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Sample records for nuclear na determinacao

  1. Quantitative determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in MTR fuel type plates; Determinacao quantitativa da homogeneidade da distribuicao de uranio em combustiveis nucleares tipo placa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrufino, Felipe Bonito Jaldin

    2011-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP produces the fuel to supply its nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel is assembled with fuel plates containing an U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al composite meat. A good homogeneity in the uranium distribution inside the fuel plate meat is important from the standpoint of irradiation performance. Considering the lower power of reactor IEA-R1, the uranium distribution in the fuel plate has been evaluated only by visual inspection of radiographs. However, with the possibility of IPEN to manufacture the fuel for the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), with higher power, it urges to develop a methodology to determine quantitatively the uranium distribution into the fuel. This paper presents a methodology based on X-ray attenuation, in order to quantify the uranium concentration distribution in the meat of the fuel plate by using optical densities in radiographs and comparison with standards. The results demonstrated the inapplicability of the method, considering the current specification for the fuel plates due to the high intrinsic error to the method. However, the study of the errors involved in the methodology, seeking to increase their accuracy and precision, can enable the application of the method to qualify the final product. (author)

  2. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  3. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222; Determinacao do fator de calibracao para detectores solidos de tracos nucleares tipo CR-39 expostos a Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci, E-mail: cdcazula@ipen.br, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm{sup 2}) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m{sup 3}, by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm{sup 2} per Bq / m{sup 3} day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility.

  4. Determination of radiochemistry purity and pH of radiopharmaceutical in Northeast nuclear medicine services; Determinacao da pureza radioquimica e pH de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear do Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington; Santos, Poliane, E-mail: wellington.gandrade@gmail.com, E-mail: polianeangelo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ffmima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiopharmaceutical is a chemical compound associated with a radionuclide, which is selected so that meets the need cf diagnosis and capable of producing quality images. Drugs labeled with {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide kits consist of lyophilized, and be handled by the nuclear medicine services (NMS) must pass tests as the resolution of ANVISA (RDC 38) published in 2008. Among these tests are those of radiochemical purity and pH determination. This study evaluated the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals and pH SMN manipulated in the Northeast. The radiochemical purity (RCP) was determined by thin layer chromatography, which were used Whatman Registered-Sign and silica gel, with dimensions of 1 x 10 cm, as stationary phase, and solvents indicated in the inserts of manufacturers. The chromatographic strips were placed in sealed containers so as not to touch the walls thereof. After the chromatographic run, the tape was cut every centimeter and the activities determined in doses of each calibrator NMS. The pH of the radiopharmaceutical was assessed through the use of universal pH paper (Merck Registered-Sign ) and obtained staining compared with its color scale. The results showed (hat 82.6% and 100% of the radiopharmaceuticals of the samples were within the limits recommended by international pharmacopoeias for radiochemical purity and pl-l, respectively. There is then the need to include in routine tests indicated SMN by ANVISA. Well, they can detect possible problems in the marking of radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patient and avoid inappropriate material. (author)

  5. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  6. The use of neutron diffraction for the determination of the in-depth residual stresses profile in weld coatings; A utilizacao da difracao de neutroes na determinacao do perfil de tensoes residuais em revestimentos por soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria Jose; Batista, A.C.; Nobre, J.P. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Centro de Estudos de Materiais por Difraccao de Raios X (CEMDRX); Loureiro, Altino [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Engenharia Mecanica (CEMUC); Kornmeier, Joana R., E-mail: mjvaz@fe.up.pt [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany). FRM II

    2013-04-15

    The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be minimized by performing post-weld stress relief heat treatments. The samples analyzed in this study were made of carbon steel plates, coated by submerged arc welding two types of stainless steel filler metals. For the first layer was used one EN 12 072 - S 2 U 23 12 electrode, while for the second and third layers were used an EN 12 072 - 19 12 3 S L electrode. After cladding, the samples were submitted to a post-weld heat treatment for 1 hour at 620 deg C. The residual stress profiles obtained by neutron diffraction evidence the relaxation of residual stress given by the heat treatment. (author)

  7. Theoretical calibration of a NaI(Tl) detector for the measurement of {sup 131}I in a thyroid phantom; Calibracao teorica de um detetor NaI(Tl) para a determinacao de {sup 131}I em um simulador de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Luzia [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Metrologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: lventur@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the theoretical calibration of a NaI(Tl) detector using Monte Carlo Method, for the measurement of {sup 131} I in a thyroid phantom. The thyroid is represented by the region between two concentric cylinders, where the inner one represents the trachea and the outer one represents the neck. {sup 133} Ba was used for experimental calibration. The results shows that the calibration procedure is suitable for {sup 131} I measurements. (author)

  8. Determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation and atomic absorption; Determinacao de Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na e Zn em plantas medicinais brasileiras por ativacao neutronica e absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ricardo P. de; Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena S.; Franco, Milton B.; Amaral, Angela M.; Guedes, Joao B.; Assis, Adilson de C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Leite, Simone C.A.L.; Silva, Isabel R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Medicinal plants are available in the markets in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The objective of this work is to investigate the Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na e Zn concentrations in two lots of usually known diuretics plants (azeitona do mato, cabelo de milho, cavalinha, cervejinha do campo, chapeu de couro, congonha de bugre, marmelinho do campo and quebra pedra) bought with an interval of time - six months - between the purchases. The elemental concentrations were determined applying k{sub 0} instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis. (author)

  9. Use of thin layer chromatography for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Utilizacao da cromatografia em camada delgada para determinacao da pureza radioquimica de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear da Paraiba e Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, W.G.; Santos, P.A.L.; Lima, F.R.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia Energetica; Lima, F.F., E-mail: wellington.gandrade@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The paper chromatography and the thin layer chromatography are separation techniques in which the radioactive components migrate because of their affinity with the eluent (mobile phase) or stationary phase, respectively. In radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, besides its own radiopharmaceutical, {sup 99m}TcO{sup 4-} free and TcO{sub 2} can be identified and quantified. The evaluation of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images free of artifacts as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Once they are managed in humans it is important and necessary that they undergo to strict quality control. Because of this, ANVISA in its 'Resolucao da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 38 of June 4th, 2008 states the obligation of performing a minimum of tests in nuclear medicine services routine prior to human administration. This work evaluated, by the method of thin layer chromatography (TLC), radiochemical purity, determined the pH of the radiopharmaceutical DEXTRAN- 500, DMSA, DTPA, PHYTATE, MDP, MIBI and Sn-Col used in nuclear medicine services in the states of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil. The results show that the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC) as a standard method in routine of nuclear medicine services is possible, because it provides important data for the evaluation of radiochemical purity, allowing the exclusion of a radiopharmaceutical poorly marked. (author)

  10. {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance study of the structure and dynamic of natrolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paczwa, Mateusz; Olszewski, Marcin; Sergeev, Nikolaj [Szczecin Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Sapiga, Aleksej A.; Sapiga, Aleksej V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky Univ., Simferopol, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependences of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of {sup 23}Na nuclei in natrolite (Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 10} . 2H{sub 2}O) have been studied. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} in natrolite have also been studied. It has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation of the {sup 23}Na is governed by the electric quadrupole interaction with the crystal electric field gradients modulated by translational motion of H{sub 2}O molecules in the natrolite pores. The dipolar interactions with paramagnetic impurities become significant as a relaxation mechanism of the {sup 23}Na nuclei only at low temperature (<270 K).

  11. The Na+ transport in gram-positive bacteria defect in the Mrp antiporter complex measured with 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-15

    (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has previously been used to monitor Na(+) translocation across membranes in gram-negative bacteria and in various other organelles and liposomes using a membrane-impermeable shift reagent to resolve the signals resulting from internal and external Na(+). In this work, the (23)Na NMR method was adapted for measurements of internal Na(+) concentration in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, with the aim of assessing the Na(+) translocation activity of the Mrp (multiple resistance and pH) antiporter complex, a member of the cation proton antiporter-3 (CPA-3) family. The sodium-sensitive growth phenotype observed in a B. subtilis strain with the gene encoding MrpA deleted could indeed be correlated to the inability of this strain to maintain a lower internal Na(+) concentration than an external one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Li and Na): Production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaensch, H.; Becker, K.; Blatt, K.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent improvements of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) are described. By means of optical pumping in combination with the existing multipole separation magnet the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity) was doubled. 7 Li and 23 Na atomic beams can now be produced in pure hyperfine magnetic substates. Fast switching of the polarization is achieved by an adiabatic medium field transition. The hyperfine magnetic substate population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. In routine operation atomic beams with nuclear polarization p α ≥0.85 (α=z, zz) are obtained. The acceleration of polarized 23 Na - ions by a 12 MV tandem accelerator introduces a new problem: the energy at the terminal stripper foil is not sufficient to produce a usable yield of naked ions. For partially stripped ions hyperfine interaction of the remaining electrons with the nuclear spin reduces the nuclear polarization. Using in addition the Heidelberg postaccelerator 23 Na 9+ beams of energies between 49 and 184 MeV were obtained with an alignment on target of P zz ≅0.45. 7 Li beams have also been accelerated up to 45 MeV with an alignment of P zz =0.69. (orig.)

  13. Risk communication in the nuclear sector; Comunicacao de risco na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Maria Eugenia Lago Jacques; Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Accidents of Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Goiania (1987), in the nuclear area, the major disaster of Bhopal (1984) and the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger (1986) led public opinion to the disbelieve in the technical and political competence of government and industries to safely conduct and manage complex technologies. As a result, there was a remarkable increase in public pressure in relation to problems of environmental pollution, disposal of radioactive wastes and major industrial accidents. in several industrialized countries the political answer has been the regulation in various sectors and the development of risk communication programs to improve the understanding of the society in questions concerning to risks originated from the several types of human activities. In Brazil, experts and researchers have presented papers showing the need for a policy that demonstrates to the public the benefits and the risks associated with the use of nuclear technology. This work discusses the importance of risk communication and how this matter is being treated in Brazil and in other countries. Important factors related to risk communication are also discussed such as: limitations of scientific data on risks; the involvement of industry, scientists and governments; media attitude in reporting or conveying information about risks; and the public response in evaluating and interpreting them. (author) 18 refs.

  14. Nuclear quadrupole interaction measurements of 19F* and 22Na* on Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Surono, Th; Martin, Peter W

    1996-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique has been used to investigate nuclear quadrupole interactions of 19 F * and 22 Na * in graphite. We concentrated the measurements on pseudo single crystal graphite called Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite for it has an ordered structure in which the c-axes of the microcrystals aligned in a certain direction with the mosaic spread less than 1 o , while the a- and b-axes randomly oriented on a plane perpendicular to the c-axes. Interactions between quadrupole moment of 19 F * and 22 Na * with its surroundings electric field gradient were studied by detecting the γ-rays distribution, W(Θ,t). For 1 9F * we found one static interaction. The corresponding electric field gradient was V zz =3.24(19)x10 22 V/m 2 . In the case of 22 Na * we found no evidence of nuclear quadrupole interaction, however, we were able to conclude that |QV 22 | 19 bV/m 2 . Using theoretical calculation Q=0.06 barn, we find that |V zz | 20 V/m 2 . These results indicate that the value efg depend on two factors, the host crystal and the core electrons. The core electrons contribution to the total efg is considerably large

  15. Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Na, Li): Optical pumping with electro-optically modulated laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, H.; Jaensch, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    An improvement of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) is described. To produce a nuclear spin polarized atomic Na beam an electro-optically modulated laser beam has been used for optical pumping. An electro-optic modulator (EOM) was constructed with a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz. Without a spin separating Stern-Gerlach magnet it is now possible to prepare a Na atomic beam in one single hyperfine magnetic substate. Thus the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity of the beam) has been improved by a factor of 4 as compared to the previous setup. Experiences with the new system collected from several beam times are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Pelletizing of NaF granules as adsorbent for fluorides of nuclear fuel materials, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental studies on compressibility of NaF granules are investigated. Brittleness and porosity of a tableted pellet depend on compressive power applied to the granules. Relation of the compressive power and distortion of NaF granules agree with Kawakita's formula. About the brittleness of NaF pellet tableted with optional pressure, the follow experimental formula is formed between axial destructive power and compressive power. Dsub(p)=f.psup(n) Then, relation of the axial destructive power and porosity of NaF pellet is given from the above mentioned experimental formula and Kawakita's formula. At the lower value of the porosity than 0.4, the axial destructive power varies steeply as compared with variation of the porosity. At optional porosity, the brittleness of the tableted NaF pellet are lower than Harshow Chem. Co. NaF.HF pellet. So it requires some process raising the brittleness of the pellet after the compression. (auth.)

  17. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear physics: Facilitating the peaceful and practical uses of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    When properly applied, nuclear science - the study of atomic nuclei and other subatomic particles - can contribute in many ways to the health, development and security of communities around the world. In this context, the IAEA plays an important role in helping interested Member States develop the capabilities and infrastructure necessary to manage their own programmes devoted to nuclear and radiological applications. The IAEA's nuclear science programme helps Member States to establish sound frameworks for the efficient, safe and secure use of new nuclear technologies, including accelerator facilities, research reactors and future nuclear fusion facilities. By applying nuclear technologies in a wide variety of areas such as energy production, health care, food and agriculture, industry and the environment, Member States can benefit immensely from the ensuing socioeconomic developments, as well as providing better living conditions for their citizens.

  18. Investigation of the 27Al(d,x24Na nuclear reaction for deuteron beam monitoring purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandaker Mayeen Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation cross-sections for the 27Al(d,x24Na nuclear reaction was measured by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe γ-ray spectrometry over deuteron energy range of 2–24 MeV. Measured data were critically compared with the available literature data and also with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL data base. Accuracy of the 27Al(d,x24Na cross-sections were confirmed by the simultaneous measurements of the natTi(d,x48V monitor reaction cross-sections. Present results reproduced well the IAEA recommended natTi(d,x48V reaction cross-sections, but provide slight deviation with the IAEA recommended 27Al(d,x24Na cross-sections. It may be concluded that the use of 27Al(d,x24Na in deuteron beam monitoring should not be a perfect choice if one has the option to use the natTi(d,x48V reaction.

  19. Management of an education unit in the nuclear area; Gestao de uma unidade de ensino na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fernando Jose Firmino; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    It is presented the development of an adequate tool to control and manage a nuclear education area unit. This unit, the Education Division, is continuously developing, requiring the creation of new mechanisms to keep the customer expectation and needs satisfied. The evolution of this unit is correlated to the implemented improvement that, by its proper dynamics, absorbs the continuos activities increase. The principal results are presented in tables and figures. (author)

  20. $\\beta$-NMR measurement of the nuclear quadrupole moments of $^{20,26-31}$Na

    CERN Document Server

    Wilbert, S; Geithner, W; Georg, U; Kappertz, S; Keim, M; Lievens, P; Neugart, R; Neuroth, M; Vermeeren, L

    1998-01-01

    The quadrupole moments of the neutron-rich isotopes $^{26-31}$Na and of the neutron-deficient $^{20}$Na were measured by $\\beta$-NMR after implantation of the short-lived nuclei into the host crystal lattices of Mg, LiNbO$_{3}$ and NaNO$_{3}$. The ion beams from ISOLDE were neutralized and polarized by in-beam optical pumping. Of particular interest are the isotopes close to N=20 for which various experimental observations suggest rather strong deformation. (5 refs) .

  1. um san joanense na organizaçao europeia para a investigaçao nuclear

    CERN Multimedia

    Gomes Costa, Joana

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Martel is a Sanjoanense, aged 39 years, who is involved in the most recent project of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland: this project will recreate the conditions of the "Big Bang" (1 page)

  2. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance in osteoporosis evaluation; Aplicacoes de ressonancia magnetica nuclear na avaliacao de osteoporose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Montrazi, Elton T.; Bonagamba, Tito J., E-mail: elton.montrazi@gmail.com, E-mail: tito@ifsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cesar, Reinaldo, E-mail: reinaldofisica@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    In this work, initially ceramic samples of known porosity were used. These ceramic samples were saturated with water. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal due to relaxation processes that the hydrogen nucleus water contained in the pores of this ceramic material was measured. Then these samples were subjected to a process of drying and measures successively. As the water contained in pores greater evaporates the intensity of signal decreases and shows the sign because of the smaller pores. The analysis of this drying process gives a qualitative assessment of the pore size of the material. In a second step, bones of animals of unknown porosity underwent the same methodology for evaluating osteoporosis. Also a sample of human vertebra in a unique manner, with the same purpose was measured. Combined with other techniques is a quantitative evaluation of the possible porosity.

  3. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin; Metodo nuclear aplicado em sitios arqueologicos na bacia amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Distrito do Planalto Central; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  4. Structural analysis of mixed alkali borosilicate glasses containing Cs+ and Na+ using strong magnetic field magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaneko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the local structure of alkali atoms in mixed alkali silicate, borate, and borosilicate glasses, which contain Cs+ and Na+, using strong magnetic field magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy of 133Cs and 23Na. The spectral peaks of 133Cs in borosilicate (Si:B = 1:1 and Si-rich borosilicate (Si:B = 2:1 glasses shifted to upfield with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio, which implies that the coordination number of Cs+ decreased as in the case of silicate and borate glasses. However, this trend was not observed in the 23Na spectra of either borosilicate glass. This might be because the chemical shift of 23Na in borosilicate glass is strongly affected by nearby species such as Si or B, and not by the coordination number of Na+.

  5. Thermogravimetric and nuclear magnetic resonance study of hydrated Na-β''-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, P.; Panepucci, H.; Gobato, Y.G.; Oliveira, L.N.; Souza, D.P.F. de

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports thermogravimetric and proton spin-lattice relaxation times measurement of hydrated Na-β''-alumina, which yield information about the identification of the sites where the loosely bound water molecules are located in the polycrystalline sample. It examines also the influence of impurities on the motion of the protons. (autor) [pt

  6. On anomalous 24Na production in high-energy nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.; Toneev, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments on anomalously high production of 24 Na fragments at large angles in high-energy C-Cu interactions are analysed starting from a cascade-evaporation model (CEM) and taking into consideration effects of particle transport through a matter. It turned out that no unusual mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions is needed to explain the experimental results. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  7. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Latkowski, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abbott, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31

    This report focuses on a LIFE design specifically targeted at burning of excess weapons grade material, either Pu (wgPu) or highly enriched uranium (HEU). The operational characteristics of the LIFE engine using these fuels are somewhat unique relative to fertile systems because the system “turns on” at full power. In the following sections, we describe the nuclear design, methodology, required fidelity, and analysis results relevant to a wgPu or HEU LIFE engine.

  8. Electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance of sodium macrostructures in strongly irradiated NaCl-K crystals: Manifestation of quasi-one-dimensional behavior of electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherkasov, FG; Mustafin, RG; L'vov, SG; Denisenko, GA; den Hartog, HW; Vainshtein, D. I.

