自下往上可划分为南、中、北三个矿化带.矿化地段相对集中在中矿带的480~300m标高之间.矿体严格受北西向、北东向断裂和裂隙带控制,

  5. Behavior of uranium under conditions of interaction of rocks and ores with subsurface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    The behavior of uranium during interaction of subsurface water with crystalline rocks and uranium ores is considered in connection with the problem of safe underground insulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since subsurface water interacts with crystalline rocks formed at a high temperature, the mineral composition of these rocks and uranium species therein are thermodynamically unstable. Therefore, reactions directed toward the establishment of equilibrium proceed in the water-rock system. At great depths that are characterized by hindered water exchange, where subsurface water acquires near-neutral and reducing properties, the interaction is extremely sluggish and is expressed in the formation of micro- and nanoparticles of secondary minerals. Under such conditions, the slow diffusion redistribution of uranium with enrichment in absorbed forms relative to all other uranium species is realized as well. The products of secondary alteration of Fe- and Ti-bearing minerals serve as the main sorbents of uranium. The rate of alteration of minerals and conversion of uranium species into absorbed forms is slow, and the results of these processes are insignificant, so that the rocks and uranium species therein may be regarded as unaltered. Under reducing conditions, subsurface water is always saturated with uranium. Whether water interacts with rock or uranium ore, the equilibrium uranium concentration in water is only ≤10-8 mol/l. Uraninite ore under such conditions always remains stable irrespective of its age. The stability conditions of uranium ore are quite suitable for safe insulation of SNF, which consists of 95% uraninite (UO2) and is a confinement matrix for all other radionuclides. The disposal of SNF in massifs of crystalline rocks at depths below 500 m, where reducing conditions are predominant, is a reliable guarantee of high SNF stability. Under oxidizing conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone, the rate of interaction of rocks with subsurface water

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of uranium and thorium powders and uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, James E., E-mail: jbarefield@lanl.gov [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berg, John M. [Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Montoya, Velma M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze depleted uranium and thorium oxide powders and uranium ore as a potential rapid in situ analysis technique in nuclear production facilities, environmental sampling, and in-field forensic applications. Material such as pressed pellets and metals, has been extensively studied using LIBS due to the high density of the material and more stable laser-induced plasma formation. Powders, on the other hand, are difficult to analyze using LIBS since ejection and removal of the powder occur in the laser interaction region. The capability of analyzing powders is important in allowing for rapid analysis of suspicious materials, environmental samples, or trace contamination on surfaces since it most closely represents field samples (soil, small particles, debris etc.). The rapid, in situ analysis of samples, including nuclear materials, also reduces costs in sample collection, transportation, sample preparation, and analysis time. Here we demonstrate the detection of actinides in oxide powders and within a uranium ore sample as both pressed pellets and powders on carbon adhesive discs for spectral comparison. The acquired LIBS spectra for both forms of the samples differ in overall intensity but yield a similar distribution of atomic emission spectral lines. - Highlights: • LIBS analysis of mixed actinide samples: depleted uranium oxide and thorium oxide • LIBS analysis of actinide samples in powder form on carbon adhesive discs • Detection of uranium in a complex matrix (uranium ore) as a precursor to analyzing uranium in environmental samples.

  7. Assessment of natural radioactivity in aquifer medium bearing uranium ores in Koprubasi, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Celalettin

    2008-10-01

    Koprubasi, located within Manisa Province near the Izmir, is the biggest uranium mine where uranium ores originate from Neogene aged altered sandstone and conglomerate layers. The main objective of this study is to determine the radiation hazard associated with radioactivity levels of uranium ores, and the rocks and sediments around Koprubasi. In this regard, measured activity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were compared with world averages. The average activity levels of 226 Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured to be 5369.75, 124.78 and 10.0 Bq/kg in uranium ores, 24.32, 52.94 and 623.38 Bq/kg in gneiss, 46.24, 45.13 and 762.26 Bq/kg in sandstone and conglomerate, 73.11, 43.15 and 810.65 Bq/kg in sediments, respectively. All samples have high 226Ra and 40K levels according to world average level. As these sediments are used as construction materials and in agricultural activities within the study area, the radiation hazard are calculated by using dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (He), radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and radiation hazard index (Iyr). All the samples have Raeq levels that are lower than the world average limit of 370 Bq/kg. On the other hand, D, He and Iyr values are higher than world average values. These results indicate that the uranium ores in the Koprubasi is the most important contributor to the natural radiation level. The radioactivity levels of sediments and rocks make them unsuitable for use as agricultural soil and as construction materials. Moreover, it is determined that shallow groundwater in sediments and deep groundwater in conglomerate rocks and also surface water sources in the Koprubasi have high 226Ra content. According to environmental radioactive baseline, some environmental protection study must be taken in Koprubasi uranium site and the environment.

  8. 江苏省核应急管理与指挥决策支持系统的研究%Research of Decision-Making System for Nuclear Emergency Management and Command in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌永生; 贾文宝; 单卿; 黑大千; 施仲齐; 王醒宇

    2012-01-01

    During a nuclear emergency, the information passed among many emergency organizations needs to be analyzed and managed scientifically for making the decision of a proper nuclear emergency protective action. A computer-based information system (decision-making system for nuclear emergency management and command in Jiangsu province) was discussed in this paper, which can solve the problems, such as the complicated data format and structure, the complex external interfaces, the variety of user requirements, the rapid data processing, the visualization of result and so on. The system was made up of consequence assessment subsystem, emergency information subsystem, file processing subsystem, geographic information subsystem and operational intervention level subsystem, which can supply an effective method of processing information and technical support for emergency management and command decision-making during a nuclear emergency.%在核应急响应期间,为确定公众防护的正确决策,需对大量场内、外的数据和信息进行科学分析和统一管理,并从大量的核应急原始数据和加工、处理后得到的信息中挖掘对决策有用的信息,以便捷直观的方式提供给决策者.本文设计了一个基于网络的、指挥及响应信息通畅的计算机管理信息系统——江苏省核应急管理与指挥决策支持系统,能解决数据形式和结构复杂、信息形式缺乏规范、外部接口多、用户需求多样、信息处理时间短、输出直观性要求高等难题.该系统综合了后果评价和预测子系统、应急信息子系统、文件处理子系统、地理信息子系统和操作干预水平计算子系统,能在事故期间处理来自核电厂场内、外的各种信息,为应急管理及指挥决策及提供技术支持,提高应急管理和指挥决策的科学性及技术含量.

  9. Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.S

    1998-08-01

    This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these `ores` contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another `parent` radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures. 15 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Honghao; He, Yan; Xue, Xiangxin

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs) as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, (29)Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials.

  11. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials.

  12. Investigation of sulphur isotope variation due to different processes applied during uranium ore concentrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Konings, Rudy

    The applicability and limitations of sulphur isotope ratio as a nuclear forensic signature have been studied. The typically applied leaching methods in uranium mining processes were simulated for five uranium ore samples and the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratios were measured. The sulphur isotope ratio variation during uranium ore concentrate (UOC) production was also followed using two real-life sample sets obtained from industrial UOC production facilities. Once the major source of sulphur is revealed, its appropriate application for origin assessment can be established. Our results confirm the previous assumption that process reagents have a significant effect on the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratio, thus the sulphur isotope ratio is in most cases a process-related signature.

  13. Aging Behavior of the Viton® Fluoroelastomer O-Rings in the 9975 Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Mcwilliams, A.; Skidmore, E.

    2015-06-09

    The 9975 Type B shipping package is used within the DOE complex for shipping special nuclear materials. This package is re-certified annually in accordance with Safety Analysis Report requirements. The package is also used at the Savannah River Site as part of the long-term storage configuration of special nuclear materials. As such, the packages do not undergo annual recertification during storage, with uncertainty as to how long some of the package components will meet their functional requirements in the storage environment. The packages are currently approved for up to 15 years storage, and work continues to provide a technical basis to extend that period. This paper describes efforts by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to extend the service life estimate of Viton® GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings used in the 9975 shipping package. O-rings of both compositions are undergoing accelerated aging at elevated temperature, and are periodically tested for compression stress relaxation (CSR) behavior and leak performance. The CSR behavior of O-rings was evaluated at temperatures from 79 °C to 177 °C. These collective data were used to develop predictive models for extrapolation of CSR behavior to relevant service temperatures (< 75 °C). O-rings were also aged in Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) fixtures at temperatures ranging from 79 °C to 232 °C. The fixtures are helium leak tested periodically to determine if they remain leak-tight. The PCV fixture tests demonstrate that the 9975 O-rings will remain leak-tight at temperatures up to 149 °C for 3 years or more, and no leak failures have been observed with up to 8 years aging at 93 °C. Significantly longer periods of leak-tight service are expected at the lower temperatures actually experienced in the storage environment. The predictive model developed from the CSR data conservatively indicates a service life of more than 20 years at the bounding temperature of 75 °C. Although the

  14. Iron ore weathering potentials of ectomycorrhizal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, R A; Cloete, T E; Bertrand, A; Khasa, D P

    2012-10-01

    Plants in association with soil microorganisms play an important role in mineral weathering. Studies have shown that plants in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi have the potential to increase the uptake of mineral-derived nutrients. However, it is usually difficult to study many of the different factors that influence ectomycorrhizal weathering in a single experiment. In the present study, we carried out a pot experiment where Pinus patula seedlings were grown with or without ECM fungi in the presence of iron ore minerals. The ECM fungi used included Pisolithus tinctorius, Paxillus involutus, Laccaria bicolor and Suillus tomentosus. After 24 weeks, harvesting of the plants was carried out. The concentration of organic acids released into the soil, as well as potassium and phosphorus released from the iron ore were measured. The results suggest that different roles of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mineral weathering such as nutrient absorption and transfer, improving the health of plants and ensuring nutrient circulation in the ecosystem, are species specific, and both mycorrhizal roots and non-mycorrhizal roots can participate in the weathering process of iron ore minerals.

  15. Vertical mill simulation applied to iron ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of vertical mills in regrind circuits is consolidated. This type of mill is now attracting interest in primary grinding applications, due to its higher efficiency when compared to ball mills, which are usually used at this stage. In this study, a coarse sample of iron ore was tested in a pilot scale grinding circuit with a vertical mill. Other three samples of pellet feed had already been tested with the methodology used in this study. The sample of coarse iron ore was characterized in laboratory tests carried out in a small batch ball mill. Selection and breakage function parameters were determined from the laboratory tests. The parameters were then used for simulating the pilot scale tests using Modsim™ software. The model previously implemented in Modsim™ has been successfully applied to represent the vertical mill operated with different ores. The simulations produced particle size distributions that were very close to the actual size distributions, and the predictions were accomplished only by imputing the calibrated parameters from the batch tests, the power draw and the feed size distribution of the pilot tests. The methodology is therefore useful for scale-up and simulation of vertical mills, only requiring laboratory tests that can be carried out in standard laboratory batch ball mills with small amounts of samples.

  16. Isotopic Characteristics of Mesozoic Au-Ag Polymetallic Ore Deposits in Northern Hebei and Their Ore-Forming Materials Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝德; 牛树银; 孙爱群; 李红阳

    2003-01-01

    It has long been a controversy about the source of ore-forming materials of Au-Agpolymetallic deposits both in metallogenic theory and in ore-searching practice. In terms of alarge wealth of the isotopic statistics data from Indosinian-Yanshanian endogenic ore deposits innorthern Hebei (generally referring to the areas along the northern part of Taihang Mountainsand northern Hebei, the same below) , it is considered that the ore-forming materials came fromthe deep interior of the Earth, which had migrated through plumes to the Earth surface while ex-perienced multi-stage evolution and then emplaced progressively in favorable structural loci toform ores. Their isotope data show that 559 sulfur isotopic data from 40 ore deposits are, for themost part, within the range of - 5‰ - 5‰, with a high degree of homogenization, indicatingthat the sulfur is derived mainly from magma; 200 lead isotope data from 37 ore deposits indi-cate that the ore-forming materials are principally of mantle source though some crust-source ma-terial was involved; 96 oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope data from 34 ore deposits illustratethat the ore-forming fluids are dominated by magmatic water while other sources of water wouldbe involved. It may therefore be seen that the formation of endogenic deposits has nothing to dowith the strata.

  17. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700??C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S2 and O2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  18. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700°C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S 2 and O 2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  19. Sustainable and safe nuclear fission energy technology and safety of fast and thermal nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Unlike existing books of nuclear reactor physics, nuclear engineering and nuclear chemical engineering this book covers a complete description and evaluation of nuclear fission power generation. It covers the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the extraction of natural uranium from ore mines, uranium conversion and enrichment up to the fabrication of fuel elements for the cores of various types of fission reactors. This is followed by the description of the different fuel cycle options and the final storage in nuclear waste repositories. In addition the release of radioactivity under normal and possible accidental conditions is given for all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially for the different fission reactor types.

  20. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart A are applicable to discharges from (a) mines operated to obtain iron ore, regardless of the type of ore...

  1. EXPLANATORY MODEL OF SPOT PRICE OF IRON ORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to construct an explanatory model of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. For this, the method of multiple linear regressions was used. As a dependent variable, the spot price of iron ore (62% Fe China Tianjin port was taken, between 2010 and 2013. As independents variables were taken seven variables of international iron ore market. The resulting model includes variables: Iron ore inventory in Chinese ports, Baltic Dry Index (BDI, Iron ore exports from Brazil & Australia and Chinese Rebar Steel Price, as explanatory variables of the behavior of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. The model has an adjusted coefficient of determination R2 of 0.90, and was validated by comparing its predictions vs. known values of 2014.

  2. Genesis of Gold- Silver Deposits in Qingchengzi Ore Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Min

    2001-01-01

    The gold - silver complex ore field of Qingchengzi is located in Liaohe group of Liaodong rift. The gold - silver ore bodies mainly lie in Dashiqiao group and Gaixian group, which provides ore - forming materials for the mineralization. For taking place multi - period and multi - stage magmatic activities, the ore - forming materials in the formation had had dynamothermal metamorphism for a long time and enriched and formed ore bodies after magmatism in Indo- Chinese and Yanshan epoch. The ore bodies are controlled by stratigraphic formation and stored in the interformational faults and schistosity belts. Silicalite is the most important indicator for searching them. Although the Pb - Zn and the gold - silver deposits are the same series of mineralized products, their positions are different, resulting from the differences of elements nature and mineralized conditions. The gold silver deposits belong to strata - bound and hysterogenetic mesothermal - epithermal deposit.

  3. Sulfuric acid leaching of mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic leaching of mechanically activated manganese ore from Denizli – Tavas was investigated. The ore was activated mechanically in a planetary mill and the amorphisation in manganese structure was analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The parameters in acidic leaching of the ore were milling time, acid concentration and time. All experiments were performed at 25°C with solid to liquid ratio: 1/10. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in manganese ore and accelerated the dissolution of manganese in acidic media.

  4. Tectonomagmatic Metallogenic System of Dexing Ore Field, Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    13 ore deposits and a large number of ore occurrences cluster in Dexing ore field which is 20 km long and 12 km wide. The tectonic evolution, magmatism, as well as the metallogeny are controlled by the Northeast Jiangxi deep-seated fracture belt (NJDFB). The source is believed to have been derived from the Meso-Neoproterozoic marine volcanism. The magmatic activity of Mesozoic I-type granite could have provided the metal elements, thermal fluid, heat, and the space for ore-forming processes. A unified geological model is proposed, which combines the tectonism, magmatism and metallogeny as the basic control of the giant metal mineralizations.

  5. Pros and Cons,Iron Ore Price Hikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jingtao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Backaround Baostecl and CVRD reached an agreement on the price hikes of 65 percent and 71 percent in February.And in June Baosteel and Rio Tinto which is the largest iron ore company in Australia reached an agreement on the price hikes of 79.88 percent on the iron ore fines and 96.5 percent on the iron ore lumps.This is the first time that two kinds of the iron ore price grew at the same time in Asian market.

  6. Radon emanation from low-grade uranium ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2013-12-01

    Estimation of radon emanation in uranium mines is given top priority to minimize the risk of inhalation exposure due to short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes the radon emanation studies conducted in the laboratory as well as inside an operating underground uranium mine at Jaduguda, India. Some of the important parameters, such as grade/(226)Ra activity, moisture content, bulk density, porosity and emanation fraction of ore, governing the migration of radon through the ore were determined. Emanation from the ore samples in terms of emanation rate and emanation fraction was measured in the laboratory under airtight condition in glass jar. The in situ radon emanation rate inside the mine was measured from drill holes made in the ore body. The in situ(222)Rn emanation rate from the mine walls varied in the range of 0.22-51.84 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1) with the geometric mean of 8.68 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1). A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.99, p 222)Rn emanation rate and the ore grade was observed. The emanation fraction of the ore samples, which varied in the range of 0.004-0.089 with mean value of 0.025 ± 0.02, showed poor correlation with ore grade and porosity. Empirical relationships between radon emanation rate and the ore grade/(226)Ra were also established for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the ore body.

  7. Properties and Evolution of Ore-Forming Fluid in Liuju Sandstone Type Copper Deposit,Chuxiong Basin in Yunnan Province%楚雄盆地六苴砂岩型铜矿床成矿流体性质及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海枝; 韩润生; 吴鹏

    2016-01-01

    ;meanwhile ,the ionic component changed from the rich SO2 -4 (-Cl-) Ca2+ K+ type to the rich Cl- Na+ type .Different properties of ore‐forming fluids played different roles in the mineralization of bedded orebodies and veined orebodies .During the ore‐forming fluid evolution ,the disseminated or laminated ores in sandstone‐type copper deposits were formed in the diagenesis period ;w hile ,the high‐grade banded ,veined ores on the base of bedded orebody controlled by the fracture are formed during the further evolution in tectonic‐reworked period .%六苴铜矿床是中国南方中、新生代红层盆地中典型的陆相砂岩型铜矿床,具有明显的“金属矿物分带”及“浅色和紫色砂岩过渡带控矿”两大特征。为探讨该矿床流体演化及成矿机制,本文以矿化类型及成矿期次划分为基础,进行了详细的流体包裹体特征、显微测温及成分分析研究。研究结果表明,六苴铜矿床成矿作用主要经历成岩期和改造期两个时期,改造期分早、晚两阶段。两期次的流体包裹体均以纯液相型和富液型盐水包裹体为主,流体均一温度具有先升高后降低的演化趋势,温度范围分别为:96~164℃、108~227℃、94~159℃;而盐度(w (NaCl))差别不大,改造期比成岩期略低,范围分别为2.7%~16.7%、2.1%~13.8%、1.2%~13.5%,总体属中低温中低盐度盆地卤水。包裹体岩相学观察与激光拉曼气相成分测试表明,成岩期含少量烃类包裹体,而改造期含少量CO2包裹体。两期包裹体群体成分也有一定差异:挥发分具有从还原性富有机质的CH4端元向相对氧化的CO2端元演化的特点;离子成分由富SO2-4(-Cl-)-Ca2+-K+型向富Cl--Na+型转变。成岩期流体演化形成了砂岩铜矿层状产出的浸染状或纹层状矿(化)体,改造期的构造流体在层状矿(化)体基础上进一

  8. The mineral processing technology characteristics of middle and small size concentrators for Iron ore separation in Handan-Xintai area, south Hebei province%冀南邯-邢地区中小规模铁选厂选矿技术特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炳飞; 王立辉; 柳晓蒙

    2012-01-01

    冀南邯-邢地区中小规模铁选厂破碎阶段多采用两段破碎工艺,破碎设备主要为颚式破碎机.最终破碎产品粒度较大,最大粒度不小于50mm.破碎阶段普遍配置磁滑轮干式预选.采用开路磨矿或闭路磨矿,磨矿段数为一段或两段,磨矿设备多采用中小规格湿式球磨机.广泛采用高频细筛进行分级,部分选厂采用螺旋分级机.采用两段或三段磁选,磁选设备为永磁筒式磁选机,型号多样.选别流程有直接磁选和阶段磨矿阶段磁选等方式.精矿脱水采用真空过滤机或沉降池,尾矿处理采用直接排放、水力旋流器浓缩排放或浓缩过筛后固态堆存.该地区铁选厂选矿技术还有有很大的发展空间.%Two-stage crushing and jaw crusher are used in the technological process in middle and small size concentrators in Handan-Xintai area, south Hebei province. The maximum partical size of crushed product is not less than 50mm. Dry magnetic separation is used in the crushing stage. Open or closed circuit grinding,one-stage or two-stage grinding, as well as middle and small type ball mills are used in grinding stage. High frequency fine screen and mechanical classifier are the most commom used classifier. Two-stage or three-stage magnetic separation with permanent drum magnetic separators is used in the technological process. Separation directly and stage grinding & separation are the separation process. Vaccum filter or subside pool is widely adopted in concentrate dewatering progress. Tailing dosposal methods are as follows: discharge directly, discharge after concentrate with hydrocyclone and storage after concentrate and screening. There is a broad developing space on mineral processing technology of middle and small size concentrator in Handan-Xintai area,South Hebei province.

  9. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C.D.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu–Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper–cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irre...

  10. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of iron-sulfur-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to nickel laterite ores of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for biohydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerun, Siti Khodijah; Hung, Sutina; Mubarok, Mohammad Zaki; Sanwani, Edy

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to isolate and phylogenetically identify the indigenous iron-sulfur-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria capable of bioleaching nickel from laterite mineral ores. The bacteria were isolated from a nickel laterite mine area in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated from laterite mineral ores (strains SKC/S-1 to SKC/S-7) and they were capable of bioleaching of nickel from saprolite and limonite ores. Using EzTaxon-e database, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the seven bacterial strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, resulting in a complete hierarchical classification system, and they were identified as Pseudomonas taiwanensis BCRC 17751 (98.59% similarity), Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 (99.14% and 99.32% similarities), Paenibacillus pasadenensis SAFN-007 (98.95% and 99.33% similarities), Bacillus methylotrophicus CBMB 205 (99.37% similarity), and Bacillus altitudinis 41KF2b (99.37% similarity). It is noteworthy that members of the phylum Firmicutes (in particular the genus Bacillus) predominated in this study, therefore making them to have the high potential to be candidates for the bioleaching of nickel from laterite mineral ores. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the predominance of the phylum Firmicutes in the Sulawesi laterite mineral ores.

  11. Role of ore mineralogy in optimizing conditions for bioleaching low-grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. A. OLUBAMBI; S. NDLOVU; J. H. POTGIETER; J. O. BORODE

    2008-01-01

    The role that ore mineralogy plays in understanding and optimizing the conditions favouring the bioleaching of complex sulphide ore containing high amounts of siderite was studied using mixed cultures of mesophilic bacteria, with emphasis on zinc,lead and copper recoveries. The influencing parameters investigated include particle size, stirring speed, volume of inoculum, pulp density, and pH. The results show that the mixed mesophilic cultures can extract about two and a half times the amount of zinc than copper over an equivalent period of time. The highest zinc and copper recoveries of 89.2% and 36.4% respectively are obtained at particle size of 75 μm, stirring speed of 150 r/min, pulp density of 10% (w/v), 12% (v/v) inoculum concentration, and a pH of 1.6. Variations in elemental composition within different particle sizes resulting from the mineralogy of the ore account for the bioleaching behaviour at varying particle sizes. The dissolution at varying pulp density, volume of inoculum, solution pH and the low solution potential observed are also influenced by ore mineralogy.

  12. Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

  13. Project StORe: Social Science report

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Guy

    2006-01-01

    There was widespread support across the social science research community regarding the aims of the StORe Project Nearly half of social science respondents claimed that both source-to-output and out-put-to source repositories would offer a ‘significant advantage to my work’; a third in both cases claimed it would be ‘useful but not of major significance’ Postgraduate students were generally more enthusiastic about source-to-output and output-to-source repositories than acade...

  14. Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

  15. Mixed State and High Effective Utilization of Pilbara Blending Iron Ore Powder%Mixed State and High Effective Utilization of Pilbara Blending Iron Ore Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-guo; WU Sheng-li; HAN Hong-liang; WANG Hong-wei; XUE Fang; LIU Xiao-qin

    2011-01-01

    Pilbara blending iron ore powder (PB powder) is blending ores with good and poor quality iron ores, so how to use PB power effectively is a problem. The self-characteristics of PB powder and its single-components were studied respectively such as the macroscopic properties, microscopic properties, and high-temperature properties the behavior and effect in the sintering were mastered. Then based on the new ore-proportioning idea of iron ores sintering characteristics complementary, the principles on the effective use of PB powder were discussed, and was fur ther validated through the sintering pot test and industrial production. The results show that PB powder is composed of three kinds of iron ore, and the sintering characteristics of different iron ores are obviously discrepant. With the ore-proportioning optimization based on the iron ores sintering characteristics complementary, the proportion of PB iron ore powder can be increased to more than 45 %.

  16. PRACTICAL AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING OF ORE DEPOSITS IN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-bin; B.E.Hobbs; H.B.Muhlhaus; A.Ord

    2001-01-01

    @@ Over the past five years,we have been making efforts to develop a practical and predictive tool to explore for giant ore deposits in hydrothermal systems.Towards this goal,a significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical processes behind ore body formation and mineralization in hydrothermal systems.