    1998-01-01

    Data from an investigation of electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance of NaCl-K (similar to 1 mole%) crystals strongly irradiated with electrons imply the observation of a metal-insulator transition with decreasing temperature and the manifestation of quasi-one-dimensional electron

  9. Characterization of sodium transport in Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing purified A. laidlawii (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 22Na tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Lewis, R.N.; George, R.; Sykes, B.D.; McElhaney, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The active transport of sodium ions in live Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase from the plasma membrane of this microorganism was studied by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and 22 Na tracer techniques, respectively. In live A. laidlawii B cells, the transport of sodium was an active process in which metabolic energy was harnessed for the extrusion of sodium ions against a concentration gradient. The process was inhibited by low temperatures and by the formation of gel state lipid in the plasma membrane of this organism. In reconstituted proteoliposomes containing the purified (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase, the hydrolysis of ATP was accompanied by the transport of sodium ions into the lipid vesicles, and the transport process was impaired by reagents known to inhibit ATPase activity. At the normal growth temperature (37 degrees C), this transport process required a maximum of 1 mol of ATP per mol of sodium ion transported. Together, these results provide direct experimental evidence that the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase of the Acholeplasma laidlawii B membrane is the cation pump which maintains the low levels of intracellular sodium characteristic of this microorganism

  10. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  11. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  12. The role of nuclear energy in brazilian energy matrix: socioeconomic and environmental aspects; O papel da energia nuclear na matriz energetica brasileira: aspectos socioeconomicos e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, Priscila

    2016-09-01

    With the large increase of energy demand in the world, either for the continued expansion of industrialization, or by the raise of consumption, are increasing the need for energy sources diversification and the search for cleaner alternatives of energy production. Nuclear power has been considered as an option to curb the emission of greenhouse gases and reduce the dependence of fossil fuels. However, nuclear energy is an issue that still causes a lot of doubt and questions, turning the development of this work very important for a better understanding of the lay public as well as to contribute and encourage future research through an assessment of their environmental and socio-economic aspects, discussing the risks, benefits, and an assessment of the expansion of nuclear energy use, including an overview of nuclear energy in Brazil. Concluding that nuclear energy can contribute to the expansion of the Brazilian energy matrix, as the only heat source able to ensure constant supply of energy without emitting greenhouse gases. Considering that Brazil dominates the technology of the nuclear fuel cycle, and has a large reserves of uranium. A larger share of nuclear energy in the Brazilian energy matrix can generate greater diversification of the same, valuing the environmental and economic sustainability of the country and reducing the system's vulnerability. However, nuclear generation should not be considered as the only solution to the energy problems of the country, but make a part of it by the combination with other renewable sources, increasing the diversity and energy security of the country. (author)

  13. Metrological aspects in the estimate of the administered activity in nuclear medicine patients; Aspectos metrologicos na estimativa da atividade administrada em pacientes de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, A.; Iwahara, A.; Tahuata, L., E-mail: anelise@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil), Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes; Xavier, A.M. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2014-07-01

    In order to investigate the performance quality of routine measurements of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation/Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI/IRD) has been conducting, since 1998, a program of comparison for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. (author)

  14. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the conformation of an ATP analogue at the active site of Na,K-ATPase from kidney medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.M.; Grisham, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH 4 ) 4 ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase and that Mn 2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase can be an effective paramagnetic probe for nuclear relaxation studies of the Na-K-ATPase. From the paramagnetic effect of Mn 2+ bound to the APTase on the longitudinal relaxation rates of the protons of Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP at the substrate site (at 300 and 361 MHz), Mn-H distances to seven protons on the bound nucleotide were determined. Taken together with previous 31 P nuclear relaxation data, these measurements are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. The glycosidic torsion angle is 35 0 , and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type. The bound Mn 2+ lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from Mn 2+ to N 6 and N 7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme

  15. /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the conformation of an ATP analogue at the active site of Na,K-ATPase from kidney medulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacD. Stewart, J.M.; Grisham, C.M.

    1988-06-28

    /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase and that Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase can be an effective paramagnetic probe for nuclear relaxation studies of the Na-K-ATPase. From the paramagnetic effect of Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to the APTase on the longitudinal relaxation rates of the protons of Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ATP at the substrate site (at 300 and 361 MHz), Mn-H distances to seven protons on the bound nucleotide were determined. Taken together with previous /sup 31/P nuclear relaxation data, these measurements are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. The glycosidic torsion angle is 35/sup 0/, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type. The bound Mn/sup 2 +/ lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from Mn/sup 2 +/ to N/sub 6/ and N/sub 7/ are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme.

  16. Uncertainty analysis in the determination of absorbed dose in water by Fricke chemical dosimetry; Analise das incertezas na determinacao da dose absorvida na agua por dosimetria quimica Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Fabia; Aguirre, Eder Aguirre, E-mail: fabiavasco@hotmail.com, E-mail: ederuni01@gmail.com [Fundacao do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work studies the calculations of uncertainties and the level of confidence that involves the process for obtaining the dose absorbed in water using the method of Fricke dosimetry, developed at Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas (LCR). Measurements of absorbance of samples Fricke, irradiated and non-irradiated is going to use in order to calculate the respective sensitivity coefficients, along with the expressions of the calculation of Fricke dose and the absorbed dose in water. Those expressions are used for calculating the others sensitivity coefficients from the input variable. It is going to use the combined uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty, with a level of confidence of 95.45%, in order to report the uncertainties of the measurement. (author)

  17. Energia nuclear na mídia: Jornalismo científico em portais de notícias nacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique Almeida Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine how the nuclear energy is conveyed by the news media. We used the newsworthiness criteria in journalistic discourse to analyse some science journalism texts on nuclear energy in Brazilian news websites. We selected some news and classified using news values such as conflict, proximity, novelty and relevance. We concluded that nuclear energy is conveyed by the media in a way that the advantages and disadvantages were discussed, and news values were useful to point how all these arguments worked.

  18. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear sciences and applications partnerships: Making a difference together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA has a long history of cooperation with other international organizations, regional agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local and national governments, research and academic institutions. These cooperative efforts make it possible for the IAEA to implement many of its projects undertaken in the area of nuclear applications for peaceful purposes.

  19. Metrological aspects in estimating of radiation dose in patients of nuclear medicine; Aspectos metrologicos na estimativa da dose efetiva de pacientes em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, Anelise

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the performance of routine measurements in nuclear medicine services, LNMRI/IRD has been conducting, since 1998, a comparison program of activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. The present study shows how the correction factor is determined by the ratio between the measurement of the activity at the nuclear medicine center and the activity determined by the LNMRI, which is adopted as reference. It is essential that the dose calibrator be calibrated with standards traceable to national metrology laboratories, so that the activity administered to the patient is neither greater nor smaller than the appropriate value. The corrected values of the activities can be used to calculate with greater accuracy the effective doses received by the patients as well as the risk of cancer. Information related to radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities, type of exams and patient data of three Brazilian hospitals were collected for 1496 adults and 134 children submitted to diagnostic exams employing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. Results showed up to a considerable difference between the administered activity and the corrected activity until 30% and 13% above the reference value, respectively, for the {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc was detected. The consequences of these differences were not very critical in this study since the activity measured in dose calibrator before administration was lower than the corrected activity, thus causing a lower effective dose in patients. However, this reduction in activity may result in problems in obtaining the image and consequently, failure diagnosis, delaying correct diagnosis. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed

  20. Feasibility Study for the Measurement of Nuclear Fragmentation Cross Sections with NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Aduszkiewicz, A

    2017-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the fragmentation cross sections of intermediate mass nuclei is of paramount importance to understand the propagation of cosmic rays in our Galaxy and to evaluate the background for dark matter searches with space-based cosmic-ray experiments such as AMS. Therefore, we suggest a one-week test run in 2018 with secondary ions to establish the capabilities of NA61/SHINE to measure fragmentation cross sections at isotope level. No major modifications to the experimental setup of NA61/SHINE are needed to perform this feasibility study. The experience gained during the test run will be used to formulate a comprehensive measurement campaign for cosmic-ray related fragmentation cross sections for the possible extension of the NA61/SHINE physics program beyond 2020. The test data on carbon-proton and oxygen-proton interactions at 13A GeV/c that we intend to collect during the proposed test run have already the potential to reduce the current cross section uncertainties.

  1. Inspection of the brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the area of radiotherapy. A critical analysis; Inspecao do orgao regulador nuclear brasileiro na area de radioterapia. Uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Ricardo Roberto de Azevedo

    2005-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible in Brazil for the activities of licensing and control of radioactive installations in the radiotherapy medical area. The majority of these activities are developed by CNEN Co-ordination of Radioactive Installations (CORAD). One of the necessary stages for the development of licensing and control activities is the inspection of radiotherapy services (clinics and hospitals). Almost all of these inspections are carried out by CNEN Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), through its Service of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (SEFME). This work makes a survey of the main nonconformities found during ten years of inspections in radiotherapy services (1995 - 2004) and analyses the efficiency of these inspections in making the radiotherapy services develop their activities according to the norms in vigour in the country and adopt corrective actions against, at least, the nonconformities evidenced by CNEN inspectors. Additionally, it analyses the possibility of improvement and / or the optimisation of the process, through a procedure able to be unified and controlled, aiming a prompt communication to those involved in the licensing process (SEFME and CORAD) about the attendance by the radiotherapy services to the non-conformity items observed during the inspection. (author)

  2. Impacts of the turbogenerator reactive operation in the nuclear fuel burnup; Impactos da operacao reativa do turbogerador na queima do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helio Ricardo V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The parameterization of the losses in a turbogenerator in function of an operation with the electrical system reactive allowed to model in a simple and exact way the equations that define and they quantify the additional of nuclear potency that it should be generated by a reactor, in order to maintain the commitment with the national system operator, that is, the electric active power contracted. starting from this additional of nuclear power it was modeled the additional burn up of the fuel elements, as well as the numbers of effective days to full power wasted. it was promoted a safety analysis and some limitations due to the reactive operation of the electrical system. inside of this context it was made a financial evaluation in which we ask some questions to companies and government organs in order to define what losses are acceptable and also the reason why we don't use other technician resources such as: increase of the electrical mesh, electrical power injection in strategic points, capacitor banks and increase of the number the electrical plants. (author)

  3. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  4. Experience in training of health personnel for response to radiological and nuclear accidents; Experiencia na capacitacao de profissionais de saude para a resposta a acidentes radiologicos e nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurmo, Alexandre M., E-mail: ammaurmo@gmail.com [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CMRI/CTNV/FEAM), Praia Brava, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Medicina das Radiacoes Ionizantes. Centro de Treinamento Prof. Nelson Valverde; Leite, Teresa C.S.B., E-mail: feam@feam-etn.org.br [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CIRA/FEAM), Praia Brava, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Informacoes em Radioepidemiologia

    2013-07-01

    Eletronuclear Healthcare Foundation is the Institution responsible for the actions of health response involving ionizing radiation in the area of Nuclear Power Plant Almirante Alvaro Alberto in Angra dos Reis. Because of their specific assignments and references for being in training health manpower in the field of ionizing radiation developed a range of Training Courses for Professionals Area Health to prepare them for Response to Radiological and Nuclear Accidents. Modules are proposed specifically for the professional response of the Technical Level and Higher Level, the level Pre-hospital and hospital. These modules are further divided into specific levels or modules, Basic or Introductory, Intermediate and Advanced. Are applied pretests and post tests to monitor the content of fixing, maintaining a historical series of reviews. Your content is theoretical and practical applications developed in 30 to 48 hours, with simulations (drills) and distribution of educational materials. We already have more than 80 applications training, focusing on internal staff and external to the institution, developing interesting partner with the Armed Forces and Civil Defense. It still maintained a link on the institution seeking access and download over 400 titles on the subject and exchange of information and experiences. For improving the teaching material, the authors launched in 2011 the first manual in Portuguese on the subject with new revised edition in 2013: 'Manual of Medical Actions In Radiological Emergencies'. The results indicate increased knowledge and appropriateness of the themes and the strategy proposed for this activity, demonstrating yet passed that information can be multiplied and meets the growing demand of the country that has hosted and will host international events relevant at QBNRE risk. (author)

  5. Processing of three-dimensional structures of Nuclear Medicine in PET modality; Processamento de estruturas tridimensionais de medicina nuclear na modalidade PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Edward Florez; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: edward.florez@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Telecomunicacoes e Controle. Lab. de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-03-15

    The nuclear medicine, as a specialty to obtain medical images is very important, and it has became one of the main procedures utilized in health care centers to analyze the metabolic behavior of the patient. This project was based on medical images obtained by the PET modality (Positron Emission Tomography). Thus, we developed a framework for processing Nuclear Medicine three-dimensional images of the PET modality, which is composed of consecutive steps that start with the generation of standard images (gold standard) by using simulated images of the Left Ventricular Heart, such as phantoms obtained from the NCAT-4D software. Then, Poisson quantum noise was introduced into the whole volume to simulate the characteristic noises in PET images. Subsequently, the pre-processing step was executed by using specific 3D filters, such as the median filter, the weighted Gaussian filter, and the Anscombe/Wiener filter. Then the segmentation process, which is based on the fuzzy connectedness theory, was implemented. For that purpose four different 3D approaches were implemented: Generic, LIFO, kTetaFOEMS, and dynamic weight algorithm. Finally, an assessment procedure was used as a measurement tool to quantify three parameters (true positive, false positive and maximum distance) that determined the level of efficiency and precision of our process. It was found that the pair filter - segmenter formed by the Anscombe/Wiener filter together with the Fuzzy segmenter based on dynamic weights provided the best results, with VP and FP rates of 98.49 {+-}0.27% and 2.19 {+-}0.19%, respectively, for the simulation of the left ventricular volume. Along with the set of choices made during the processing structure, the project was finished with the analysis of a small number of volumes that belonged to a real PET test, thus the quantification of the volumes was obtained. (author)

  6. Hadron production in nuclear collisions from the NA49 experiment at 158GeV/c · A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikler, F.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hoehne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lednicky, R.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Oldenburg, M.D.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    1999-01-01

    With its large acceptance and particle identification coverage the NA49 experiment (Fig. 1) can study hadron production in a wide range of high energy reactions [1]. Originally aimed at examining central Pb+Pb collisions for signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation, the scope of the experiment has been enhanced with a systematic study of impact parameter and projectile size dependence, as well as the inclusion of the more elementary p+p and p+A interactions. The question is: are predicted signals of the quark-gluon plasma observed and are there discontinuities which would support the concept of hadronic phase transition?

  7. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are

  8. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pickett, Chris A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Queirolo, Al [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, Louise G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  9. Virtual reality technology used to estimate radiation doses in nuclear installations; Utilizacao de ambientes virtuais na estimativa de dose de radiacao em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas Cordeiro

    2008-03-15

    The physical integrity of people when walking in places subjected to radiation can be preserved by following some rules. Among these rules are safe limits of radiation level, proximity of radiation sources, time of exposition to radiation sources, and a combination of these factors. In this way, previous training and simulations of operation proceedings to be executed in places subjected to radiation help to better prepare the course in such places, minimizing the absorbed dose. On the other hand, virtual reality is a technology applicable in several areas, enabling the training and simulation of real places and hypothetical scenarios, with a good level of realism, but without danger if compared to the same activities in the real world. As a virtual environment does not presents any health risks, it is possible to train workers beforehand to several operation or maintenance scenarios. In this virtual environment, the dose tax distribution can be visualized, and the dose absorbed by the worker, represented and simulated in the virtual environment by a virtual character (avatar) can be shown. Therefore, the tasks to be done can be better planned, evaluating the workers actions and the performance so to reduce failures and health risks. Finally, this work presents a tool to build and navigate in virtual environments, enabling the training of activities in nuclear facilities. To that end is proposed a methodology to modify and adapt a free game engine. (author)

  10. Management of radioactive waste from {sup 99}Mo production by nuclear fission; Gestao dos rejeitos radioativos gerados na producao do {sup 99}Mo por fissao nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo

    2013-07-01

    Brazil intends to build a facility for the {sup 99}Mo production through {sup 235}U fission, once this radioisotope is largely used in nuclear medicine. This study aimed at estimating the physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of radioactive waste expected to be generated in that facility, and to provide theoretical subsides that can be used on the definition of a proper waste management system. Two production scenarios were established and the radioisotope inventories of the wastes were calculated by Scale®. From the chemical processing of the uranium targets the wastes were characterized on their chemical and radiological features. MicroShield® was used to determine the activity concentrations up to three months of {sup 99}Mo production. In addition, this work presents dose rate calculation for several sizes of shielding and different amount of wastes, collected in a proper package for in-site transportation. Radionuclides responsible for higher doses were identified in order to facilitate choosing the most appropriate method for managing the wastes after their chemical separation and before their storage. These results are part of what is expected on radioactive wastes at a {sup 99}Mo production facility and might help on the development of the waste management planning for that facility. (author)

  11. Chemistry characterization and samples beryllium process impurity determination; Caracterizacao quimica e determinacao de impurezas de amostras de processo de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonel Mathry de

    1992-12-01

    Brazil is the greatest world producer of beryl (3 Be O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.6SiO{sub 2}) and has recently begun to produce beryllium compounds by means of a pilot plant constructed at Governador Valadares city (Minas Gerais - Brazil). The aim of this work was the determination of trace level impurities and macro constituents in the tenth % range to support analytical control process of plant production and characterization of beryllium compounds. The impurities separations and purification process was developed by two steps procedure. The first one using EDTA complexation has separated and reduced some impurities to less than 1 {mu}g/ml level. In the second one it was used a chelating resin (Chelex 100) and the separation efficiency was about 75 to 97 % related with the element tested. High pure berylium oxide standard was obtained from purification of Be(OH)2. The R X fluorescence presented only traces of Cu and Si < 1 % Fe and Mn, Zn, Ca, Al, Na and S were completely removed. The beryllium content was determined by direct atomic emission spectroscopy in argon plasma (Dcp) and compared with classic gravimetric method as Be O. The results were in agreement (49,2+/-0,2 % and 48,3+/-0,1 % respectively) between 95 % of confidence. A low temperature gravimetric method for beryllium determination was also studied using Oxine with microwave furnace. A total of 24 elements including macro and trace level were determined by Dcp and/or spectrophotometric methods. The Be/B separation was studied using anionic resin in poly alcohols medium. A more detailed study of equilibrium conditions is necessary. This work was realized at Laboratorio de Analise Mineral (LAM) of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Rio de Janeiro (CNEN). (author)

  12. Use of nuclear technique in samples for agricultural purposes Uso de técnica nuclear em amostras de interesse na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerley A. P. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    do cerrado (argiloso e arenoso. Adicionalmente, um material de referência de solo da Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica foi analisado. A concentração de ETR no PG foi, em média, duas vezes maior que a encontrada na maioria dos fertilizantes nacionais (total de 4.000 mg kg-1 , 154 vezes maior que no solo arenoso (26 mg kg-1 e 14 vezes maior que no solo argiloso (280 mg kg-1 . Os resultados obtidos no material de referência confirmaram a exatidão do método com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foi comprovada a versatilidade da técnica ao serem determinados o La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb e Lu em amostras de solo e fosfogesso de interesse na agricultura.

  13. The nuclear estrogen receptor R-II of the goat uterus: distinct possibility that the R-II is the deglycosylated form of the nonactivated estrogen receptor (naER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N; Thampan, R V

    1995-08-20

    Structural and functional characteristics of the goat uterine nuclear estrogen receptor R-II have been subjected to comparison with those of the nonactivated estrogen receptor (naER), purified from the cytosol. The two proteins have the same molecular mass, 66 kDa; they display identical peptide maps and are both recognized by anti-estrogen receptor (R-I) IgG. Both are tyrosine kinases and bind with equal affinity to a column of anti-phosphotyrosine IgG-Sepharose. On the other hand, while naER is a glycoprotein, the R-II does not show any sign of glycosylation. Unlike the naER, the R-II is incapable of dimerization with estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) and, as a consequence, bind to the DNA. R-II has a higher estradiol binding capacity and the resultant reduction in its affinity for the hormone in comparison with the naER. Further, the sedimentation behavior and the Stokes radius of the naER indicate a globular nature in the shape of the protein. The corresponding data for the R-II reveal that the protein has a distinct nonglobular shape. Deglycosylation of the naER using a glycopeptidase resulted in the total conversion of the distinct physical features of the naER to the R-II category. This treatment resulted, without effecting any reduction in its molecular mass, in the loss of the E-RAF dimerization capacity of the naER. The Stokes radius and the sedimentation coefficient of the protein underwent drastic changes and became closely similar to those of the R-II. In addition, the deglycosylation introduced a several-fold enhancement in the capacity of the naER to bind estradiol with a concomitant decrease in its affinity, similar to the corresponding properties of the R-II. The R-II is shown to have a conformational structure different from that of the naER, to interact with the nuclear RNA polymerase II. It is also shown here that the R-II phosphorylates two subunits (molecular mass 91 and 20 kDa) in the RNA polymerase II, in addition to the 40-k

  14. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by nuclear respiratory factor 1: implication in the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2012-11-23

    NRF-1 regulates mediators of neuronal activity and energy generation. NRF-1 transcriptionally regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits α1 and β1. NRF-1 functionally regulates mediators of energy consumption in neurons. NRF-1 mediates the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption at the molecular level. Energy generation and energy consumption are tightly coupled to neuronal activity at the cellular level. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a major energy-consuming enzyme, is well expressed in neurons rich in cytochrome c oxidase, an important enzyme of the energy-generating machinery, and glutamatergic receptors that are mediators of neuronal activity. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the molecular level, whereby Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits are regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), found recently by our laboratory to regulate all cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and some NMDA and AMPA receptor subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 genes but not of the Atp1a3 gene in neurons. The transcripts of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 subunit genes were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by tetrodotoxin. Atp1b1 is positively regulated by NRF-1, and silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Atp1b1 induced by KCl, whereas overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts from being suppressed by tetrodotoxin. On the other hand, Atp1a1 is negatively regulated by NRF-1. The binding sites of NRF-1 on Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 are conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 regulates key Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits and plays an important role in mediating the tight coupling between

  15. Nuclear Overhauser effect studies of the conformation of Co(NH3)4ATP bound to kidney Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.; Jorgensen, P.L.; Grisham, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements (in the two-dimensional mode) have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH3)4ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH3)4ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase. Nine unique proton-proton distances on ATPase-bound Co(NH3)4ATP were determined from the initial build-up rates of the cross-peaks of the 2D-TRNOE data sets. These distances, taken together with previous 31P and 1H relaxation measurements with paramagnetic probes, are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The bound (Co(NH3)4ATP) adopts an anti conformation, with a glycosidic torsion angle of 35 degrees, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type (C2'-exo, C3'-endo). The delta and gamma torsional angles in this conformation are 100 degrees and 178 degrees, respectively. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. Mn2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from enzyme-bound Mn2+ to N6 and N7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes, but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme

  16. Nuclear Overhauser effect studies of the conformation of Co(NH3)4ATP bound to kidney Na,K-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.M.; Jorgensen, P.L.; Grisham, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

    1989-05-30

    Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements (in the two-dimensional mode) have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH3)4ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH3)4ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase. Nine unique proton-proton distances on ATPase-bound Co(NH3)4ATP were determined from the initial build-up rates of the cross-peaks of the 2D-TRNOE data sets. These distances, taken together with previous 31P and 1H relaxation measurements with paramagnetic probes, are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The bound (Co(NH3)4ATP) adopts an anti conformation, with a glycosidic torsion angle of 35{degrees}, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type (C2'-exo, C3'-endo). The delta and gamma torsional angles in this conformation are 100 degrees and 178 degrees, respectively. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. Mn2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from enzyme-bound Mn2+ to N6 and N7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes, but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme.

  17. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-01-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ( 133 Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources 137 Cs and 60 Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  18. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear sciences and applications: Applying 21st century nuclear science to 21st century problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    By enhancing the integration across various thematic areas, the IAEA plays a role in helping to address today's emerging challenges. In radiation medicine, for example, nuclear technology is used for the diagnosis and treatment of major non-communicable diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. The Human Health Campus at http://humanhealth.iaea.org provides on-line resources and learning for health professionals working in radiation medicine. Responding to the world cancer crisis, the IAEA developed a unique initiative, the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy which works closely with the World Health Organization (WHO) through the WHO-IAEA Joint Programme on Cancer Control. The programme aims at providing assistance to Member States to adopt comprehensive national cancer control programmes that encompass early detection, prevention, cancer diagnosis and treatment and palliative care. In a joint division with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA assists Member States in applying nuclear techniques to alleviate challenges in food safety, food security and sustainable agricultural development. The IAEA has made significant contributions to helping developing countries adopt sterile insect techniques to suppress and eradicate insect pests that pose a threat to human and to animal health. Using scientific methods based on the tracing of isotopes, the IAEA is improving the management of the world's freshwater resources, a key aspect of sustainable development in the face of climate change. The IAEA also helps Member States monitor known sites of radioactive contamination, as manifested by their ongoing efforts in Japan after the incident at Fukushima. Radioisotope products and radiation technology are essential components for applications across all fields, be it medicine, industry, or agriculture. The demand for the most used radioisotopes has been steadily increasing, such as, for example, fission produced 99Mo and 99m

  19. Determination of the crust thickness in the active margin of the Antarctic region; Determinacao da estrutura crustal na margem ativa da regiao antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos; Gamboa, Luiz Antonio Pierantoni [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lagemar; Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Seismic multichannel, gravity and magnetometry measurements were carried out in the region of West coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, Bransfield Strait, South Shetland Islands and South Shetland Trench, by Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continue seismic and gravity and gravity data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the crust thickness in this region. By this model, the Moho discontinuity would lie at a depth of 14.5 km below the axis of the Bransfield trough. This anomalous behaviour in addition to compressional processes identified in the accretionary prism and trench, was interpreted as an evidence of the continued opening of the Bransfield basin. (author)

  20. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid hormones determination on rats progeny with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism; Radioimunoensaio para determinacao do hormonio tireoideano na prole de ratas hipotireoideas e hipertireoideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Maria F.G.; Danda, Karina P.N.; Luna, Taciana F. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia]. E-mail: mfgaldin@npd.ufpe.br; Souza, Grace M.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia]. E-mail: mariajansem@hotmail.com; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Moura, Egberto G. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: egmoura@uerj.br

    2002-07-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism which occur during gestation provokes alteration, the hormonal modification in the newborn rats was analyzed. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with methimazole (in the of 0,03 % in drinking water) before mating. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 2 days with T{sub 4} (2{mu}g per 100 g body wt/day) before mating. It was seen that the rat which was born from hypothyroid or hyperthyroid dams suffered alteration on its T{sub 4} levels concerning the days 10,20,30 and 60 after birth. The administration of methimazole or thyroxine affects the fetal thyroid gland function, causing alteration of both T{sub 4} levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism influence on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  1. Influence of the compressibility factor in the determination of gas pipeline design pressure; Influencia do fator de compressibilidade na determinacao da pressao de projeto de gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, Sergio J. Furley dos; Silva, Breno S.; Provenzano, Carlos E.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In order to verify the high-pressure gas pipeline economic feasibility, it is presented in this paper the influence of the compressibility factor in the gas flow. The objective is to study the existent correlation regarding pressure, distance between compression stations, actual flow and diameter. It is developed an economic analyses considering a gas pipeline with 1000 km length, carrying 30,000x10{sup 3} Std m{sup 3}/day. This study is repeated for several diameters and pressures, varying the intermediate compression station quantity and required power. It is also verified the influence of the total length of the pipeline on the economic feasibility. It is concluded that a high-pressure gas pipeline is worthwhile when it carries large amount of gas in long distance. (author)

  2. System for prediction and determination of the sub critic multiplication; Sistema para previsao e determinacao da multiplicacao subcritica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino S.; Pereira, Valmir; Silva, Fernando C. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    It is presented a concept of a system which may be used to calculate and anticipate the subcritical multiplication of a PWR nuclear power plant. The system is divided into two different modules. The first module allows the theoretical prediction of the subcritical multiplication factor through the solution of the multigroup diffusion equation. The second module determines this factor based on the data acquired from the neutron detectors of a NPP external nuclear detection system. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Influência das gonadotrofinas na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos eqüinos Influence of gonadotropins on nuclear maturation of equine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Larre Borges

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A maturação in vitro, fecundação e as técnicas de cultivo de embriões na espécie eqüina são extremamente importantes e necessárias para se examinar as causas de repetição de cio, redução de concepção em éguas velhas e também para a preservação da espécie eqüina. Para avaliar o efeito das gonadotrofinas na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos eqüinos, folículos com diâmetro entre 5 a 20mm foram aspirados de 551 ovários provenientes de matadouro obtendo-se 408 oócitos aptos para cultivo. Após a aspiração, os oócitos foram avaliados no próprio líquido folicular quanto a sua integridade e distribuídos nos diferentes tratamentos. No Tratamento I (T1 - grupo controle - os oócitos (n=92 foram cultivados em TCM-199 modificado (mod., com 25mM de HEPES, 2,2mg/ml de bicarbonato de sódio, 1 mi g/ml 17-beta estradiol, 250mi M de piruvato de sódio e 0,4% de albumina sérica bovina. No tratamento 2 (T2, os oócitos (n= 108 foram cultivados no mesmo meio TC M-199 mod. acrescido de lug/ml de hormônio luteinizante suíno (LHs. No Tratamento 3 (T3, os oócitos (n=102 também foram cultivados em TCM-199 mod. porém com 0,5mi g/ml de hormônio folículo estimulante suíno (FSHs e no Tratamento 4 (T4 os oócitos (n= 106 foram cultivados com 1mi g/ml de LHs e 0,5mi g/ml, de FSHs. Os oócitos dos quatros tratamentos foram cultivados em estufa a 39°C com 5% de CO2 , e 95% de umidade relativa no ar, durante 24 h. Após este período, as células do Cumulus oophorus foram removidas e os oócitos fixados em solução de ácido acético glacial-metanol (1:3 em placas de Petri 10 x 35mm por 24h sendo posteriormente corados com aceto-orceína. O percentual de oócitos em telófase I / metáfase II foi de 55,6% (59/106 para o T4 (FSHs/LHs e de 53,9% (55/102 para o T3 (FSHs, os quais não diferiram significativamente. No entanto, estes percentuais foram significativamente superiores (pIn vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization

  4. Superionic phase transitions and nuclear spin phonon relaxation by Raman processes in Me3H(SeO4)2 (Me = Na, K, and Rb) single crystals by 1H and Me NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2007-01-01

    Me 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 (Me = Na, K, and Rb) single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method, and the relaxation times of the 1 H and Me nuclei in these crystals were investigated using FT NMR spectrometry. The 1 H T 1 NMR results for K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 single crystals were very different from those for Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 crystals. Short 1 H relaxation times were found for K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 at high temperatures, but not for Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 , which are attributed to the destruction and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds; thus K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 have superionic phases, whereas Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 does not. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate for the 23 Na nucleus in Na 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 crystals was in accord with a Raman process for nuclear spin-lattice relaxation (T 1 -1 ∝T 2 . In contrast, the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the 39 K and 87 Rb nuclei in K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 single crystals exhibited a very strong temperature dependence, T 1 -1 ∝T 7 . The motions giving rise to this strong temperature dependence may be related to the high electrical conductivities of these crystals at high temperatures

  5. Determination of elements in blood of golden hamster by NAA; Determinacao de elementos em sangue de hamster dourado usando AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo Oliveira de

    2009-07-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of golden hamster. The normal range for Br, Ca, Cl K, Mg, Na and S considering 2 {sigma} (Two Standard deviations) was 0.011 0.047 gL{sup -1} (Br); 0.11 0.35 gL{sup -1} (Ca); 2.11 3.75 gL{sup -1} (Cl); 1.35 2.79 gL{sup -1} (K), 0.026 0.090 gL{sup -1} (Mg), 1.03 2.51 gL{sup -1} (Na) e 0.97 2.01 gL{sup -1} (S). The knowledge of these limits became possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood. The comparison with the results from human being whole blood estimation (Hamster and human) became possible to check the similarities or physiologic differences, an important data for animal experimentation. (author)

  6. The PRONUCLEAR role (1976-1986) in the human resource training for the nuclear area in Brazil: science history; O papel do PRONUCLEAR (1976 -1986) na formacao de recursos humanos para a area nuclear no Brasil: historia da ciencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedecke, Winston Gomes

    2006-07-01

    In 1975, an agreement between the governments of Brazil and West-Germany was signed for the construction of nuclear power plants in Brazil as well as the extraction, processing and enrichment of uranium. As the result of the first oil crisis and facing the perspective of a continuous world energy crisis, the Brazilian government decided to turn to nuclear power as an alternative supply for the country's energy needs. However, serious limitations were present regarding the transfer of nuclear technology for a third world country. This paper analyzes some aspects of the process involved in the creation of the specialized human resources during the extent of the agreement between Brazil and West Germany. Since its inception, the agreement received harsh criticism from the Brazilian nuclear physics and related fields scientific communities. Because the planning and implementation of the agreement took place during a period of military dictatorship, the decisions relating to the agreement were never debated between the policy makers and the scientific community. Not surprisingly, the agreement received plenty of criticism that ranged from the actual need for nuclear power to technical feasibility and suspicious of possible military uses and even the very policies created to prepare human resources to work in the nuclear area. One of the most important tools of these policies was the Programa de Recursos Humanos para o Setor Nuclear - PRONUCLEAR (Nuclear Sector Human Resources Program), implemented in 1976 and gradually deactivated starting in 1983. (author)

  7. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  8. Study of the nuclear graphite contact with the eutectic liquid (ZrF{sub 4} - NaF-LiF) and its protection by the vitreous carbon; Etude du contact du graphite nucleaire avec le liquide eutectique (ZrF{sub 4} -NaF-LiF) et sa protection par le carbone vitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardet, V.; Duclaux, L. [Universite de Savoie, LCME, Polytech Savoie, 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France); Renaudin, G.; Dubois, M.; Guerin, K.; Avignant, D. [LMI, CNRS, 63 - Aubiere (France); Renaudin, S.; Delpeux, S. [CRMD, CNRS, 45 - Orleans (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the reactors of fourth generation called molten slats reactors, the graphite core is on contact with liquid fluoride salts used as fuel and coolant. The aim of the study is to better understand the interaction between the graphite and the molten salt and to determine methods to protect the graphite to limit its corrosion by the fuel. The molten salts of this study is composed of NaF and LiF and ZrF{sub 4}. The fluoride salts reactivity and diffusion have been characterized for the nuclear graphite. Microscopy and spectroscopy Raman have been used to characterize the adhesion. (A.L.B.)

  9. Estimation of covariances of {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakajima, Yutaka; Kawano, Toshihiko; Oh, Soo-Youl; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru

    1997-10-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 6 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. As for {sup 235}U, covariances were obtained also for the average number of neutrons emitted in fission. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. In nuclear model calculations, the covariances were calculated by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author). 193 refs.

  10. Inorganic constituents determination in medicinal plants and their extracts; Determinacao dos constituintes inorganicos em plantas medicinais e seus extratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisconi, Lucilaine Silva

    2014-07-01

    Different types of therapies have been introduced as an alternative treatment to combat different types of human disorders. Among them, the use of herbal teas has been highlighted by the cost/benefit, easiness of acquisition and administration. The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic constituents, and evaluate the element concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg. Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis; and Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, by atomic emission spectrometry, with inductively coupled plasma source and Hg, by atomic absorption spectrometry, with cold vapor generation in medicinal plants and their extracts, whose marketing was recently regulated by National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The relevance of these analyses is justified by the need of contributing to the recommendation of such plants as sources of minerals in the diet and, also, to verify if their concentrations cam pose some harm to the organism. The techniques showed adequate sensitivity in determining the concentration for most of the elements. Toxic elements were found in concentration not harmful to the human body. The results, also, allowed possible to correlate the elemental concentration in the analyzed species, by the determination the correlation coefficients and applications of cluster analysis. From these results it was confirmers in the groups of elements, regarding the variation of the concentrations observed in some plants and their extracts. The elements that play important roles in the human metabolism were determined in concentrations that can help both, to avoid the lack of these elements in the organisms, from the diet, and in treatment of disease. (author)

  11. The CERES / NA45 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ceres is one of the second generation heavy ion experiments at CERN's SPS. It is dedicated to the study of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nuclear collisions. NA45 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN's Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In this state, quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  12. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on human health: Improving health around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Every year, millions of nuclear medical examinations are conducted around the world using radiopharmaceuticals that assess diseases at molecular levels. Diagnostic images are then generated to help diagnose and treat major disorders and illnesses such as heart disease and cancer. Positron emission tomography in oncology and single photon emission tomography in cardiology (as well as in other areas) provide unique functional information that, when combined with anatomical data obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, allow for more precise localization of cancer or cardiac abnormalities. By facilitating appropriate human resources capacity building, the IAEA helps to establish new, and improve existing, nuclear medicine facilities, and encourages nuclear medicine imaging integration with diagnostic radiology procedures, thus helping its Member States to achieve and maintain high standards of professional practice.

  13. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheim,, A. P.; Dal Molin, D.C.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Provis, J.L.; Fischer, P.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2010-12-01

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C{sub 3}A or 3CaO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C{sub 3}A or Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 8}Al{sub 6}O{sub 18}), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C{sub 3}A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C{sub 3}A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C{sub 3}A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C{sub 3}A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping.

  14. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2011-02-21

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C3A or 3CaO·Al2O 3) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C3A or Na2Ca8Al6O18), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C3A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C3A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C3A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C3A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. The use of genetic algorithms with niching methods in nuclear reactor related problems; A utilizacao dos metodos de nichos dos algoritmos geneticos na otimizacao de problemas de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Wagner Figueiredo

    2000-03-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are biologically motivated adaptive systems which have been used, with good results, in function optimization. However, traditional GAs rapidly push an artificial population toward convergence. That is, all individuals in the population soon become nearly identical. Niching Methods allow genetic algorithms to maintain a population of diverse individuals. GAs that incorporate these methods are capable of locating multiple, optimal solutions within a single population. The purpose of this study is to test existing niching techniques and two methods introduced herein, bearing in mind their eventual application in nuclear reactor related problems, specially the nuclear reactor core reload one, which has multiple solutions. Tests are performed using widely known test functions and their results show that the new methods are quite promising, specially in real world problems like the nuclear reactor core reload. (author)

  16. Study of the Production Mechanisms and Decay Properties of Charmed Particles Observed in Nuclear Emulsions Coupled to the NA14 Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this test experiment are: \\item a)~~~~to check the expected improvement in scanning speed and efficiency, due to the use of the microstrip vertex detector of the NA14 set-up and to the help of automated microscopes; \\item b)~~~~to evaluate the enrichment factor in the charmed event content of the sample to be searched, due to the particle identification power and the vertex detector of NA14; \\item c)~~~~to collect some 100 pairs of charmed particles, produced and decaying in emulsion, which would allow a comparison with the results from the WA58 experiment, in particular about the possible energy dependence of the production mechanism of associated @L^c|+~$\\bar{D}$. \\end{enumerate} The incident beam will consist of tagged photons between 70 and 150-200~GeV.

  17. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on food and agriculture: Building better agriculture one atom at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In a world facing the dilemmas posed by exponential population growth and changing climates, nuclear technology offers possible avenues to solve production problems, protect soil and water resources and conserve biodiversity, which, in turn, means increased hope for global food security. Application of nuclear technology has a proven record in increasing agricultural production. Higher and more reliable yields not only improve farmers' livelihoods, they mean better quality and safer food for consumers. The methods used vary: isotope measurements identify and trace the efficiency of crop inputs such as water and fertilizer and of animal feeds; gamma rays sterillize male insects so that when they are returned to the wild they are unable to produce progeny; irradiation stops the growth of pests and expands the shelf life of grains, spices and processed foods; radiation induced mutation speeds up natural genetic changes in crops to support plant breeders; and genetic markers expedite the identification of animal diseases thereby allowing treatment to begin sooner. All of these methods, plus a host of others that come under the heading of nuclear technology, are invaluable tools for agriculture and food production. For almost five decades, the IAEA, together with its partner the FAO, guided development of new nuclear based methodologies, requested by its Member States and facilitated their adaptation, adoption and application. A harbinger of the United Nation's Delivering as One, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division stands as the United Nations' system's only joint venture. It also operates its own agriculture and biotechnology laboratories in Seibersdorf where technical services, R and D and laboratory training activities are conducted in support of the development and transfer of new technologies and their adaptation to local needs and environments.

  18. Ergonomia na concepção de interfaces gráficas de salas de controle avançadas de reatores nucleares.

    OpenAIRE

    CARVALHO, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; SANTOS, Isaac José Antonio Luquetti dos; TEIXEIRA, Douglas Vidal; FERRAZ, Fernando Toledo

    2007-01-01

    A ergonomia de concepção pode ser definida como a elaboração de novos produtos, processos ou sistemas informatizados, enfatizando a aplicação dos conceitos ergonômicos, seguindo os padrões ergonômicos contidos nas normas, objetivando o desenvolvimento de sistemas seguros, funcionais, adaptáveis as necessidades dos usuários, propiciando o aumento da confiabilidade operacional e da segurança na realização das tarefas. O objetivo desse trabalho é propor e aplicar uma estrutura metodológica para ...