  17. PRACTICAL AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING OF ORE DEPOSITS IN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Chong-bin; B.E.Hobbs; H.B.Muhlhaus; A.Ord

    2001-01-01

    Over the past five years,we have been making efforts to develop a practical and predictive tool to explore for giant ore deposits in hydrothermal systems.Towards this goal,a significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical processes behind ore body formation and mineralization in hydrothermal systems.……

  18. CSR behavior and aging model for the Viton© Fluorelastomer O-rings in the 9975 shipping package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    The 9975 Type B shipping package is used within the DOE complex for shipping special nuclear materials. This package is re-certified annually in accordance with Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) requirements. The package is also used at the Savannah River Site as part of the long-term storage configuration of special nuclear materials. As such, the packages do not undergo annual recertification during storage, with uncertainty as to how long some of the package components will meet their functional requirements in the storage environment. The packages are currently approved for up to 15 years storage, and work continues to provide a technical basis to extend that period. This report describes efforts by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to extend the service life estimate of Viton® GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings used in the 9975 shipping package. O-rings of both GLT and GLT-S compositions are undergoing accelerated aging at elevated temperature, and are periodically tested for compression stress relaxation (CSR) behavior. The CSR behavior of O-rings was evaluated at temperatures from 175 to 400 °F. These collective data were used to develop predictive models for extrapolation of CSR behavior to relevant service temperatures (< 156 °F). The predictive model developed from the CSR data conservatively indicates a service life of approximately 37 years for Viton GLT O-rings at the maximum effective service temperature of 156 °F. The estimated service life for Viton GLT-S O-rings is significantly longer.

  19. Excited response of granular ores in vibrating field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamical theory was utilized to probe into the law of the excited response of granular ores generated by the exciting action of exciter and the influence of wave propagation in vibrating field. The exciter with double axes was presented as an example, and the principle of exciter and its mathematical expression of the excitation force were given. The granular ores have viscidity and damping speciality, on the basis of which the motion equation of excited response of ores was established and the approximate expression of mode-displacement by harmonic excitation and the steady effect solution of coordinate response were deduced. Utilizing the step-by-step integration method, the recursion relation matrix of displacement, velocity and acceleration of the excited response of ores were obtained, and the computational flow chart and a computational example were given. The results show that the excited response can change the dynamical character and the flowing characteristic of granular ores.

  20. Origin of Gold—Bearing Fluid and Its Initiative Localization Mechanism in Xiadian Gold Deposit,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 孙忠实; 等

    2002-01-01

    The composition of quartz inclusions and trace elements in ore indicate that gold-bearing fluid in the Xiadian gold deposit,Shandong Province,stemmed from both mantle and magma,belonging to a composite origin.Based on theoretical analysis and high temperature and high pressure experimental studies,gold-bearing fluid initiative localization mechanism and the forming environment of ore-host rocks are discussed in the present paper.The composite fluid extracted gold from rocks because of its expanding and injecting forces and injecting forces and flew through ore-conducive structures,leading to the breakup of rocks.The generation of ore-host faults and the precipitation of gold-bearing fluid occurred almost simultaneously.This study provides fur-ther information about the relationships between gold ore veins and basic-ultrabasic vein rocks and intermediate vein rocks,the spatial distribution of gold ore veins and the rules governing the migration of ore fluids.

  1. High-temperature performance prediction of iron ore fines and the ore-blending programming problem in sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-ji Yan; Jian-liang Zhang; Hong-wei Guo; Ling-kun Chen; Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    The high-temperature performance of iron ore fines is an important factor in optimizing ore blending in sintering. However, the application of linear regression analysis and the linear combination method in most other studies always leads to a large deviation from the desired results. In this study, the fuzzy membership functions of the assimilation ability temperature and the liquid fluidity were proposed based on the fuzzy mathematics theory to construct a model for predicting the high-temperature performance of mixed iron ore. Comparisons of the prediction model and experimental results were presented. The results illustrate that the prediction model is more accurate and effec-tive than previously developed models. In addition, fuzzy constraints for the high-temperature performance of iron ore in this research make the results of ore blending more comparable. A solution for the quantitative calculation as well as the programming of fuzzy constraints is also introduced.

  2. Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.

    1956-01-01

    In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little

  3. Release of uranium and thorium from monazite ores: implications for phosphatic wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom); Jarvis, N.V.; Andreoli, M.A.G. [Atomic Energy Corp. of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    1998-12-31

    Monazite is an important economic source of uranium, thorium, and the rare earth elements. Economically viable concentrations occur in placer deposits and as massive ore bodies in igneous and metamorphic provinces throughout the world. This and its refractory nature has led to speculation that artificial phosphate-based matrices similar in composition to monazite may prove useful as wasteforms for high level radioactive waste. Before a detailed evaluation can be made, however, it is worthwhile to assess the long term degradation behaviour of natural monazites in diverse hydrogeochemical environments. This paper focusses on the Steenkampskraal monazite mine, South Africa and compares findings with those from monazite occurrences in the Palaeozoic rocks of Britain and Western France. In all cases where the monazite has altered, a marked fractionation of the lanthanide series elements is apparent, together with substantial redistribution of uranium and thorium. The implications for waste encapsulation are discussed in terms of the potential for groundwater transport away from the source. (orig.)

  4. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Rafael Jaimes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  5. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rafael Jaimes; Berger, Nicolas; Izard, Edouard; Douce, Jean-François; Koltsov, Alexey; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azema, Emilien; Nezamabadi, Saeid; van Loo, Frédéric; Pellenq, Roland; Radjai, Farhang

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite) granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  6. Exact linear modeling using Ore algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schindelar, Kristina; Zerz, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Linear exact modeling is a problem coming from system identification: Given a set of observed trajectories, the goal is find a model (usually, a system of partial differential and/or difference equations) that explains the data as precisely as possible. The case of operators with constant coefficients is well studied and known in the systems theoretic literature, whereas the operators with varying coefficients were addressed only recently. This question can be tackled either using Gr\\"obner bases for modules over Ore algebras or by following the ideas from differential algebra and computing in commutative rings. In this paper, we present algorithmic methods to compute "most powerful unfalsified models" (MPUM) and their counterparts with variable coefficients (VMPUM) for polynomial and polynomial-exponential signals. We also study the structural properties of the resulting models, discuss computer algebraic techniques behind algorithms and provide several examples.

  7. Improved polynomial remainder sequences for Ore polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroschek, Maximilian

    2013-11-01

    Polynomial remainder sequences contain the intermediate results of the Euclidean algorithm when applied to (non-)commutative polynomials. The running time of the algorithm is dependent on the size of the coefficients of the remainders. Different ways have been studied to make these as small as possible. The subresultant sequence of two polynomials is a polynomial remainder sequence in which the size of the coefficients is optimal in the generic case, but when taking the input from applications, the coefficients are often larger than necessary. We generalize two improvements of the subresultant sequence to Ore polynomials and derive a new bound for the minimal coefficient size. Our approach also yields a new proof for the results in the commutative case, providing a new point of view on the origin of the extraneous factors of the coefficients.

  8. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  9. Super-Enrichment of Dispersed Elements and Associated Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振敏; 姚林波

    2004-01-01

    Dispersed elements do not always occur as associated elements in the ore deposits of other elements. Instead, they can constitute independent ore deposits. The focus of this paper is placed on the mechanism of super-enrichment of the four dispersed elements TI, Ge, Se, and Te under favorable geological conditions, where their enrichment coefficients are so high that their abundances can reach n×103-n×104, sometimes even up to n×106 times (e. g. Te) those of the crust. As a result, they can form their independent ore deposits. Studies have shown that such independent ore deposits are mostly distributed in the southwestern part of China, most of which belong to low-temperature ore deposits, ranging in age from Yanshanian to Himalayan(Cretaceous to Cenozoic), with a significant time gap with the host strata. Moreover, this paper also deals with the existing forms (as independent minerals, occurring isomorphously and being adsorbed) of the dispersed elements in those independent ore deposits. The discovery of independent ore deposits of dispersed elements is a great breakthrough in the study of dispersed element metallogenesis.

  10. Leaching hydrodynamics of weathered elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Both porosity (φ) and permeability (k) of the weathered elution-deposited rare earth ores are basic hydrodynamic parameters for RE leaching. The relationship between k and φ of two typical rare earth ores of South China in the packed bed was investigated by measuring the flow (Q) under various leaching pressure difference (Δp). The experimental results show that the relationship between k and φ is unique, moreover the relationship between Q and Δp is in accord with the Darcy's law. The effects of the type of ores, the leaching reagents and its concentration, the granule ore size on the leaching permeability have also been investigated. It is demonstrated that kH (for heavy RE ore, kH=35.98 mm2)>kM-H (for middle-heavy RE ore,kM-H=28.50 mm2), whereas k(NH4NO3)>k(NH4Cl)>k[(NH4)2SO4], and the k value increases with increasing leaching reagents concentration and granule ore size(k0.60~0.75 mm=99.96 mm2,k0.125~0.60 mm=11.83 mm2, k0.074~0.125 mm=0.84 mm2).

  11. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  12. Prolonged history of episodic fluid flow in giant hematite ore bodies: Evidence from in situ U Pb geochronology of hydrothermal xenotime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R.; Muhling, Janet R.; Thorne, Warren S.; Broadbent, Graeme C.

    2007-06-01

    Absolute ages for hydrothermal mineralization and fluid flow are critical for understanding the geological processes that concentrate metals in the Earth's crust, yet many ore deposits remain undated because suitable mineral chronometers have not been found. The origin of giant hematite ore deposits, which are hosted in Precambrian banded-iron formations (BIFs), remains contentious. Several models have been formulated based on different sources and timing for the mineralizing fluids; supergene-metamorphic, syn-orogenic, late-orogenic extensional collapse and syn-extensional. Precise geochronology of the ore offers a means of discriminating between these models. In this study, two U-Pb chronometers, xenotime and monazite, have been identified in high-grade hematite ore bodies from the Mount Tom Price mine in the Hamersley Province, northwestern Australia. Both phosphate minerals occur as inclusions within the hematite ore and as coarser crystals intergrown with martite (hematite pseudomorph after magnetite) and microplaty hematite, indicating that the xenotime and monazite precipitated during mineralization. In situ U-Pb dating by ion microprobe indicates that both phosphate minerals grew during multiple discrete events. Our results suggest that ore genesis may have commenced as early as ˜ 2.15 Ga, with subsequent hydrothermal remobilization and/or mineralization at ˜ 2.05 Ga, ˜ 1.84 Ga, ˜ 1.67 Ga, ˜ 1.59 Ga, ˜ 1.54 Ga, ˜ 1.48 Ga and ˜ 0.85 Ga. The location of the ore bodies along ancient fault systems, and the coincidence of at least some of the U-Pb phosphate dates with episodes of tectonothermal activity in the adjacent Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen, implies that fluids were channelled through major structures in the southern Pilbara Craton during discrete phases of tectonic compression and extension. Our results show that the hematite ore bodies formed at sites of repeated focussed hydrothermal fluid flow. In contrast to the aforementioned models, our

  13. Sulfur isotope geochemistry of ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type ore district, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D.L.; Vets, J.G.; Gent, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the sulfur isotopic composition of ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb district were conducted to gain insights into processes that controlled the location and distribution of the ore deposits. Results of this study show that minerals from the Silesian-Cracow ore district have the largest range of sulfur isotope compositions in sulfides observed from any Mississippi Valley-type ore district in the world. The ??34S values for sulfide minerals range from +38 to -32 per mil for the entire paragenetic sequence but individual stages exhibit smaller ranges. There is a well developed correlation between the sulfur isotope composition and paragenetic stage of ore deposition. The first important ore stage contains mostly positive ??34S values, around 5 per mil. The second stage of ore formation are lower, with a median value of around -5 to -15 per mil, and with some values as low as -32 per mil. Late stage barite contains isotopically heavy sulfur around +32 per mil. The range in sulfur isotope compositions can be explained by contributions of sulfur from a variety of source rocks together with sulfur isotope fractionations produced by the reaction paths for sulfate reduction. Much of the variation in sulfur isotope compositions can be explained by bacterial reduction of sedimentary sulfate and disequilibrium reactions by intermediate-valency sulfur species, especially in the late-stage pyrite and sphalerite. Organic reduction of sulfate and thermal release of sulfur from coals in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin may have been important contributors to sulfur in the ore minerals. The sulfur isotopic data, ore mineral textures, and fluid inclusion data, are consistent with the hypothesis that fluid mixing was the dominant ore forming mechanism. The rather distinct lowering of ?? 34S values in sulfides from stage 2 to stage 3 is believed to reflect some fundamental change in the source of reduced sulfur and/or hydrology of the ore

  14. The potential for ore, industrial minerals and commercial stones in the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Hardy [MIRAB Mineral Resurser AB, Uppsla (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    On behalf of SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company), a survey has been made of existing information concerning the potential for ore, industrial minerals and commercial stones in and around the two candidate areas for a deep repository in Oskarshamn. A deep repository for spent nuclear fuel should not be located in a rock type or in an area where mineral extraction might be considered in the future, since this would make it difficult or impossible to exploit this natural resource. Avoiding such areas reduces the risk that people in the future will come into contact with the deep repository through mineral prospecting or mining activities.The survey has made use of the geoscientific information compiled in the more regional investigations in Oskarshamn Municipality in 1998-99. The new information after the municipal study includes extensive geophysical measurements from both the air and the ground. The results of the recently completed geophysical helicopter survey of the Simpevarp area are presented in a special chapter. The judgement of an area's ore potential is in part based on the evaluation of these geophysical measurements. In order to be better able to judge the ore potential, a geochemical investigation of soil samples, including reanalysing of older samples collected by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), has been carried out. The report also discusses prospecting efforts in the area as well as relevant Swedish mining legislation. In cooperation with SGU a mineral resource map of the Simpevarp area has been prepared. The map shows two areas with a potential for commercial stones, namely the granites at Goetemar and Uthammar, situated in the northernmost respectively the southernmost part of the study area. Furthermore, the Goetemar granite has probably a small potential for ores containing tin (Sn) and/or wolfram (W). Although no mineralizations of this type have so far been found, the Goetemar granite area may be unsuitable or

  15. Water leaching of titanium from ore flotation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Malgorzata M; Guibal, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Copper ore tailings were tested for the stability of titanium submitted to water leaching in three different reactor systems (agitated vessel, bioreactor and percolated fixed-bed column). For each of these systems, titanium extraction did not exceed 1% of the available metal. Biomass removed from ore residue adsorbed a small part of the titanium with sorption capacities below 20-30 mg g(-1), but most of this biomass was sequestered in the ore residue. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored and changes in concentration correlated with bacteria development at the initial stage of the process and to fungal development in the latter stages.

  16. Microstructure of Bentonite in Iron Ore Green Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U.; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P.E.; Hedlund, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam ...

  17. Biological-Chemical Oxidation of Ore Minerals at Pezinok Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chovan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of leaching experiments of the comparison between chemical and biological-chemical leaching, at the same conditions in solution, of ores from the Sb-(Au- base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The research study shows the oxidation order and the progression of present ore minerals (löllingite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, native Sb, gudmundite, berthierite, pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. There are discussed differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity of various ore minerals at the surface of polished sections. The extent of the leaching of sulphide minerals is significantly higher than that without bacteria.

  18. Tourmaline as a recorder of ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Trumbull, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tourmaline occurs in diverse types of hydrothermal mineral deposits and can be used to constrain the nature and evolution of ore-forming fl uids. Because of its broad range in composition and retention of chemical and isotopic signatures, tourmaline may be the only robust recorder of original mineralizing processes in some deposits. Microtextures and in situ analysis of compositional and isotopic variations in ore-related tourmaline provide valuable insights into hydrothermal systems in seafl oor, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic environments. Deciphering the hydrothermal record in tourmaline also holds promise for aiding exploration programs in the search for new ore deposits.

  19. Start of exploration and mining of uranium ores in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolay, I.; Szomolanyi, G. (Mecseki Ercbanyaszati Vallalat, Pecs II (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The mining of uranium ores is the youngest branch in the history of the Hungarian ore mining. The exploration for uranium ores started in Hungary in the decade from 1947, using simple methods at the beginning to apply more developed technologies later on. From the year 1952 Soviet geologists and geophysicists joined the explorations using the most advanced instruments, in co-operation with the Hungarian experts. From 1953 explorations and developments have been concentrated on the SW area of Mountain Mecsek so that by 1957 the preliminary conditions of a successful Hungarian uranium mining were established.

  20. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  1. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section 440.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  2. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  3. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The provisions of this...

  4. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The provisions of subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  6. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  7. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in Xikeng Ag-Pb-Zn Ore Deposit, South Anhui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study is done on the geochemical charateristics of REE in ore, ore-hosted rocks of Lantian group, granite related to ore deposit, and altered rocks for tracing origin of ore-forming materials. The result indicates that the ore-forming fluid and ore-forming materials for Xikeng silver-polymetallic ore deposit were derived from Yixian granite's magmatic activity. Water-rock reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with the carbonate-rich stratum led the altered rock to relatively enrich in HREE.

  8. Studies on Sulfating Roasting Process for Mianning Bastnasite and Baotou Mixed RE Concentrate Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Guangli

    2004-01-01

    Some processes of sulfating roasting and water leaching of crude Mianning RE concentrate ore, of fine Mianning RE concentrate ore, of Baotou RE concentrate ore and of their mixture were investigated.The result shows that the mixture of Mianning and Baotou RE concentrate ore has the optimum leaching rate and rate of recovery when the mixture ratio is 1:4.The recovery rate of the mixture is higher by 14.76% than that of crude Mianning RE concentrate ore, by 5.0 % than that of Mianning fine RE concentrate ore and by 2.4 % than that of Baotou RE concentrate ore.

  9. Understanding Cu release into environment from Kure massive sulfide ore deposits, Kastamonu, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Sonmez, Seref; Balci, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Covering a wide range on the earth's crust, oxidation of metal sulfide minerals have vital environmental impacts on the aquatic environment, causing one of the major environmental problems known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Located in the Kastamonu province of the Western Black Sea region, Kure district is one of the major copper mining sites in Turkey. Mining activities in the area heads back to ancient times, such that operation is thought to be started with the Roman Empire. Currently, only the underground mining tunnels of Bakibaba and Asikoy are being operated. Thus, mining heaps and ores of those pyritic deposits have been exposed to the oxidative conditions for so long. As a result of weathering processes of past and recent heaps of the Kure volcanic massive sulfide deposits in addition to the main ore mineral (chalcopyrite), significant amount of metals, especially Cu, are being released into the environment creating undesirable environmental conditions. In order to elucidate Cu release mechanisms from Kure pyritic ore deposits and mining wastes, field and laboratory approaches were used. Surface water and sediment samples from the streams around the mining and waste sites were collected. Groundwater samples from the active underground mining site were also collected. Physical parameters (pH, Eh, T°C, and EC) of water samples were determined in situ and in the laboratory using probes (WTW pH 3110, WTW Multi 9310 and CRISON CM 35). Metal and ion concentrations of the water samples were analysed using ICP-MS and DR 2800 spectrophotometer, respectively. High Cu, Co, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined in the water samples with pH values ranging from 2.9- 4. Cu concentrions ranges from 345 ppm to 36 ppm in the water samples. Consistent with the water samples, high Cu, Fe, Zn and Co were also determined in the sediment samples. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation experiments under the conditions representing the field site were set up as biological and

  10. 3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-04-01

    We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and

  11. Experimental study on preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; SU Yong-ding; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores was studied. The formative mechanism of preferential solution flow was investigated through analyzing the relationship between permeability and ore diameter,and the relationship between surface tension and ore diameter. The preferential solution flow happened within the fine ore area when the dump was unsaturated. And it could happen within the coarse ore area when the dump became saturated. The results of experiment show that the outflow of coarse ore area increases sharply with higher applied rate. The outflow of fine ore area is greater than that of coarse ore area when the applied rate is below 3.2 L/min, and the preferential solution flow happens in fine ore area. But the preferential solution flow happens in coarse ore area when the applied rate is higher than 3.2 L/min. The result of the experiment is consistent with the mechanism analyzing.

  12. Arsenic bioleaching in medical realgar ore and arsenic- bearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical realgar ore that allowed much higher leaching rates ... bioleaching behavior between mixed unadapted ... Acid drainage from copper mine, Zhongtiao Mountain, Shanxi,. China ..... during high temperature bioleaching of gold-bearing.

  13. ITABIRITE IRON ORE CONCENTRATION BY PNEUMATIC FLOTATION CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Quintiliano Nunes da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main iron ore processing plants in Brazil operate through reverse cationic flotation. Many studies have been conducted in order to improve flotation efficiency by optimization process variables. The pneumatic flotation cell stands out due to the simplicity to and to the intense contact particle/bubble promoted by the pulp feeding system. In this study, laboratory scale and pilot were conducted using a sample of itabirite iron ore. The objectives are evaluating the performance of this device using low grade iron ore, and drawing a comparison with laboratory scale tests on conventional flotation cell. The results indicate the potential application of pneumatic flotation cell to the ore tested. Adjustments in the feed particle size and process optimizations can be performed on the concentrate, reaching Fe and SiO2 grades used by the industry

  14. Microstructure of bentonite in iron ore green pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P E; Hedlund, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam or low loss backscattered electrons) and cryogenic methods (i.e., high pressure freezing and plunge freezing in liquid ethane). In wet iron ore green pellets, clay tactoids (stacks of parallel primary clay platelets) were very well dispersed and formed a voluminous network occupying the space available between mineral particles. When the pellet was dried, bentonite was drawn to the contact points between the particles and formed solid bridges, which impart strength to the solid compact.

  15. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Ore using Waste Pure Water Sachets as Reductant”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. ... content) and the emergence of low grade bauxite with high iron oxide content calls for ... effects on the alumina extraction process (Lu et al.,.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE IN COPPER ORE FLOTATION BY XANTHATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoran Markovic

    2015-01-01

      This paper presents some investigation results about potassium ethyl xanthate (PEX) stability in water solution at higher pH and in presence of mineral chalcopyrite, related to flotation of copper minerals from copper ore...

  17. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    growth both from new discoveries and the develop- ment of Subika ... search have developed innovative tools and tech- niques to .... 7 Histogram of Horizontal Blast Displace ment from All Five .... Better QA/QC along the ore/waste boundaries.

  18. Radioanalysis of RE enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Shu Quan; Hu He Ping; Li Fu Sheng; Chen Ying Min; LiuShiMing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the radioactivity in Rare Earth (RE) enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores. Methods: Using HPGe-gamma spectrometer to analyze the activity ratio of gamma radionuclides in kind of samples, using FJ-2603 low background alpha, beta measurement apparatus to measure their total alpha and total beta activities, and using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to analyze contents of La sub 2 O sub 3 and Y sub 2 O sub 3 , respectively. Results: HPGe gamma spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are simple, convenient and non-destructive methods of analyzing radionuclides and La sub 2 O sub 3 , Y sub 2 O sub 3 in RE enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores, respectively. Conclusion: The basic data were provided for radiation protection and treatment of gas, liquid and solid waste in RE production of ion adsorption type RE ores; method and experience were provided for studying ion adsorption type RE ores

  19. By lithology Zbruch deposits (Lower Sarmatian Nikopol manganese ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on lithologic-paleogeographic study Zbruch layers of Nikopol manganese ore Basin sediments described lithological and genetic types of rocks and facies conditions of formation of deposits.