  19. Assessment of occupational radiation protection conditions during power enhancement of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant; Avaliacao das condicoes de radioprotecao ocupacional durante a elevacao de potencia na Unidade 2 da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - Angra-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Eduardo M.; Rocha, Antonio Carlos S.; Ferreira, Paulo R.R.; Mouco, Charles Dickens C.L.; Godoy, Jose M.O.; Matta, Luiz E.S.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper intend to analyse the occupational radioprotection conditions of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant, from the startup up to reach 100% of the nominal power. To perform this work a group of dose rates measures was made including beta/gamma and neutron radiation, particulates and iodine monitoring, and surface contamination, during the whole process. These measures were made inside of the three main buildings: the reactor buildings (UJA - reactor core and UJB) and the Reactor Auxiliary Building (UKA). (author)

  20. Innovation and knowledge generation in cooperation nets: challenges for regulations in the nuclear safety area in Brazil; Inovacao e geracao de conhecimento nas redes de cooperacao: desafios para a regulacao na area de seguranca nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The importance of inter-organisational cooperation within the innovation process has been increasingly recognized. In fact, all organisations, at some point, need to look to external sources for inputs to the process of building up technological competence. In this sense, through a detailed case study, this thesis examine theoretical and empirically how collaborative initiatives have supported the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the development and implementation of innovations, in order to verify the positive relationship between the collaboration and the organisational innovation performance. Emphasizing the importance of both internal sources of knowledge and external participation, the study encompasses documentary analysis, a preliminary survey and semi-structured interviews with the regulatory body employers in charge of controlling medical and research facilities and activities involving radiation sources. The thesis demonstrates that innovations developed and implemented in the Brazilian nuclear safety and security area are associated with collaborative initiatives, in order to improve the organizational capability to fulfill safety obligations, providing some important implications for regulatory body managers concerned with the management of innovation. The findings also identified actors with a significant degree of influence in the innovation process. The result reveals that the support provided by these actors has a significant influence on the innovation performance of the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body, suggesting that Brazil should adopt more interactive models of innovation and knowledge transfer. In addition, the findings show that these key actors can play a very distinctive role in the context of sectoral systems of innovation information regime. (author)

  1. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil; O papel das emulsoes nucleares na institucionalizacao da pesquisa em fisica experimental no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite [Instituto Ciencia Hoje, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Videira, Antonio A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  2. Social representation for future teachers on the nuclear energy: probable implications of the public opinion; Representacoes sociais de futuros professores a respeito da energia nuclear: possiveis implicacoes na opiniao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes; Farias, Luciana Aparecida, E-mail: rafaellayllon@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ditfavaro@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to study the SR (social representation) regarding the 'Nuclear Energy' (NW) and 'Nuclear Chemistry' (NC) of students of Science - Bachelor of Federal University of Sao Paulo - UNIFESP. Individual questionnaires to research the topic, followed by the presentation of seminars with the focus of the research were applied. The methodology used was the technique of free word (Abric ,1994) which gives the frequency of each element that was mentioned and their average order of evocation, as well as semi -structured questionnaire with questions. Among the first results, it was found that the words 'Bomb' and 'Reactor' were the most mentioned by the group when asked evocations related to 'NE', while the terms 'Health' and 'Safety' are among the least mentioned. When referring to 'NC' the most frequent terms were 'Chemistry' and 'Atoms/Elements and 'Reactor' and 'Development' were less frequent. However, even though as a possible central core elements that match a negative SR theme, these students indicated Nuclear Energy as a strong option/option for diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix.

  3. The role of nuclear energy in Brazilian energy matrix: environmental and socio-economical aspects; O papel da energia nuclear na matriz energética brasileira: aspectos socioeconômicos e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bones, Ubiratan A.; Schirmer, Priscila; Ceolin, Celina, E-mail: biraabones@gmail.com, E-mail: schirmerpriscila@gmail.com, E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the great increase demand for energy in the world, the continuous expansion of industrialization and the increase of consumption, together with the indispensable search for the sustainability of human acts, the need for diversification of the energy matrix and the search for less polluting energy comes increasing. Nuclear energy is increasingly seen as an option to contain greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this context, although it is not a source of renewable energy and also not the solution to all Brazilian problems, it can contribute to the expansion of the Brazilian energy matrix, being the only thermal source capable of guaranteeing the constant supply of energy without emitting greenhouse gases, considering that Brazil dominates nuclear fuel cycle technology and has large uranium reserves. However, this is a topic that generates a great deal of insecurity and questioning, making important the development of this work, both for a better understanding of the public, and to contribute and encourage future research through an evaluation of its environmental and socioeconomic aspects, discussing its risks and assessing the possibilities of expanding its use, including a panoramic view of nuclear energy in Brazil. In addition, for the full development of a country, it is necessary to diversify its energy sources, focusing on environmental and economic sustainability and reducing the vulnerability of the system.

  4. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on comprehensive cancer control: Fighting cancer in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    For over thirty years, the IAEA has worked in some 115 low and middle income (LMI) Member States to deploy robust radiotherapy and nuclear medicine programmes, expending over US $250 million on cancer related assistance under its Technical Cooperation Programme, with technical support provided by the Division of Human Health. This has enabled many Member States to establish safe and effective diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy capacity to provide treatment and higher quality care to many of their cancer patients. The IAEA also helps establish new nuclear medicine facilities and encourages their integration with diagnostic radiology procedures by facilitating appropriate human resources capacity building. This helps Member States to achieve and maintain high standards of professional practice. The IAEA addresses quality management though services such as the Quality Assurance in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM), Quality Assurance Team in Radiation Oncology (QUATRO) and Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology (QUADRIL), which allow the IAEA to provide tools for improving the practice of radiation medicine around the world. In 2004, the IAEA established the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) in support of the World Health Assembly's call to action against cancer. It stands as the IAEA's umbrella programme for combating cancer and builds upon the above experience in radiation medicine expertise and technology. PACT works closely with the World Health Organization (WHO), its regional offices and other key players through the WHO-IAEA Joint Programme on Cancer Control. The WHO-IAEA Joint Programme was established in 2009 to enable LMI Member States to introduce, expand and improve their cancer treatment capacities and therapeutic effectiveness by integrating radiotherapy into a comprehensive national cancer control programme.

  5. Discursos de licenciandos em física sobre a questão nuclear no ensino médio: foco na abordagem histórica

    OpenAIRE

    Sorpreso,Thirza Pavan; Almeida,Maria José Pereira Monteiro de

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho analisamos os discursos de dois licenciandos ao elaborarem um episódio de ensino com abordagem histórica do tema Questão Nuclear. Utilizamos, como referencial teórico, a Análise de Discurso, tal como divulgada no Brasil por Eni Orlandi. Observamos a forte influência da memória discursiva originada no Ensino Básico e Superior dos licenciandos. Os discursos produzidos compreenderam contradições e deslocamentos que os aproximaram dos discursos da pesquisa em ensino de Física....

  6. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  7. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on environment laboratories: Protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    According to the Millennium Development Goals, managing the environment is considered an integral part of the global development process. The main purpose of the IAEA's environment laboratories is to provide Member States with reliable information on environmental issues and facilitate decision making on protection of the environment. An increasingly important feature of this work is to assess the impact of climate change on environmental sustainability and natural resources. The IAEA's environment laboratories use nuclear techniques, radionuclides, isotopic tracers and stable isotopes to gain a better understanding of the various marine processes, including locating the sources of pollutants and their fate, their transport pathways and their ultimate accumulation in sediments. Radioisotopes are also used to study bioaccumulation in organisms and the food chain, as well as to track signals of climate change throughout history. Natural and artificial radionuclides are used to track ocean currents in key regions. They are also used to validate models designed to predict the future impact of climate change and ocean acidification. The laboratories study the fate and impact of contamination on a variety of ecosystems in order to provide effective preventative diagnostic and remediation strategies. They enhance the capability of Member States to use nuclear techniques to understand and assess changes in their own terrestrial and atmospheric environments, and adopt suitable and sustainable remediation measures when needed. Since 1995, the IAEA environment laboratories have coordinated the international network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity, providing accurate analysis in the event of an accident or an intentional release of radioactivity. In addition, the laboratories work alongside other organizations, such as UNESCO, the IOC, UNEP and the EC. The laboratories collaborate with Member States through direct involvement with

  8. Nuclear energy for use in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy to solve problems in agriculture, aiming to increase the food production, is presented. The projects that are being developed at CENA (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura) are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  10. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society; Um estudo simplificado sobre a percepcao publica na area nuclear: sugestoes para campanhas educativas para os diferentes segmentos da sociedade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-07-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  11. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine; Estimativa da dose coletiva na populacao portuguesa devido a exames medicos de radiologia de diagnostico e de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Sousa, M. Carmen de [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Coimbra (Portugal); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (Portugal); Pascoal, Ana [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Kings Health Partners; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana isabel [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada (Portugal); Lanca, Isabel [Administracao Regional de Saude, Coimbra (Portugal); Matela, Nuno [Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias. Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica; Janeiro, Luis [Escola superior de Saude da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Patrick [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui [Medical Consult, SA, Lisboa (Portugal); Simaozinho, Paula [Administracao Regional de Saude, Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of Almost-Equal-To 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications.

  12. A high-angular resolution study of the nuclear regions of quasar host galaxies with the NaCo simultaneous differential imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharwaechter, J; Ivanov, V D [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Zuther, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tacconi-Garman, L E [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Kotilainen, J K; Reunanen, J [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FIN-21500 Piikkioe (Finland)], E-mail: jscharwa@eso.org

    2008-10-15

    A project aiming at the study of the emission line gas morphology in quasar host galaxies by means of adaptive-optics-assisted simultaneous narrow-band imaging of the line and continuum emission is presented. The project makes use of the NaCo Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI) in an extragalactic experiment. The quasar targets are selected according to the availability of a neighbouring natural guide star for adaptive optics (AO) correction and according to a redshift criterion which places one of the emission lines of Pa{beta}, H{alpha}, or [O III] into one of the three SDI narrow-band filters in the near-infrared H-band. The first results for six targets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Catalogue at redshifts of about 0.2, 1.4, and 2.1 are summarized. The strongest line emission is detected for the H{alpha} candidate SDSS J125400.42+033726.5 at a redshift of 1.386. A double-structured continuum source is found in the central region of SDSS J114203.40+005135.8, which might be correlated with the major merger process suggested by the one-armed tidal tail in the large scale morphology.

  13. Efeito do tamanho do folículo na maturação nuclear e citoplasmática de ovócitos de fêmeas zebuínas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dode Margot Alves Nunes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o efeito do tamanho do folículo na capacidade dos ovócitos de sofrerem maturação nuclear e citoplasmática. Ovários de vacas Nelore (Bos indicus foram coletados logo após o abate, e os complexos cúmulus-ovócitos foram aspirados de folículos de diferentes categorias, e classificados de acordo com seus diâmetros em: 1-2 mm, 3-5 mm, 6-8 mm e > ou = 9 mm. A medida do diâmetro e a fixação dos ovócitos para avaliação do estádio nuclear antes da maturação foram feitas logo após a aspiração. Ovócitos morfologicamente viáveis foram maturados, fecundados e cultivados in vitro. Os ovócitos obtidos de folículos de 1-2 mm apresentaram menor diâmetro (P ou = 9 mm de diâmetro, respectivamente, apresentavam vesícula germinativa. O tamanho do folículo não influenciou (P ou = 9 mm, respectivamente. As taxas de penetração e clivagem foram semelhantes (P>0,05 nos grupos de 1-2 mm (93,4% e 81,9%, 3-5 mm (90,7% e 79,6%, 6-8 mm (91,3% e 77,8% e > ou = 9 mm (92,0% e 78,3%. Da mesma forma, não houve diferenças (P>0,05 entre as categorias de folículos no que se refere às taxas de polispermia, descondensação da cabeça do espermatozóide e formação de pro-núcleos. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que na espécie B. indicus, folículos com diâmetro de 1 mm até > ou = 9 mm não influenciaram a capacidade dos ovócitos de reiniciar e completar a meiose e de clivar após maturação e fecundação in vitro.

  14. Radioactive wastes from {sup 99}Mo production by nuclear fission according to the irradiation time; Rejeitos radioativos gerados na producao de {sup 99}Mo por fissao nuclear, em funcao dos tempos de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiromoto, Goro; Dellamano, Jose Claudio, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    One of the premises, provided for in Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, is a {sup 99} Mo production facility by nuclear fission. In this study, it was verified the influence of tow parameters, the mass of {sup 235}U and the irradiation time of the target, in the total activity of radioactive wastes generated by the process. The simulation was performed using the computational code Origen S®, considering that the target would be composed of an alloy of UAl{sub x} with {sup 235}U enriched to 19.9% and irradiated in a flux of thermal neutrons of 1 x 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} for the production of 185 TBq of {sup 99}Mo per week. The results obtained for 3 to 21 days of continuous irradiation targets with different masses of {sup 235}U show that the amount of radioactive waste generated in terms of activity, does not seem to be dominant aspect to be considered in the choice for the {sup 99}Mo production parameters, since it was observed an increase of a factor of at most 4 in the total activity of the wastes over the 100,000 years considered.

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. Fatores genéticos na agregação familiar da pressão arterial de famílias nucleares portuguesas Factores genéticos en la agregación familiar de la presión arterial de familias nucleares portuguesas Genetic factors in familial aggregation of blood pressure of portuguese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério César Fermino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Apesar da elevada prevalência de hipertensão arterial em Portugal, a importância relativa que os genes possam exercer na manifestação final dos valores da pressão arterial (PA parece pouco estudada. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a presença, indireta, de transmissão vertical de fatores genéticos entre progenitores e descendentes nos valores da PA, e estimar a contribuição dos fatores genéticos responsáveis pela variação dos valores de PA em termos populacionais. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 367 indivíduos (164 progenitores e 203 descendentes pertencentes a 107 famílias nucleares provenientes de diferentes regiões do norte de Portugal, participantes do projeto "Famílias Activas". A PA foi medida com um aparelho digital da marca Omron®, modelo M6 (HEM-7001-E. Foram utilizados os softwares estatísticos SPSS 15.0 para a análise exploratória de dados e o cálculo das estatísticas descritivas, e o PEDSTATS para analisar o comportamento genérico das variáveis entre os diferentes membros da família. O cálculo das correlações entre familiares e as estimativas de heritabilidade foram realizados nos módulos FCOR e ASSOC do software de epidemiologia genética S.A.G.E., versão 5.3. RESULTADOS: Para a PA sistólica (PAS, os valores das correlações entre os graus de parentesco foram de baixos a moderados (0,21FUNDAMENTO: A pesar de la elevada prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en Portugal, la importancia relativa que los genes pueden ejercer en la manifestación final de los valores de la presión arterial (PA nos parece poco estudiada. OBJETIVOS:Verificar la presencia, indirecta, de transmisión vertical de factores genéticos entre progenitores y descendientes en los valores de la PA, y estimar el aporte de los factores genéticos responsables de la variación de los valores de PA en términos poblacionales. MÉTODOS: La muestra estaba conformada por 367 individuos (164 progenitores y 203 descendientes

  17. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-LP is essential for transforming naïve B cells, and facilitates recruitment of transcription factors to the viral genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymula, Agnieszka; Palermo, Richard D.; Bayoumy, Amr; Groves, Ian J.

    2018-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is the first viral latency-associated protein produced after EBV infection of resting B cells. Its role in B cell transformation is poorly defined, but it has been reported to enhance gene activation by the EBV protein EBNA2 in vitro. We generated EBNA-LP knockout (LPKO) EBVs containing a STOP codon within each repeat unit of internal repeat 1 (IR1). EBNA-LP-mutant EBVs established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from adult B cells at reduced efficiency, but not from umbilical cord B cells, which died approximately two weeks after infection. Adult B cells only established EBNA-LP-null LCLs with a memory (CD27+) phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis of virus gene expression after infection identified both an altered ratio of the EBNA genes, and a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of both EBNA2-regulated virus genes (LMP1 and LMP2) and the EBNA2-independent EBER genes in the first 2 weeks. By 30 days post infection, LPKO transcription was the same as wild-type EBV. In contrast, EBNA2-regulated cellular genes were induced efficiently by LPKO viruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that EBNA2 and the host transcription factors EBF1 and RBPJ were delayed in their recruitment to all viral latency promoters tested, whereas these same factors were recruited efficiently to several host genes, which exhibited increased EBNA2 recruitment. We conclude that EBNA-LP does not simply co-operate with EBNA2 in activating gene transcription, but rather facilitates the recruitment of several transcription factors to the viral genome, to enable transcription of virus latency genes. Additionally, our findings suggest that EBNA-LP is essential for the survival of EBV-infected naïve B cells. PMID:29462212

  19. Use of activation analysis method for determining trace elements in human nail clippings; Aplicacao do metodo de analise por ativacao a determinacao de elementos tracos em aparas de unhas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    This work presents results obtained in nail clipping samples analyses. These nail samples were collected from healthy group of individuals and from patients with cystic fibrosis disease. Irradiation of nail clippings was carried out with a thermal neutron flux from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor and the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined. The results obtained for healthy group were within the range of concentrations published, for normal population. However for several elements, the group of patients presented higher concentrations than those presented for healthy individuals. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials NIST 1577b Bovine Liver and 1566a Oyster Tissue. (author) 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Nuclear liability - nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, H.