  20. 河南罗山金城金矿成矿流体性质及演化%ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF ORE-FORMING FLUIDS IN JINCHENG GOLD ORE DEPOSIT, LUOSHAN,HENAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪; 吕新彪; 刘阁; 尚世超; 李春诚; 柯昌辉; 王玉奇; 胡庆成

    2012-01-01

    河南省罗山县金城金矿位于桐柏-大别造山带北侧,矿体受北西西向韧性剪切带控制,呈脉状、透镜状产于中元古界浒湾组变质岩中.根据矿物共生组合和脉体穿插关系,将热液成矿作用分为3个阶段:石英-金-黄铁矿阶段、石英-金-多金属硫化物阶段、石英萤石-碳酸盐矿物阶段.本文在详细分析金城金矿床成矿地质背景、矿床地质特征的基础上,研究该矿床各阶段石英和萤石中流体包裹体,以及石英的氢、氧同位素特征.包裹体研究表明该金矿床的成矿流体分3个阶段,为中低温、中低盐度、低密度体系.成矿流体的δD为-72.0‰~-86.6‰(均值-79.0‰),δ18O值为-5.98‰~+-4.1‰(均值-0.32%),氢氧同位素分析表明初始成矿流体来源自岩浆热液,后期有大气降水成分加入.各阶段的流体具有沿韧性剪切带从深部到浅部,从高温到低温,从高压到低压运移和演化的趋势,最终在浅部构造有利的导矿-容矿构造逐渐富集成矿.%The Jincheng gold deposit lies in the north of Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt in the Lu-oshan County of the Henan Province. Ore bodies of veins and lens are controlled by ductile shear zone,and are hosted by metamorphic rocks of upper Proterozoic Huwangang Formation. In accordance with paragenetic association of minerals and intercalation relationship of different veins, hydrothermal ore-forming period can be divided into 3 stages, quartz-gold-pyrite stage, quartz-polymetallic sulfides stage and quartz-carbonate stage respectively. Based on the geological setting ore formation and the geologic feature of deposit,we further investigate the fluid inclusions in the quartz and the fluorite of each ore-forming stage as well as the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of the quartz are studied. It shows that the ore-forming of the gold deposit is characterized by medium to low temperature,medium to low salinity and low density system. The S18O

  1. A geochemical assessment of possible lunar ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Vaniman, David

    The Moon apparently formed without appreciable water or other relatively volatile materials. Interior concentrations of water or other volatile substances appear to be extremely low. On Earth, water is important to the genesis of nearly all types of ores. Thus, some have reasoned that only abundant elements would occur in ore concentrations. The definition and recognition of ores on the Moon challenge the imaginations and the terrestrial perceptions of ore bodies. Lunar ores included solar-wind soaked soils, which contain abundant but dilute H, C, N, and noble gases (including He-3). Oxygen must be mined; soils contain approximately 45 percent (wt). Mainstream processes of rock formation concentrated Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Ca, and possibly Ti and Cr. The highland surface contains approximately 70 percent (wt) feldspar (mainly CaAl2Si2O8), which can be separated from some highland soils. Small fragments of dunite were collected; dunite may occur in walls and central peaks of some craters. Theoretical extensions of observations of lunar samples suggest that the Moon may have produced ores of trace elements. Some small fragments have trace-element concentrations 104 times higher than the lunar average, indicating that effective geochemical separations occurred; processes included fractional crystallization, silicate immiscibility, vaporization and condensation, and sulfide metamorphism. Operations of these processes acting on indigenous materials and on meteoritic material in the regolith could have produced ores. Infalling carbonaceous meteorites and comets have added water and hydrocarbons that may have been cold-trapped. Vesicles in basalts, pyroclastic beads, and reported transient events suggest gag emission from the lunar interior; such gas might concentrate and transport rare elements. Large impacts may disperse ores or produce them through deposition of heat at depth and by vaporization and subsequent condensation. The main problem in assessing lunar resources is

  2. Uranium and thorium recovery in thorianite ore-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotte, Joao V.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique T., E-mail: rvillegas@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of the studies aiming to develop a hydrometallurgical process to produce uranium and thorium concentrates from thorianite ore from Amapa State, Brazil. This process comprises two major parts: acid leaching and Th/U recovery using solvent extraction strategies. Thorianite ore has a typical composition of 60 - 70% of thorium, 8 - 10% lead and 7 - 10% uranium. Sulfuric acid leaching operational conditions were defined as follows: acid/ore ratio 7.5 t/t, ore size below 65 mesh (Tyler), 2 hours leaching time and temperature of 100 deg C. Leaching tests results showed that uranium and thorium recovery exceeded 95%, whereas 97% of lead ore content remained in the solid form. Uranium and thorium simultaneous solvent extraction is necessary due to high sulfate concentration in the liquor obtained from leaching, so the Primene JM-T primary anime was used for this extraction step. Aqueous raffinate from extraction containing sulfuric acid was recycled to the leaching step, reducing acid uptake around 60%, to achieve a net sulfuric acid consumption of 3 t/t of ore. Uranium and thorium simultaneous stripping was performed using sodium carbonate solution. In the aqueous stripped it was added sulfuric acid at pH 1.5, followed by a second solvent extraction step using the tertiary amine Alamine 336. The following stripping step was done with a solution of sodium chloride, resulting in a final solution of 23 g L-1 uranium. (author)

  3. KEY ROLE OF METALLOGENIC THEORY OF POLYGENETIC COMPOUND ORE DEPOSITS IN LOCATION PREDICTION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN DIWA REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Sheng-lin; LIU; Liang-ming; LAI; Jian-qing

    2001-01-01

    The metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposit is the Important basis for location prediction of hidden ore deposits in diwa regions.It can play an important role in each step of prediction research,targeting procedure,acquiring information and integrating information.In this paper,the authors discusses how to construct geological concept by using of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic ore deposits for predicting targeting area,to arrange investigation and detection for getting enough useful information,and to analyze and integrate information for reaching a trustful prediction conclusion.According to these strategies,we conduct a successful prediction of location of hidden ore bodies in the outer of the Fenghuangshan copper mine,a principal producing mine in Tongling Cu-Au district.

  4. Transport network and flow mechanism of shallow ore-bearing magma in Tongling ore cluster area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Jun; WANG; Qingfei; HUANG; Dinghua

    2006-01-01

    Abundant studies revealed that shallow intrusions of the Yanshanian epoch resulted in the mass mineralization of the Tongling region. Various evidences showed there existed a concealed magma chamber at -10 km depth in the middle part of this region during Yanshanian epoch, from which the ore-forming magma was generated and then transported to the superficial layer. Yet the transport network and flow mechanism of the shallow ore-bearing magma, the key problem associ- ated with ore-forming process, was relatively little focused on. Integrate analysis of structural me- chanics, statistical fractal and geological facts suggested that NE trending high-angle fold-related thrust faults and the tessellated basement ones served as the main pathways for the shallow magma's transporting, moreover, the saddle void spaces among adjacent strata in the folds upon this fault system provided the place for magma's emplacement. So the folds in the upper part and faults in the lower part of the upper crust constituted the fluid's transport and emplacement network. During the deformation of geologic body with multi-layer structure, the layers in the upper part tended to fold when received the jacking stress from the lower part, while the lower one inclined to fault undergoing loads of the upper part. And the producing probability of this structure assemblage was highly increased in the condition, such as in the Tongling area, that the mechanic rigidity of the lower layers was stronger than that of the upper ones. For the pre-existence of fluid-conducting network, the top magma with high volatile in the magma chamber transported rapidly to the superficial layer in dyking pattern, located in the void spaces of folds, filled and reconstructed them. The sudden drop of pressure caused the fluid unmixing from the magma and mass ore-forming elements concentration. Pulse activity of the dyking may be the principal reason why magmatic bodies in the Tongling area were spatially

  5. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Rane; V M S Verenkar; P Y Sawant

    2001-06-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical formulas of iron-oxyhydroxides as -FeOOH.0.3H2O; -FeOOH.0.2H2O and amorphous FeOOH. The thermal products of all these were -Fe2O3 excepting that of -FeOOH.0.3H2O which gave mainly -Fe2O3 and some admixture of -Fe2O3. The hydrazinated iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, on the other hand, decomposed autocatalytically to mainly -Fe2O3. Hydrazine method modifies the thermal decomposition path of the hydroxides. The saturation magnetization, s, values were found to be in the range 60–71 emu g–1 which are close to the reported values for -Fe2O3. Mechanism of the -Fe2O3 formation by hydrazine method is discussed.

  7. Fluorosilicone and silicone o-ring aging study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Robert; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2007-10-01

    Fluorosilicone o-ring aging studies were performed. These studies examined the compressive force loss of fluorosilicone o-rings at accelerated (elevated) temperatures and were then used to make predictions about force loss at room temperature. The results were non-Arrhenius with evidence for a lowering in Arrhenius activation energies as the aging temperature was reduced. The compression set of these fluorosilicone o-rings was found to have a reasonably linear correlation with the force loss. The aging predictions based on using the observed curvature of the Arrhenius aging plots were validated by field aged o-rings that yielded degradation values reasonably close to the predictions. Compression set studies of silicone o-rings from a previous study resulted in good correlation to the force loss predictions for the fluorosilicone o-rings from this study. This resulted in a preliminary conclusion that an approximately linear correlation exists between compression set and force decay values for typical fluorosilicone and silicone materials, and that the two materials age at similar rates at low temperatures. Interestingly, because of the observed curvature of the Arrhenius plots available from longer-term, lower temperature accelerated exposures, both materials had faster force decay curves (and correspondingly faster buildup of compression set) at room temperature than anticipated from typical high-temperature exposures. A brief study on heavily filled conducting silicone o-rings resulted in data that deviated from the linear relationship, implying that a degree of caution must be exercised about any general statement relating force decay and compression set.

  8. Determination of uranium content in phosphate ores using different measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Al-Eshaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important unconventional source of uranium is found in phosphate deposits; unfortunately, nowadays its exploitation is limited by economic constraints. The uranium concentrations in phosphate ores in the world vary regionally and most countries with large phosphate deposits have either plant in operation to extract uranium or are at the stage of pilot extraction plants. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate uranium content in the Saudi phosphate ores for, at least, two reasons: firstly, upgrading the phosphate quality by removing the uranium content in order to reduce the radioactivity in the fertilizer products. Secondly, getting benefit from the extracted uranium for its domestic use as a fuel in nuclear power and desalination plants. The results of this study show that the uranium concentration in Saudi phosphate rocks is relatively low (less than 100 ppm, which is not economically encouraging for its direct extraction. However, its extraction as a byproduct from the phosphoric acid, which will have higher concentration could be quite promising and worth exploiting.

  9. Gamma Spectrometric Analysis of Iron Ore Samples of Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourimani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron ore is one of the most important natural raw materials that is widely used for manufacturing iron and steel. This type of ore contains various amounts of radionuclides; thus, exposing workers handling their extraction, transportation, and processing to radiation. Materials and Methods In this study, 12 ore samples (each mass weighing about 2 kg were collected from the iron ore mining areas of Arak region, Iran. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined usinggamma-ray spectrometry method employing high-purity germanium (HPGe detector. Results The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in samples were 9.39-271.70 Bq/kg, -3 Sv/y suggested in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 82. Conclusion The gamma ray spectrometric analysis showed that the specific activities of natural radionuclides in samples, except for limonite ore, were within the worldwide range. The effective dose received by workers was much lower than the maximum acceptable value (1000 μSv/y; therefore, the level of radiations in this mine had no adverse consequences for public health.

  10. Existing State and Partitioning of Rare Earth on Weathered Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The existing state and partitioning of rare earth (RE) on weathered ores in Longnan County (LN), Xingfeng County(XF) and Ninghua County(NH) were characterized systematically by standard geological analytical methods. It is found that RE in the weathered rare earth ores exist as four phases: (a) water soluble, (b) ion-exchangeable, (c) colloidal sediment (oxides), (d) minerals, in which mainly as ion exchangeable phase, accounting for nearly 80% of total RE,with about 20% in the form of colloid sediment phase and mineral phase, but very little as aqueous soluble phase. These rare earth partitioning were mainly chosen mid-heavy RE elements, occupying above 60%, but not equal in the four phases. The mid-heavy RE elements were primarily enriched in the ion exchangeable phase up to 40%, while the containment of cerium dioxide is below 2%. The cerium deficiency occurs in the ion exchangeable phase in weathered ore. It results from that the Ce3+ is oxidized into Ce4+ and changes into CeO2. For LN ore, the containment of Y is high in weathered ore because Y-minerals are abundant in original rock.

  11. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  12. On the use of bastnasite ore as a phosphor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, M., E-mail: manojm@barc.gov.in; Natarajan, V.; Rajeswari, B.; Dhobale, A.R.; Godbole, S.V.

    2014-01-15

    Bastnasite ore obtained from Indian Rare Earth (IRE) was investigated for its possible use as a phosphor material. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) techniques. XRD studies revealed the semi processed ore to be consisting of single phase CeO{sub 2} with no other impurities. EDXRF studies revealed the presence of ‘Th’ and traces of ‘Sm’ along with ‘Ce’ in the sample. PAS studies revealed the presence of strong charge transfer from oxygen to cerium in the system. PL studies confirmed the presence of at least four trivalent rare earths, viz. Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb in the system in trace quantities. The emission spectrum and decay time data were evaluated. It was observed that the rare earth ions are situated at distorted sites in the system surrounded by defect centers. EPR studies confirmed the presence of Ce{sup 3+}in the system along with electron trapped in oxygen ion vacancies. CIE indices for the ore sample were evaluated and it was seen that the overall emission from the system was in the ‘magenta’ region of the visible spectrum. The emission intensities were also compared with that of commercial samples. -- Highlights: • Characterization of bastnasite ore as a phosphor material. • Role of RE impurities in the luminescence • CIE index of the bastnasite ore.

  13. Flotation technology of refractory low-grade molybdenum ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Shuhua; Luo Zhenfu

    2013-01-01

    Because of the low grade,high oxidation rate and the accumulation of little associated metal sulfide ore in the molybdenum concentrate during flotation,the Qingyang molybdenum ore is difficult to beneflciate.The experimental studies of grinding fineness,the amount of roughing modifier,depressant and collector were completed.In the cleaning process,the contrast experiments of one regrinding.the regrinding and scrubbing,two-stage regrinding was carried.The result shows that the grade of molybdenum ore concentrate is 45.31%,the recovery is 65.98% and the rich ore ratio reaches 20.59% by the regrinding and scrubbing seven cleaning,the regrinding of concentrations from middling of molybdenum-sulfur separation.The regularly-concentrated material from the apparatus was as the middling products.Hence,ideal beneficiation index can be obtained with a rational mineral processing,which offers new beneficiating technology for the refractory low-grade molybdenum ore in China.

  14. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  15. Study on Mineralization Age of Xiaoban Gold Deposit, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Xiaoban gold deposit is a large-size deposit recently found in middle area of Fujian Province. It belongs to magmatic hydrothermal type occurred in Mayuan Group metamorphic rocks of Middle Proterozoic and is controlled by low angle fault (detachment) structures. The contents of Au in Mayuan Group metamorphic rocks, Caledonian-Indosinian deformed granite and early Yanshanian granite are higher with Au enrichment coefficient of 2.06-5.68, 5.11 and 6.67 than those in other geological bodies. And the higher enrichment coefficients (>2) of Ag, S, Sn and Te are similar to those of gold ore. Meanwhile, the distribution of Au in Mayuan Group metamorphic rocks and early Yanshanian granite with a low D-value (0.58 and 0.67) is favorable to gold mineralization. REE characteristics of gold ore, ratios of (LREE/HREE), (La/Sm)n, (Yb/Lu)n, (La/Tb)n and (Sm/Nd)n are similar to Mayuan Group metamorphic rocks, only non or little normal Eu abnormal of ore is dissimilar to metamorphic rocks. The δ(34S) of the gold ore, with a high homogenization, is (-4.7×10-3)-(-2.7×10-3). The study of inclusion indicates 180-249 ℃ of mineralization temperature, 3.69 %-11.81 % of salinities and 0.869-0.991 g/cm3 of densities of mineralization fluid. Based on hydrogen and oxygen isotope (δ(18O)=11.0×10-3-11.7×10-3, δ(D)=(-48×10-3)-(-62×10-3)) and initial w(87Sr)/w(86Sr) =0.715,combining to the analysis of geological history, regional metamorphism and magamtic activity, the authors confirm that the source for the ore fluid was mainly from magmatic, partly from metamorphic water, and with a little influence of meteoric water. Isotopic dating made on Rb-Sr isochron age of 182 Ma, by using alteration minerals of gold-ores from the deposit, indicates that the mineralization occurs in early Yanshanian epoch. This is close to the age of 187 Ma of the Anchun magmatite with a similar alteration and gold mineralization to the Xiaoban gold deposit. The age of early Yanshanian epoch of the Xiaoban

  16. The production and use of citric acid for the removal of potassium from the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the richer iron ore worldwide has made it necessary to process lower quality iron ore. Certain substances, such as potassium, contained within the lower quality iron ore, have a detrimental effect on the smelting process during steel manufacturing. Therefore, international steel-making companies charge penalties when purchasing iron ore concentrates containing high concentrations of potassium. To date, lower quality iron ore has been blended with high quality iron ore in an attempt to alleviate the potassium concentrations in the export iron ore; however, the ratio of low quality iron ore to high quality iron ore is increasing, thereby becoming an escalating problem within the economic functioning of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. It has, therefore, become necessary to develop an economically viable and environmentally friendly process to reduce the high potassium concentrations contained in the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. In this study, we compared solid substrate and submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger for the production of citric acid, which is used for the chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate. It was found that submerged fermentation proved to be more economical and efficient, producing a maximum citric acid concentration of 102.3 g/L in 96 h of fermentation. ‘Heap leaching’ simulation experiments were found to be uneconomical, due to the required addition of fungal growth medium every 5 days as a result of growth factor depletion within this time; however, this process removed 17.65% of the potassium from the iron ore concentrate. By contrast, chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate proved to be most efficient when using a 1 mol citric acid leaching solution at 60 ºC, removing 23.53% of the potassium contained within the iron ore concentrate. Therefore, the most economical and efficient process for the removal of potassium from the iron

  17. Effect of desliming on the flotation of a complax copper ore from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex copper oxide ore sample was taken from Deerni copper deposit, Qinghai Province of China. Batch flotation tests had been conducted to upgrade the copper concentrate by conventional amyl xanthate reagents under 73% -74 μm of the particle size; however, the unsatisfied results (Cu grade of 18.21% and recovery of 59.25% were obtained. Also there are a large amount of slimes trapped in the concentrate and high-dosages consumption of reagents, for example, more than 2.5 kg/t sodium sulfide and 1.5 kg/t sodium silicate at only one-staged roughing. Based on the analysis of the sample, most of gangues are clay, feldspar and mica, which may easy to over-grind and deteriorate the flotation process either on reagents consumption or slurry fluidity or viscosity. A hydro-cyclone had been introduced to pre-concentrate the oxide ore by scrubbing the slime before flotation, which can result obviously in reducing the dosages of sodium sulfide from 2.5 Kg/t to 1 Kg/t, and raising the grade of Cu in the concentrate from 18.21% to 26.65% at the expense of about 1% recovery of Cu. In this paper, the effects on the recovery of Cu by the different dosages of flotation reagents with or without de-sliming were studied, with the objective of determining the different effects on the functions of flotation reagents by slime during flotation.

  18. Chemical state mapping of heterogeneous reduction of iron ore sinter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M.; Takeichi, Y.; Murao, R.; Obayashi, I.; Hiraoka, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Iron ore sinter constitutes the major component of the iron-bearing burden in blast furnaces, and its reduction mechanism is one of the keys to improving the productivity of ironmaking. Iron ore sinter is composed of multiple iron oxide phases and calcium ferrites (CFs), and their heterogeneous reduction was investigated in terms of changes in iron chemical state: FeIII, FeII, and Fe0 were examined macroscopically by 2D X-ray absorption and microscopically by 3D transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). It was shown that the reduction starts at iron oxide grains rather than at calcium ferrite (CF) grains, especially those located near micropores. The heterogeneous reduction causes crack formation and deteriorates the mechanical strength of the sinter. These results help us to understand the fundamental aspects of heterogeneous reduction schemes in iron ore sinter.

  19. Complex sulphide-barite ore leaching in ferric chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sokić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the leaching process of complex sulphide-barite ore were presented in this paper. The leaching process was carried out in a laboratory autoclave by ferric chloride solution. Considering that those minerals are represented in complex structural-textural relationships, it is not possible to extract lead, zinc and copper minerals from ore by flotation methods. The obtained results confirmed possibility of the ore processing directly, by chemical methods. The effect of temperature, time and oxygen partial pressure on the lead, zinc and copper dissolution was studied. The maximal leaching degree was achieved at 100 °C and amount of 91.5 % for Pb, 96.1 % for Zn and 60.7 % for Cu. Leaching at temperatures above 100 °C is impractical.

  20. A hybrid decision support system for iron ore supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samolejová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European metallurgical companies are forced to import iron ore from remote destinations. For these companies it is necessary to determine the amount of iron ore that will have to be ordered and to create such a delivery schedule so that the continuous operation of blast-furnace plant is not disrupted and there is no exceedingly large stock of this raw material. The objective of this article is to design the decision support system for iron ore supply which would effi ciently reduce uncertainty and risk of that decision-making. The article proposes a hybrid intelligent system which represents a combination of diff erent artifi cial intelligence methods with dynamic simulation technique for that purpose.

  1. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  2. Investigation of chemical suppressants for inactivation of sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the effective control method of spontaneous combustion in the mining of sulfide ore deposits, This paper presents the testing results of several selected chemicals (water glass, calcium chloride, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide and their composites) as oxidation suppressants for sulfide ores. A weight increment scaling method was used to measure suppressant performance, and this method proved to be accurate, simple and convenient. Based on a large number of experiments, the test results show that four types of chemical mixtures demonstrate a good performance in reducing the oxidation rate of seven active sulfide ore samples by up to 27% to 100% during an initial 76 d period. The mixtures of water glass mixed with calcium chloride and magnesium oxide mixed with calcium chloride can also act as fire suppressants when used with fire sprinkling systems.

  3. Beneficiation of the gold bearing ore by gravity and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Alim; Kangal, Olgaç; Sirkeci, Ayhan A.; Önal, Güven

    2012-02-01

    Gold concentration usually consists of gravity separation, flotation, cyanidation, or the combination of these processes. The choice among these processes depends on the mineralogical characterization and gold content of the ore. Recently, the recovery of gold using gravity methods has gained attention because of low cost and environmentally friendly operations. In this study, gold pre-concentrates were produced by the stepwise gravity separation and flotation techniques. The Knelson concentrator and conventional flotation were employed for the recovery of gold. Gold bearing ore samples were taken from Gümüşhane Region, northern east part of Turkey. As a result of stepwise Knelson concentration experiments, a gold concentrate assaying around 620 g/t is produced with 41.4wt% recovery. On the other hand, a gold concentrate about 82 g/t is obtained with 89.9wt% recovery from a gold ore assaying 6 g/t Au by direct flotation.

  4. Calcination-Digestion-Desliming of Phosphorus Ore Bearing Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Zhang Jie; Wang Jing; Qiu Yue qin

    2004-01-01

    The recoveries of phosphorus and RE of ore from Zhijin in Guizhou were studied.The influences of the calcination temperature, resident time, the digested time and water volume of the calcinating on concentrate yield by desliming were also investigated by orthogonal design.Appropriate calcination temperature is initial condition that makes carbonate mineral decomposition.The recovery of phosphorus is 83.02% and rare earth is 90.56% in phosphorus concentrate when calcined temperature is 900 ℃, other conditions include: calcined time is 30 min, digestion water volume is 300 ml, digestion time is 20 min.The results show that the pre-treatment of the ore is favorable for the separation and enrichment of rare earth from phosphorus ore, and a process of calcination-digestion-desliming was promised.

  5. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  6. Control of Rock Mechanics in Underground Ore Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. I.; Efremenkov, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    Performance indicators in underground mining of thick iron fields can be insufficient since geo-mechanic specifics of ore-hosting fields might be considered inadequately, as a consequence, critical deformations and even earth’s surface destruction are possible, lowering the indicators of full subsurface use, this way. The reason for it is the available approach to estimating the performance of mining according to ore excavation costs, without assessing losses of valuable components and damage to the environment. The experimental approach to the problem is based on a combination of methods to justify technical capability and performance of mining technology improvement with regard to geomechanical factors. The main idea of decisions to be taken is turning geo-materials into the condition of triaxial compression via developing the support constructions of blocked up structural rock block. The study was carried out according to an integrated approach based on the analysis of concepts, field observations, and simulation with the photo-elastic materials in conditions of North Caucasus deposits. A database containing information on the deposit can be developed with the help of industrial experiments and performance indicators of the field can be also improved using the ability of ore-hosting fields to develop support constructions, keeping the geo-mechanical stability of the system at lower cost, avoiding ore contamination at the processing stage. The proposed model is a specific one because an adjustment coefficient of natural and anthropogenic stresses is used and can be adopted for local conditions. The relation of natural to anthropogenic factors can make more precise the standards of developed, prepared and ready to excavation ore reserves relying on computational methods. It is possible to minimize critical stresses and corresponding deformations due to dividing the ore field into sectors safe from the standpoint of geo-mechanics, and using less cost

  7. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  8. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  9. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  10. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  11. Ore-forming Conditions and Prospecting in the West Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yongguan; GUO Kunyi; XIAO Huiliang; ZHANG Chuanlin; ZHAO Yu

    2004-01-01

    The West Kunlun ore-forming belt is located between the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and southwestern Tarim Basin. It situated between the Paleo-Asian Tectonic Domain and Tethyan Tectonic Domain. It is an important component of the giant tectonic belt in central China (the Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling Tectonic Belt or the Central Orogenic Belt). Many known ore-forming belts such as the Kunlun-Qilian Qinling ore-forming zone, Sanjiang (or Threeriver) ore-forming zone, Central Asian ore-forming zone, etc. pass through the West Kunlun area. Three ore-forming zones and seven ore-forming subzones were classified, and eighteen mineralization areas were marked. It is indicated that the West Kunlun area is one of the most favorable region for finding out large and superlarge ore deposits.

  12. A study of the distribution of rare-metals in kuroko-type ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience]|[Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    We have performed PIXE analysis of kuroko-type ore from the JADE hydrothermal site of the Okinawa Trough, Japan using the proton microprobe (PIXEPROBE). We analysed five kinds of ores dredged from the sea floor: (I) barite ore with small sulfide dissemination; (2) sphalerite-pyrite chimney; (3) pyrite ore; (4) sulfide veinlets in strongly altered rock; and (5) pyrite megacrystals in strongly altered rock. The analyses revealed that the trace element distribution is regulated by the occurrence mode of the ore, and within each ore, by the crystal structure. The distribution suggests that the hydrothermal system for kuroko ore formation is quite heterogeneous and its chemistry is controlled by local factors such as difference in temperature, and that in-situ PIXE analyses are essential for effective beneficiation strategy for the rare-metals from kuroko-type ore. (authors). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Mining remittances corresponding to metalliferous ores: regulation and budget impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asaloș

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic statistics and forecasting show that Romania has a very favourable potential as far as the metalliferous ores are concerned. As these are owned by the state, once they are allowed to be exploited, they generate considerable amounts for the consolidated public budget. The present paper is meant to conduct a synthetic analysis on the topic of mining remittances from an economic perspective, by considering the juridical framework of capitalizing deposits of ferrous and non-ferrous ores, correlated with the general regulations concerning property and the specific existing regulations of the EU and of the countries that have experience and potential in the mining sector.

  14. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.

  15. A novel optical granulometry algorithm for ore particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel algorithm to detect the particle size distribution of ores with irregular shapes and dim edges. This optical granulometry algorithm is particularly suitable for blast furnace process control, so its result can be used directly as a reliable basis for control system dynamics optimization. The paper explains the algorithm and its concept, as well as its method, which consists of five steps to detect ore granularity and distribution. A series of comparative experiments under industrial environments proved that this novel algorithm, compared with conventional ones, improves the accuracy of granulometry.

  16. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GOLD-ORE DUMP REPROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Samsonov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An economic projection is presented in the paper on the heap leaching technology for extracting a residual gold from the gold-ore dumps accumulated at the exploited or closed gold mines. A brief analysis is performed on the legal status of use this source of raw materials, availability and efficiency of the heap leaching method are reviewed, and the potential users of this method are assessed. An investment plan is created for involving anthropogenic dumps of gold-raw materials at one of the ore deposits in Siberia (heap complex of the North-Western flank of the Sovetskoye minefield, Krasnoyarsk region, North-Yenisey area.

  17. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by P seudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shabani; M Irannajad; AR Azadmehr; M Meshkini

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53%of copper was extracted.

  18. Organic Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rock-hosted Disseminated Gold Deposits in Southwestern Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Zhiwei; ZHAO Zhenhua; Jayanta GUHA

    2005-01-01

    Sedimentary rock-hosted disseminated gold (SRHDG) deposits in the Youjiang-Nanpanjiang Basin,southwestern Guizhou Province are commonly hosted by the same fold crests that commonly contain a remarkable amount of organic material. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the ores and host rocks are usually less than 1%. The reflectance of vitrinite and pyrobitumen in the ores and the host rocks ranges from 1.5% to 4.5%, often in the range of 2% to 3%. In the Lannigou deposit, the reflectance of vitrinite and pyrobitumen in the ores is usually somewhat higher than those within the host rocks, indicating a hydrothermal impact on the organic matter in the altered host rocks. On the contrary, the estimated maximum paleotemperatures of the Getang and Zimudang deposits are higher than the homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions in the ores, signifying that the organic matter maturation predated Au mineralization. No correlation between the organic matter contents and Au concentrations were recognized in the ores.However, the most striking observation is that there is a positive correlation between the S2 (a parameter of Rock-Eval analysis), Au and As contents of the ores in the Lannigou deposit. Organic matter maturation and migration is apparent from the TOC vs. HCI diagram. Furthermore, group analysis of the dichloromethane extractable organic component of the ores and host rocks shows that the maturation degree of the organic matter in the ores is slightly higher than that of the host rocks in the Lannigou gold deposit. However, the compositions of their alkanes, steranes and terpenes, which serve as biomarkers, are quite similar; this suggests that the organic matter found in the ores and host rocks has a common marine source. Organic matter probably contributed to the preconcentration of Au in the host rocks. Hydrocarbons in the system,on the other hand, clearly contributed to the emplacement of the gold mineralization through thermal sulfate reduction

  19. Trace-element and multi-isotope geochemistry of Late-Archean black shales in the Carajas iron-ore district, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, A. R.; Creaser, R. A.; Naegler, T.

    2013-01-01

    The 250-300-m-thick Carajas Formation in the Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil, consists of banded iron formation (including giant high-grade iron-ore deposits) and minor black shale, overlying a thick pile (2-3 km) of about 2.75-Ga-old metabasalt. Carbonaceous shale with pyrite-and locally...... pyrrhotite-rich patches from drillcore of the Serra Sul exploration project has up to 29 ppm Mo; iron-speciation analysis indicates essentially ferruginous and for some samples likely euxinic depositional conditions. Positive delta S-34-isotope ratios of TRIS are between +0.3 to +10.7 parts per thousand...

  20. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  1. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special treatment... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of coal...

  2. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Ore..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0893 or Site name Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site by one of...

  3. IMPACT: How ORE Findings Have Affected Decisions in Austin and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David, Ed.; Ligon, Glynn, Ed.

    Over the years, findings of the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) have had a significant impact on decisions made in the district and sometimes beyond it. The ORE's impact in the AISD is reviewed in 16 areas. Some of the major findings are summarized: (1) ORE studies of retention in…

  4. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section 440.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium...

  5. 28 CFR 79.62 - Criteria for eligibility for claims by ore transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ore transporters. 79.62 Section 79.62 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.62 Criteria for eligibility for claims by ore transporters. To establish eligibility for...

  6. 28 CFR 79.63 - Proof of employment as an ore transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of employment as an ore transporter... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.63 Proof of employment as an ore transporter. (a) The Department will accept, as proof of employment for the time...

  7. Rock-magnetism and ore microscopy of the magnetite-apatite ore deposit from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Vivallo, W.

    2001-03-01

    Rock-magnetic and microscopic studies of the iron ores and associated igneous rocks in the Cerro de Mercado, Mexico, were carried out to determine the magnetic mineralogy and origin of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), related to the thermo-chemical processes due to hydrothermalism. Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) seems to be present in most of investigated ore and wall rock samples, replacing completely or partially an original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). Magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite) and hematite are commonly found in the ores. Although hematite may carry a stable CRM, no secondary components are detected above 580°, which probably attests that oxidation occurred soon enough after the extrusion and cooling of the ore-bearing magma. NRM polarities for most of the studied units are reverse. There is some scatter in the cleaned remanence directions of the ores, which may result from physical movement of the ores during faulting or mining, or from perturbation of the ambient field during remanence acquisition by inhomogeneous internal fields within these strongly magnetic ore deposits. The microscopy study under reflected light shows that the magnetic carriers are mainly titanomagnetite, with significant amounts of ilmenite-hematite minerals, and goethite-limonite resulting from alteration processes. Magmatic titanomagnetites, which are found in igneous rocks, show trellis, sandwich, and composite textures, which are compatible with high temperature (deuteric) oxy-exsolution processes. Hydrothermal alteration in ore deposits is mainly indicated by martitization in oxide minerals. Grain sizes range from a few microns to >100 mm, and possible magnetic state from single to multidomain, in agreement with hysteresis measurements. Thermal spectra, continuous susceptibility measurements, and IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) acquisition suggest a predominance of spinels as magnetic carriers, most probably titanomagnetites with low

  8. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  9. Nonlinear Effects of Laser Surface Modification of Ore Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Leonenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous laser radiation on complex ore minerals objects containing gold, not extracted by monerd methods was investigated. It was established the formation of different structural surfaces of gold, revealed general patterns of sintering and concentration of sub-micron gold.

  10. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report is derived from a presentation the author presented in late September at the Iron Ore 2005 Conference sponsored by The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and held in Fremantle, Western Australia. Some slight revisions have been made for the new audience.

  11. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  12. Technogenic hydrogeochemical anomalies of tungsten deposits in Kykylbey ore region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonid V.Zamana; Larisa P.Chechel

    2004-01-01

    Peculiarities of the tungsten deposits drainage flow chemical composition formation, the development of which was ceased almost 40 years ago, have been considered. Migration peculiarities of ore components have been covered, and forms of their migration have been calculated. Inertial characteristics of the surface flow contamination are shown.

  13. When People Talk, AISD Listens! ORE Districtwide Surveys, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) conducts three surveys to contribute to more informed and better decision-making. The Questions for Teachers and Questions for Administrators surveys are both sent out annually to determine the attitudes of District staff on issues of importance districtwide. The…

  14. ORE's GENeric Evaluation SYStem: GENESYS 1988-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; And Others

    GENESYS--GENeric Evaluation SYStem--is a method of streamlining data collection and evaluation through the use of computer technology. GENESYS has allowed the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District to evaluate a multitude of contrasting programs with limited resources. By standardizing methods and…

  15. Rock Smelting of Copper Ores with Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgate, Terry; Jahanshahi, Sharif; Haque, Nawshad

    It is generally recognised that the grades of metallic ores are falling globally. This trend can be expected to increase the life cycle-based energy requirement for primary metal production due to the additional amount of material that must be handled and treated in the mining and mineral processing stages of the metal production life cycle. Rock (or whole ore) smelting has been suggested as a possible alternative processing route for low grade ores with a potentially lower energy intensity and environmental impact than traditional processing routes. In this processing route, the beneficiation stage is eliminated along with its associated energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, but this is partially offset by the need for more solid material to be handled and heated up to smelting temperatures. A life cycle assessment study was carried out to assess the potential energy and greenhouse gas benefits of a conceptual flowsheet of the rock smelting process, using copper ore as an example. Recovery and utilisation of waste heat in the slag (via dry slag granulation) and offgas streams from the smelting step was also included in the study, with the waste heat being utilised either for thermal applications or electricity generation.

  16. Method and set-up for uranium ore sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania)); Gherea, Gh. (Intreprinderea metalelor rare, Bucuresti (Romania)); Draga, Z.; Funaru, Gh. (Exploatarea miniera Oravita, Oravita (Romania))

    1981-01-01

    A method was studied for uranium ore sorting. After the discussion of the principle, some particular conditions of the sorting are pointed out. A radiometric assembly is described and some results obtained on the simulator and in industrial conditions are reported.

  17. Phases transformation of nickel lateritic ore during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Q.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The high magnesium nickel laterite ore need first be dehydrated if it is treated by the pirometallurgical means. The nickel laterite ore was dehydrated in a laboratory scale sintering pot in this study. The dehydration mechanism was studied by using the thermo-gravimetric (TG tests, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments. The measurements indicated that chlorite (Fe,Mg,Al6(Si,Al4O10(OH8 and serpentine Mg21Si12O28(OH34H2O are the primary phases, while FeO(OH and (Fe,Mg,3Si4O10(OH2 are the minor phases in the ore. The water in the ore can be divided as free water, crystal water, and hydroxyl group. During the heating process, the temperature range for the removal of the free water is 25~140˚C, for the crystal water it is 200~480 ˚C, and for the hydroxyl group it is 500~800˚C. The experiments with various coal dosages show that the temperatures of off-gas and burden increase with an increase in coal dosage. The sinter samples were analyzed using XRD. The results demonstrated that olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 and spinel MgFe2O4 are the main bonding phases.

  18. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  19. Detection of diamond in ore using pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lamprecht, GH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of using pulsed laser excited Raman spectroscopy as a method for diamond detection from ore, has been investigated. In this method the spontaneous Stokes Raman signal is used as indicator of diamond, and a dual channel system...

  20. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  1. Performance of selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over natural manganese ore catalysts at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhu, Chengzhu; Liu, Haibo; Xu, Yongpeng; Zou, Xuehua; Xu, Bin; Chen, Tianhu

    2017-03-16

    Natural manganese ore catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at low temperature in the presence and absence of SO2 and H2O were systematically investigated. The physical and chemical properties of catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and NO-TPD methods. The results showed that natural manganese ore from Qingyang of Anhui Province had a good low-temperature activity and N2 selectivity, and it could be a novel catalyst in terms of stability, good efficiency, good reusability and lower cost. The NO conversion exceeded 85% between 150°C and 300°C when the initial NO concentration was 1000 ppm. The activity was suppressed by adding H2O (10%) or SO2 (100 or 200 ppm), respectively, and its activity could recover while the SO2 supply is cut off. The simultaneous addition of H2O and SO2 led to the increase of about 100% in SCR activity than bare addition of SO2. The formation of the amorphous MnOx, high concentration of lattice oxygen and surface-adsorbed oxygen groups and a lot of reducible species as well as adsorption of the reactants brought about excellent SCR performance and exhibited good SO2 and H2O resistance.

  2. pplication of Fractal Technique for Analysis of Geophysical - Geochemical Databases in Tekieh Pb-Zn Ore Deposit (SE of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mehrnia

    2017-02-01

    should emphasize on self-organized distribution of Pb-Zn anomalies to introduce a new set of nonlinear distributions in order to find the confidence regression coefficients between the variables. As the final results, fractal analysis of available databases represented new target areas with better mineralization aggregations than linear analysis of the anomalous regions according to micrographs. It means that surficial mineralization processes could be extended in depth and enriched next to altered host units because of a nonlinear but self-organized distribution of geochemical- geophysical anomalies in Tekieh ore deposit region. References Annells, R.N., Arthurton, R.S., Bazley, R.A.B., Davies, R.G., Hamedi, M.A.R. and Rahimzadeh, F.R., 1985. Geological Map of Shazand- Khomein. Scale: 1:100000, Cartographic Department of Geological Survey of Iran. Calagari, A.A., 2010. Principles of geophysical explorations. University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 485 pp. Jafari, H., 2007. Using geoelectrical techniques for Zn-Pb explorations in Haft-Emarat district, Tekieh region (South East of Arak. Kimya Kavan Tosee Novin Company, Tehran, 206 pp. Mandelbrot, B., 2005. Fractal Geometry of Nature. W.H Freeman & Company, New York, 468 pp. Mehrnia, S.R.,2013. Application of fractal geometry for recognizing the pattern of textural zoning in epithermal deposits: (case study: Shikhdarabad Au-Cu indices East- Azerbaijan province. Journal of Economic Geology, 5(1: 23-36. (in Persian Momenzadeh, M. and Ziseman, H., 1981. Lead – Zinc re mineralization potentials in Malayer – Esfahan district. Journal of Ore Deposit, 3(1: 88-101. Salehi, L., 2004. Geochemistry of REE content in Tekieh Pb-Zn ore deposit. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 181 pp. Torkashvand, S., Mehrnia, S.R. and Moghaddasi, S.J., 2009. Co-Processing of the geophysical parameters for Tekieh Zn-Pb ore deposits (south east of Arak. 4th PNU Geological National Conference, Payam Noor University of Mashhad, Mashhad

  3. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  4. The monopoly of the nuclear activities in Brazil; O monopolio das atividades nucleares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanna, Luciano Portal

    2009-07-01

    The difficulty in dealing with some technical and legal concepts related to use of radioactivity and nuclear energy, combined with a confusing law silent and many respects outdated, doubts arise and often, misconceptions about scope of the monopoly of the Federal Government on activities with nuclear ores and minerals and derivatives. With an interdisciplinary approach, the aim of this work address key aspects of the legal regime of nuclear activities and facilities in Brazil, distinguishing it from that applicable to the activities and radiative facilities.

  5. Effects of Mineral Composition and Microstructure on Crack Resistance of Sintered Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Zi-wei; JIANG Mao-fa; XU Li-xian

    2006-01-01

    Vickers indentation test was used to study the effects of mineral composition and microstructure on crack resistance of sintered ore, and the initiation and propagation of cracks in different minerals contained in sintered ore were examined. The results indicate that the microstructure of calcium ferrites is a major factor influencing crack resistance of sintered ore. Finer grain size of calcium ferrite will lead to higher cracking threshold and better crack resistance of sintered ore. The formation of calcium ferrite with fine grain size during sintering process is favorable for crack resistance of sintered ore.

  6. Fundamentals of fast reduction of ultrafine iron ore at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhao; Peimin Guo

    2008-01-01

    Fundamentals on the fast reduction of ultrafine iron ore at low temperature, including characterization of ultrafine ore, de- oxidation thermodynamics of stored-energy ultrafine ore, kinetics of iron ore deoxidation, and deoxidation mechanism, etc., and a new ironmaking process are presented in this article. Ultrafine ore concentrate with a high amount of stored energy can be produced by mechanical milling, and can be dcoxidated fast below 700℃ by either the coal-based or gas-based process. This novel process has some advantages over others: high productivity, low energy consumption, and environmental friendliness.

  7. Explosion-assisted preparation of dispersed gold-bearing different-grade ore for selective mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubachev, AI; Zykov, NV

    2017-02-01

    It is found that there are transient zones (between quality and off-quality ore areas) with the respective content of useful component in an ore body, and a variant of explosive treatment of such zones before the selective mining is put forward. Practicability of two processing technologies is evaluated: processing of high-grade and low-grade ore from the transient zones and heap leaching of metals from the low-grade and impoverished ore. Open mining technology is conventional truck-and-shovel scheme, with distributed ore flows to processing plant and (or) to heap leaching, which generally enhances the mine efficiency.

  8. Mineralogical Zonation of Wall-Rock Alteration in Jiaodong Gold Province, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Mineralogical zonation of wall-rock alterations in Mesozoic granitoids is summarized from 18 gold deposits in Jiaodong gold province on the Asian mobile continental margin of the west circum-Pacific rim. This paper deals with wall-rock alterations developed around gold mineralizations of the quartz-vein type in granitoids and the wall-rock alteration type in granitoid-basement contacts alongMesozoic fault zones trending mostly NNE-SSW and NE-SW. Five alteration zones are distinguished from host rock to ore zone, namely the chloritization and sericitization zone, the hematitization-rutilization and microclinization zone, the quartz-sericitization zone, the pyrite-quartz-sericitization zone and the pyrite-silicification zone. The former two are outer zones marked by incomplete alteration of first mafic and then felsic minerals of the granitoids, while the later three are inner zones marked by complete alteration of both mafic and felsic minerals of the granitoids leading to retrogressive sericitization and progressive silicification with participation of ore elements. The whole process proceeds under dynamometamorphism with high fugacity of volatiles. Wall-rock alteration is the intermediate link between unaltered host rock and ore mineralization both in time and space. Development of the alteration zonation and its mineral composition controls genetic type of mineralization, size and grade of the deposit and location of the ore zones.

  9. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  10. Development of Technology for Enrichment of Silver Containing Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekiladze, Asmati; Kavtelashvili, Otari; Bagnashvili, Mamuka

    2016-10-01

    The progress of Georgian economics is substantially associated with a development of new deposits of mineral resources. Among them is the David-Gareji deposit where at present the intensive searching geological works are performed. The work goal involves the elaboration of the technology for processing of silver-containing quartz-barite ores. Without its development the mining of more valuable gold-polymetallic ores is impossible. Because of ore complexity silver and barite are considered in a common technological aspect. The investigations were carried out on the representative samples of quartz-barite ores containing 78-88 g/ton of silver and 27-29 % of silver is a nugget in the form of the simple sulphides and chlorides. The ore is characterized by fine coalescence of barite and ore-generating minerals. Non-ferrous metals haven't any industrial value because of their very low content. Therefore, for the processing of the ores under study the direct selective scheme of flotation enrichment was chosen and the formula of optimal reagent regime was elaborated. Potassium xanthogenate is used as a collector for flotation of silver minerals and pine oil- as a foaming agent. The effect of the pulp - pH and medium temperature on silver flotation was studied. It was established that the silver is actively floats in neutral medium. For barite flotation the various collectors were tested: sulfidezid cotton oil-soap stock, soaps of fatty acids and alkyl sulphates of C12 - C16 row, among the “Baritol” is the most efficient one. Depression of the barren rock was carried out by liquid glass in alkaline medium. The effect of pulp pH on barite flotation has been investigated. The best results were obtained at pH=8.5. The increase of the pulp alkalinity has no essential effect on the indexes of the barite enrichment. Conditional concentrate of the barite is obtained by two fold purification of the main flotation concentrate by the addition of the liquid glass to the re

  11. Adsorption and removal of arsenic from water by iron ore mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Van Trang; Pham, Tuan Linh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuth; Ngo, Huu Hao; Kandasamy, J; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Nguyen, Duc Tho

    2009-01-01

    There is a global need to develop low-cost technologies to remove arsenic from water for individual household water supply. In this study, a purified and enriched waste material (treated magnetite waste, TMW) from the Trai Cau's iron ore mine in the Thai Nguyen Province in Vietnam was examined for its capacity to remove arsenic. The treatment system was packed with TMW that consisted of 75% of ferrous-ferric oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) and had a large surface area of 89.7 m(2)/g. The experiments were conducted at a filtration rate of 0.05 m/h to treat groundwater with an arsenic concentration of 380 microg/L and iron, manganese and phosphate concentrations of 2.07 mg/L, 0.093 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L respectively. The batch experimental results show that this new material was able to absorb up to 0.74 mg arsenic/g. The results also indicated that the treatment system removed more than 90% arsenic giving an effluent with an arsenic concentration of less than 30 microg/L while achieving a removal efficiency of about 80% for Mn(2 + ) and PO(4) (3-). This could be a promising and cost-effective new material for capturing arsenic as well as other metals from groundwater.

  12. Leaching of a Cu-Co ore from Congo using sulphuric acidhydrogen peroxide leachants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cu-Co ore from Katinga Province, the Republic of Congo containing 1.5% Co and 1.6% Cu was tested to determine the leachability of Cu and Co using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures at different conditions. Without hydrogen peroxide, the maximum extraction of copper and cobalt were found to be ~80% and ~15%, respectively when the acid concentration was varied between 0.36 - 1.1M. When hydrogen peroxide was added (0.008-0.042M, Cu recovery was enhanced to ~90%. Recoveries of ~90% of Co could be achieved at 20ºC, using leachants consisting of 0.36M sulphuric acid and 0.025M hydrogen peroxide after 3 hours. The reaction time to reach 90% Co extraction was reduced to less than 2 hours at 30ºC. Stabcal modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams shows the importance of hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. The decrease of solution potential (300-350 mV by adding hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by Eh measurements during the tests. The leaching follows the shrinking core model kinetics, where the rate constant is linearly dependent on hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range 0-0.025M and proportional to (1/r2 where r is the average radius of the mineral particles. The activation energy for the leaching process is 72.3 kJ/mol.

  13. A new strain Acidithiobacillus albertensis BY-05 for bioleaching of metal sulfides ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-lan; PENG An-an; HE Huan; YANG Yu; LIU Xue-duan; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    An acidophilic, rod-shaped Gram-negative sulfur oxidizing strain BY-05 was isolated from an acid mine drainage of copper ore in Baiyin area, Gansu Province, China. Ultrastructural studies show that the isolate has a tuft of polar flagella and possesses sulfur granules with clear membrane adhering to the cell innermembrane. Physiological study shows that this isolate grows autotrophically and aerobically by oxidizing S0 and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (S2O2-3,S2O2-4,S2- and ZnS) with the optimum growth at pH 3.5-4.0 and at the temperature range of 25-30 ℃. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (DQ 423683) of strain BY-05 has 100% sequence similarity to that of Acidithiobacillus albertensis (DSM 14366). So it is identified and named as A. albertensis BY-05. Bioleaching experiments with this new strain show that it can play an important role in recovery of metals from chalcopyrite and sphalerite.

  14. China's emergence as the world's leading iron-ore-consuming country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, W.S.

    2004-01-01

    China has become the leading iron ore consuming nation, and, based on recent steel production capacity increases and plans for more, its consumption will almost certainly to continue to grow. China's iron ore industry, however, faces a number of problems. China's iron ore is low-grade, expensive to process, and its mines are being depleted. For many Chinese steelmakers, particularly in the coastal regions, the delivered cost of domestic iron ore, is more than the delivered cost of foreign ore. Thus China's iron ore imports are expected to increase. As China's growth continues, it will almost certainly surpass Japan to become the leading iron ore importing country as well. Without China's increasing appetite for iron ore, the world iron ore market would be flat or declining. China's recent imports largely offset the slump in demand in North America and Europe. China is regarded by the iron ore industry as the growth sector for the next decade. Although Chinese imports are expected to continue their rapid increase and imports in other Asian countries are expected to continue growing, there appears to be enough greenfield and expansion projects to meet future demand for iron ore worldwide. Present suppliers of iron ore, Australia, Brazil, India, and South Africa, will probably be the chief beneficiaries of China's increasing consumption of iron ore. How long China can continue its extraordinary growth is the primary issue for the future of the iron ore industry. Based on the number and size of planned blast furnaces it appears that China's growth could continue for several more years. ?? 2004 Taylor and Francis.

  15. In Western Liaoning province area oil shale need for geological exploration and mining development%辽西地区油页岩矿急待勘查开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫占全

    2011-01-01

    当前国际能源的短缺,油页岩炼制页岩油可替代石油能源.辽西地区油页岩矿分布广泛,资源储量规模巨大,综合开发利用经济价值高.为早日改变辽西的贫穷与落后,勘查开发油页岩矿迫在眉睫.%The current international energy shortage, Shale oil shale oil refining alternative energy sources. In liaoning province oil shale contains western region ore widely distributed, Contain oil shale mineral resources is very big, Contain oil shale ore comprehensive exploitation and utilization of economic value is very big. In western liaoning province area accelerate transformation of poverty and backwardness, Geology exploration and mining development including oil shale ore is imminent.

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  17. Application of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy as a tool for mining exploration of bornite (Cu5FeS4) copper ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainov, R. R.; Vagizov, F. G.; Golovanevskiy, V. A.; Ksenofontov, V. A.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Klekovkina, V. V.; Shumilova, T. G.; Pen'kov, I. N.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear resonance methods, including Mössbauer spectroscopy,are considered as unique techniques suitable for remote on-line mineralogical analysis. The employment of these methods provides potentially significant commercial benefits for mining industry. As applied to copper sulfide ores, Mössbauer spectroscopy method is suitable for the analysis noted. Bornite (formally Cu5FeS4) is a significant part of copper ore and identification of its properties is important for economic exploitation of commercial copper ore deposits. A series of natural bornite samples was studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Two aspects were considered: reexamination of 57Fe Mössbauer properties of natural bornite samples and their stability irrespective of origin and potential use of miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometers MIMOS II for in-situ bornite identification. The results obtained show a number of potential benefits of introducing the available portative Mössbauer equipment into the mining industry for express mineralogical analysis. In addition, results of some preliminary 63,65Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies of bornite are reported and their merits with Mössbauer techniques for bornite detection discussed.