    1981-01-01

    In the fourth concluding article on this subject (following articles in VW 1981 pp. 483, 552 and 629), the author explains procedures, duties and obligations according to the Para. Para. 5, 6 and 7 of the AHBKA. These obligations are to be observed before or after the occurrence of damages. In addition, legal consequences following violations of duties - loss of right - joint, insurance, transfer ban, period for filing suit, duty to notify, 'The German Nuclear Reactor Insurance and Reinsurance Community', the insurance according to the 'General terms and conditions governing the liability insurance of licensed activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations (AHBStr.)', object, beginning and exclusion of coverage, 'Special conditions governing the transport of nuclear fuels according to Para. 25 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law' are attached to the General Terms and Conditions governing the liability insurance of licenced activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de

  1. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  2. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmd{sup mdx}/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA; Determinacao de elementos de relevancia clinica em tecidos biologicos de camundongos distroficos Dmd{sup mdx}/J por AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-07-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD{sup mdx}/J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd{sup mdx}/J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  3. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  4. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  5. Determination of micro minerals in phosphorus source fed to animals by activation with neutrons; Determinacao de microminerais em fontes de fosforo fornecidas a animais por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Mori, Clara S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Jose Cleto da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the elements Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sb, Sc and Zn in four phosphatic supplementation samples. analysis of variance, Turkey`s and Sheffe`s test were applied to certify the homogeneity of the sub-samples (200 mg). In general, the precision of the method was lower than 15%. The phosphatic supplementation samples analyzed can be considered adequate to feed into animals in relation to mineral composition. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Multielementar determination by neutron activation in sediment samples from Tartarugalzinho region, Amapa State, Brazil; Determinacao multielementar em amostras de sedimentos da regiao do Tartarugalzinho, Amapa, por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Maria C.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sonia M.B. de; Melfi, Adolfo J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Fostier, Anne H. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Analitica; Guimaraes, Jean R.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica; Forti, Maria C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    In the present work, sediment samples collected in the Tartarugalzinho region, State of Amapa, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of the elements As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr and the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb could be determined. Analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment (NIST SRM 2704) and Soil 7 (IAEA) showed the accuracy and precision of the method. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  8. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  9. Precision of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements in cats; Precisao da tecnica de absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia na determinacao da composicao corporal em gatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, N.C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria]. E-mail: naida@vet.ufg.br; Vasconcellos, R.S.; Canola, J.C.; Carciofi, A.C.; Pereira, G.T. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Paula, F.J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2008-07-01

    A short-term precision error of the individual subject and the DEXA technique, such as the effect of the repositioning of the cat on the examination table, were established. Four neutered adult cats (BW=4342 g) and three females (BW=3459 g) were submitted to five repeated scans with and without repositioning between them. Precision was estimated from the mean of the five measurements and expressed by the individual coefficient of variation (CV). The precision error of the technique was estimated by the variance of scan pool (n=35) and expressed in CV for the technique (CVt). The degrees of freedom and confidence intervals were determined to avoid underestimation of precision errors. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) averages were higher (P<0.05) when animals were repositioned. The CVt was significantly higher (P<0.05) for bone mineral density (BMD), LM, and FM when the animals were repositioned. For short-term precision measurements, the repositioning of the animal was important to establish the precision of the technique. The dual energy xray absorptiometry method provided precision for body composition measurements in adult cats. (author)

  10. Use of recurrent neural networks for determination of 7-epiclusianone acidity constants in ethanol-water mixtures; Uso de redes neurais recorrentes na determinacao das constantes de acidez para a 7-epiclusianona em misturas etanol-agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ederson D' Martin; Lemes, Nelson Henrique Teixeira, E-mail: nelson.lemes@unifal-mg.edu.br [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Santos, Marcelo Henrique dos [Instituto de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Braga, Joao Pedro [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work propose a recursive neural network to solve inverse equilibrium problem. The acidity constants of 7-epiclusianone in ethanol-water binary mixtures were determined from multiwavelength spectrophotometric data. A linear relationship between acidity constants and the % w/v of ethanol in the solvent mixture was observed. The proposed method efficiency is compared with the Simplex method, commonly used in nonlinear optimization techniques. The neural network method is simple, numerically stable and has a broad range of applicability. (author)

  11. Procedure for determination of the decontamination of piping in the production of iodine-125 seeds; Procedimento para determinacao da descontaminacao de tubulacoes, na producao de sementes de iodo-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, J.A.; Moura, E.S.; Sprenger, F.E.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Zeituni, C.A.; Feher, A.; Manzoli, J.E.; Souza, C.D.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-125 seeds are radioactive sources used in the prostate cancer treatment. This work objective was to determine the necessary conditions and procedures for decontamination of liquid transfer tubes when a radioactive material leakage occurs during the process of seed quality control

  12. Application of different methodologies in the preparation of organic matrices for determination of trace elements by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry; Aplicacao de diferentes metodologias na preparacao de matrizes organicas para a determinacao voltametrica de elementos traco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisti, Cristina

    2001-07-01

    The determination of trace elements in food samples is of great importance for the human health, considering the factors of essentiality and toxicity. On the other hand, the chemical analysis is largely affected for the steps of sample preparation; laboratory contamination of the sample and the reagents or still volatilization and losses of the elements. If these parameters are not controlled the achieved precision and accuracy could be low. In this work, the content of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper was determined in adults diet samples collected by duplicate portion technique and bovine liver, applying the differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry - (DP-ASV) technique. In the digestion of the matrices in acid medium, conventional methodologies were used, conductive heating in open recipients and equipment with microwaves source in open and closed vessels. The best procedure was the sample digestion by microwaves, in closed vessels and the other treatments made in controlled atmosphere with hood laminar-airflow class 100. The established methodology was validated with the use of a certified sample as reference (NIST - bovine liver 1577b). (author)

  13. Determination of the chemical yield on the Fricke dosimetry for {sup 192}Ir sources used in brachytherapy; Determinacao do rendimento quimico na dosimetria Fricke para fontes de {sup 192}Ir usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.G.; Albuquerque, M.A.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Salata, C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosado, P.H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    With the aim of developing a primary standard for the absorbed dose to water, for the {sup 192}Ir sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy, this work focuses on the determination of the chemical yield, G(Fe{sup +3}), using Fricke dosimetry, for the energy of those sources . The G(Fe{sup +3}) were determined the for three qualities of x-ray beams (150, 250 and 300 kV ) and for {sup 60}Co energy. The G(Fe{sup +3}) value for the average energy of {sup 192}Ir was obtained by linear fit, the found value was 1,555 ± 0,015 μmol/J. (author)

  14. Characterization of radiation qualities used for the determination of characteristic in CT application according to IEC 61267:2005;Caracterizacao das qualidades de radiacao usadas na determinacao das caracteristicas em aplicacoes de CT de acordo com a IEC 61267: 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Daniel M.; Silva Junior, Iremar A. da; Potiens, Maria da Penha A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the standard RQT radiation qualities which represent simulations of the unattenuated beam used in Computed Tomography (CT). Thus, to avoiding excessive efforts for establishing a radiation quality by means of the spectral distribution of the photon fluence, the characterization of these standard radiation qualities was expressed in terms of the X-ray tube voltage, first and second half-value layer (HVL). To establishing the standard radiation beam, according to the IEC 61267 and the TRS 457 was measured first of all the correct values of the X ray tube voltages in terms of Practical Peak Voltage. The standard radiation qualities RQT were produced using the same set up mounted for the RQR qualities which had been early established, and for simulating the patient in order to achieve the standard RQT series, suitable thicknesses of layers of copper were used to obtain the values of the first HVL according to IEC 61267. (author)

  15. Analysis of the effects of the optimal shut-in point of injector wells on water management strategy; Analise do efeito da determinacao do ponto de fechamento dos pocos injetores na estrategia de gerenciamenro de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazo, Eduin Orlando Munoz; Barreto, Carlos Eduardo Andrade Gomes; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Teixeira, Lucas Breda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The use of water cut as a parameter for determining the shut-in point of production wells is very frequent. However, in most cases, the value of this parameter that is used in the process is not optimized, which can lead to suboptimal performance, as shown in this work. An additional way to improve the water management strategy of the field is set by controlling the injection rate by determining the optimal shut-in point of an injection well, which should be closed when its interaction with the producing wells is negative for their financial performance. To know the interaction between the injector and the producer wells becomes important in order to determine the most appropriate time for the closure of the injector wells. The objective of this study is to illustrate a methodology that allows the optimization of the development and water management strategy of oil fields by using the shut-in control of injection wells, in addition to managing production wells, using numerical reservoir simulation. For this study three case studies are proposed: (1) simulation of a homogeneous and isotropic reservoir model, with the purpose of determining the injection shut-in point by the water cut value obtained from the economic scenario, (2) simulation of the process in simplified cases of heterogeneous reservoirs and (3) application of the methodology to a case of more complex reservoir geology and well configuration in different economic scenarios. The results show that for reservoirs with expected production of large volumes of water and flow high injection rates, the isolated use of water cut for producing wells control as the only procedure to manage the flow of water within the reservoir may be insufficient. Moreover, depending on the price scenario used in economic forecasting and considering cases with heterogeneities, the determination of the shut-in point of injection and producing wells individually can be the most appropriate option for the development and water management strategy of the field. (author)

  16. Use of genetic algorithms and virtual reality for the determination of the control cabin position in drilling rigs; O uso de algoritmos geneticos e realidade virtual na determinacao da posicao da cabine de controle em sondas de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Robson da Cunha [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Cunha, Gerson Gomes [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Civil

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a proposal for a system simulation, verification and optimized positioning, for driller's cabin of drilling rigs. It will be presented assumptions and studies on drilling operations, equipment specification, characteristics of a standard worker (anthropometric measures) and application of virtual reality techniques. During the project phase, it will be verified the sight of operator to simulate the drilling operations for an 'optimum' positioning suggested by the system. Tests were performed in driller's cabins of existing platforms, identifying positions where the operator does not have a complete vision of operations. In certain cases, it was necessary that the operator left the cabin to make some verification of the operations, reducing the efficiency and functionality of the existing system, and allowing occurrence of accidents. Based on genetic algorithms, as well as in techniques of computational geometry, it was developed an algorithm that suggests the best position of the cabin on drill floor, taking into account quantitative and qualitative analyses. Through the virtual reality, is simulated the sight field of the operator inside the cabin allowing to verify the interference between the sight field of the operator and other existing elements in the platform and determining if the position initially suggested by the positioning algorithm is adequate aiming to improve the safety, productivity, efficiency of the system and reduction of costs. (author)

  17. Determination of essential elements in edible seaweed by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em algas marinhas comestiveis por analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Cassio Bessa Lima; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: cassio_man@hotmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Comestible marine algae are gaining wider global trade, not only because of the taste but also the nutritional quality they present. They are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and are excellent sources of essential elements due to their ability to absorb substances storing them in their bodies. its chemical composition varies according to the species, habitat, maturity and environmental conditions which are submitted. The method of Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the essential elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na present in marine algae from different countries, which are sold in the city of Sao Paulo. A total of 6 samples of marine algae were analyzed, 4 species of Nori (Porphyra umbilicates) from China, Korea, Japan and USA; 1 of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) species from Japan; and 1 species of Kombu (Laminaria sp.) of South Korea. To validate the methodology used was the reference material NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The concentrations range from 5265-1175 μg/g to CL; from 14413-90261 μg/g to K; from 3007-7091 μg/g to Mg; from 2,3-33,8 μg/g to Mn and from 5161-24973 μg/g to Na.

  18. Methodology to determine the efficiency of a beta emitter gases monitor; Metodologia para determinacao da eficiencia de um monitor de gases emissores de particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Marcos Rodrigues de

    1995-07-01

    This work presents a methodology developed to determinate the efficiency of air monitors used to measure the concentration of beta emitters noble gases in nuclear power stations. Efficiency values, obtained by means of theoretical computation are compared with experimental values. The experimental part of the work was performed using three different point beta source, to simulate small amounts of gas uniformly distributed in small volume. The comparison shows that theoretical an experimental values agree within 4,2 % for {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, {sup 204}Tl and {sup 45}Ca beta sources. (author)

  19. Determination of the response time of pressure transducers using the direct method; Determinacao do tempo de resposta de transdutores de pressao utilizando o metodo de medida direta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perillo, S.R.P.

    1994-12-31

    The available methods to determine the response time of nuclear safety related pressure transducers are discussed, with emphasis to the direct method. In order to perform the experiments, a Hydraulic Ramp Generator was built. The equipment produces ramp pressure transients simultaneously to a reference transducer and to the transducer under test. The time lag between the output of the two transducers, when they reach a predetermined setpoint, is measured as the time delay of the transducer under test. Some results using the direct method to determine the time delay of pressure transducers (1 E Class Conventional) are presented. (author). 18 refs, 35 figs, 12 tabs.

  20. Real time determination of dose radiation through artificial intelligence and virtual reality; Determinacao de dose de radiacao, em tempo real, atraves de inteligencia artificial e realidade virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, a virtual environment of Argonauta research reactor, sited in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil), has been developed. Such environment, called here Argonauta Virtual (AV), is a 3D model of the reactor hall, in which virtual people (avatar) can navigate. In AV, simulations of nuclear sources and doses are possible. In a recent work, a real time monitoring system (RTMS) was developed to provide (by means of Ethernet TCP/I P) the information of area detectors situated in the reactor hall. Extending the scope of AV, this work is intended to provide a continuous determination of gamma radiation dose in the reactor hall, based in several monitored parameters. To accomplish that a module based in artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. The ANN module is able to predict gamma radiation doses using as inputs: the avatar position (from virtual environment), the reactor power (from RTMS) and information of fixed area detectors (from RTMS). The ANN training data has been obtained by measurements of gamma radiation doses in a mesh of points, with previously defined positions, for different power levels. Through the use of ANN it is possible to estimate, in real time, the dose received by a person at any position in Argonauta reactor hall. Such approach allows tasks simulations and training of people inside the AV system, without exposing them to radiation effects. (author)

  1. Implantação de um programa de gerenciamento de resíduos químicos e águas servidas nos laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa no CENA/USP Establishment of a management program for chemical residues and waste water, generated in laboratories of the centro de energia nuclear na agricultura (CENA/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arnold Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to establish a program for the treatment of chemical residues and waste waters at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, for environmental preservation and training of staff. Five tons of stored residues and the ones currently generated in the laboratories have to be treated. Rational use of water is also part of the program. The traditional purification by distillation has been replaced by purification with ion exchange resins. Lower energy consumption and better water quality were achieved.

  2. Nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    David Waller and Alan McDonald ask whether a nuclear renaissance can be predicted; Judith M. Greenwald discusses keeping the nuclear power option open; Paul Mobbs considers the availability of uranium and the future of nuclear energy.

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao para a determinacao de alguns elementos em amostras de cassiterita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre

    1978-07-01

    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  5. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos dieteticos pela tecnica de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: murilo_siquelli@hotmail.com; vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  6. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de ovos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: pagliaro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10{sup 12} cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  7. Development of a parallel genetic algorithm using MPI and its application in a nuclear reactor core. Design optimization; Desenvolvimento de um algoritmo genetico paralelo utilizando MPI e sua aplicacao na otimizacao de um projeto neutronico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waintraub, Marcel; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcel@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; Baptista, Rafael P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: rafael@ien.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the development of a distributed parallel genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear reactor core design optimization. In the implementation of the parallelism, a 'Message Passing Interface' (MPI) library, standard for parallel computation in distributed memory platforms, has been used. Another important characteristic of MPI is its portability for various architectures. The main objectives of this paper are: validation of the results obtained by the application of this algorithm in a nuclear reactor core optimization problem, through comparisons with previous results presented by Pereira et al.; and performance test of the Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) cluster in reactors physics optimization problems. The experiments demonstrated that the developed parallel genetic algorithm using the MPI library presented significant gains in the obtained results and an accentuated reduction of the processing time. Such results ratify the use of the parallel genetic algorithms for the solution of nuclear reactor core optimization problems. (author)

  8. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  9. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    RUTIC SRDJAN Z.

    2016-01-01

    The paper has analyzed different manifestations of terrorism with nuclear weapons and ionizing radiation as a special kind of terrorism. Possibilities that terrorist groups come into possession of nuclear weapons and apply them for terrorist purposes have been analysed. The forms and methods of terrorist activities with nuclear means have been given as well. It has been concluded that nuclear terrorism includes various forms of threats, including not only nuclear weapons but also the sources ...

  11. CIRFT Data Update and Data Analyses for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this research is to collect experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), Catawba Nuclear Station, North Anna Nuclear Power Station (NA), and the Limerick Nuclear Power Station (LMK) boiling water reactor (BWR).

  12. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR; Determinacao da origem biossintetica de acido acetico atraves da tecnica 'Site Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR)'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffo, Elisangela Fabiana; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: giba_04@yahoo.com.br

    2006-05-15

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using {sup 2}H and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acitained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  13. Nuclear safeguards and nuclear shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The issues involved in the California nuclear initiative (Proposition 15) are described. Some of the characteristics of the anti-nuclear lobby are outlined. Some do's and don'ts for the nuclear group are listed. The nuclear shutdown effort was concentrated on the safeguards and high-level waste disposal issues

  14. Fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas, retinol e insulina na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário Platelet-derived growth factor, retinol and insulin in the regulation of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation and their consequent effect in the embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Bortolotto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as ações do fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas (PDGF; P, da insulina (I, do retinol (R e de suas associações (PI, PIR, IR e PR na maturação nuclear (MN de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário (DE. O meio básico para maturação dos oócitos nos diferentes tratamentos foi o TCM-199 modificado acrescido de PVA (controle. No DE, foram utilizados os grupos R, PIR, IR, um controle negativo (PVA e um controle positivo, contendo soro fetal bovino e gonadotrofinas (SFBHOR. Os fatores P, I, R e suas associações não aceleraram a MN em 7h mas sim após 18h (PThe aim of the present study was to determine the effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF; P, insulin (I retinol, (R and their interactions (PI, PIR, IR and PR on oocyte nuclear maturation (NM and, consequent, embryonic development (ED. The basic medium for oocyte maturation in the treatments was the modified TCM-199, supplemented with PVA (control. To study the embryonic development, the oocytes were divided in three treatments, R, PIR e IR, a negative (PVA and a positive control group (containing calf fetal serum and gonadotrophic hormones; FCSHOR. The PDGF, insulin, retinol and their interactions did not change the kinetic of the NM, in seven hours of culture (P=0.4492 but it changed after 18 hours of maturation (P<0.001 except in the treatments R and PR (P<0.001, in which the percentages of metaphase II were, respectively, 4.7% and 8.3%. These results were similar to the control group (0.0%. Considering a significant level of P<0.0001 in comparison to the control group, the higher rates of metaphase II were obtained in the presence of IR (19.0% and PIR (21.3%. The higher rates of MII were observed when the oocytes were matured in the presence of insulin and retinol. In the embryonic development, R (18.3%, PIR (13.9% and IR (10.6% increased the rate of cleavage when compared to PVA group (0.0%; P<0

  15. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Draper, J.E.; Dines, E.L.; Davis, U.C.; Macchiavelli, A.O.

    1984-01-01

    Essentially the whole range of spins possible for many nuclei in the periodic table is available with the use of the 88-Inch cyclotron and SuperHILAC accelerators. Nuclei carry angular momentum principally in two ways: by aligning individual high j nucleons, and by a collective rotation of the nucleus as a whole. Deformed nuclei use both modes and it is the interplay between the single-particle and collective modes that leads to the great diversity of nuclear properties at high spin. Information about these states and their properties is obtained only by detailed γ-ray spectroscopy of their de-exciting transitions. But for the higher spins the population is usually spread over so many states that only average values of continuum properties can be determined. So one of the goals of present-day research is to push discrete spectroscopic studies to higher spin states, reducing the continuum region. To do this requires that the number of cascade pathways observed be reduced to a small enough number so that individual transitions can show. One way is to use a combination of sum-energy and multiplicity selection, that is, to define a smaller entry region. This is what the NaI crystal balls can do. Another technique is to set gates on the highest-lying discrete transitions observed and look at what is in coincidence (ahead) of them. Either method requires a drastic decrease in the number of cascades selected, so very good statistics are needed and this means many detectors as close as possible to the target. The authors use both techniques simultaneously. Current and planned experiments are described

  16. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  17. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  18. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  19. Materials presented at the 26. All-Polish Seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its application; Materialy 26 ogolnopolskiego seminarium na temat magnetycznego rezonansu jadrowego i jego zastosowan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennel, J.W. [comp.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the contributions to the 26. All-Polish seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Application are presented. They cover wide range of problems as NMR instrumentation, the NMR and spin relaxation theory, image analysis and computerized control systems for NMR spectrometers. The results of investigation using NMR on different scientific fields are also presented.

  20. Materials presented at the 27 All-Polish Seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its application; Materialy 27 ogolnopolskiego seminarium na temat magnetycznego rezonansu jadrowego i jego zastosowan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennel, J.W. [comp.

    1995-12-31

    In this report the contributions to the 27 All-Polish seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Application are presented. They cover wide range of problems as NMR instrumentation, the NMR and spin relaxation theory, image analysis and computerized control systems for NMR spectrometers. The results of investigation using NMR on different scientific fields are also presented.

  1. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  4. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  5. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  6. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  9. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  10. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  11. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  12. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  13. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  14. Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Sagari, Shitalkumar G; Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers.

  15. Nuclear renaissance and nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy would grow in response to climate change and the need for a stable energy supply even in an unstable global non-proliferation regime. Some emerging countries probably will try to acquire nuclear fuel cycle as a part of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. How to avoid the risk of proliferation of sensitive technologies is a crucial challenge for the international community. This paper describes the direction to peaceful use of nuclear technology, particularly nuclear fuel cycle, with appropriate non-proliferation measures. (author)

  16. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  17. Analysis of minor incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants: a case study on the use of procedures in organizations dealing with hazardous technologies; Analise de microincidentes na operacao de usinas nucleares: estudo de caso sobre o uso de procedimentos em organizacoes que lidam com tecnologias perigosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguea [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE); Carvalho, Eduardo Ferro de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2005-05-15

    Organizations that work with hazardous materials, such as nuclear power plants, offshore installations, and chemical and petrochemical plants, have risk management systems involving accident control and mitigation to ensure the safety of their facilities. These systems are based on physical devices, such as protective barriers, equipment and systems aimed at preventing the occurrence and propagation of accidents, and on human aspects such as regulations and procedures. This paper analyzes the use of a variety of procedures by nuclear power plant control room operators. The methodology consisted of analyzing the work of control room operators during the normal operations, shutdown, and startup of a nuclear power plant, and in full scale simulator training. This survey revealed that routine noncompliance to procedures was considered normal according to the operating rationale, which is based on technical, organizational and cultural factors. These findings indicate that the competencies nuclear power plant operators must possess far exceed proper technical training and the ability to follow written instructions. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  19. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of trace elements in human nails; Aplicacao do metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons a determinacao de elementos traco em unhas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo

    2001-07-01

    There is a considerable interest in the determination of trace elements in human nails in order to use this tissue as a monitor of nutritional and healthy status of individuals, of occupational exposure diseases and of the environmental contamination. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine trace elements in finger nail clippings to make comparisons between the elemental concentrations obtained in nails from healthy individuals of a control group and those from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Firstly, a protocol for sample collection and preparation for analysis was established. Finger and toe nail samples from CF patients were collected at the Instituto da Crianca of Medicine School, University of Sao Paulo, SP. The nail samples from control group were collected from healthy adults and from children living in Sao Paulo city, SP. These samples were cleaned by stirring them witha a diluted Triton X100 solution and then by washing with distilled water and acetone. The analytical procedure consisted of irradiation nail samples and elemental standards in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under thermal neutro flux of about 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for short and long period irradiations. The activities of the radionuclides were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer comprising an hyperpure Ge detector and associated electronic system. The biological reference materials Bovine Liver 1577b and Oyster Tissue 1566a, both from National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA were analysed in order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test at the significance level of 5% were used to make a comparison between the sets of results obtained in this work. In the comparison of the results obtained for finger and toe nails from CF patients, the Br concentrations were higher in finger nails that those obtained for toe nails. For the control group of children, the finger nails

  20. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre determinacao de elementos quimicos em unhas humanas pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro

    2012-07-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO{sub 3} solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  2. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  3. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  4. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  5. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document brings together a series of articles illustrating the way nuclear safety is conceived organised and applied in France. It also deals with foreign experts contributions related to the safety of future nuclear power plants and the impact of probabilistic studies. The opinion of a french Deputy, pleading for nuclear transparency, is sustained by the final conclusions analysing the lessons learned from the past and the current priorities [fr

  6. DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011 Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences Maringá, v. 33, n. 3, p. 239-246, 2011 Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet = Resposta inflamatória aguda em tilápia do Nilo alimentada com probiótico, Lactobacillus plantarum na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dotta

    2011-07-01

    alimentacao foi injetado carragenina ou salina. Apos 6h, realizou-se a coleta de exsudato e sangue para determinacao do hematocrito, contagens totais de eritrocitos, leucocitos, contagem diferencial de leucocitos e atividade fagocitaria no sangue. A suplementacao com probiotico na racao nao influenciou o numero total de eritrocitos, o hematocrito e os numeros de linfocitos e basofilos no sangue dos animais. O numero de neutrofilos foi maior nos peixes suplementados com probiotico einjetados com carragenina. A glicose nos peixes suplementados com probiotico nao-injetados foi maior do que nos injetados com salina. A suplementacao com probiotico potencializou a migracao de celulas para o foco inflamatorio nos injetados com o flogogeno carragenina. Empeixes injetados com salina e carragenina, ocorreu maior atividade fagocitaria no sangue em relacao aos demais tratamentos.

  7. Nuclear Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Joseph; Tarleton, Gael

    2004-01-01

    .... This event was an opportunity for policy makers, security analysts, nuclear scientists and engineers, regional experts, and military planners to share perspectives and identify those issues requiring...

  8. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  9. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the local structure of (100-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(x)BaTiO{sub 3} lead-free piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga Groszewicz, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the present work is to identify what local structure features are relevant to the electrical properties of BNT-xBT. For this purpose, samples with the formula (100-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(x)BaTiO{sub 3} and a barium content of 0Na spin-lattice (T{sub 1}) relaxation times in BNT-xBT samples are investigated as a function of temperature.

  11. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  13. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The achievements in commercial nuclear power plants over the past 30 years since the first one was commissioned in 1954 are described. By 1982 there were 297 commercial nuclear units in operation world-wide with a capacity of 173GWe and a further 216 units (205GWe) were under construction. The number and performance of the different types of reactors is examined and the experience in different countries is considered. In particular, nuclear power in France and the USA are compared. Uranium production and demand and the attitude to fuel reprocessing in different countries is considered. It is concluded that with increasing demands for energy, nuclear power must be developed to the full. If the conditions are right it can be the most economically advantageous method of energy production. However public acceptance of nuclear power must be sought as this influences the political will for a nuclear power programme. Winning the public's trust and confidence is thus an important part of the nuclear industry's job. The future place of nuclear power in the developing countries is also an issue which must be tackled. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  16. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  17. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  18. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  19. Nuclear facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: the case for using nuclear energy (Britain's energy needs; energy policy); safety; transport of spent fuel; radiation (natural radioactivity); environment (land use of nuclear power plants; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes). (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  1. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  2. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  3. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with intraoperative measurements in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms Comparação entre ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância nuclear magnética com medidas intra-operatórias na avaliação dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas de Azevedo

    2005-02-01

    angioresonance provided measurements with no significant differences in the statistic view when compared to the intraoperative measures. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography is a reliable method for the diagnosis and follow-up of the aorta abdominal aneurysms, but insufficient for endovascular surgery planning. The conventional computed tomography can provoke distortion in the length measurements of the aorta dilatation. Helical computed tomography and nuclear magnetic angioresonance provided precise measurements of all the studied parameters, being of great utility for surgical planning.OBJETIVO: Estudar os métodos mais freqüentemente empregados na avaliação dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal - ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada convencional, tomografia computadorizada helicoidal e angio-ressonância nuclear magnética - comparando as medidas fornecidas por estes exames radiológicos no pré-operatório com medidas realizadas durante a operação. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes portadores de aneurisma da aorta abdominal com indicação de tratamento cirúrgico eletivo por via transperitoneal. O diagnóstico inicial da dilatação aórtica foi feito com ultra-sonografia e, uma vez indicado o tratamento cirúrgico, era então solicitado um outro exame radiológico complementar, já que não é nossa rotina operar esses pacientes com base apenas na ultra-sonografia. Sessenta pacientes foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o exame complementar realizado (tomografia computadorizada convencional, tomografia computadorizada helicoidal ou angio-ressonância nuclear magnética. As ultra-sonografias dos 20 primeiros pacientes foram incluídas em um 4° grupo. Analisamos neste estudo as medidas do colo proximal da aorta, o diâmetro transverso máximo e o comprimento do aneurisma, além do diâmetro transverso das artérias ilíacas comuns conseguidos a partir dos exames radiológicos. As mesmas medidas eram realizadas por ocasião da operação com o auxílio de

  4. Recent advances in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine

  5. Recent advances in nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woo [Dept. Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine.

  6. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  7. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  8. Long-Range Effects of Na(+) Binding in Na,K-ATPase Reported by ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, David A; Fedosova, Natalya U; Esmann, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of long-range interactions between the intramembranous cation binding sites and the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding site of the ubiquitous ion-transporting Na,K-ATPase using (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. High-affinity ATP binding is induced by the presence of Na(+) as well as of Na-like substances such as Tris(+), and these ions are equally efficient promoters of nucleotide binding. CP-MAS analysis of bound ATP with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney membranes reveals subtle differences in the nucleotide interactions within the nucleotide site depending on whether Na(+) or Tris(+) is used to induce binding. Differences in chemical shifts for ATP atoms C1' and C5' observed in the presence of Na(+) or Tris(+) suggest alterations in the residues surrounding the bound nucleotide, hydrogen bonding, and/or conformation of the ribose ring. This is taken as evidence of a long-distance communication between the Na(+)-filled ion sites in the membrane interior and the nucleotide binding site in the cytoplasmic domain and reflects the first conformational change ultimately leading to phosphorylation of the enzyme. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements with the nucleotide analogue eosin show that the dissociation rate constant for eosin is larger in Tris(+) than in Na(+), giving kinetic evidence of the difference in structural effects of Na(+) and Tris(+). According to the recent crystal structure of the E1·AlF4(-)·ADP·3Na(+) form, the coupling between the ion binding sites and the nucleotide side is mediated by, among others, the M5 helix.

  9. Nuclear war and nuclear peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.; Moreton, E.; Freedman, L.; Baylis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of East-West tactical and strategic nuclear weapons policy. The contributors explore such issues as the history and implications of tactical weapons in Europe, the general conflicts that have characterized US and Soviet interaction, the development of British nuclear weapons policy, and arms control including SALT I and II and the START talks.

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  11. The J/$\\psi$ normal nuclear absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; kanyan, H; ldzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavicheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Cormick, M M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, M F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu T

    2005-01-01

    We present a new determination of the ratio of cross-sections (J/psi) /DY as expected for nucleus-nucleus reactions if J/psi would only be normally absorbed by nuclear matter. This anticipated behaviour is based on proton-nucleus data exclusively, and compared, as a function of centrality, with updated S-U results from experiment NA38 and with the most recent Pb-Pb results from experiment NA50.

  12. Nuclear inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the East-West confronting, the nuclear weapon issue has been focused in an international debate with obvious repercussions in Europe, because it is the European continent which indicated first the significance of nuclear deterrence. This debate refers first upon the past, as the German unification allowed capturing numerous documents of Warsaw treaty which revealed the intentions and the plans of Soviet Union during the cold war, and secondly concerns the future, since the role of nuclear weapons must be re-thought in a new context. This is the subject of this book, which refers also to the problem of the nuclear proliferation in the world and evolution of different countries in a political and regional context. The extension of the non-proliferation treaty for an undefined duration, in May 1995, is a incontestable victory because this treaty rules the renouncement to nuclear weapons of 185 countries. However, it does not solve most sensible problems like the Iraq case, for which a specific inspection regime has been instituted, or the case of Iran, which is suspected to acquire the bomb, although no clear evidence has been provided up to now. This is also the case of Israel, India and Pakistan which allege plainly their willingness of keeping open, from security reasons, their nuclear option. The content is displayed in five chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The role of the nuclear weapons after the cold war; 3. The nuclear proliferation at crossroads; 4. Undefined extension of the NPT, a striking but fragile victory; 5. Conclusions. An appendix containing the text of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and a chronology are added

  13. Rotterdam Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In 1965 Rotterdam Nuclear received an order for the design, supply of materials, manufacture, testing, inspection and preparation for shipment of one 450MW Boiling Water Reactor pressure vessel. This was one of the first orders for a reactor pressure vessel, ever obtained by a European Manufacturer. The Company has since supplied 19 reactor pressure vessels for nuclear power stations, having a total weight of about 10,000,000kg. The nuclear power stations in which these are installed represent an electrical output of about 15,000MW and they are located in seven different countries (USA, Spain, Switzerland, Argentina, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands). (Auth.)

  14. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  15. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  17. A serendipidade na medicina e na anestesiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino, José; Vale, Lúcio Flávio Bezerra do

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Neste trabalho foram examinados mais de uma centena dos mais felizes acoplamentos de uma mente brilhante com a sorte benfazeja (serendipidade), através da releitura das mais relevantes histórias sobre invenções e descobertas relacionadas à ciência (n = 46), à Medicina (n = 46) e à Anestesiologia (n = 16). CONTEÚDO: Conceito de serendipidade; exemplos célebres de serendipidade em Ciência e Tecnologia; serendipidade na pesquisa e prática médicas; serendipidade na Anes...

  18. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  20. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  3. Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Division is engaged in both teaching and research. Staff members teach both graduate and undergraduate courses at the UPR Mayaguez Campus and direct the thesis work of nuclear engineering students. They do research on their own projects and assist the staff of other PRNC divisions as the need arises. The scientists on the Division's staff all hold joint appointments at PRNC and UPR, and they make up the faculty of the UPR Nuclear Engineering Department, the Head of the PRNC Division being also the Chairman of the UPR Department. The Division provides the classrooms, offices, laboratories and equipment, and most of the administrative personnel required for the education and training of the graduate students at the UPR Nuclear Engineering Department

  4. Nuclear honeymoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Australian National University (ANU) and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to collaborate across research fields including key accelerator facilities, future energy sources and nuclear non-proliferation. T he potential of this partnership demonstrates the value of Commonwealth institutions working together for the betterment of all Australians,' says ANY vice-chancellor Professor Ian Chubb who believes that both organisations have infrastructure and facilities available that if shared could bring greater benefit to the nation. The partnership will develop a national strategy to coordinate use and development of a heavy-ion accelerator and ion source technology, he says. In addition, it will undertake collaborative activities that enhance educational programs in nuclear physics, nuclear engineering and materials science.

  5. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  7. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  9. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  10. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.C.C. de.

    1978-04-01

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  11. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  12. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  13. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  14. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  15. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  16. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  17. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  18. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book has sixteen peer-reviewed papers divided into four sections that reflect changes in the nuclear power industry occurring since 1981, including escalating capital requirements and a growing worldwide dependence on nuclear power for electricity production. The four sections of this book are: Overview of National Programs; Surveillance and Other Radiation Embrittlement Studies; Pressure Vessel Integrity and Regulatory Considerations; and Mechanisms of Irradiation Embrittlement

  19. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  1. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  2. Nuclear telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  7. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  9. Cross sections of 7Be, 22Na and 24Na for geochemical and cosmochemical important elements by monoenergetic 287 and 370 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, K.; Omoto, T.; Nakagaki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross sections of 7 Be, 22 Na and 24 Na for geochemically and cosmochemically important elements were measured at incident neutron energies of 287 and 370 MeV. The cross sections were measured in target exposed to highenergy monoenergetic neutrons at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. (orig.)

  10. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL; Cooperacao tecnica para os usos pacificos da tecnologia nuclear na America Latina e no Caribe: a experiencia do acordo regional ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  11. Different concentration of the ethylene glycol in nuclear chromatin organization of the preantral ovarian follicles from bovine (Bos indicus). Diferentes concentrações de etileno-glicol na organização da cromatina nuclear de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino ("Bos indicus")

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela Nelson Costa; Luciana Alves Lijeron; Hélder Silva Luna

    2007-01-01

    The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this investigation was to verify the effect of the ethylene glycol in different concentrations in nuclear organization de ovarian preantral follicles. Ovaries had been gotten in slaughter house. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%). Tissues analysis were run using classic techniques of his...

  12. NA60 Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, G

    2010-01-01

    This report shortly summarizes the main results obtained from the analysis of the NA60 data during 2010, perspectives for the analysis activity during 2011 and the requests to CERN following from them. In addition, renewed interest is expressed for a possible continuation of NA60, including future running at lower SPS energies.

  13. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  14. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  15. Experimental determination of spectral indices by scanning of fuel rod in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Determinacao experimental de indices espectrais por varredura gama de vareta combustivel no reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Leda Cristina Cabelo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the spectral indexes 28{rho}{sup *} and 25{delta}{sup *}, and gamma efficiency factor in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor were determined experimentally employing a rod scanning technique. In the case of 28{rho}{sup *}, this method has the advantage of eliminating most of the correction factors derived from the calculations. Only the fission yield factor and the relative fission rate in the {sup 235}U remain in the determination of the 25{delta}{sup *}. The experiments were performed with different thicknesses of cadmium sleeves: 0.55 mm, 1.10 mm and 2.20 mm. The final experimental uncertainty achieved in the experiment, less that 1 %, and the excellent geometrical and material data characterization of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor allow to use the results as benchmark for validate calculation methods and related nuclear data libraries. The comparison between calculated values and experimental values was performed by employing the MCNP-5 code and the nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1. The results demonstrate that the difference among libraries is very small. Also, the comparison between calculated values and experimental values shows that there has been considerable progress in the recent nuclear data libraries. The best result is obtained with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library, and the highest discrepancy was obtained with JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data libraries. (author)

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  17. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  18. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  19. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  20. Nuclear glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Giménez, José Luis; Markovic, Jelena; Dasí, Francisco; Queval, Guillaume; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Foyer, Christine H; Pallardó, Federico V

    2013-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is a linchpin of cellular defences in plants and animals with physiologically-important roles in the protection of cells from biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, glutathione participates in numerous metabolic and cell signalling processes including protein synthesis and amino acid transport, DNA repair and the control of cell division and cell suicide programmes. While it is has long been appreciated that cellular glutathione homeostasis is regulated by factors such as synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover, relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of the intracellular partitioning on glutathione and its implications for the regulation of cell functions and signalling. We focus here on the functions of glutathione in the nucleus, particularly in relation to physiological processes such as the cell cycle and cell death. The sequestration of GSH in the nucleus of proliferating animal and plant cells suggests that common redox mechanisms exist for DNA regulation in G1 and mitosis in all eukaryotes. We propose that glutathione acts as "redox sensor" at the onset of DNA synthesis with roles in maintaining the nuclear architecture by providing the appropriate redox environment for the DNA replication and safeguarding DNA integrity. In addition, nuclear GSH may be involved in epigenetic phenomena and in the control of nuclear protein degradation by nuclear proteasome. Moreover, by increasing the nuclear GSH pool and reducing disulfide bonds on nuclear proteins at the onset of cell proliferation, an appropriate redox environment is generated for the stimulation of chromatin decompaction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Cellular functions of glutathione. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.

    Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit. On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war.

  2. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  3. Nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe allows punctual analysis and localization of detected elements inside the volume swept by the particle beam. Particularly well adapted for light elements (and their isotopes) determination. They are detected by nuclear reaction and selectivity is obtained by choice of particles and their energy. Other elements are analyzed by X-ray spectra obtained with the primary ion beam. In some cases concentration profils are obtained in few micrometers and are non-destructive. Operation principle, equipment, performance and examples of applications are reviewed. 71 refs [fr

  4. Nuclear energy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquardt, Meg

    2016-01-01

    A piece of nuclear fuel the size of your fingertip holds as much energy as 150 gallons (568 L) of oil. In Nuclear Energy, learn how scientists developed this amazing source of energy, how it works, and why it has attracted controversy. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  5. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  6. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Tony.

    1986-01-01

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, T.M.; Shaffer, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The birth of nuclear cardiology has generally been attributed to a 1927 experiment during which a radium salt was injected in one arm vein and the circulation time calculated by recording the arrival of the radioactivity in the opposite arm. This simple experiment lead to the radiocardiogram in the late 1940s that was used to measure left ventricular function and, later, cardiac output. This chapter provides a brief overview of nuclear cardiology. Methodology is presented when it is important for the understanding of test results. The use of these studies in the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease is emphasized

  9. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwam, H.J. van

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of international and Dutch-national atomic energy law. Attention is paid to regulations relevant to industry, as well as to relationships between national and international regulations. First, international law is considered, namely the Euratom Treaty, Euratom institutes and tasks of Euratom. Next, the Dutch-national legislation is discussed with respect to nuclear fuels, ores and security of State (Defence interests). Regulations concerning radioactive materials in working rooms and instruments, personnel dosimetry and safety measures are discussed. Finally, authority control on rule observance and penal uphold of nuclear law is considered. (G.J.P.)

  10. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  11. Discursos de licenciandos em física sobre a questão nuclear no ensino médio: foco na abordagem histórica Future physics teachers discourses about nuclear issues in High School: a focus on a historical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirza Pavan Sorpreso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos os discursos de dois licenciandos ao elaborarem um episódio de ensino com abordagem histórica do tema Questão Nuclear. Utilizamos, como referencial teórico, a Análise de Discurso, tal como divulgada no Brasil por Eni Orlandi. Observamos a forte influência da memória discursiva originada no Ensino Básico e Superior dos licenciandos. Os discursos produzidos compreenderam contradições e deslocamentos que os aproximaram dos discursos da pesquisa em ensino de Física.In this article we analyze two undergraduate students' discourses when talking about a teaching chapter with a historical approach to the Nuclear Issue. Methodologically we make use of the discourse analysis, as it has become know in Brazil through Eni Orlandi. We observe the strong influence of undergraduate students' discursive memory generated during high school and university period. Their discourses contained contradictions and dislocations that were similar to those in education in physics' research discourses.