  18. 日本福岛核事故对辽宁省局部地区环境放射性水平的影响%The impact of Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident on environmental radiation levels in some areas of Liaoning province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石二为; 崔勇; 张谦; 李涤; 李鑫; 要爽; 刘明辉; 郭军巧

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价日本福岛第一核电站核泄漏事故对辽宁省局部地区环境放射性水平的影响程度.方法 对大气气溶胶、沉降灰、饮用水、蔬菜、牛奶、海产品进行γ核素的能谱测量和总放射性分析;对人工裂变核素131I、134Cs和137Cs等放射性水平进行应急监测.结果 核事故发生20 d后,在大气中陆续监测到了人工核素131I以及134Cs、137Cs,最高浓度分别为4.6 ×10-3、2.9 ×10-4和4.2×10-4Bq/m3,并分别持续存在25、4和6d.沈阳采集的蔬菜、牛奶、饮用水以及丹东产的海产品中未发现人工核素.结论 日本核事故对辽宁省大气造成了轻度污染,但未对蔬菜、牛奶及饮用水造成污染.%Objective To investigate the environmental impact of the Japanese Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant accident on radiation levels in some areas of Liaoning province.Methods The emergent monitoring was performed by detecting atmosphere aerosols,precipitations,drinking water,vegetables,milk and seafood by gamma spectrometry analysis and gross activity measurements.Results The fission radionuclides of 131I,134Cs and 137Cs were detected in atmosphere aerosols 20 d after nuclear accident.The rad ionuclides of 131I,134Cs and 137Cs were found existing in atmosphere for 25,4 and 6 d,respectively,with the highest concentrations of 4.6 × 10 3,2.9 × 10-4 and 4.2 × 10-4 Bq/m3,respectively.The man-made fission radionuclides could not be detected in vegetablcs,drinking water and milk from Shenyang city and seafood from Dandong city.Conclusions The atmosphere might be slightly contaminated in Liaoning province due to the nuclear accident,whereas the vegetables,milk and drinking water not contaminated.

  19. The Isotopic Composition of Noble Gases in Gold Deposits and the Source of Ore-Forming Materials in the Region of North Hebei,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝德; 牛树银; 孙爱群; 李红阳

    2003-01-01

    The source of ore-forming materials has long been a controversial focus both in metallogenic theory and in ore-searching practice. This study deals with the helium and argon isotopic characteristics of pyrites from 11 gold deposits and some country rocks in the gold mineralizationconcentrated areas within the three mantle-branch structures in the region of North Hebei Province. It is indicated that 3He/4He ratios in the gold deposits are within the range of 0.93 × 10 -6-7.3×10-6,with an average of 3.55 × 10-6; R/Ra =0.66 -4.93,averaging 2.53;40Ar/39Ar ratios vary between 426 and 2073,with the average value of 40Ar being 8.32; and the average of 4He/40Ar ratios is 2.17. 3He/4He ratios in gneiss and granite in the periphery of the mining district are within the range of 0. 001 × 10 -6 _ 0. 55 × 10 -6,reflecting significant differences in their sources. 3 He and 4 He fall near the mantle,as is shown in the He concentration diagram. Studies have shown that the ore-forming materials in this region should come from the deep interior of the Earth. With the multi-stage evolution of mantle plume,ore-forming fluids in the deep interior were moving upwards to shallow levels (crust). Under such circumstances,there would be inevitably occur crust/mantle fluid mixing,so their noble gas isotopic characteristics are intermediate between the mantle and the crust.

  20. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  1. The genesis of the base metal ore deposit from Herja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Damian

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Herja ore deposit is one of the most known of the Baia Mare Neogene metallogenetic district and is associated with a complex stock of Pannonian age. The hydrothermal alterations associated with the mineralizations are represented by: the propylitization, the argillization, the phyllic and potassic alteration. The monoascenedant character of the mineralizations is predominant. The magmatic intrusions have been sequential placed and have represented the heat, metals and hydrothermal solutions source. In the first stages of mineralization the hydrothermal solutions contain predominantly magmatic water and in the final stages the water is of connate and meteoric origin. According to the structural magmatic control, to the mineralogical composition and to the hydrothermal alterations, the Herja ore deposits are of a low sulphidation epithermal systems type.

  2. Estimation of Springing Response for 550 000 DWT Ore Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiaan Adika Adenya; Huilong Ren; Hui Li; Di Wang

    2016-01-01

    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier’s response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier’s springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  3. Creep in model pillars. [Salt, trona, and potash ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obert, L.

    1965-03-01

    A study was made of the deformational behavior (creep) of pillars made from three quasi-plastic rock--salt, trona, and potash ore. The first phase of this study considers the design of a model pillar suitable for creep tests; in the second phase, six model pillars were prepared from salt from two sources, from trona, and from potash ore. The pillars in each group were subjected to a different but constant axial stress, and the axial strain was measured for 1,000 hours. An analysis of the data shows that in general the creep rate for these model pillars can be expressed by the relationship .epsilon = K/sub 1/ sigma/sub 0//sup n/, where .epsilon is the strain rate, sigma/sub 0/ is the applied stress, and K/sub 1/ and n are constants. For the rocks included in this test, n ranged from 2.4 to 3.3.

  4. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  5. Speciation and recovery of chromium from chromite ore processing residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, K J; Ramasami, T

    2001-10-01

    The processing of chromite ore is associated with the generation of large quantities of solid wastes containing chromium, which have been disposed of as landfill for many years. The mobilization and operational speciation of chromium contained in soils contaminated with metal salts are important in terms of the environment. Several methods have been employed for the extraction and recovery of solid wastes. Chromium contained in contaminated soils and solid wastes can be categorized as exchangeable, oxidizable, carbonate-bound, reducible and residual. The results from this study indicate a need for efficient leaching methodologies in chromite ore processing plants to decrease the non-detrital fractions of chromium in the residue. Aggressive methodologies are required to recover chromium from the detrital fractions. The potential benefits of employing sodium peroxide for the complete recovery of chromium from chromite residue have been demonstrated, and the need to ensure the safety of the process has been emphasized.

  6. Phase transformations of siderite ore by the thermomagnetic analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomar, V. P.; Dudchenko, N. O.; Brik, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    Thermal decomposition of Bakal siderite ore (that consists of magnesium siderite and ankerite traces) was investigated by thermomagnetic analysis. Thermomagnetic analysis was carried-out using laboratory-built facility that allows automatic registration of sample magnetization with the temperature (heating/cooling rate was 65°/min, maximum temperature 650 °C) at low- and high-oxygen content. Curie temperature gradually decreases with each next cycles of heating/cooling at low-oxygen content. Curie temperature decrease after 2nd cycle of heating/cooling at high-oxygen content and do not change with next cycles. Final Curie temperature for both modes was 320 °C. Saturation magnetization of obtained samples increases up to 20 Am2/kg. The final product of phase transformation at both modes was magnesioferrite. It was shown that intermediate phase of thermal decomposition of Bakal siderite ore was magnesiowustite.

  7. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Keller, Rudolf; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1981-01-01

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  8. Direct reduction of iron ore by biomass char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hai-bin; Hu, Zheng-wen; Zhang, Jian-liang; Li, Jing; Liu, Zheng-jian

    2013-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis the process and mechanism of iron ore reduced by biomass char were investigated and compared with those reduced by coal and coke. It is found that biomass char has a higher reactivity. The increase of carbon-to-oxygen mole ratio (C/O) can lead to the enhancement of reaction rate and reduction fraction, but cannot change the temperature and trend of each reaction. The reaction temperature of hematite reduced by biomass char is at least 100 K lower than that reduced by coal and coke, the maximum reaction rate is 1.57 times as high as that of coal, and the final reaction fraction is much higher. Model calculation indicates that the use of burden composed of biomass char and iron ore for blast furnaces can probably decrease the temperature of the thermal reserve zone and reduce the CO equilibrium concentration.

  9. Cadmium extraction from phosphate ore. Effect of microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahia Benredjem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the operating variables for removal of cadmium from phosphate ore using Na2EDTA. These variables include the reaction time, Na2EDTA concentration, liquid/phosphate ore ratio, number of extractions and microwave extraction. Na2EDTA induced a two-step extraction process including a rapid extraction within the first hour, and a subsequent gradual release that occurred over the following hours. The cadmium extraction efficiency increased progressively with the increasing of Na2EDTA concentration. The extraction efficiency of cadmium increased with increasing liquid/phosphate ratio in the 5–200 range. Consecutive extractions using low concentrations were more effective than a single soil extraction with concentrated Na2EDTA. Microwave was beneficial to improve the removal in soil washing, and using microwave could partly substitute for agitation.

  10. Estimation of springing response for 550 000 DWT ore carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Ren, Huilong; Li, Hui; Wang, Di

    2016-09-01

    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier's response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier's springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  11. Bacterial leaching of discarded copper ores from Yongping, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The elementary and phase analysis of discarded copper ores from Yongping of China has been performed. The experiments of extracting copper from the discarded copper ores were done with the mixed bacteria obtained through a series of enrichment,separation, domestication and combination tests. The results show that in the process of bioleaching, the pH value rises at first and drops gradually. The Eh value keeps rising along with the time and the appropriate Eh value varying between 750 and 800 mV will benefit the bioleaching copper. The high concentration of ferric ions is detrimental to the bioleaching copper. The results of bioleaching copper are good. That is, the copper recovery is 31.8% after 27 days.

  12. Flotation studies on low grade graphite ore from eastern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasumathi N.; Vijaya Kumar T.V.; Ratchambigai S.; Subba Rao S.; Bhaskar Raju G

    2015-01-01

    A low grade graphite ore from eastern India was beneficiated by flotation to improve its quality. The ore was composed of 87.80%ash and 8.59%fixed carbon. Primary coarse wet grinding (d80:186 lm) followed by rougher flotation in Denver flotation cell using diesel as collector and pine oil as frother yielded a rougher concentrate. Regrinding (d80:144 lm) of this rougher concentrate was opted for further libera-tion of graphite. It was followed by cleaning in laboratory flotation column. This combined process of relatively coarse primary grinding followed by regrinding and cleaning in flotation column resulted in final concentrate of 7.44% yield with 89.65% fixed carbon and 6.00% ash. This approach of two-stage grinding to recover the flake graphite at the coarsest possible grind can help to minimize grinding energy costs. A conceptual flow sheet which is cost effective was developed based on this methodology.

  13. Ammonia Leaching Study on Lanping Carbonate Containing Silver Oxidised Copper Ores in Yunnan%兰坪燕子洞含银氧化铜矿常温常压氨浸试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁民; 方建军; 蒋太国; 毛莹博

    2014-01-01

    The effects of oxidized copper ores which came from Lanping of Yunnan Province were studied using agitation leaching methods in laboratory in order to find out the optimum leaching conditions under normal temperature and pressure .Silver content of the ores was high .The ores belonged to typical carbonate minerals .The optimum conditions obtained were as follows:ammonia concentration 1.5 mol/L, granding fineness about 85% -0.074 mm, liquid -solid ratio 2.5∶1 and leching time 3 h.The leaching rate of this ore could reach 70%.%针对兰坪燕子洞碳酸盐型含银氧化铜矿石高碱性、高砷、高结合率的特点,进行了常温常压氨浸试验研究。研究表明:常温常压,在氨水浓度1.5 mol/L,碳酸氢铵浓度1.5 mol/L,磨矿细度-0.074 mm占85%,液固比2.5∶1,浸出时间3 h条件下,铜浸出率可达70%。氨浸液经萃取-电积可得到99.95%的电积铜,有效地实现了铜元素的回收利用。

  14. SR-XRFA in Biogeochemical Studies: Elemental Composition of Larch Tissues (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) of the Kuranakh Gold ore Field (Russia, Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, Svetlana Yu.; Zhuravskaya, Alla N.

    Technogenic impact on the elemental composition of larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) in the Kuranakh Gold ore field (Russia, Yakutia) is considered. Elemental composition of the larch tissues was determined by means of X-ray fluorescence measurements with synchrotron radiation at the "Siberian Synchrotron and Terahertz Radiation Center" based on VEPP-3 of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS. Comprehensive possibilities of the X-ray fluorescence measurements along with the simple preparation of biological samples, allowed us to carry out valuable biogeochemical studies. New data on the accumulation of macroelements K, Ca, Mn, Fe, biophilic microelements Cu, Zn, chalcophilous Mo, Pb, Ag, As, Sb, Ga, Cd, Tl, rare lithophilous Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, in the tissues of larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) of the natural taiga landscape and the tailing dump in the Kuranakh Gold ore field were obtained. The results allow us to assess both natural and technogenic biogeochemical anomalous aureole of gold mining areas.

  15. Natural radionuclide concentrations in two phosphate ores of east Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakehal, Ch. [Department of Physics, Mentouri Constantine University, 25000 Constantine (Algeria); Ramdhane, M., E-mail: ramdhane@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Mentouri Constantine University, 25000 Constantine (Algeria); Boucenna, A. [Department of Physics, Ferhat-Abbas University, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2010-05-15

    Ore is considered as an important source of many elements such as the iron, phosphorus, and uranium. Concerning the natural radionuclides, their concentrations vary from an ore to other depending on the chemical composition of each site. In this work, two phosphate ores found in East of Algeria have been chosen to assess the activity concentration of natural radionuclides represented mainly by three natural radioactive series {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th, and the primordial radionuclide {sup 40}K where they were determined using ultra-low background, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured activity concentrations of radioactive series ranged from 6.2 +- 0.4 to 733 +- 33 Bq.kg{sup -1} for the {sup 232}Th series, from 249 +- 16 to 547 +- 39 Bq.kg{sup -1} for the {sup 238}U series, around 24.2 +- 2.5 Bq.kg{sup -1} for the {sup 235}U series, and from 1.4 +- 0.2 to 6.7 +- 0.7 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. To assess exposure to gamma radiation in the two ores, from specific activities of {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra, three indexes were determined: Radium equivalent (Ra{sub eq}), external and internal hazard indexes (H{sub ex} and H{sub in}), their values ranged from 831 +- 8 to 1298 +- 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} for Ra{sub eq}, from 2.2 +- 0.4 to 3.5 +- 0.7 Bq.kg{sup -1} for H{sub ex}, and from 4.2 +- 0.7 to 4.5 +- 0.7 Bq.kg{sup -1} for H{sub in}.

  16. The extractive metallurgy of south africa's platinum ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Larry A.

    2001-10-01

    The extraction technology for platinum-group metals (PGMs) has changed dramatically in the last 80 years, and the changes are likely to continue for years to come. This article will review advances in PGM extraction, including developments in semi-autogenous and fully autogenous milling; flotation equipment applications for treating high-chrome ores; increases in power densities for future smelting furnaces, and new methods for meeting rising environmental standards.

  17. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PHOSPHATIC ORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.L.

    1959-04-14

    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  18. Bioprocessing low grade copper ores - a promising alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; d'Hugues, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an overview of the work performed by the BRGM team in the last 10 years on the development of bio-hydrometallurgy dedicated to the processing of low-grade copper ores from the Kupferschiefer deposits. It covers selection and adaptation of microbial consortia, optimization of process operating parameters such as solid contents, the relationship between bioleaching performance and mineralogy, testing operating parameters to overcome chalcopyrite recal...

  19. THE SOLUBILITY OF MILAS BAUXITE ORE IN SULPHURIC ACI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GULFEN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcination conditions,sulphuric acid concentrations and dissolvingtemperature and period as parameters to thesolubility of the bauxite ore from Gobekdagı reservesin Mugla-Milas region were investigated. The bauxitesamples were calcined in different periods at differenttemperatures. Then the solubility of the calcinedbauxite samples in sulphuric acid solution wasexamined. Dissolving activation energy (Ea wascalculated using the optimum kinetics equation andthe results obtained from the solubility studiesexamined dissolving temperatures and periods

  20. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated naphthalenes from iron ore sintering processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Cheng; Hu, Jicheng

    2012-10-01

    Iron ore sintering processes constitute significant sources of dioxins, and studies have confirmed a close correlation between polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin formation. Thus, iron ore sintering processes are thought to be a potential source of PCNs, although intensive investigations on PCN emissions from sintering processes have not been carried out. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to qualify and quantify PCN emissions from nine sintering plants operating on different industrial scales. PCN concentrations ranged from 3 to 983 ng m(-3) (0.4-23.3 pg TEQ(PCN) m(-3)) and emission factors ranged from 14 to 1749 μg t(-1) (0.5-41.5 ng TEQ(PCN) t(-1)), with a geometric mean of 84 μg t(-1) (2.1 ng TEQ(PCN) t(-1)). The estimated annual emission of PCNs from sintering processes in China was 1390 mg TEQ(PCN). These figures will assist in the development of a PCN emissions inventory. Regarding emission characteristics, PCNs mainly comprised low-chlorinated homologs. The ratios of several characteristic PCN congeners were also measured and compared with those from other sources. Taken together, these results may provide useful information for identifying the sources of PCNs produced by iron ore sintering processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the problems of the Litija ore field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mlakar

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available All available information on the now inaccessible Pb-Zb-Ba deposits Litija, Zavrstnik, Zagorica, Maljek, Hrastarija and Štriglovec was critically evaluated. Data were completed and numerous earlier unsolved questions were answered.In the studied area the existence of a Middle Triassic tectonic-erosional phase was proved, the Old Tertiary overthrust structure analyzed and the relative ages of various neotectonic fault systems established.Special attention was attributed to the Litija, or Sitarjevec, deposit. On the ground of data on position of thick shale intercalations within Carboniferous sandstone the geological structure of the deposit was reconstructed, proofs on the conforming or unconforming position of orebodies collected, and certain relati¬onships between the pre-ore and post-ore tectonics clarified. With geochemical investigations the presence of an extensive dispersion halo was proved, in which the anomalies produced by Pb, Hg and Ba are the best expressed.Also the position of other deposits in space and in stratigraphic column was defined. At the end also the author's views on genesis and age of mineralization are presented. Orebodies are hydrothermal. subvertical, epignetic and predominantly discordant, with poorly expressed vertical zoning.The work is a synthesis of understanding of geological structure and mineralization in the Litija ore field.

  2. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, B.; Thiele, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well.

  3. Contact mechanical analysis of O-ring stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this project is to develop the approximate solutions of contact traction and internal stress of an O-ring by using a two dimensional elasticity for enhancing the design and failure prediction technology. Investigated were the applicability of Lindley's formulae of contact force prediction and the Hertz theory. Three cases of O-ring installation were considered. The approximate solution of contact tractions and internal stresses of each case were derived. The key results are summarized as follows: 1. It is verified that Lindley's formulae predicts the relationship between the fractional compression and contact force. 2. In the case of Case I, II and III without internal pressure, it is found that a function form of the contact traction is the Hertzian. So it is possible to express the traction with a Hertzian form and correction factors. 3. The internal stresses are derived in the case of the Hertzian traction profile. The stresses at the center of O-ring show a satisfactory result when compared with the finite element result.

  4. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: sjin@uwyo.edu [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  5. Source of ore-forming substances and theoretical problems of metallogeny relevant to the Bayan Obo Fe-REE ore deposits in Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹荣龙; 朱寿华; 王俊文

    1995-01-01

    The source of rare earth elements (REE) ore-forming substances is identified to be extremelydistinct from that of iron ores.The Bayan Obo Fe-REE ore deposits were generated by a composite processof both crustal and mantle source mineralization.The original iron bodies are of a sedimentary deposit fromsupergenesis,while the REE ores have been formed by mantle fluid metasomatism superimposed upon thepre-existing iron bodies.It is believed that the REE ore deposit would be controlled by intracontinental hotspot.The H8 dolomite in mine regions belongs to normal sedimentary carbonate rock,its C and O isotopiccomposition rules out the possibility comparable with magrnatic carbonatite.The Sm-Nd isochrons of separatedREE minerals have shown two REE peak mineralization periods:early-middle Proterozoic (1 700 Ma±480 Ma) andCaledonia (424-402 Ma).

  6. Ore petrography of low-grade siliceous manganese ores from the Bonai-Keonjhar belt, Orissa, India: The influence of mineral-fabric on their beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mishra Subrat; Mohapatra Birendra Kumar; Dash Nilima; Rao Danda Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    Low grade siliceous manganese ores from the iron ore group of the Bonai-Keonjhar belt,Orissa,India are found mostly in shear zones.The ore characteristics of siliceous manganese ore samples from three different mines,viz.the Shankar (Barbil OMC lease hold area),the Sone-Patuli (Patmunda,OMM lease hold area),and the Musaghar (Roida,OMDC lease hold area),were studied.These siliceous manganese ores are of three types,respectively:(i) spongy-granular; (ii) massive-mosaic; and (iii) hard-mylonitized.The spongy-granular type contains granular,saccharoidal quartz and the major manganese mineral present is pyrolusite.The second type contains well crystallized quartz and cryptomelane,while the third has cherty,fine grained quartz (mylonite) along with romanechite.All three ores were subjected to physical beneflciation under similar conditions.Both gravity and magnetic separation techniques were employed.The mineral-fabric of the ores has been correlated to the extent of their beneflciation using these physical techniques.Of these three ores only the spongy-granular type responded well to upgrading.The feed with 22% Mn content could be upgraded to 44% with a 28% yield and a 49% recovery.The good response to beneficiation of the spongygranular sample could be due to the large euhedral crystals of pyrolusite and the friable nature of the saccharoidal quartz.This study reveals the influence of mineral-fabric on beneficiation of low grade ore,siliceous Mn ore in particular.

  7. Nuclear Minerals Plants in Brazil-Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the process flow sheet of the main nuclear industrial units in Brazil and discusses some solvent extraction technical support required for these plants. The Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology-CDTN has been investigating alternative ways to supply the nuclear industry in order to improve the industrial processes. Some case study examples are presented, Emulsion from Uranium has caused continuous changes in the composition of pregnant liquor mainly in the sulfate and chloride concentrations. After some water recirculation cycles, a decrease in the uranium extraction efficiency was noted which was followed by the formation of stable emulsion at the uranium extraction stage. Itataia Ufanium Developments were performed in a pilot plant for Itataia ore. This ore has the uranium mineral associated to the phosphate. The process consists of four main steps: 1) phosphate concentration, 2) chemical digestion of the concentrate to produce phosphoric acid with dissolved uranium, 3) uranium recovery, and 4) phosphoric acid purification by solvent extraction.

  8. Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuling; HOU Zengqian; XU Jiuhua; YUAN Zhongxin; BAI Ge; LI Xiaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Mianning-Dechang Himalayan REE Metallogenetic Belt in Sichuan Province lies along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton. We have conducted detailed mineralogical studies on ore minerals collected from Maoniuping and Dalucao, the two largest deposits in the belt. With optical microscope, SEM/EDS, and EPMA, three rare intermetallic minerals, i.e., zinccopperite (Cu2Zn), Sn- bearing native copper, and Cu-bearing jupiter were found to occur in the main ore along with barite, fluorite, apatite, sulfide and bastnaesite. Since the conditions under which zinccopperite and Sn- bearing native copper formed are quite unique, finding of these minerals, for the first time in domestic REE deposits, has significant implications for the genesis of the ore deposits in which they occur. In comparison with Cu-Zn intermetallic minerals in other occurrences, we propose that the formation of this REE metallogenetic belt is associated with fast upwelling of the Himalayan magma from deep source.

  9. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  10. Leaching of Silver from Boorchi Ag-Pb Ore in Mongolia with Acidic Thiourea Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyamdelger Shirchinnamjil; 杨超; 方兆珩

    2008-01-01

    A hydrometalhirgical process to extract silver from the silver-lead ore in Boorchi, Mongolia by using thiourealeaching solution is studied in this work. Through the observation of optical and scanning electron microscopes, and energyspectral analysis, it is determined that 5 kinds of silver minerals exist in the ore, including argentite, Ag-tetrahedrite,Ag-Zn-Sb-tetrahedrite, freibergite and acanthite. The experimental results of direct thiourea leaching of the ore show that56%~60% of silver is leached. The main reason for the low leaching rate is due to silver minerals enveloped in galena andother minerals, even though the ore is ground to the particle size of 75 μm. When the ore is pretreated with ammoniumcarbonate solution under oxidation, the experimental results of thiourea leaching show that the leaching rate of silver increasesto near 75% with the pretreatment. Based on the leaching experiments, a principle hydrometallurgical technological route toextract silver from the Ag-Pb ore is proposed.