  12. Use of Gray code in PBIL algorithm for application in recharge of nuclear fuels; Utilização do código Gray no algoritmo PBIL para aplicação na recarga de combustíveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nast, Fernando N.; Silva, Patrick V.; Meneses, Anderson A. M., E-mail: anderson.meneses@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Oeste do Para (UNIOESTE), Santarem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Inteligencia Computacional; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao de Processos

    2017-07-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (OGCIN) problem, or design optimization of Load Patterns (PCs) are denominations for the optimization problem associated with the refueling operation in a reactor nuclear. The OCGIN is considered a problem of difficult resolution, considering aspects of combinatorial optimization and calculations of analysis and physics of reactors. In order to validate algorithms for the OGCIN solution, we use benchmark problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), because it is considered, like OGCIN, an NP-difficult problem. In the present work, we implemented the Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm with binary coding and Gray coding and applied them to the optimization of the symmetric PCV Oliver30 and Rykel48 asymmetric PCV and implemented only the Gray coding in the OGCIN application of the cycle 7 of the Angra-1 Nuclear Plant, where we compared its performance with binary coding in. The results on average were 1311 and 1327 ppm of Boron for the binary and Gray codifications respectively, emphasizing that the binary codification obtained a maximum value of 1330 ppm, while the Gray code obtained a value of 1401 ppm, showing superiority, since the Boron concentration is an indicator of the PC cycle extension.

  13. Stimulated nuclear spin echos and spectral diffusion in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, N.M.; Engelsberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results of stimulated nuclear spin echos decay in glasses are presented. The measurements were performed in B 2 O 3 glasses, at the 23Na and 11 B resonance lines. The data analysis allows the study of Spectral diffusion at an inhomogeneous nuclear magnetic (NMR) resonance line, broadened for a desordered system of nuclear spins. A model is proposed to explain the time constants, and the particular form of the decay. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  16. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  17. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  18. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  2. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  3. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  4. Determination of the percentage of quitine desacetilation reaction by solid state carbon-13 NMR; Determinacao do porcentual de reacao de desacetilacao de quitina por RMN {sup 13} C no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, Ricardo J. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento; Cass, Quezia B.; Bassi, Ana L. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Lab. de Sintese Organica

    1997-12-31

    Quitine is a bi-polymer largely found in invertebrates. As most compounds of this class are insoluble in common organic solvents, the des-acetylation percentile was obtained by carbon-13 solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. The methodology is presented. Results are presented 3 refs., 1 figs.

  5. Simulation of a postulated loss of coolant accident due to a break in the pressurizer surge line of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plan; Calculo do acidente postulado de perda de refrigerante por uma ruptura na linha de surto do pressurizador da central nuclear Angra 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Carlos V. Goulart de; Palmieri, Elcio T.; Aronne, Ivan D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cvga@cdtn.br; etp@cdtn.br; aroneid@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the simulation of a postulated loss of coolant accident due to a 437 cm{sup 2} break in the pressurizer surge line of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, as described in its Final Safety Analysis Report, section 15.6.4.1.3.11. This accident is characterized by a fast depressurization of the reactor coolant system followed by the actuation of the safety injection system. This work, which aims to develop and qualify a basic Angra 2 nodalization for RELAP5, was done in the framework of a CNEN internal technical cooperation involving three of its research centers (CDTN, IPEN and IEN) and its Reactors Division. This simulation is part of a comprehensive number of accidents and transients necessary to verify the adequacy of the modeled logic of the control and protection systems as well as the performance of the modeled thermal-hydraulic systems. Therefore this work contributes to the qualification process of the developed nodalization. (author)

  6. Polarization dependence of Na* + Na* associative ionization revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Meulen, H.P. v.d.; Morgenstern, R.; Hertel, I.V.; Meyer, E.; Witte, R.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the associative ionization process Na 3 2P3/2 + Na 3 2P3/2 → Na2+ + e- on the polarization of the laser light used for Na excitation was independently investigated in Utrecht and Berlin. The purpose of this paper is to clarify discrepancies between two other earlier experimental

  7. Sodium layer chiral distribution and spin structure of Na$_2$Ni$_2$TeO$_6$ with a honeycomb network

    OpenAIRE

    Karna, Sunil K.; Zhao, Y.; Sankar, R.; Avdeev, M.; Tseng, P. C.; Wang, C. W.; Shu, G. J.; Matan, K.; Guo, G. Y.; Chou, F. C.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of Na ion distribution, diffusion path, and the spin structure of $P2$-type Na$_2$Ni$_2$TeO$_6$ with a Ni honeycomb network has been explored. The nuclear density distribution of Na ions reveals a 2D chiral pattern within Na layers without breaking the original 3D crystal symmetry, which has been achieved uniquely via an inverse Fourier transform (iFT)-assisted neutron diffraction technique. The Na diffusion pathway described by the calculated iso-surface of Na ion bond valence sum...

  8. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  9. Inhibition of endogenous heat shock protein 70 attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase induction via disruption of heat shock protein 70/Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1-Ca(2+) -calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1-nuclear factor-κB signals in BV-2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Tong, Lijuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to inflammation and host defense. The inhibition of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents iNOS induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, the role and mechanism of endogenous Hsp70 in iNOS induction in microglia remains unclear. This study addresses this issue in BV-2 microglia, showing that Hsp70 inhibition or knockdown prevents LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitric oxide production. Real-time PCR experiments showed that LPS-induced iNOS mRNA transcription was blocked by Hsp70 inhibition. Further studies revealed that the inhibition of Hsp70 attenuated LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). This prevention effect of Hsp70 inhibition on IKKβ-NF-κB activation was found to be dependent on the Ca(2+) /calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signals based on the following observations: 1) chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of CaMKII reduced LPS-induced increases in TAK1 phosphorylation and 2) Hsp70 inhibition reduced LPS-induced increases in CaMKII/TAK1 phosphorylation, intracellular pH value, [Ca(2+) ]i , and CaMKII/TAK1 association. Mechanistic studies showed that Hsp70 inhibition disrupted the association between Hsp70 and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which is an important exchanger responsible for Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that the inhibition of endogenous Hsp70 attenuates the induction of iNOS, which likely occurs through the disruption of NHE1/Hsp70-Ca(2+) -CaMKII/TAK1-NF-κB signals in BV-2 microglia, providing further insight into the functions of Hsp70 in the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Results on leptonic probes from NA50

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2003-01-01

    The NA50 Collaboration has performed a new measurement of the J/ psi yield in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon in improved experimental conditions. Our preliminary analysis of the year 2000 data sample, while confirming the onset of anomalous suppression and the non saturation of the J/ psi /Drell-Yan cross-section ratio, shows that peripheral Pb-Pb interactions follow the normal nuclear absorption pattern, which has in turn been established more precisely thanks to high statistics p-A data. (11 refs).

  11. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  14. Nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyghe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The use of small or medium size nuclear reactors for the desalination of sea water has gained economic interest since the increase of oil prices. These reactors, with a wide range of power from 135 to 1,100Mwth, are parrticularly interesting because their production of fresh water or electricity is tailored to the present need. The replacement of conventional fuel boilers by nuclear reactor boilers does not change the traditional desalination technology and alters very little the coupling of the electricity and water producing parts of the plant. It is a reasonable assumption that the performance of desalination plants will increase with the optimization of the design technology of a mixed plant. The cost of the water produced in a mixed plant is mainly related to local conditions and to the method of splitting the cost between water and electricity. It is therefore impossible to give in this paper a cost for the fresh water production [fr

  15. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  16. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  17. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  18. I wonder nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-01

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  19. Establishment of criteria for classification of area remediation measures contaminated after an eventual radiation accident in Angra dos Reis, RJ, nuclear power plant; Estabelecimento de criterios para a classificacao de medidas de remediacao de areas contaminadas apos um eventual acidente nuclear na usina de Angra dos Reis (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2016-07-01

    When a radiological or nuclear accident that leads to the release of radioactive material to the environment occurs, it is important to implement protective and remediation measures in order to reduce human exposure to radionuclides. Therefore, it is necessary that the procedures to be chosen by the affected country authorities are the most efficient ones, which can only be defined based on previously established criteria. In Brazil, since the radiological accident in Goiania, in 1987, the development of tools to support decision-making in emergencies of this nature was started. The main objective of this work was to establish an acting basis for contaminated areas, in order to protect the individuals of public in case of any accident related to Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis (RJ), which leads to contamination to the environment and the consequent exposure of local population or from more distant regions to ionizing radiation. Initially, the high-risk areas near the location of the nuclear power plant were defined. Typical urban environments found in the main cities of these municipalities were surveyed, including homes, streets and recreation areas. The main characteristics of the study area were evaluated using images from Google Earth® and web pages of the municipalities. After the types of areas to be simulated were selected, these were quantified in terms of the number of residents, the size of the streets, and the number of trees, among others, per unit area. Considering the different housing characteristics for the selected municipalities, six main standard scenarios were developed for urban areas, including homes with different shielding, buildings and parks. The simulation of the procedures for each scenario was made with SIEM model, developed by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), formed by the integration of various models including CORAL, focusing on agricultural areas

  20. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.

    1998-01-01

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  1. Nuclear spintronics

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner, Israel D.

    2003-01-01

    The electron spin transport in condensed matter, Spintronics, is a subject of rapidly growing interest both scientifically and from the point of view of applications to modern and future electronics. In many cases the electron spin transport cannot be described adequately without accounting for the hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins. Here, the progress in physics and applications of these phenomena will be reviewed.

  2. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 15 events were recorded on the first grade and 1 on the second grade of the INES scale. The second grade event is in fact a re-classification of an incident that occurred on the second april 2001 at Dampierre power plant. This event happened during core refueling, a shift in the operation sequence led to the wrong positioning of 113 assemblies. A preliminary study of this event shows that this wrong positioning could have led, in other circumstances, to the ignition of nuclear reactions. Even in that case, the analysis made by EDF shows that the consequences on the staff would have been limited. Nevertheless a further study has shown that the existing measuring instruments could not have detected the power increase announcing the beginning of the chain reaction. The investigation has shown that there were deficiencies in the control of the successive operations involved in refueling. EDF has proposed a series of corrective measures to be implemented in all nuclear power plants. The other 15 events are described in the article. During this period 121 inspections have been made in nuclear facilities. (A.C.)

  3. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, W.; Hintermann, K.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy, naturally, is rated very high in discussions at the most different levels. Often it is noted that hasty opinions supported by little actual Knowledge are expressed and published. It is an active duty of scientists and technicians by speaking in plain language, to instil as many readers as possible with understanding of the bases and applications of the powers residing in an atomic core - which is all but an easy task. The two authors, experienced researchers and teachers, in the form of this book make an important contribution destined for the broad public. The natural scientist's supreme principle of keeping to facts and avoid personal tinges is satisfied in this book throughout. The first chapter describes the historical development of the atomic model. Its solid mooring in physics was the result of the research work and discovering in that field in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, of which we get a fine description in the second chapter. The third chapter describes the way to the discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann and Lise Meitner. The fourth chapter is above all dedicated to the genial achievements of Enrico Fermi. Before the description of energy production from nuclear energy in the sixth chapter, the fifth chapter reflects on basic questions of energy conversion. In the last chapter problems of global character such as fuel reserves, the environment etc. are dealt with. This book fulfills an important obligation of the scientist to the public. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  6. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.

    2001-07-01

    Experimental studies of nuclear excitations have been an important subject from the earliest days when the institute was established. The construction of 4 MeV proton cyclotron was mainly aimed to achieve this goal. Early experiments in nuclear spectroscopy were done with radioactive nuclei with the help of beta and gamma ray spectrometers. Small NaI(Tl) detectors were used for gamma--gamma coincidence, angular correlation and life time measurements. The excited states nuclear magnetic moments were measured in perturbed gamma--gamma angular correlation experiments. A high transmission magnetic beta ray spectrometer was used to measure internal conversion coefficients and beta--gamma coincidence studies. A large number of significant contributions were made during 1950--59 using these facilities. Proton beam in the cyclotron was made available in the late 1950's and together with 14 MeV neutrons obtained from a C-W generator a large number of short-lived nuclei were investigated during 1960's and 1970's. The introduction of high resolution Ge gamma detectors and the improved electronics helped to extend the spectroscopic work which include on-line (p,p'g) and (p,n g) reaction studies. Nuclear spectroscopic studies entered a new phase in the 1980's with the availability of 40--80 MeV alpha beam from the variable energy cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. A number of experimental groups were formed in the institute to study nuclear level schemes with (a,xn g) reactions. Initially only two unsuppressed Ge detectors were used for coincidence studies. Later in 1989 five Ge detectors with a large six segmented NaI(Tl) multiplicity-sum detector system were successfully used to select various channels in (a ,xn g) reactions. From 1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pelletron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more

  7. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  8. Quantitative model of evaluation of the contribution of each radioactive source in the individual external dose Hx in nuclear medicine service personnel; Modelo quantitativo de avaliacao da contribuicao de cada fonte radioativa na dose individual externa Hx em trabalhador de servico de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Nathalie Canhameiro; Tinois, Eduardo; Koga, Katia Hiromoto; Bezerra, Aline da Silva; Ferreira, Vinicius Capistrano; Azevedo, Thaisa Resende; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta, E-mail: soniamoriguchi@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2016-07-01

    Assess whether the activities performed in the Nuclear Medicine service are significant in the total dose received by the workers and their relative contributions. Methods: measured independent variables: number of scintigraphies remaining in the examination room (N); eluted activity (E); Total activity marked in pharmaceuticals kits (K); num-ber of times that was scheduled to work in the Hot room (Q); Variable dependent measured: cumulative effective dose in the period 10/2012 to 04/2013 added to each worker, obtained by information registered daily and monthly on activities and doses received in the period. Held Multiple Linear Regression (D = a + β{sub 1} N + E + β{sub 2} β{sub 3} K + β{sub 4} Q) with α = 0.05 significance level. It was concluded that the independent variables N (p = 0.097) and E (p = 0.086) did not significantly interfere with the Cumulative dose in the period. The K variables (p = 0.017) and Q (p = 0.028) were significant in the proposed model. (author)

  9. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil; Modelagem Lagrangeana da dispersao atmoferica de radionuclideos e sistemas de informacao geografica como ferramentas de suporte ao planejamento de emergencia na area de influencia do complexo nuclear de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-07-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  10. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  11. Nuclear waste immobilization. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A.E.; Sinclair, W.; McLaughlin, G.M.

    1979-11-20

    United States defense nuclear wastes are presently in tank storage, largely as sludges comprising Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Na oxides and hydroxides, together with 0.5 to 5 percent of fission products and actinides (exclusive of uranium). The relative proportions of Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Na in the sludges from different tanks vary considerably, except that (Fe + Al + Mn) are by far the major components and Fe is more abundant than Mn. Typical compositions of some calcined sludges from Savannah River are given. This paper briefly describes how the SYNROC process, utilizing straightforward technology, can be readily adapted to the problem of defense waste immobilization, yielding a dense, inert, ceramic waste-form, SYNROC-D. Two classes of processes are discussed - one designed to immobilize sludges containing normal amounts of sodium and the other designed for otherwise similar sludges which are, however, strongly depleted in sodium as a result of more efficient washing procedures.

  12. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  13. Letramento na contemporaneidade

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiman, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho examino a relação entre letramento e contemporaneidade, tomando como base para a discussão o letramento no mundo escolar e sua relação com os letramentos de outras instituições do mundo contemporâneo, a fim de determinar as relações entre as finalidades contemporâneas da leitura e da escrita (em outras palavras, o que significa ser letrado na contemporaneidade) e as práticas mobilizadas e as atividades realizadas na escola para atingir essas finalidades. Através de diversos exe...

  14. Nietzsche na moda

    OpenAIRE

    José,João

    2016-01-01

    Resumo Ao resgatar o filósofo alemão do esquecimento, Stefan Zweig seria o principal responsável pela atual "voga Nietzsche". A edição brasileira de seu livro em 1931 e o artigo "L'actualité de Nietzsche", publicado anonimamente na França em 1933, atestariam o crescente interesse pelo autor de Zaratustra . A presença de Nietzsche na cena contemporânea, todavia, dever-se-ia não somente aos ensaios de outros estudiosos como Salomé (1893), Bertram (1918), Andler (1920) e Walz (1932), mas a um fe...

  15. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  16. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  17. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  18. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  19. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: competent authorities; control by land use, planning, including licensing; site licences and permits; controls over design, construction, maintenance and operation; monitoring [of ionising radiations from anything on the site, or from anything discharged on or from the site] to be done by the discharger; additional precautions (reporting dangerous occurrences; extended period of the licensee's responsibilities; flying near nuclear installations); enforcement; rights of the individual (to be informed; to appeal or make representations in respect of permission being granted; to initiate or intervene in the enforcement process; to compensation and injunction. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  4. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  5. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  6. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  7. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  8. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  9. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  10. Biotecnologia na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Carrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A expectativa de o crescimento populacional atingir 9 bilhões de habitantes em 2050 em adição às questões da sustentabilidade e do aquecimento global nos desafiam a aumentar a oferta de alimentos. Uma metodologia alternativa que contribua para a redução do impacto desse cenário envolve a biotecnologia, que, nas últimas décadas, trouxe marcantes oportunidades tecnológicas na agricultura, resultando em relevante desenvolvimento na obtenção de novas variedades de plantas, na melhoria da qualidade de diversos alimentos e atualmente também na bioenergia. As técnicas biotecnológicas envolvendo os marcadores moleculares, a genômica e a transformação genética estão transformando a agricultura e são discutidas neste artigo.The expected population growth to reach 9 billion by 2050 in addition to issues of sustainability and global warming challenges us to increase the supply of food. An alternative approach to help reducing the impact of this scenario involves biotechnology which in recent decades has brought remarkable technological opportunities in the agriculture that resulted in relevant development in obtaining new plant varieties, improved quality of different foods, and now also in bioenergy. The biotechnology techniques involving molecular markers, genomics and genetic transformation are transforming agriculture and will be discussed in this article.

  11. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties; Preparo de sementes para determinacao do teor de oleo pelo metodo de RMN em seis variedades de algodoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Algodao e Fibrosas Diversas]. E-mail: gondim@cec.iac.br; Soave, Daise [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Genetica, Biologia Molecular e Fitoquimica

    1998-07-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  12. Sodium Ion Transport Mechanisms in Antiperovskite Electrolytes Na3OBr and Na4OI2: An in Situ Neutron Diffraction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Shuai; Howard, John W; Neuefeind, Jörg; Ren, Yang; Wang, Hui; Liang, Chengdu; Yang, Wenge; Zou, Ruqiang; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-06-20

    Na-rich antiperovskites are recently developed solid electrolytes with enhanced sodium ionic conductivity and show promising functionality as a novel solid electrolyte in an all solid-state battery. In this work, the sodium ionic transport pathways of the parent compound Na3OBr, as well as the modified layered antiperovskite Na4OI2, were studied and compared through temperature-dependent neutron diffraction combined with the maximum entropy method. In the cubic Na3OBr antiperovskite, the nuclear density distribution maps at 500 K indicate that sodium ions hop within and among oxygen octahedra, and Br(-) ions are not involved. In the tetragonal Na4OI2 antiperovskite, Na ions, which connect octahedra in the ab plane, have the lowest activation energy barrier. The transport of sodium ions along the c axis is assisted by I(-) ions.

  13. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with two topics in nuclear cardiology. In the first, left ventricular wall motion assessment using Fourier transform of local left ventricular time-activity curves in gated blood pool studies is evaluated. In the second, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigrams is assessed which are obtained with thallium-201 or with another radiopharmaceutical with different physical, but identical biological properties. In all these investigations data acquisition and analysis by computer played an essential role. In chapter 1 the desirable properties of a nuclear medicine computer system are given and the computer system used for this work is described. Wall motion analysis of the left ventricle using Fourier transform of local time-activity curves in the left ventricular region in gated blood pool studies is described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 detection of non-perfused lesions in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201 is described. Detection of partly perfused lesions and the influence of scatter and photon energy on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is described in chapter 4. (Auth.)