  11. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  12. Geology and ore deposits of the Pioche district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, L.G.; Knopf, Adolph

    1932-01-01

    LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES The Bristol Range, Highland, and Ely Range quadrangles make up the larger part of a. rectangular area 35 miles north and south by 24 miles east and west, which lies 19 miles west of the Nevada-Utah line and about 250 miles southwest of Salt Lake City. The district lies within the Great Basin, a semiarid region of alternating mountain ranges and intermontane plains floored largely by outwash from the mountains. The plain, which slopes away from the ranges, stands between 4,700 and 6,000 feet above the sea. The Bristol and Highland Ranges, which are separated only by a low gap, form an almost continuous north-south range that rises about 2,500 feet above the highest part of the surrounding plain, to general altitudes of 8,000 to 9,000 feet, though the highest point, Highland Peak, reaches 9,395 feet. A lower range, the Ely Range, with a northwesterly trend, lies farther east and nearly in touch with the Bristol-Highland Range. The town of Pioche lies midway on the. eastern foot of the Ely Range. ROOKS OF THE PIOOHB REGION The rocks of the ranges are Paleozoic sediments, Tertiary (?) lavas and intrusive rocks, and Pliocene (?) tuffs. The Paleozoic sediments have a total thickness of nearly 18,000 feet. Over 8,000 feet of the Cambrian has been measured without reaching its base. The lowest Cambrian formation is a quartzite, of which only the upper 1,500 feet is exposed, and this is followed by 1,200 feet of shale, 400 feet of limestone, aoid 150 feet of shale. Above this second shale the upper three-fourths of the Cambrian consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone. It is in the quartzite and in the limestone interbedded in and bounding the shales that the main ore bodies of the district have been found. Above the Cambrian comes 1,795 feet of Ordovician limestone, with some interbedded dolomite and with a 50-foot quartzite a, third of the way down from the top; 75 feet of Silurian dolomite; 3,000 feet of Middle Devonian dolomite with

  13. Effects of iron oxidizing bacteria in thiourea leaching of gold ores

    OpenAIRE

    甲斐, 敬美; 山崎, 研市; 高橋, 武重; カイ, タカミ; ヤマサキ, ケンイチ; タカハシ, タケシゲ; KAI, Takami; YAMASAKI, Kenichi; Takahashi, Takeshige

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial leaching was combined with thiourea method for the gold leaching from ores. For gold bearing pyrites, biological pre-oxidation has been generally perfomed. In the present study, we carried out the biological treatment to the high silicate bearing ores by using the iron oxidizing bacteria, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The recovery of gold and silver was enhanced by the biological pretreatment, while the effects of the treatment was influenced by the types of gold ores. Since the biolog...

  14. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  15. The Revovery of Copper and Cobalt from Oxidized Copper Ore and Converter Slag

    OpenAIRE

    ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Berrin; ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Recep

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for obtaining copper and cobalt from oxidized copper ore and converter slag. In order to convert the copper and cobalt into sulfate compounds the main step was to roast the samples obtained by sulfurization and transfer the samples into solution. First the oxidized copper ore was roasted, followed by the mixture of converter slag and oxidized copper ore. Since the levels of copper and cobalt were low, the sulfurization process was carri...

  16. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  17. China's First Salvaging Robot for Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Researchers from the CAS Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu,capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, have been successful in building China's first robot for searching and retrieving underwater foreign objects in nuclear power stations.

  18. Monitoring Fallout From Fukushima, Japan After Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, on March 23rd, 2011, following the radioactivity releases after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the first arrival of the airborne fission products 131I in Heilongjiang province the northeast of China, were detected

  19. Variations in the uranium isotopic compositions of uranium ores from different types of uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarova, Yulia A.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Geagea, Majdi Lahd; Chipley, Don

    2014-12-01

    Variations in 238U/235U and 234U/238U ratios were measured in uranium minerals from a spectrum of uranium deposit types, as well as diagenetic phosphates in uranium-rich basins and peraluminous rhyolites and associated autunite mineralisation from Macusani Meseta, Peru. Mean δ238U values of uranium minerals relative to NBL CRM 112-A are 0.02‰ for metasomatic deposits, 0.16‰ for intrusive, 0.18‰ for calcrete, 0.18‰ for volcanic, 0.29‰ for quartz-pebble conglomerate, 0.29‰ for sandstone-hosted, 0.44‰ for unconformity-type, and 0.56‰ for vein, with a total range in δ238U values from -0.30‰ to 1.52‰. Uranium mineralisation associated with igneous systems, including low-temperature calcretes that are sourced from U-rich minerals in igneous systems, have low δ238U values of ca. 0.1‰, near those of their igneous sources, whereas uranium minerals in basin-hosted deposits have higher and more variable values. High-grade unconformity-related deposits have δ238U values around 0.2‰, whereas lower grade unconformity-type deposits in the Athabasca, Kombolgie and Otish basins have higher δ238U values. The δ234U values for most samples are around 0‰, in secular equilibrium, but some samples have δ234U values much lower or higher than 0‰ associated with addition or removal of 234U during the past 2.5 Ma. These δ238U and δ234U values suggest that there are at least two different mechanisms responsible for 238U/235U and 234U/238U variations. The 234U/238U disequilibria ratios indicate recent fluid interaction with the uranium minerals and preferential migration of 234U. Fractionation between 235U and 238U is a result of nuclear-field effects with enrichment of 238U in the reduced insoluble species (mostly UO2) and 235U in oxidised mobile species as uranyl ion, UO22+, and its complexes. Therefore, isotopic fractionation effects should be reflected in 238U/235U ratios in uranium ore minerals formed either by reduction of uranium to UO2 or chemical

  20. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  1. O-Ring sealing arrangements for ultra-high vacuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyo; Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    An all metal reusable O-ring sealing arrangement for sealing two concentric tubes in an ultra-high vacuum system. An O-ring of a heat recoverable alloy such as Nitinol is concentrically positioned between protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes. The O-ring is installed between the tubes while in a stressed martensitic state and is made to undergo a thermally induced transformation to an austenitic state. During the transformation the O-ring expands outwardly and contracts inwardly toward a previously sized austenitic configuration, thereby sealing against the protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes.

  2. Lead isotope studies of the Guerrero composite terrane, west-central Mexico: implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, Adriana; Macfarlane, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    New thermal ionization mass spectrometry and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Pb isotope analyses of three Cenozoic ores from the La Verde porphyry copper deposit located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane of the Guerrero composite terrane are presented and the metal sources are evaluated. Lead isotope ratios of 3 Cenozoic ores from the El Malacate and La Esmeralda porphyry copper deposits located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane and of 14 ores from the Zimapan and La Negra skarn deposits from the adjoining Sierra Madre terrane are also presented to look for systematic differences in the lead isotope trends and ore metal sources among the proposed exotic tectonostratigraphic terranes of southern Mexico. Comparison among the isotopic signatures of ores from the Sierra Madre terrane and distinct subterranes of the Guerrero terrane supports the idea that there is no direct correlation between the distinct suspect terranes of Mexico and the isotopic signatures of the associated Cenozoic ores. Rather, these Pb isotope patterns are interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contribution to mantle-derived magmas as the arc advanced eastward onto a progressively thicker continental crust. The lead isotope trend observed in Cenozoic ores is not recognized in the ores from Mesozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits. The Mesozoic ores formed prior to the amalgamation of the Guerrero composite terrane to the continental margin, which took place during the Late Cretaceous, in intraoceanic island arc and intracontinental marginal basin settings, while the Tertiary deposits formed after this event in a continental arc setting. Lead isotope ratios of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic ores appear to reflect these differences in tectonic setting of ore formation. Most Pb isotope values of ores from the La Verde deposit (206Pb/204Pb = 18.674-18.719) are less radiogenic than those of the host igneous rocks, but plot within the

  3. New isotopic evidence bearing on bonanza (Au-Ag) epithermal ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James A.; Mathur, Ryan; Kamenov, George D.; Shimizu, Toru; Brueseke, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    New Cu, S, and Pb isotope data provide evidence for a magmatic source of metal(loid)s and sulfur in epithermal Au-Ag deposits even though their ore-forming solutions are composed primarily of heated meteoric (ground) waters. The apparent isotopic discrepancy between ore metals and ore-forming solutions, and even between the ore and associated gangue minerals, indicates two different sources of epithermal ore-forming constituents: (1) a shallow geothermal system that not only provides the bulk of water for the ore-forming solutions but also major chemical constituents leached from host rocks (silica, aluminum, potassium, sodium, calcium) to make gangue minerals and (2) metals and metalloids (As, Te, Sb, etc.) and sulfur (±Se) derived from deeper magma bodies. Isotopic data are consistent with either vapor-phase transport of metal(loids) and sulfur and their subsequent absorption by shallow geothermal waters or formation of metallic (Au, Ag, Cu phases) nanoparticles at depth from magmatic fluids prior to encountering the geothermal system. The latter is most consistent with ore textures that indicate physical transport and aggregation of nanoparticles were significant ore-forming processes. The recognition that epithermal Au-Ag ores form in tectonic settings that produce magmas capable of releasing metal-rich fluids necessary to form these deposits can refine exploration strategies that previously often have focused on locating fossil geothermal systems.

  4. Formation conditions of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a

  5. Nuclear ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  6. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  7. Helium, lead and sulfur isotope geochemistry of the Gejiu Sn-polymetallic ore deposit and the sources of ore-forming materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the helium, lead and sulfur isotopic composition were performed of the Gejiu super-large Sn-polymetallic ore deposit. The results indicated that the ore-forming materials came from different sources and the deposit is a product of superimposed mineralization. The deposit is characterized by multi-source and multi-period mineralization, which experienced submarine hydrothermal deposition and Late Yanshanian magmatic hydrothermal mineralization. It is held that the Gejiu super-large Sn-polymetallic ore deposit is a multi-genesis deposit.

  8. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  9. Cancer of the lung in iron ore (haematite) miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J. T.; Doll, R.; Faulds, J. S.; Leiper, J.

    1970-01-01

    Boyd, J. T., Doll, R., Faulds, J. S., and Leiper, J.(1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 97-105. Cancer of the lung in iron ore (haematite) miners. The mortality of Cumberland iron-ore miners has been studied by examining the death certificates of 5 811 men resident in two local authority areas (Ennerdale R.D. and Whitehaven M.B.) who died between 1948 and 1967. Comparison of the iron miners' experience with (1) that of other local men and (2) the relevant national experience has provided an assessment of the suspected occupational risk of lung cancer associated with haematite mining. During the 20-year period there were 42 deaths attributed to lung cancer among iron mine employees resident in the study area: 36 of these occurred in miners working underground, which was significantly greater than that expected from local non-mining (20·6 deaths) or national (21·5 deaths) experience. In contrast to these findings, there was no evidence of any excess mortality from lung cancer among surface workers and, for iron miners as a whole, mortality from other cancers was close to the national experience. A parallel analysis of mortality among coal miners showed a deficit of deaths from lung cancer in line with other studies. The patterns of other respiratory mortality in the two local mining groups were also in line with previous experience, and confirmed the existence of a substantial silicotic hazard associated with haematite mining in Cumberland. These findings strengthen previous necropsy evidence and indicate that West Cumberland iron-ore miners who work underground experience an occupational hazard of lung cancer. They suggest that the miners suffer a lung cancer mortality about 70% higher than `normal'. The risk may be due to radioactivity in the air of the mines (average radon concentration of 100 p Ci/litre) or to a carcinogenic effect of iron oxide. PMID:5448525

  10. Thermal stress in North Western Australian iron ore mining staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R

    2013-05-01

    Demand for Australian mined iron ore has increased employment within this sector, thus exposing increased numbers of workers to the harsh Australian climate. This study examined the influence of hot (>30°C wet bulb globe temperature) environmental temperatures, consistent with working in North Western Australia, on iron ore mining staff. Core temperature, hydration status, perceived exertion, mood, and fatigue state were measured in 77 participants at three time points (pre-, mid-, and post-shift) during a normal 12-h shift at an open-cut iron ore mining/processing site (n = 31; Site1) and an iron ore processing/shipping site (n = 46; Site2). A significant effect for time was observed for core temperature with greater mean core temperatures measured mid-shift (37.5±0.4°C) and post-shift (37.6±0.3°C) compared with pre-shift values (37.0±0.5°C). All mean core temperature measures were lower than ISO7933 thresholds (38°C) for thermal safety. Mean hydration measures [urine-specific gravity (USG)] were greater at Site1 (1.029±0.006) compared with those at Site2 (1.021±0.007). Furthermore, both pre- and post-shift measures from Site1 and the post-shift measures from Site2 were greater than the threshold for dehydration (USG = 1.020). No differences were observed for mood or perceived exertion over time; however, measures of fatigue state were greater post-shift compared with pre- and mid-shift values for both sites. Our findings indicate that the majority of mine workers in North Western Australia are able to regulate work rate in hot environments to maintain core temperatures below ISO safety guidelines; however, 22% of workers reached or exceeded the safety guidelines, warranting further investigation. Furthermore, hydration practices, especially when off-work, appear inadequate and could endanger health and safety.

  11. CHAIN EXTENDER AND EMULSIFIER APPLICATION IN IRON ORE FLOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the reverse flotation performance of iron ore, using collector (amine, in the presence and absence of chain extender (diesel oil and emulsifier (sodium lauryl sulfate.Six tests were realized with duplicate. Tests using amine, diesel oil and sodium lauryl sulphate show the better results, with metallurgical recovery of 91.82% and the concentrate silica equal 1.68%. Thus, it is found that the use of emulsifier and chain extender together with the amine, shows better results in the flotation, in terms of metal recovery and selectivity, when compared to using only amine or amine and diesel oil.

  12. Thermal Decomposition of Copper Ore Concentrate and Polyethylene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Wieckowska, Jadwiga

    2016-10-01

    Thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) of the composite, comprised of 10% polyethylene (PE) scrap and 90% copper ore concentrate, enabled determination of the temperature range and decomposition degree of the organic matters in argon atmosphere. Products of pyrolysis were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The results were compared to those obtained for products of pyrolysis of the composite in air. Products of pyrolysis were identified by means of the gas chromatography (GC) method alone or supported with results of mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS).

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ZLATÁ BAŇA ORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košuth Marián

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The main processing interest of examined Zlatá Baňa polymetalic ores was focused on copper-lead-zinc minerals with precious metals and trace elements. Gold occurrin a native form or as an isomorphism in pyrite. The role of inclusions of own Ag-minerals was inflated by geologist, but a prevailing amount of silver is isomorphous in galena and argentotetrahedrite. Almost no possibility to concentrating discrete silver minerals was proved technologically. In galena, an interesting content of Se and Te was registered. Among trace elements, a higher content of cadmium folows exclusively the content of zinc in blende.

  14. Topological aperiodicity for product systems over semigroups of Ore type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasniewski, Bartosz; Szymanski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We prove a version of uniqueness theorem for Cuntz-Pimsner algebras of discrete product systems over semigroups of Ore type. To this end, we introduce Doplicher-Roberts picture of Cuntz-Pimsner algebras, and the semigroup dual to a product system of 'regular' C*-correspondences. Under a certain...... aperiodicity condition on the latter, we obtain the uniqueness theorem and a simplicity criterion for the algebras in question. These results generalize the corresponding ones for crossed products by discrete groups, due to Archbold and Spielberg, and for Exel's crossed products, due to Exel and Vershik...

  15. Mineralogical Study of Zard Koh and Kulli Koh Iron Ore Deposits of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULTAN AHMED KHOSO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zard Koh and Kulli Koh are two recently discovered iron ore deposits, existing in the Chagai district, Balochistan, Pakistan. PSM (Pakistan Steel Mill Limited is interested to utilize these ore deposits at priority. Purpose of the present study was to assess the mineralogy of the Zard Koh and Kulli Koh iron ore deposits, as it plays a vital role in the selection of an appropriate processing method. The mineralogical study of ore deposits was carried out by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction, XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope attached with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscope and SM (Stereomicroscope techniques. Results indicated that the Zard Koh ore is mainly composed of 60.15% maghemite, 23.57% pyrite, 4.07% chlorite, 10.30% grossular and 1.65% admontite minerals. The chemical analysis revealed that Zard Koh iron ore contains an average of 54.27% Fe, 12.73% S, 8.70% Si, 3.07% Al, 4.07% Ca, and 2.16% Mg. Similarly, the mineralogical study of the Kulli Koh iron ore indicated that, ore is containing 51.16% hematite, 29.24% quartz, 8.89% dravite, and 8.76% kaolinite minerals. Elemental analysis of different samples indicated that Kulli Koh iron ore contains an average composition of 40.23% Fe, 20.67% Si, 3.44% Ca, 3.81% Al and 3.25% Mg. Mineralogical study of the Zard Koh and Kulli Koh iron ore deposits suggested that these ore deposits can be beneficiated costeffectively by using magnetic separation techniques.

  16. Idea of Identification of Copper Ore with the Use of Process Analyser Technology Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdziak, Leszek; Kaszuba, Damian; Kawalec, Witold; Król, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The Polish resources of the copper ore exploited by the KGHM S.A. underground mines are considered as one of the most complex in the world and - consequently - the most difficult to be processed. The ore consists of three lithology forms: dolomites, shales and sandstones but in different proportions which has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the grinding and flotation processes. The lithological composition of the ore is generally recognised in-situ but after being mined it is blended on its long way from various mining fields to the processing plant by the complex transportation system consisting of belt conveyors with numerous switching points, ore bunkers and shafts. Identification of the lithological composition of the ore being supplied to the processing plant should improve the adjustments of the ore processing machinery equipment aiming to decrease the specific processing (mainly grinding) energy consumption as well as increase the metal recovery. The novel idea of Process Analyser Technology (PAT) sensors - information carrying pellets, dropped into the transported or processed bulk material which can be read directly when needed - is investigated for various applications within the DISIRE project (a part of the SPIRE initiative, acting under the Horizon2020 framework program) and here is adopted for implementing the annotation the transported copper ore for the needs of ore processing plants control. The identification of the lithological composition of ore blended on its way to the processing plant can be achieved by an information system consisting of pellets that keep the information about the original location of the portions of conveyed ore, the digital, geological database keeping the data of in-situ lithology and the simulation models of the transportation system, necessary to evaluate the composition of the blended ore. The assumptions of the proposed solution and the plan of necessary in-situ tests (with the special respect to harsh

  17. A preliminary discussion on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the research status of bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits and their geology, this work deals with the geological background of Tl enrichment and mineralization and the mechanism of bio- metal-logenesis of Tl deposits, as exemplified by Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province. This research on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits is focused on the correlations between bio-enrichment and Tl, the enrichment of Tl in micro-paleo-animals in rocks and ores, bio-fossil casts in Tl-rich ores, the involvement of bio-sulfur in minerogenesis and the enrichment of bio-genetic organic carbon in Tl ores. Thallium deposits have experienced two ore-forming stages: syngenetic bio- en-richment and epigenetic hydrothermal reworking (or transformation). Owing to the intense epigenetic hydrothermal reworking, almost no bio-residues remain in syngenetically bio-enriched Tl ores, thereby the Tl deposits display the characteristics of hydrothermally reoworked deposits.

  18. A preliminary discussion on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; ZHANG BaoGui; HU Jing; YAO LinBo; TIAN YiFu

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the research status of bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits and their geology,this work deals with the geological background of Tl enrichment and mineralization and the mechanism of bio-metal-logenesis of Tl deposits,as exemplified by Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province.This research on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits is focused on the correlations between bio-enrichment and Tl,the enrichment of Tl in micro-paleo-animals in rocks and ores,bio-fossil casts in Tl-rich ores,the involvement of bio-sulfur in minerogenesis and the enrichment of bio-genetic organic carbon in Tl ores.Thallium deposits have experienced two ore-forming stages:syngenetic bio-enrichment and epigenetic hydrothermal reworking (or transformation).Owing to the intense epigenetic hydrothermal reworking,almost no bio-residues remain in syngenetically bio-enriched Tl ores,thereby the Tl deposits display the characteristics of hydrothermally reoworked deposits.

  19. Phase Equilibria Constraints on Relations of Ore-bearing Intrusionswith Flood Basalts in the Panxi Region, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhaochong; HAO Yanli; AI Yu; LI Ying; ZHAO Li

    2009-01-01

    There are two types of temporally and spatially associated intrusions within the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP); namely, small uitramafic subvolcanic sills that host magmatic Cu-Ni-Platinum Group Element (PGE)-bearing sulfide deposits and large mafic layered intrusions that host giant Ti-V magnetite deposits in the Panxi region. However, except for their coeval ages, the genetic relations between the ore-bearing intrusions and extrusive rocks are poorly understood. Phase equilibria analysis (Q-PI-OI-Opx-Cpx system) has been carried out to elucidate whether ore-bearing Panzhihua, Xinjie and Limahe intrusions are co-magmatic with the picrites and flood basalts (including high-Ti, low-Ti and alkali basalts), respectively. In this system, the parental magma can be classified as silica-undersaturated olivine basalt and silica-saturated tholeiite. The equivalents of the parental magma of the Xinjie and Limahe peridotites and picrites and iow-Ti basalts are silica-undersaturated, whereas the Limahe gabbro-diorites and high-Ti basalts are silica-saturated. In contrast, the Panzhihua intrusion appears to be alkali character. Phase equilibria relations clearly show that the magmas that formed the Panzhihua intrusion and high-Ti basalts cannot be co-magmatic as there is no way to derive one liquid from another by fractional crystallization. On the other hand, the Panzhihua intrusion appears to be related to Permian alkali intrusions in the region, but does not appear to be related to the alkali basalts recognized in the Longzhoushan lava stratigraphy. Comparably, the Limabe intrusion appears to be a genetic relation to the picrites, whereas the Xinjie intrusion may be genetically related to be low-Ti basaits. Additionally, the gabbro-diorites and peridotites of the Limahe intrusion are not co-magmatic, and the former appears to be derived liquid from high-Ti basalts.

  20. The origin of terrestrial pisoliths and pisolitic iron ore deposits: Raindrops and sheetwash in a semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascelles, Desmond F.

    2016-07-01

    Ooliths evidently form by chemical precipitation in limnic, paralic, fluvial and marine environments, pisoliths, however, appear to be restricted to terrestrial environments. Typically composed of iron, aluminium and manganese sesquioxides with minor admixtures of quartz and kaolinite, they are widely distributed in tropical to subtropical regions overlying deeply weathered soil profiles. Although iron-, aluminium- and manganese-rich end members are important sources of these metals, their genesis is still enigmatic; their formation has never been observed or produced experimentally and current models for their origin are little more than guesses. A new model is presented based on a unique personal observation in which pisoliths are formed by the action of charged raindrops during thunderstorms impacting on dry deeply weathered powdery soils. The pisoliths are transported across pediments by sheetwash, accumulating as thick deposits in the valley floors. Pisolites are characteristically unfossiliferous and typically clearly pedogenic. The absence of fine depositional layering, fossil seeds, leaves and pollen in pisolites is explained by bioturbation and the action of soil organisms during extended pedogenesis while the major coarse bedding features derive from erosional and depositional events in the evolution of the pediment. Pisolitic iron ores (aka channel iron deposits, CID) are a special case of transported pisolitic ferricrust that form an important resource of medium grade iron ore (57-60 wt% Fe) in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Apart from minor deposits in the northern Yilgarn Province of Western Australia, they have not been found elsewhere. They differ from normal transported ferricrust and terrestrial pisolites not only in the exceptionally high iron and low alumina and silica content but also in containing abundant fossilised wood particles.

  1. Nine Provinces Submerged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After being plagued with severe drought earlier this year,the southern part of China has been ravaged by heavy rainfall since May. According to the China Meteorological Administration (CMA),from June 23-25 a new round of storms swept the southern part of the country including all nine provinces in the south.It was the 11th round of storms since May 5,said CMA.

  2. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four layers of cherts were found for the first time in the Yanglacopper deposit, western Yunnan Province. The cherts possessed the following geochemical characteristics: ① Low TiO2 and Al2O3 contents, but high ore-forming element (e.g. Cu, Au, Ag) contents; ② low total REE contents and clear negative Eu anomalies when normalized to chondrite similar to the REE contents and distribution patterns of associated massive sulfide ores; ③ silicon isotopic compositions of cherts in the Yangla deposit being the same as cherts and geyserite of hot-water sedimentary origin; ④ lead and sulfur isotopic compositions of cherts in the Yangla deposit being similar to those of the massive sulfide ores in the Yangla deposit; ⑤ Rb-Sr isochron age of cherts from the Yangla deposit being identical with that of host strata. Hence, we conclude that the cherts in the Yangla deposit are of hot-water sedimentary origin, which have a close relationship with the massive sulfide ores. The discovery of hydrothermal cherts from the Yangla copper deposit provides further evidence for the hydrothermal exhalative origin of the massive sulfide deposits.

  3. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  4. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  5. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  6. 40Ar-39Ar Dating of Quartz from Ore in the Baiyangping Cu-Co Polymetallic Ore-Concentrated Area, Lanping Basin, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明勤; 刘家军; 李朝阳; 李志明; 刘玉平; 杨爱平; 桑海清

    2004-01-01

    40Ar-39Ar fast neutron activation age spectrum of quartz in ore collected from the Baiyangping Cu-Co polymetallic ore-concentrated area, Lanping Basin, is saddle-shaped. The plateau age, minimum appearance age and isochron age shown on the spectra are 56.53±0.43 Ma, 55.52±1.78 Ma and 55.90±0.29 Ma respectively. The age data are consistent with each other within 1σ uncertainties. Because the given initial 40Ar/36Ar value of 294.7±1.14 is very close to Nier's value (295.5±5), both plateau and isochron ages may be considered as the forming time of quartz. So the age of 55.90-56.53 Ma represents the forming age of ore deposits. It is obvious that the ore deposits were formed during the Early Himalayan period.

  7. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New δ34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in δ34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have

  8. Iron ore Development and supplies from Third world: A Potential for Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrauf A. Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the qualitative leaching of iron ore in hydrochloric acid and multi gravity separation method as new strategies for reducing lost of iron during production. The focus of the paper is on the potential of iron ore development and supplies from Third world for Sustainable Development and to enter and sustain in the export global competitive Market..

  9. Methods of Dust Air Flows Reduction at Ore Transfer Facilities of Mining and Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira K. Saparova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the most typical schemes of ore stationary transfers. Aspirate units, depending on dust intensity are divided into three groups. Typical schemes of stationary transfers were presented. On the ground of the research, the classification of ore transfer facilities types at mining and processing plants was offered

  10. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  11. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the extraction of uranium, radium and vanadium. Only vanadium byproduct production from uranium... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of...

  12. Relaxation phenomena and jointing in ore bodies under explosive injection treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, YuS

    2017-02-01

    Under analysis are relaxation phenomena in ore bodies under leaching. It is shown that liquid and gas–liquid phases make these phenomena last longer, thus it is recommended to apply synergetically interconnected processes of explosive fracture of an ore block and simultaneous injection of active leaching solutions in the generated system of joints.

  13. Tungsten and Molybdenum Ores in China and the Management Policies(Part Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>China is traditionally a leading producer of tungsten and molybdenum ores in the world. The ores are densely distributed and easy to exploit,and the production accounts for a large share of the world’s total.But China has yet to dominate the market and the advantage that China has long enjoyed is being weakened,giv-

  14. Silicophosphate Sorbents, Based on Ore-Processing Plants' Waste in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubekova, Sholpan N.; Kapralova, Viktoria I.; Telkov, Shamil A.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of ore-processing plants' waste and man-made mineral formations (MMF) disposal is very important for the Republic of Kazakhstan. The research of various ore types (gold, polymetallic, iron-bearing) MMF from a number of Kazakhstan's deposits using a complex physical and chemical methods showed, that the waste's main components are…

  15. The gold contained in imported lead ore concentrate is exempted from import value-added tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>According to the No. 14 proclamation issued by Customs Service, as from April 1st 2007, the importation of galena and the lead ore concentrate will enjoy the favorable policy intended for associated gold deposits, i.e. the value-added tax for gold component in the imported galena and lead ore concentrate is exempted,

  16. Simulating Some Complex Phenomena in Hydrothermal Ore-Forming Processes by Reaction-Diffusion CNN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Deyi; Yu Chongwen; Bao Zhengyu

    2003-01-01

    Complexity phenomena like dynamic and static patterns, order from disorder, chaos and catastrophe were simulated by the application of 2-D reaction-diffusion CNN of two state variables and two diffusion coefficients transformed from Zhabotinksii model. They revealed somehow the mechanism of hydrothermal ore-forming processes, and answered several questions about the onset of ore forming.

  17. Application of neodymium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krajko, J.; Varga, Z.; Yalcintas, E.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.

    2014-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed for the measurement of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratio in various uranium-bearing materials, such as uranium ores and ore concentrates (UOC) in order to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of variations of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratio for provenance assessment in nu

  18. Reduction of Low-grade Manganese Dioxide Ore Pellets by Biomass Wheat Stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglei ZHANG; Guocai ZHU; Hong YAN; Yuna ZHAO; Tiancheng LI; Xiujuan FENG

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on reducing low-grade manganese dioxide ore pellets was carried out by using wheat stalk as reductant.The main impact factors of reduction percent such as particle size,biomass/ore ratio,heating rate,nitrogen flow rate,temperature and time in reduction process were discussed.The morphology and component of manganese dioxide ore particle at different stages were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).The results show the increase of the reduction temperature and time,biomass/ore ratio,and the decrease of particle size,heating rate and nitrogen flow rate can significantly enhance reduction efficiency.The reduction kinetic of the manganese ore is controlled by three-dimensional mass diffusion of gaseous reductive volatiles passing from the surface to the core of the ore particles.The activation energy E and frequency factor A were calculated to be 24.15 kJ.mol-1 and 166 min-1,respectively.Biomass pyrolysis volatiles adsorbed onto the surface of the ore particle leads to serious variation of the microstructures and chemical composition of the manganese ore particles.

  19. Preparation of ore blocks for mine leaching by reagent explosion injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, YuS

    2017-02-01

    The current drilling-and-blasting operations fail to prepare intact ore body underlying a production horizon for subsequent mining and leaching. It is found that the required preparation quality is possible by means of advanced implementation of ore body discontinuity and filling of the resultant system of joints with active leaching solutions.

  20. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  1. Accelerating column leaching trial on copper sulfide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongjiang; WU Aixiang; ZHOU Xun; WANG Shaoyong; ZHANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    The main measures to accelerate leaching sulfide ore are large spraying intensity,manual oxygen supply,temperature control and acclimated bacteria.The indoor experiment accelerating sulfide ore leaching detected the temperature during leaching process,dissolvability of oxygen,bacterial concentration,Cu concentration and slag grade.At the same time,this paper also analyzed the effect of four factors,which are bacterial diversity cultivation stage,spraying intensity,air supply,and whether to control temperature,on the leaching efficiency of copper.The results indicate that the oxygen content of leach solution has a close relationship with temperature but it is rarely affected by air supply.The bacterial concentration preserves from 106 to 107 mL-1,and temperature has a great effect on the bacterial activity under the condition of proper temperature and oxygen supply,and the lack of nutrition prevents the bacterial concentration from rising in the late stage.The relationships of the copper leaching efficiency to temperature,air feed,and spraying intensity are directly proportional.The leaching efficiencies of the cultivated bacteria and acclimation bacteria are 1.2 and 1.4 times as large as that of the original bacteria.

  2. Application of natural analog studies to exploration for ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, D.L. [Consulting Economic Geologist, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Natural analogs are viewed as similarities in nature and are routinely utilized by exploration geologists in their search for economic mineral deposits. Ore deposit modeling is undertaken by geologists to direct their exploration activities toward favorable geologic environments and, therefore, successful programs. Two types of modeling are presented: (i) empirical model development based on the study of known ore deposit characteristics, and (ii) concept model development based on theoretical considerations and field observations that suggest a new deposit type, not known to exist in nature, may exist and justifies an exploration program. Key elements that are important in empirical model development are described, and examples of successful applications of these natural analogs to exploration are presented. A classical example of successful concept model development, the discovery of the McLaughlin gold mine in California, is presented. The utilization of natural analogs is an important facet of mineral exploration. Natural analogs guide explorationists in their search for new discoveries, increase the probability of success, and may decrease overall exploration expenditure.

  3. Phytostabilization of iron ore tailings through Calophyllum inophyllum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Nilima; Dhal, N K; Reddy, Palli Sita Rama

    2012-12-01

    The phytostabilization of waste material generated during mining and processing of iron ore through Calophyllum inophyllum L. have been investigated. Iron ore tailings and its varying composition with garden soil were taken to study plant growth, chlorophyll content and metal uptake pattern of Calophyllum inophyllum L. These studies indicate that 100% survival of plant species was noted in all the treatments without any toxicity symptoms. The increase in growth parameters and chlorophyll content along with the high metal accumulation in plant tissues suggests that Calophyllum inophyllum L. may be a potential tool for phytoremediation. The accumulation of Pb (1662 microgm/gm) and Fe (2313 microgm/gm) was observed to be maximum in the plant tissues followed by Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni. The TF values for most of the heavy metals was observed to be > 1 which indicates that the plant can efficiently translocate these toxic metals to its above ground parts. Removal of more than 30% of the most of the heavy metal like Fe, Pb, and Cu & Zn has been observed in all the treatments during one year of observation. The overall study clearly suggests that the plant can be used as an efficient tool for restoration of mining wastes and other similarly contaminated sites.

  4. Analyzing the international exergy flow network of ferrous metal ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven.

  5. Analyzing the International Exergy Flow Network of Ferrous Metal Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven. PMID:25188407

  6. The characteristics, origins, and geodynamic settings of supergiant gold metallogenic provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Kerrich[1; Richard; Goldfarb[2; David; Groves[3; Steven; Garwin[4

    2000-01-01

    There are six distinct classes of gold deposits, each represented by metallogenic provinces, having 100’s to > 1 000 tonne gold production. The deposit classes are: (1) erogenic gold; (2) Carlin and Carlin-like gold deposits; (3) epithermal gold-silver deposits; (4) copper-gold porphyry deposits; (5) iron-oxide copper-gold deposits; and (6) gold-rich volcanic hosted massive sul-fide (VMS) to sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits. This classification is based on ore and alteration mineral assemblages; ore and alteration metal budgets; ore fluid pressure(s) and compositions; crustal depth or depth ranges of formation; relationship to structures and/or magmatic intrusions at a variety of scales; and relationship to the P-T-t evolution of the host terrane. These classes reflect distinct geodynamic settings. Orogenic gold deposits are generated at mid-crustal (4-16 km) levels proximal to terrane boundaries, in transpressional subduction-accretion complexes of Cordilleran style erogenic belts; other orogeni

  7. Research on Fluid Inclusions of the Yinshan Polymetallic Deposit,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德会; 刘伟

    1999-01-01

    In this paper some new advances in the study of fluid inclusions of the Yinshan deposit in Jiangxi Province,China,are presented.The fluid inclusions of the deposit can be divided into four types:1) gas-rich inclusions;2)liquid-rich inclusions;3)salt-saturated H2O inclusions;and 4)single-phase or multiphase CO2-rich inclusions.Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions range from 100 to 520℃,aminly in the range 120-400℃.The daughter crystal-bearing multiphase inclusions present in quartz porphyries(including Nos.13 and 4 dikes)have been observed.In ore veins,some daughter crystal-bearing multiphase inclusions have been observed.too.On the basis of the results of fluid inclusion research,the authors suggest that the ore-forming fluid must have a close genetic relation to magmatic hydrothermal solution.The ore-forming fluid was dominantly originated from the depth and the mixing of magmatic solution with meteoric water was enhanced during ascending of the fluid,accompanying immiscibility and boiling of fluid.Teher may be a conceales igneous body at the depth of the Yinshan deposity,which furnishes the scientific basis for metallogenic prognosis at th depth of the Yinshan deposit.

  8. LIFETIME PREDICTION FOR MODEL 9975 O-RINGS IN KAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2009-11-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently storing plutonium materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and transported and stored in KAMS in Model 9975 shipping packages, which include double containment vessels sealed with dual O-rings made of Parker Seals compound V0835-75 (based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT). The outer O-ring of each containment vessel is credited for leaktight containment per ANSI N14.5. O-ring service life depends on many factors, including the failure criterion, environmental conditions, overall design, fabrication quality and assembly practices. A preliminary life prediction model has been developed for the V0835-75 O-rings in KAMS. The conservative model is based primarily on long-term compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments and Arrhenius accelerated-aging methodology. For model development purposes, seal lifetime is defined as a 90% loss of measurable sealing force. Thus far, CSR experiments have only reached this target level of degradation at temperatures {ge} 300 F. At lower temperatures, relaxation values are more tolerable. Using time-temperature superposition principles, the conservative model predicts a service life of approximately 20-25 years at a constant seal temperature of 175 F. This represents a maximum payload package at a constant ambient temperature of 104 F, the highest recorded in KAMS to date. This is considered a highly conservative value as such ambient temperatures are only reached on occasion and for short durations. The presence of fiberboard in the package minimizes the impact of such temperature swings, with many hours to several days required for seal temperatures to respond proportionately. At 85 F ambient, a more realistic but still conservative value, bounding seal temperatures are reduced to {approx}158 F, with an estimated seal lifetime of {approx}35-45 years. The actual service life for O-rings in a maximum wattage package likely lies

  9. Technology of Polish copper ore beneficiation – perspectives from the past experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieniewski Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main types of existing copper deposits in the world and the most common enrichment technologies. The characteristic elements of the current flowsheet of the Polish ore beneficiation were discussed together with the reasons for using them. The paper presents a perspective flowsheet based on more than 50-years of experience in beneficiation of Polish copper ore. The main elements of proposed technology are: leaving in justified cases the division of ore into fractions of increased sandstone and carbonate ores content, flotation in the milling circuit as part of the effective preparation of the ore to rougher flotation, intensive rougher flotation, classic cleaning system, processing of the middlings with grinding system in new type mills, classification and flotation with outlet of final tailings.

  10. Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng QIAN; Jianjun LU

    2008-01-01

    Dexing copper deposit is the biggest porphyry copper deposit in China. By researching isotopes of C,Si and Cu from the samples of Tongchang and Fujiawu ore-field, the authors found that δ13CPDB values of siderite were close to the δ13CPDB value of original magma; δ30Si values of the samples at the ore-forming stage were close to the δ30Si value range of magma, δ30Si values of partial samples were far away from it; Cu isotopic compositions of massive chalcopyrite formed at the early ore-forming stage are higher than that of veinal chalcopyrite formed at the later ore-forming stage. The results show that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the porphyry body, and part of them were from wall rock materials.

  11. Iron ore tailings used for the preparation of cementitious material by compound thermal activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-lai Yi; Heng-hu Sun; Xiu-quan Wei; Chao Li

    2009-01-01

    In the background of little reuse and large stockpile for iron ore railings, iron ore tailing from Chinese Tonghua were used as raw material to prepare cementitious materials. Cementitious properties of the iron ore tailings activated by compound thermal ac-tivation were studied. Testing methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and IR were used for researching the phase and structure variety of the iron ore tailings in the process of compound thermal activation. The results reveal that a new cementitious material that contains 30wt% of the iron ore tailings can be obtained by compounded thermal activation, whose mortar strength can come up to the stan-dard of 42.5 cement of China.

  12. Genetic characteristics of fluid inclusions in sphalerite from the Silesian-Cracow ores, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, A.; Leach, D.L.; Viets, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies in sphalerite from early-stage Zn-Pb mineralization in the Silesian-Cracow region (southern Poland), yielded homogenization temperatures (Th) from 80 to 158??C. Vertical thermal gradient of the parent fluids was 6 to 10??C, and the ore crystallization temperature ranges varied from recrystallization of ores, and Th distribution in single fissure fillings were considered. The ore-forming fluids were liquid-hydrocarbon-bearing aqueous solutions of Na-Ca-Cl type with lower Ca contents in the south and higher Ca contents in the north of the region. The ore-forming fluids had salinities from nul to about 23 weight percent of NaCl equivalent. Three types of fluids were recognized, that mixed during ore precipitation: a) ascending fluids of low-to-moderate salinity and high, b) formation brines of high salinity and moderate Th, and c) descending waters of low salinity and low-to-moderate Th.

  13. Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

    1996-12-01

    Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendor were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE LOAD DECAY AND ITS EFFECT ON LEAK RATE OF O-RING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies on load decay and leak rate of O-rings made of two kinds of silicone rubber are conducted. The results show that the characteristic of load decay is relative to the material and temperature of O-rings; the rate of load decay increases with the rise of temperature; the effects of load decay on leak rate of O-rings are negligible at room temperature, but they are notable at high temperature, and they are related to the material of O-rings. On the basis of study on the theory of load decay and analysis to the results of experiments, a theoretical model is developed to describe the load decay characteristic of O-rings, and it matches the experimental data very well. By the study of time-temperature equivalence of load decay, the interconvertting equation of test data of load decay at different temperatures is obtained.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Selective Reduction of a Nickeliferous Limonitic Laterite Ore by Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R.; Pickles, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    Nickeliferous limonitic laterite ores are becoming increasingly attractive as a source of metallic nickel as the costs associated with recovering nickel from the sulphide ores increase. Unlike the sulphide ores, however, the laterite ores are not amenable to concentration by conventional mineral processing techniques such as froth flotation. One potential concentrating method would be the pyrometallurgical solid state reduction of the nickeliferous limonitic ores at relatively low temperatures, followed by beneficiation via magnetic separation. A number of reductants can be utilized in the reduction step, and in this research, a thermodynamic model has been developed to investigate the reduction of a nickeliferous limonitic laterite by hydrogen. The nickel recovery to the ferronickel phase was predicted to be greater than 95 % at temperatures of 673-873 K. Reductant additions above the stoichiometric requirement resulted in high recoveries over a wider temperature range, but the nickel grade of the ferronickel decreased.

  16. Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them.

  17. 某铀矿富集区及其周围环境放射性现状调查%An Environment Radioactivity Survey in and around a Uranium Enrichment Area in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙功明; 李冠超; 白书明; 杨波; 林健

    2015-01-01

    A survey of environment radioactivity in and around a uranium enrichment area of approximately 700 km 2 in Guangdong Province has been made .The result shows that the gamma radiation dose rate is far higher than the provincial natural radioactivity level . 238 U , 232 Th , 226 Ra in some soil samples are more concen-trated than the background in Guangdong .There is a river with too higher content of radionuclide ,of which U is 15 .7 times than the reported value for Beijiang River in the province .The U concentration in effluents from some uranium ore occurrences and a hydrometallurgy factory exceeds the nuclear industrial limit .%介绍了广东省某铀矿富集区及其周边约700 km 2范围环境放射性现状调查。调查结果表明:该铀矿富集区的γ辐射剂量率明显高于广东省天然放射性水平调查值;部分地区土壤样品中238 U 、232 Th 、226 Ra 含量高于广东省天然放射性水平调查值;地表水体中有一条河流的放射性核素偏高,其铀浓度是广东省北江水系报告值的15.7倍;部分铀矿点和水冶厂的水体铀浓度超过核工业控制标准限值。

  18. Role of minerals properties on leaching process of weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕飞; 刘向生; 冯宗玉; 黄小卫; 黄莉; 陈迎迎; 吴文远

    2015-01-01

    Granite belonged to intrusive rock and volcanic was extrusive rock. There may be many differences in their degree of weathering and mineral chemical composition. The present study investigated the minerals properties and the leaching mechanism of the granitic weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore from Longnan Rare Earth Mine area (LN ores) and volcanic weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore from Liutang Rare Earth Mine area (LT ores). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the phase of rare earth ores. The particle size distributions and main composition of the ore were also presented in this paper. The leaching mechanisms of two kinds of rare earth ores were analyzed with different kinetics models and could be described by the shrinking-core model. They were all inner diffusion-controlled leaching processes. The leaching equation of the kinetics of the LN ores could be expressed as:4 LN LN 1.096 10 2/3 0.377 8.314 0 2 3=0.1061 (1 ) Tr e tη η×−−− − −, leaching equation of kinetics of LT ores was 3 LT LT 4.640 10 2/3 0.411 8.314 0 32 3=8.33 101 (1 ) Tr e tη η×−− −×− − −. The rare earth leaching rate of LT ores was always lower in the same condition, and it would need more time and more (NH4)2SO4 consump-tion to achieve the same rare earth leaching efficiency, which would lead to more serious ammonia-nitrogen pollution. Therefore, magnesium salt was proposed as the leaching agent to eliminate ammonia-nitrogen pollution and further studies would be taken in the future.

  19. The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 → Mn3O4 → MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

  20. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if section...

  1. 78 FR 47317 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Herbert N. Francis concerning the Ore Knob Mine... comments by site name ``Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site'' by one of the following methods:...

  2. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  3. 甘肃某金矿石中金的赋存状态研究%Occurrence State of Gold in a Gold Ore in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利珍; 瞿思思; 姜楚灵

    2015-01-01

    Detailed studies were conducted, by using modern measurement methods, on characteristics of gold-loaded minerals and types, forms, particle size, occurrence state, deliberation features of gold ore, so as to provide theoretical basis for beneficiation of a low-grade gold ore in Gansu Province. Results show that gold element in the ores was distributed along the edge, inter-particle, fractures and pores of gold-loaded minerals in the form of natural gold (micro-fine to fine particle), or electrum, or partially embedded in the gold-loaded minerals in form of inclusions. It is concluded from the study that low grade of gold, high content of sulfide, and the complex occurrence of gold are the primary factors affecting gold enrichment and recovery.%为给甘肃某低品位金矿石的选矿试验提供理论依据,通过多种现代测试手段对矿石中主要载金矿物的特征和金矿物的种类、形态、粒度、产出形式、解离特性等方面进行了较详细的研究,结果表明矿石中金部分呈微细粒~微粒自然金或银金矿沿载金矿物的边缘、粒间、裂隙及孔洞充填分布,部分则呈包裹体嵌布在载金矿物内部。影响金矿物富集回收的主要因素是矿石中金品位低、硫化物含量高、金的赋存状态较为复杂。

  4. Minerogenic System of Magnesian Nonmetallic Deposits in Early Proterozoic Mg-rich Carbonate Formations in Eastern Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the early Proterozoic the Liryu Formation and Dashiqiao Formation of eastern Liaoning province, China, there are distributed Mg-rich carbonate rock formations, in which large to superlarge deposits of boron, magnesite, talc, Xiuyan jade etc. occur. The formation of these magnesian nonmetallic deposits was related to early Proterozoic evaporates; then these deposits underwent reworking of regional metamorphism and hydrothermal metasomatism during the Lüliang orogeny and tectono-magmatism during the Indosinian-Yanshanian. Among other things, the Mg-rich carbonates formations, minerogenetic structures and ore-forming fluids played a controlling role in the formation of the mineral deposits. The refore, it can be concluded that the mineral deposits are products of combined processes of the coupling of ore source field, fluid field, thermal field (energy field) and stress field under certain time-space conditions in the early Proterozoic and the late-stage superimposed reworking of tectono-magmatism.

  5. A Preliminary Development of a Nuclear Propulsion Officer Enlistment Supply Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    candidate has withi the Navy and therctlOre are the source of’ initial impresions and fict al information regarding the Nuclear Navy. I his...Mulch 3D ~epartment of Qperations Research Naval Posteraduate School MIonterey, California 93943 5. Professor George WV. T-homas 3 Naval Postcraduate

  6. AGING PERFORMANCE OF MODEL 9975 PACKAGE FLUOROELASTOMER O-RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.

    2011-05-31

    The influence of temperature and radiation on Viton{reg_sign} GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings is an ongoing research focus at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The O-rings are credited for leaktight containment in the Model 9975 shipping package used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials. At the Savannah River Site, the Model 9975 packages are being used for interim storage. Primary research efforts have focused on surveillance of O-rings from actual packages, leak testing of seals at bounding aging conditions and the effect of aging temperature on compression stress relaxation behavior, with the goal of service life prediction for long-term storage conditions. Recently, an additional effort to evaluate the effect of aging temperature on the oxidation of the materials has begun. Degradation in the mechanical properties of elastomers is directly related to the oxidation of the polymer. Sensitive measurements of the oxidation rate can be performed in a more timely manner than waiting for a measurable change in mechanical properties, especially at service temperatures. Measuring the oxidation rate therefore provides a means to validate the assumption that the degradation mechanisms(s) do not change from the elevated temperatures used for accelerated aging and the lower service temperatures. Monitoring the amount of oxygen uptake by the material over time at various temperatures can provide increased confidence in lifetime predictions. Preliminary oxygen consumption analysis of a Viton GLT-based fluoroelastomer compound (Parker V0835-75) using an Oxzilla II differential oxygen analyzer in the temperature range of 40-120 C was performed. Early data suggests oxygen consumption rates may level off within the first 100,000 hours (10-12 years) at 40 C and that sharp changes in the degradation mechanism (stress-relaxation) are not expected over the temperature range examined. This is consistent with the known long-term heat aging resistance of

  7. Formation conditions of high-grade gold-silver ore of epithermal Tikhoe deposit, Russian Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A. V.; Kolova, E. E.; Savva, N. E.; Sidorov, A. A.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Ali, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Tikhoe epithermal deposit is located in the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (OChVB) 250 km northeast of Magadan. Like other deposits belonging to the Ivan'insky volcanic-plutonic depression (VTD), the Tikhoe deposit is characterized by high-grade Au-Ag ore with an average Au grade of 23.13 gpt Au and Au/Ag ratio varying from 1: 1 to 1: 10. The detailed explored Tikhoe-1 orebody is accompanied by a thick (20 m) aureole of argillic alteration. Pyrite is predominant among ore minerals; galena, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, Ag sulfosalts, fahlore, electrum, and küstelite are less abundant. The ore is characterized by abundant Sebearing minerals. Cu-As geochemical specialization is noted for silver minerals. Elevated Se and Fe molar fractions of the main ore minerals are caused by their formation in the near-surface argillic alteration zone. The veins and veinlets of the Tikhoe-1 ore zone formed stepwise at a temperature of 230 to 105°C from Nachloride solution enriched in Mg and Ca cations with increasing salinity. The parameters of the ore-forming fluid correspond to those of epithermal low-sulfidation deposits and assume the formation of high-grade ore under a screening unit of volcanic rocks. In general, the composition of the ore-forming fluid fits the mineralogy and geochemistry of ore at this deposit. The similarity of the ore composition and parameters of the ore-forming fluid between the Tikhoe and Julietta deposits is noteworthy. Meanwhile, differences are mainly related to the lower temperature and fluid salinity at the Julietta deposit with respect to the Tikhoe deposit. The fluid at the Julietta deposit is depleted in most components compared with that at the Tikhoe deposit except for Sb, Cd, and Ag. The results testify to a different erosion level at the deposits as derivatives of the same ore-forming system. The large scale of the latter allows us to predict the discovery of new high-grade objects, including hidden mineralization, which is not exposed at

  8. 某难浸金矿的次氯酸钠浸出研究%Study on Leaching of Refractory Gold Ore with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨聪; 晋克勤; 唐道文; 王锐

    2013-01-01

    采用次氯酸钠对贵州某难浸金矿进行浸出,考察次氯酸钠浓度,浸出时间和温度对金浸出率的影响.结果表明,次氯酸钠不仅可氧化分解矿石中的FeAsS和FeS2,同时还可以打开包裹的金;在下述优化条件下,金浸出率可达到75%以上:次氯酸钠质量浓度0.6 mol/L,pH 13~14,液固比6,35℃浸出4h.%One refractory gold ore in Guizhou Province was leached with sodium hypochlorite.The effects of concentration of sodium hypochlorite, leaching time and temperature on leaching rate of gold were investigated.The results show that sodium hypochlorite not only oxidizes FeAsS and FeS2 in gold ore, but also opens the encapsulated gold.The leaching rate of gold is above 75% under the following optimum conditions including concentration of sodium hypochlorite of 0.6 mol/L, pH of 13~14, ratio of liquid to solid of 6, leaching time of 4 h, and temperature of 35 ℃.

  9. A new genetic interpretation for the Caotaobei uranium deposit associated with the shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the Hecaokeng ore field, southern Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Combined with in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS zircon UPb geochronology, published and unpublished literature on the Caotaobei uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi province, China, is re-examined to provide an improved understanding of the origin of the main ore (103 Ma. The Caotaobei deposit lies in the Hecaokeng ore field and is currently one of China's largest, volcanic-related uranium producers. Unlike commonly known volcanogenic uranium deposits throughout the world, it is spatially associated with intermediate lavas with a shoshonitic composition. Uranium mineralization (pitchblende occurs predominantly as veinlets, disseminations, and massive ores, hosted by the cryptoexplosive breccias rimming the Caotaobei crater. Zircons from one latite define four distinct 206Pb/238U age groups at 220–235 Ma (Triassic, 188 Ma (Early Jurassic, 131–137 Ma (Early Cretaceous, and 97–103 Ma (Early-Late Cretaceous transition, hereafter termed mid-Cretaceous. The integrated age (134 ± 2 Ma of Early Cretaceous zircons (group III is interpreted as representing the time of lava emplacement. The age data, together with the re-examination of literature, does not definitively support a volcanogenic origin for the generation of the deposit, which was proposed by the previous workers based mainly on the close spatial relationship and the age similarity between the main ore and volcanic lavas. Drill core and grade-control data reveal that rich concentrations of primary uranium ore are common around the granite porphyry dikes cutting the lavas, and that the cryptoexplosive breccias away from the dikes are barren or unmineralized. These observations indicate that the emplacement of the granite porphyries exerts a fundamental control on ore distribution and thus a genetic link exists between main-stage uranium mineralization and the intrusions of the dikes. Zircon overgrowths of mid-Cretaceous age (99.6

  10. Research on Flotation of a Oxide Copper Silver Ore%某氧化铜银矿浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兵

    2012-01-01

    对云南某氧化铜银矿实验室小型试验研究表明,采用新型捕收剂LW61作为氧化铜捕收剂浮选,铜精矿中铜回收率为74.59%,铜品位15.21%,含银1 035.24 g/t,银回收率65.29%,该指标比较理想.%Small experiment study in a Laboratory was carried out on an oxide copper silver ore in Yunnan province. With new collector LW61 to float copper, copper concentrate of Cu 15. 21% with a recovery of 74. 59% and of Ag 1035. 24 g/t with a recovery of 65. 29% was obtained.

  11. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  12. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Lechang(

    2002-01-01

    Atmosphere (in Chinese), Beijing: Atomic Energy Press, 1994, 40-46.[9]Li Yuxian, Investigation of Environmental Natural Radiological Level in Yunnan Province (in Chinese), Kunming: Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 1991.[10]OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), Environment Remediation of Uranium Production Facilities, A Joint NEA/IAEA Report, Paris: Pubie en Francais Sous le Titre, 1999, 57-58.[11]International Atomic Energy Agency, The Behaviour of Radium in Waterway and Aquifers, IAEA-TECDOC-301, Vienna: IAEA, 1984, 163.[12]Zhou Qunying, Gao Tingyao, Microbiology of Environmental Engineering (in Chinese), Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2000, 215.[13]Popescu-Tecuci, M., Georgescu, D., Filip, G., A study of the interference between radioactive ore dumps and vegetation aiming at the limitation of the contamination process in uranium mining areas, in Engineering Geology and the Environment (eds. Marinos, Koukis, Tsiambaos, et al.), Rotterdam: Balkema, 1997, 2097-2101.[14]International Atomic Energy Agency, Decommissioning of Facilities for Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores and Closeout of Residues, Technical Report Series No. 362, Vienna: IAEA, 1994, 9-11.

  13. Geochemical Characteristics of Sedimentary Manganese Deposit of Guichi, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The sedimentary manganese deposits occurring in Gufeng formation of the Permian in Guichi area, south Anhui Province, include manganese carbonate deposit formed by sedimentation, and manganese oxide deposit made by later oxidation. The total REE contents of these samples are relatively low ( < 250 × 10-6), belonging to LREE-enriched type,showing LREE enrichment during the process of formation of Mn deposit, especially during Mn-oxidizing process. Three normalized REE patterns and SCNA-normalized trace elements spider diagrams of the Mn-bearing sequence rocks and ores in this area reflect their same origin of ore sources, which is similar to rock-forming and ore-forming conditions. The Mnforming materials primarily came from the continent with higher mature degree and single material source. The δEu and δCe negative anomaly and Ce anomaly ( < - 0.1 ) manifest that Mn-bearing sequence of the Permian was mostly formed in marine basin and oxidative environment. The Sr and Ba anomaly, Sr/Ba and Co/Ni values reflect the Mn deposit environment was of deep water and high-salinity of marine facies. Although the Ce/La (mean 1.05), Y/Ho (25 ~ 41.5) and trace metals show a variety of correlations with Mn in the ten rock samples, which show multiple sources for the manganese, the analysis of geochemical characteristics indicate that the material sources of Mn deposit have been primarily terrestrially derived. Another source of the manganese probably comes from the seafloor volcanism in this area. Analysis of sedimentary features and geohistoric evolvement reveals that the maximum transgression of the Qixia Period, ore district is then in deep shelf-basin sedimentary setting and the Mn-bearing sequence is deposited.

  14. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  15. Molybdenum removal from copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Youcai; Zhong Hong; Cao Zhanfang

    2011-01-01

    The removal of molybdenum from a copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching was investigated. The results show that leaching time, liquid to solid ratio, leaching ternperature, agitation speed, and sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide concentrations all have a significant effect on the removal of molybdenum. The optimum process operating parameters were found to be: time, 4 h: sodium hydroxide concentration, 10%; sodium hypochlorite concentration, 8%; liquid to solid ratio, 10:1; temperature, 50℃; and,agitation speed, 500 r/min. Under these conditions the extraction of molybdenum is greater than 99.9% and the extraction of copper is less than 0.01%. A shrinking particle model could be used to describe the leaching process. The apparent activation energy of the dissolution reaction was found to be approximately 8.8 kJ/mol.

  16. Amalgamated Products of Ore and Quadratic Extensions of Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    We study the ideal theory of amalgamated products of Ore and quadratic extensions over a base ring R. We prove an analogue of the Hilbert Basis theorem for an amalgamated product Q of quadratic extensions and determine conditions for when the one-sided ideals of Q are principal or doubly-generated. We also determine conditions that make Q a principal ideal ring. Finally, we show that the double affine Hecke algebra $H_{q,t}$ associated to the general linear group GL_2(k) (here, k is a field with characteristic not 2) is an amalgamated product of quadratic extensions over a three-dimensional quantum torus and give an explicit isomorphism. In this case, it follows that $H_{q,t}$ is a noetherian ring.

  17. Removal of phosphorus from iron ores by chemical leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-shi; JIANG Tao; YANG Yong-bin; LI Qian; LI Guang-hui; GUO Yu-feng

    2006-01-01

    Alkali-leaching and acid-leaching were proposed for the dephosphorization of Changde iron ore, which contains an average of 1.12% for phosphorus content. Sodium hydroxide, sulfuriced, hydrochloric and nitric acids were used for the preparation of leach solutions. The results show that phosphorus occurring as apatite phase could be removed by alkali-leaching, but those occurring in the iron phase could not. Sulfuric acid is the most effective among the three kinds of acid. 91.61% phosphorus removal was attained with 1% sulfuric acid after leaching for 20 min at room temperature. Iron loss during acid-leaching can be negligible, which was less than 0.25%.The pH value of solution after leaching with 1% sulfuric acid was about 0.86, which means acid would not be exhausted during the process and it could be recycled, and the recycle of sulfuric acid solution would make the dephosphorization process more economical.

  18. Determination of elemental impurities and U and O isotopic compositions with a view to identify the geographical and industrial origins of uranium ore concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, A.; Hubert, A.; Pointurier, F.; Aupiais, J.; Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Fauré, A.; Diallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    First events of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials occurred 50 years ago. Nuclear forensics expertise are aiming at determining the use of seized material, its industrial history and provenance (geographical area, place of production or processing), at assisting in the identification and dismantling of illicit trafficking networks. This information is also valuable in the context of inspections of declared facilities to verify the consistency of operator's declaration. Several characteristics can be used to determine the origin of uranium ore concentrates such as trace elemental impurity patterns (Keegan et al., 2008 ; Varga et al., 2010a, 2010b) or uranium, oxygen and lead isotopic compositions (Tamborini et al., 2002a, 2002b ; Wallenius et al., 2006; Varga et al., 2009). We developed analytical procedures for measuring the isotopic compositions of uranium (234U/238U and 235U/238U) and oxygen (18O/16O) and levels of elemental impurities (e.g. REE, Th) from very small amounts of uranium ore concentrates (or yellow cakes). Micrometer particles and few milligrams of material are used for oxygen isotope measurements and REE determination, respectively. Reference materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (TIMS, SF-ICP-MS and SIMS) to validate testing protocols. Finally, materials of unknown origin were analyzed to highlight significant differences and determine whether these differences allow identifying the origin of these ore concentrates. References: Keegan, E., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry 23, 765-777. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002a). Analytical Chemistry 74, 6098-6101. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002b). Microchimica Acta 139, 185-188. Varga, Z., et al. (2009). Analytical Chemistry 81, 8327-8334. Varga, Z., et al. (2010a). Talanta 80, 1744-1749. Varga, Z., et al. (2010b). Radiochimica Acta 98, 771-778 Wallenius, M., et al. (2006). Forensic Science International 156, 55-62.

  19. The North American iron ore industry: a decade into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, John D.; Perez, A. A

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen another period of transformation, with the failure of a number of steel companies and with consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are changing rapidly. Consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures, divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes to ensure availability of feedstocks all played a role in recent developments in the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and U.S. iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream production, although isolated, must also be considered within the context of the changing global economy. Projects using new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96-98% iron content and other projects designed to produce steel at minesites may once again change the face of the iron ore industry. Social and environmental issues related to sustainable development have had a significant effect on the North American iron ore industry.

  20. Culturable microorganisms associated with Sishen iron ore and their potential roles in biobeneficiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Rasheed; Cloete, T E; Khasa, D P

    2012-03-01

    With one of the largest iron ore deposits in the world, South Africa is recognised to be among the top ten biggest exporters of iron ore. Increasing demand and consumption of this mineral triggered search for processing technologies, which can be utilised to "purify" the low-grade iron ore minerals that contain high levels of unwanted potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). This study investigated a potential biological method that can be further developed for the full biobeneficiation of low-grade iron ore minerals. Twenty-three bacterial strains that belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobateria were isolated from the iron ore minerals and identified with sequence homology and phylogenetic methods. The abilities of these isolates to lower the pH of the growth medium and solubilisation of tricalcium phosphate were used to screen them as potential mineral solubilisers. Eight isolates were successfully screened with this method and utilised in shake flask experiments using iron ore minerals as sources of K and P. The shake flask experiments revealed that all eight isolates have potentials to produce organic acids that aided the solubilisation of the iron ore minerals. In addition, all eight isolates produced high concentrations of gluconic acid followed by relatively lower concentrations of acetic, citric and propanoic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses also indicated extracellular polymeric substances could play a role in mineral solubilisation.

  1. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  2. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  3. Strontium isotope geochemistry of the Lemachang independent silver ore deposit, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sr isotope geochemical studies (the 87Sr/86Sr and ?18O-87Sr/86Sr systems) on the wall rocks and ores from the Lemachang independent Ag deposit in northeastern Yunnan provide strong evidence that the ore-forming fluids had flown through radiogenetically Sr-enriched rocks or strata prior to their entry into the locus of ore precipitation, and water-rock interaction is the main mechanism of Ag ore precipitation. The radiogenetically Sr-enriched source region may be the Proterozoic basement (the Kunyang and Hekou groups). Moreover, the theoretical modeling of the Sr isotopic system indicates that the ore-forming fluids contain as much as 3×10?6 Sr with isotopic composition of Sr being 0.750 and that of oxygen 7.0‰. The ore-forming temperatures were estimated at 150-250℃ for the carbonate rock-type ores and at 200-260℃ for the clastic rock-type.

  4. Strontium isotope geochemistry of the Lemachang independent silver ore deposit, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海琳; 李朝阳; 涂光炽; 周云满; 王崇武

    2000-01-01

    Sr isotope geochemical studies (the 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O-87Sr/86Sr systems) on the wall rocks and ores from the Lemachang independent Ag deposit in northeastern Yunnan provide strong evidence that the ore-forming fluids had flown through radiogenetically Sr-enriched rocks or strata prior to their entry into the locus of ore precipitation, and water-rock interaction is the main mechanism of Ag ore precipitation. The radiogenetically Sr-enriched source region may be the Proterozoic basement (the Kunyang and Hekou groups). Moreover, the theoretical modeling of the Sr isotopic system indicates that the ore-forming fluids contain as much as 3×10-6 Sr with isotopic composition of Sr being 0.750 and that of oxygen 7.0‰. The ore-forming temperatures were estimated at 150-250℃ for the carbonate rock-type ores and at 200-260℃ for the clastic rock-type.

  5. Magnetic mineralogy of the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit:Implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrhotite is one of the common ore minerals in Cu-Ni sulphide deposits, but only monoclinic pyrrhotite is ferromagnetic at room temperature. X-ray and EPA analyses reveal that most pyrrhotite forming sideronitic texture in the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit is monoclinic, but that in the massive ore is a mixture of monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotites. Differential thermal and magneticthermogravimetric analyses of massive ore indicate a magnetic transition and heat absorption at 323℃, suggesting that this temperature is the thermomagnetic and phase transition point of pyrrhotite. For massive pyrrhotite ores heated at 400℃ for 30 h and then quenched by cool water, the monoclinic pyrrhotite (mpo) transforms completely into the hexagonal pyrrhotite (hpo). However, all the pyrrhotites resulting from slow cooling of the sample in air are mpo. These results indicate that transformation between hpo and mpo depends upon the cooling rate. Therefore, massive ores in this deposit might have been formed via rapid cooling of ore melts. On the other hand, it is significant to study the effect of the ratio of the magnetite in total ores on the genesis of magmatic Cu-Ni suphide deposits.

  6. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  7. A novel stress distribution analytical model of O-ring seals under different properties of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Shao Ping; Wang, Xing Jian [School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The elastomeric O-ring seals have been widely used as sealing elements in hydraulic systems. The sealing performance of O-ring seals is related to stress distribution. The stresses distribution depends on the squeeze rate and internal pressure, and would vary with properties of O-ring seals materials. Thus, in order to study the sealing performance of O-ring seals, it is necessary to describe the analytic relationship between stress distribution and properties of O-ring seals materials. For this purpose, a novel Stress distribution analytical model (SDAM) is proposed in this paper. The analytical model utilizes two stress complex functions to describe the stress distribution of O-ring seals. The proposed SDAM can express not only the analytical relationship between stress distribution and Young’s modulus, but also the one between stress distribution and Poisson’s ratio. Finally, compared results between finite element analysis and the SDAM validate that the proposed model can effectively reveal the stress distribution under different properties for O-ring materials.

  8. Iron-Ore Sintering Process Optimization / Optymalizacja Procesu Aglomeracji Rudy Żelaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlichová M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with examination of the influence of the ratio between iron ore concentrate and iron ore on quality of produced iron ore sinter. One of the possibilities to increase iron content in sinter is the modification of raw materials ratio, when iron ore materials are added into sintering mixture. If the ratio is in favor of iron ore sinter, iron content in resulting sintering mixture will be lower. If the ratio is in favor of iron ore concentrate and recycled materials, which is more finegrained, a proportion of a fraction under 0.5 mm will increase, charge permeability property will be reduced, sintering band performance will decrease and an occurrence of solid particulate matter in product of sintering process will rise. The sintering mixture permeability can be optimized by increase of fuel content in charge or increase of sinter charge moisture. A change in ratio between concentrate and iron ore has been experimentally studied. An influence of sintering mixture grain size composition, a charge grains shape on quality and phase composition on quality of the produced iron sinter has been studied.

  9. Research on gold extraction from a carlin-type oxide gold ore in Gansu%甘肃某卡林型氧化金矿石回收金试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑明亮; 崔长征

    2012-01-01

    甘肃某卡林型氧化金矿石中金以微细粒包裹赋存在硫化矿、氧化铁矿、碳酸盐、硅酸盐等矿物中,采用全泥氰化和浮选工艺处理,金回收率很低.通过探索试验,确定采用焙烧—氰化工艺处理,在试验确定的最优条件下,金氰化浸出率可达到92%,取得了理想试验指标.%Oxide gold ores in this carlin-type gold deposit in Gansu province occur in superfine form embeded in sulfide ores,ferrous oxide ores,carbonate,silicate and so on.Poor gold recovery is only to be achieved when all sliming cyanidation and flotation are applied.Through exploratory experiments,a process of roasting-cyanidation is selected,in which,under optimisedconditions,gold recovery can reach 92 %.

  10. Experimental study on feasibility of gravity separation of a low-grade bauxite ore%某低品位铝土矿的重选可行性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖艳武; 丁行标; 刘敏; 孙利青

    2012-01-01

    The low-grade bauxite ore from Henan province whose mass ratio of aluminium oxide to silicon dioxide was about three was taken as study object. After float-sink experiment, a shaking table and a teetered bed separator were used to conduct expriments so as to investigate if gravity separation of the bauxite ore was feasible. Finally, the concentrate whose mass ratio of aluminium oxide to silicon dioxide was about six was obtained. The study results showed that the gravity separation was of significance for separation of the low-grade bauxite ore.%以河南某铝硅比为3左右的低品位铝土矿为研究对象,在浮沉试验的基础上,通过摇床分选、干扰分选床(TBS)分选,对该低品位铝土矿的重选可行性进行试验研究,获得了铝硅比为6左右的精矿。研究结果表明,重选对该低品位铝土矿的分选具有重要的意义。

  11. Numerical Modelling of Ore-forming Dynamics of Fractal Dispersive Fluid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 方云; 杨立强; 杨军臣; 孙忠实; 王建平; 丁式江; 王庆飞

    2001-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the fractal structures and mass transport mechanism of typical shear-fluid-ore formation system, the fractal dispersion theory of the fluid system was used in the dynamic study of the ore formation system. The model of point-source diffusive illuviation of the shear-fluid-ore formation system was constructed, and the numerical simulation of dynamics of the ore formation system was finished. The result shows that: (1) The metallogenic system have nested fractal structure. Different fractal dimension values in different systems show unbalance and inhomogeneity of ore-forming processes in the geohistory. It is an important parameter to symbolize the process of remobilization and accumulation of ore-forming materials. Also it can indicate the dynamics of the metallogenic system quantitatively to some extent. (2) In essence, the fractal dispersive ore-forming dynamics is a combination of multi-processes dominated by fluid dynamics and supplemented by molecule dispersion in fluids and fluid-rock interaction. It changes components and physico-chemical properties of primary rocks and fluids, favouring deposition and mineralization of ore-forming materials. (3) Gold ore-forming processes in different types of shear zones are quite different. (1) In a metallogenic system with inhomogeneous volumetric change and inhomogeneous shear, mineralization occurs in structural barriers in the centre of a shear zone and in geochemical barriers in the shear zone near its boundaries. But there is little possibility of mineralization out of the shear zone. (2) As to a metallogenic system with inhomogeneous volumetric change and simple shear, mineralization may occur only in structural barriers near the centre of the shear zone. (3) In a metallogenic system with homogeneous volumetric change and inhomogeneous shear, mineralization may occur in geochemical barriers both within and out of the shear zone.

  12. Thickening and rheological properties of slurries as functions of the oxidized nickel ore composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, N. V.; Olyunina, T. V.; Lysykh, M. P.; Ermishkin, V. A.; Smirnova, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    The thickening and rheological properties of ore slurries and pulps after autoclave sulfuric acid leaching are analyzed as a function of the phase composition of oxidized nickel ore. Experiments have been carried out with samples of ferrous, silicate and combined ores. The initial concentration of the ore slurries is ˜28%. Higher values of thickening properties (thickening rate of 1.3 m/day, thickened layer concentration of 54%) are exhibited by the ferrous ore slurry and the pulp after its leaching (thickening rate of 0.9 m/day, thickened layer concentration of 42%). The thickening rate of silicate ore slurry is 0.15-0.2 m/day, the thickened layer concentration is 40-45%. The thickening properties of the pulp after autoclave sulfuric acid leaching of silicate ore strongly depend on the consumption of sulfuric acid. The thickening properties of combined ore and pulps after its leaching deteriorate with increase in the content of silicon dioxide in the ore. In terms of the rheological properties, all slurries are pseudoplastic systems. Poorly thickening slurries are characterized by a high dynamic yield stress (up to 7 Pa) and apparent plastic and effective viscosities. The effective viscosity at the equivalent shear rate corresponding to the mixer rotation rate in laboratory autoclave reaches 34 × 10-3 Pa s. Boundary values are determined in rheological constants with regard to the thickening properties. For instance, if the dynamic yield point is 1.0 Pa, the thickening rate decreases from 0.075 m/day to zero. The thickening and rheological properties are found to depend on the particle size of solid phase and its surface properties.

  13. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  14. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  15. A study on iron ore transportation model with penalty value of transportation equipment waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailing Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As some steel enterprises are at a disadvantage in the choice of the mode of transportation, this paper made further studies of the characteristics of the iron ore logistics, taking comprehensive consideration of optimizing the waiting time under the conditions with limited loading capacity and setting up a procedural model of the iron ore logistics system with minimum cost of transportation, storage, loading, unloading, and transportation equipment waiting. Finally, taking the iron ore transport system of one steel enterprise as example, the solution and the validity of the model were analyzed and verified in this paper.

  16. Da identidade açoriana ao consumo da marca Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Negalha, Raquel Raposo

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Sociologia, 24 de Setembro de 2015, Universidade dos Açores. O presente Projeto de Dissertação insere-se na área da sociologia do consumo intitulada Da Identidade Açoriana ao Consumo da Marca Açores. A pertinência da mesma prende-se com o facto de o Projeto “Marca Açores” desenvolvido pela Sociedade para o Desenvolvimento dos Açores (SDEA) ser uma novidade para as empresas que se encontram interessadas em incutir o selo da mesma nos seus produtos de modo a que este...

  17. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdelhady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Prospecting for iron ore occurrences was conducted by the Remote Sensing Center in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area covering some 100,000 km squared in the Western Desert of Egypt. LANDSAT-1 satellite images were utilized as the main tool in the regional prospecting of the iron ores. The delineation of the geological units and geological structure through the interpretation of the images corroborated by field observations and structural analysis led to the discovery of new iron ore occurrences in the area of investigation.

  18. Innovative application of mathematical methods in evaluation of ore raw materials for production of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current principles of evaluation of ore raw materials are usually based on a comparison of selected isolated criteria. Today‘s sophisticated technological level of blast furnace process requires the introduction of raw material indicators that provide global characteristics of their quality. This can´t be realized with isolated parameters only. The evaluation should incorporate the key characteristics of iron ore and convert them into a uniform evaluation parameter. This article analyzes the use of mathematical methods in the evaluation of the quality of ore raw materials.

  19. AMS of natural 236U and 239Pu produced in uranium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Barrows, T. T.; Fifield, L. K.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.

    2007-06-01

    The rare isotopes 236U and 239Pu are produced naturally by neutron capture in uranium ores. Here we measure 236U and 239Pu by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the same ore samples for the first time. To ensure efficient extraction of both elements and isotopic equilibrium between the 239Pu in the ore and a 242Pu spike, we developed a new sample preparation protocol. AMS has clear advantages over previous methods because it achieves better discrimination against molecular interferences with higher sensitivity and shorter counting times. Measurements of 236U and 239Pu hold considerable promise as proxy indicators of neutron flux and uranium concentration.

  20. TWO-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC MODELING OF COMBUSTION IN AN IRON ORE SINTERING BED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Davazdah Emami, Mohsen; Panjehpour, Masoud;

    2013-01-01

    A twodimensional model, based on conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations, is represented in this paper in which the coke combustion process, for iron ore sintering in a packed bed, is simulated numerically. The aforementioned packed bed consists of iron ore, coke, limestone and moisture...... of species are solved numerically by using a computational fluid dynamics code in a discrete solving domain. Modeling of iron ore sintering has complex and various features like coke combustion, complicated physical changes of solid phase particles and different modes of heat transfer, for example convection...