  14. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  15. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  16. The nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Colin.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses nuclear war, disarmament and national defence policies. The author argues that in spite of the obvious advantages of nuclear power in many parts of the world, the world cannot afford the risk of continuing with it because of the demonstrated close and deadly association of nuclear power and nuclear reactors with nuclear weapons

  17. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  19. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  20. Nuclear instrumentation for nuclear recycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    Back End Nuclear Fuel Cycle or Nuclear Recycle facilities comprise Reprocessing plants (RP), Nuclear Waste Management (WM) plants for high level, intermediate level and low level liquid waste, vitrified waste interim storage facilities such as interim storage and long term deep geological depositories, Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDF) and long term geological disposal for solid waste. At present, RPs processes the spent fuel (SF) from the PHWR - Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to recover fissile and fertile nuclear material. The nuclear waste comprising of fission products is treated in different waste management facilities based on their radioactivity

  1. Mechanochemical transformations in Li(Na)AlH4-Li(Na)NH2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotko, Oleksandr; Zhang Haiqiao; Ugurlu, Ozan; Wiench, Jerzy W.; Pruski, Marek; Scott Chumbley, L.; Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2007-01-01

    Mechanochemical transformations of tetrahydroaluminates and amides of lithium and sodium have been investigated using gas volumetric analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy. In a transformation of LiAlH 4 and LiNH 2 taken in an 1:1 molar ratio, the amount of released hydrogen (6.6 wt.% after 30 min ball milling) was higher than in any known one pot mechanochemical process involving a hydrogen-containing solid. A total of 4.3 wt.% of hydrogen is released by the NaAlH 4 -NaNH 2 system after 60 min ball milling; and 5.2 wt.% H 2 is released when LiAlH 4 and NaNH 2 or NaAlH 4 and LiNH 2 are ball milled for 90 min and 120 min, respectively. All transformations proceed at room temperature. The mechanism of the overall transformation MAlH 4 (s) + MNH 2 (s) → 2MH(s) + AlN(s) + 2H 2 (g) was identified based on detailed spectroscopic analysis of the intermediate (M 3 AlH 6 ) and final products of the ball milling process

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  6. Nuclear dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Sizewell 'B' Nuclear Power Station, the first in a new family of PWR (Pressurised Water Reactor) stations in the UK, is currently under construction on the Suffolk coast. One of the first civil engineering tasks associated with the power station construction was the necessity to lower the water table by 17-18 m over an area of approximately 8 hectares to allow the excavation for the foundations to be carried out in the dry. The way chosen to do this was to construct a diaphragm wall around the site area. This had the least effect on surrounding sites -the Sizewell-A station and various nature reserves and wetlands. The reasons for the choice of method are discussed. Following the construction of the wall the water was pumped out from within the diaphragm wall in January 1988. (author)

  7. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  12. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.

    1992-01-01

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  14. Nuclear prophecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four instances known of reasonably accurate forecasts of the benefits and dangers of nuclear energy. H.G. Wells' atomic bomb of 1914, A.W. Stewart's chain reaction of 1923, Olaf Stapeldon's mushroom cloud of 1930 and Hans Dominik's tactical atomic weapon of 1927 are briefly reviewed as well as a forecast of the Three Mile island accident. These examples show that although the trained imagination of writers can approach the truth none can claim accuracy in predicting the facts. Where they do approach the truth is in the prediction of the consequences of the discoveries, social as well as military, of unlimited energy and of unlimited disasters. (U.K.)

  15. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The experimental activities in nuclear physics have in 1988 mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. The CACTUS multidetector system has been realised and will soon be operating. With 8 particle telescopes, 28 NaI detectors and 2 Ge detectors this experimental arrangement represents a major improvement compared to earlier set-ups in the laboratory. Theoretical studies of many-body problems, nuclear structure and reactions have continued. The study of problems related to the foundations of quantum mechanics has also been persued

  16. Nuclear and Radiochemistry Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lieser, Karl Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete and concise description of the up-to-date knowledge of nuclear and radiochemsitry and applications in the various fields of science. I is based on teaching courses and on research for over 40 years. The book is addressed to any researcher whishing sound knowledge about the properties of matter, be it a chemist, a physicist, a medical doctor, a mineralogist or a biologist. They will all find it a valuable source of information about the principles and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. Research in radiochemistry includes: Study of radioactice matter in na

  17. Solid state detectors in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darambara, D G; Todd-Pokropek, A

    2002-03-01

    Since Nuclear Medicine diagnostic applications are growing fast, room temperature semiconductor detectors such CdTe and CdZnTe either in the form of single detectors or as segmented monolithic detectors have been investigated aiming to replace the NaI scintillator. These detectors have inherently better energy resolution that scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes leading to compact imaging systems with higher spatial resolution and enhanced contrast. Advantages and disadvantages of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in imaging systems are discussed and efforts to develop semiconductor-based planar and tomographic cameras as well as nuclear probes are presented.

  18. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  19. Alterações na expressão do antígeno nuclear de proliferação celular e dos receptores de estrogênio e de progesterona provocadas pela quimioterapia primária no carcinoma de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depes Daniella De Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: averiguar as alterações induzidas pela quimioterapia primária no fenótipo celular. MÉTODOS: avaliamos a expressão do antígeno nuclear de proliferação celular (PCNA e dos receptores de estrogênio (RE e de progesterona (RP em 17 tumores de mama no estádio clínico II, obtidos antes e após a terapia antiblástica, por método imuno-histoquímico. Os valores foram relacionados com o estado menstrual, com a resposta clínica tumoral e com o comprometimento axilar. RESULTADOS: houve redução significante na porcentagem de células coradas pelo anti-PCNA antes (tempo A e após (tempo B a quimioterapia (p=0,041. Observamos também resultados significantes ao compararmos os índices médios de PCNA com o grau histológico GII/GIII [tempo A=63,1 e tempo B=38,7 (p=0,049] e nos casos em que houve resposta clínica [tempo A=53,1 e tempo B=34,4 (p=0,011]. Não observamos relação significante entre os índices de PCNA com o estado menstrual e o axilar. Houve redução significante do RE após a quimioterapia nas pacientes pré-menopausadas [tempo A=60,3 e tempo B=24,1 (p=0,027] e naquelas que apresentaram resposta clínica ao tratamento [tempo A=59,1 e tempo B=37,9 (p=0,030]. Observamos aumento significante do RP após a quimioterapia nas pacientes pós-menopausadas [tempo A=35,3 e tempo B=58,3 (p=0,023]. Não encontramos relação entre os receptores hormonais e o comprometimento axilar. CONCLUSÕES: a diminuição dos índices de PCNA nos tumores de alto grau histológico, do RE nas pacientes pré-menopausadas e de ambos, PCNA e RE, nos tumores com redução clínica após a quimioterapia nos mostra que ela atuou sobre as células em proliferação e que o PCNA pode ser utilizado como parâmetro de resposta a este tratamento.

  20. Hidroma subdural na fossa posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Vasques

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de hidroma subdural na fossa craniana posterior conseqüente a traumatismo na região occipital. O paciente foi operado com pleno sucesso. A raridade da localização de hidroma na fossa posterior é salientada, sendo discutidos os possíveis mecanismos etio-patogênicos.

  1. Quantitative determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in material test reactor (MTR) fuel type plates; Determinacao quantitativa da homogeneidade da distribuicao de uranio em placas combustiveis tipo Material Test Reactor (MTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrufino, F.B.J.; Durazzo, M., E-mail: fbferr@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP produces the fuel to supply its nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel is assembled from fuel plates containing a core of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al composite. A good homogeneity in the distribution of uranium in the core of the fuel plate is important from the standpoint of performance under irradiation. Considering the low power reactor IEA-R1, currently the distribution of uranium in the fuel plate is evaluated only by visual inspection of radiographs. However, in view of the possibility of IPEN manufacture the fuel for the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, which has high power, it became urgent to develop a methodology to determine quantitatively the distribution of uranium into the fuel. This paper presents a methodology based on X-ray attenuation, quantifying the distribution of the uranium concentration in the core of the fuel plate by using optical densities of radiographs and comparison with standards. (author)

  2. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  3. Nuclear Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nuclear Stress Test Menu Topics Topics FAQs Nuclear Stress Test A nuclear stress test lets doctors see ... with caffeine, such as coffee, tea, sodas, or chocolate. When you return, doctors will give you another ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  5. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  6. Essay about nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    1994-01-01

    The present essay treat about all Uruguaian Nuclear Energy legislation. Nuclear energy history, international treaties, agreements, national programs, nuclear government politics, radiation protection regulations, wastes, radioactive materials transport, environment and safeguards has been given in this compilation

  7. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  8. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  9. France and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-05-01

    The Observatory of French nuclear weapons looks forwards to the elimination of nuclear weapons in conformity with the aims of the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty. This file tackles the breakdown of disarmament, the missile-launching nuclear submarines ( new generation) program counter to non-proliferation, nuclear submarines, security and health, nuclear submarines and the environment, the program itself and the requirements of the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  10. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  11. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  12. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 131 casos de epilepsia com etiologia cisticercótica comprovada. A idade variou de 2 a 68 anos; 75 pacientes eram de sexo masculino e 56 de sexo feminino; 117 eram brancos, 10 pardos, três pretos e um amarelo. A idade de início da doença predominou na primeira década. O estudo foi feito em relação ao tipo de epilepsia, ao tempo decorrido após a primeira crise, à freqüência das crises e ao eletrencefalograma relativamente às epilepsias em geral. Investigação foi feita também em relação à cefaléia, aos achados neurológicos, liquóricos, radiológicos simples e contrastados e anátomo-patológicos. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores as seguintes conclusões: 1 No grupo de neurocisticercose o início da doença predominou na primeira e a partir da quarta década em relação às epilepsias em geral. 2 Dentre as manifestações clínicas predominaram as formas convulsivas da doença (61%, sendo as crises bravas-jacksonianas as menos freqüentes (4%; quando comparadas com as epilepsias em geral, verifica-se incidência menor das convulsões generalizadas na neurocisticercose. 3 Quanto ao tempo de doença, verifica-se predomínio das formas de duração mais curta (um ano ou menos na neurocisticercose. 4 A severidade da epilepsia, traduzida pela freqüência das crises, foi menor no grupo com neurocisticercose. 5 Excluídos os casos com anormalidades eletrencefalográficas contínuas, foram encontrados maiores índices percentuais de EEG normal na neurocisticercose que nas epilepsias em geral. 6 A cefaléia estava presente em 68% dos casos, assumindo caráter paroxístico na maior parte (78%; em 67% dos casos com cefaléia paroxística não havia concomitantemente sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; nos casos com cefaléia contínua, em apenas dois (13% esses sinais não estavam presentes. 7 Na maior parte dos casos (62% as manifestações epilépticas se apresentaram isoladamente, sem sinais neurol

  13. 23Na(p,γ)24Mg Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeltzig, Axel; Best, Andreas; deBoer, Richard J.; DiLeva, Antonino; Imbriani, Gianluca; Junker, Matthias; Wiescher, Michael

    2018-01-01

    As a link between the NeNa and MgAl cycles in stellar burning, the reaction 23Na(p,γ)24Mg is of interest for various astrophysical scenarios, such as AGB stars. A combined effort at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) and the Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Notre Dame aims at a cross section determination for the this reaction, to constrain the astrophysical reaction rate by improving the knowledge of the resonance strengths and the non-resonant component. Experiments at LUNA benefit from the underground location at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory which allows for the measurement of resonances at low energies with high sensitivity in a low background environment. Measurements at the University of Notre Dame pursue a determination of the non-resonant cross section at higher energies. We present the two experiments and the status of the data analysis.

  14. Nuclear Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Ohio State University Research Reactor (OSURR) is licensed to operate at a maximum power level of 500 kW. A pool-type reactor using flat-plate, low enriched fuel elements, the OSURR provides several experimental facilities including two 6-inch i.d. beam ports, a graphite thermal column, several graphite-isotope-irradiation elements, a pneumatic transfer system (Rabbit), various dry tubes, and a Central Irradiation Facility (CIF). The core arrangement and accessibility facilitates research programs involving material activation or core parameter studies. The OSURR control room is large enough to accommodate laboratory groups which can use control instrumentation for monitoring of experiments. The control instrumentation is relatively simple, without a large amount of duplication. This facilitates opportunities for hands-on experience in reactor operation by nuclear engineering students making reactor parameter measurements. For neutron activation analysis and analyses of natural environmental radioactivity, the NRL maintains the gamma ray spectroscopy system (GRSS). It is comprised of two PC-based 8192-channel multichannel analyzers (MCAs) with all the required software for quantitative analysis. A 3 double-prime x 3 double-prime NaI(Tl), a 14 percent Ge(Li), and a High Purity Germanium detector are currently available for use with the spectroscopy system

  15. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry; Determinacao dos elementos essenciais e toxicos em alimentos comerciais infantis por analise por ativacao com neutrons e espectrometria de absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  16. Micronuclei and nuclear anomalies in Mexico’s indigenous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Patricia Lazalde-Ramos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the number of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies in Mexico’s indigenous population. Materials and methods. One hundred twenty indigenous individuals were evaluated, including thirty from the ethnicities Cora, Huichol, Tarahumara and Tepehuano. The number of micronuclei (MN and any nuclear abnormality (NA in oral mucosa cells, including cells with nuclear buds, binucleated cells, cells with karyolysis, karyorrhetic, condensed chromatin and pyknotic cells were determined for each participant. Results. Tepehuano and Tarahumaras showed the greatest damage to DNA. The Tepehuano group presented the highest number of MN and NA, this being a significant difference (p < 0.05 compared with the rest of the studied groups. This group also presented the highest herbicide exposure (46.7%. In relation to the smoking and drinking habits, these were more frequent in the Tarahumara group (33.3 and 50% respectively. Conclusion. The ethnic diversity, habits and customs may influence the DNA nuclear integrity in the Amerindian groups.

  17. Micronuclei and nuclear anomalies in Mexico's indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazalde-Ramos, Blanca Patricia; Zamora-Pérez, Ana Lourdes; Sosa-Macías, Martha; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés

    2017-01-01

    To determine the number of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies in Mexico's indigenous population. One hundred twenty indigenous individuals were evaluated, including thirty from the ethnicities Cora, Huichol, Tarahumara and Tepehuano. The number of micronuclei (MN) and any nuclear abnormality (NA) in oral mucosa cells, including cells with nuclear buds, binucleated cells, cells with karyolysis, karyorrhetic, condensed chromatin and pyknotic cells were determined for each participant. Tepehuano and Tarahumaras showed the greatest damage to DNA. The Tepehuano group presented the highest number of MN and NA, this being a significant difference (p Tarahumara group (33.3 and 50% respectively). The ethnic diversity, habits and customs may influence the DNA nuclear integrity in the Amerindian groups.

  18. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  19. Nuclear policy of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasrao, Mouneshwara

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the Indian nuclear policy, doctrine, strategy and posture, clarifying the elastic concept of 'credible minimum deterrence' at the center of the country's approach to nuclear security. The Indian nuclear policy and thinking against the theories of nuclear war and strategic deterrence, nuclear escalation, and nuclear coercion, offers a strong theoretical grounding for the Indian approach to nuclear war and peace, nuclear deterrence and escalation, nonproliferation and disarmament, and to limited war in a nuclearized environment. On May 11 and 13, 1998, India tested a total of five nuclear devices in the desert stands at Pokhran. The tests caught the Indian public and the world by surprise. On other issues, while there were palpable differences of opinion in the country, the nature of the differences became progressively clearer, so that it is possible to delineate the major contending schools of thought on the future of Indian nuclear policy. (author)

  20. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  1. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  2. Nuclear design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Ando, Hiroei; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2004-01-01

    The high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) has been designed for an outlet temperature of 950 deg. C. That is the highest temperature in the world for a block-type high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The functions of the reactivity control system are determined considering the operational conditions, and the reactivity balance is planned so that the design requirements are fully satisfied. Moreover, the reactivity coefficients are evaluated to confirm the safety characteristics of the reactor. The power distribution in the core was optimized by changing the uranium enrichment to maintain the fuel temperature at less than the limit (1600 deg. C). Deviation from the optimized distribution due to the burnup of fissile materials was avoided by flattening time-dependent changes in local reactivities. Flattening was achieved by optimizing the specifications of the burnable poisons. The original nuclear design model had to be modified based on the first critical experiments. The Monte Carlo code MVP was also used to predict criticality of the initial core. The predicted excess reactivities are now in good agreement with the experimental results

  3. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  4. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: mass asymmetry and total kinetic energy release in the spontaneous fission of 262 105; calculation of spontaneous fission properties of very heavy nuclei - 98 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106 and 150 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 164; energy losses for 84 Kr ions in nickel, aluminium and titanium; differences in compound nuclei formed with 40 Ar and 84 Kr projectiles; measurement of the energy division vs. mass in highly damped reactions; ambiguities in the inference of precompound emission from excitation function analysis; selective laser one-atom detection of neutral prompt fission fragments; laser induced nuclear polarization - application to the study of spontaneous fission isomers; quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations in the actinide nuclei; high-spin states in 164 Yb; contrasting behavior of h/sub 9/2/ and i/sub 13/2/ bands in 185 Au; multiple band crossings in 164 Er; recoil-distance measurement of lifetimes of rotational states in 164 Dy, lifetimes of ground-band states in 192 Pt and 194 Pt and application of the rotation-alignment model; coulomb excitation of vibrational nuclei with heavy ions; surface structure of deformed nuclei; valency contribution to neutron capture in 32 S; neutron capture cross section of manganese; search for superheavy elements in natural samples by neutron multiplicity counting; and gamma-ray studies on the geochemistry of achondritic meteorites

  5. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  6. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  7. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  8. Determination of trace elements in Mesozoic dykes of the Serra do Mar by neutron activation; Determinacao de elementos tracos em diques mesozoicos da Serra do Mar por meio de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Caio M.; Marques, Leila S., E-mail: caio.vicentini@usp.br, E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of trace elements such as rare earths, Th, U, Ta, Hf, Ba, Rb and Ba, is a very important tool for petrogenetic studies. In order to study these processes in dykes of Enxame Serra do Mar (Coast of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), belonging to the Parana Magmatic Province (PMP), one of the most significant provinces of continental basalts in the world, were perform analyzes by neutron activation in these dikes. The technique, employed in Centro de Reator de Pesquisa of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, provided concentrations of trace elements with accuracy levels of 10% and 9%, which are suitable for petrogenetic studies. Due to the low concentrations of the elements analyzed, the experimental routine sample preparation processes covered very careful to avoid contamination. The samples investigated can be divided into four groups: basic rocks (SiO{sub 2} <55%) with Ti / Y> 500; basic rocks with Ti / Y <500; intermediate rocks (55% 63%). Dikes of intermediate and acid composition only occur at the Sao Sebastiao Island and adjacent coastal region. The concentrations of major and minor elements, as well as the abundance patterns of rare earths and other incompatible elements of these more differentiated rocks, show significant similarities with the type of the volcanic Chapeco, suggesting similar genesis, in other worlds, including also processes of crustal contamination.

  9. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method; Estabelecimento de procedimento para determinacao de vanadio em mexilhoes pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele, E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S., E-mail: edvinett@usp.b, E-mail: camilo.pereira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha

    2009-07-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the {sup 52}V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  10. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao linear de amostras irregulares de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-07-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient ({mu}) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the {mu} determination. It consists of the {mu} determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of {mu} was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  11. na Perua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de se caracterizar como tentativa de ensaio ou de análise a qualquer coisa, o presente artigo tem, antes de mais nada, a pretensão de se constituir uma provocação ao debate acerca da questão do esporte na escola. A provocação parte basicamente do relato da minha experiência pessoal como Secretário da Educação do Município de Aracaju, cargo que exerci no período de 1º de janeiro de 1986 a 27 de janeiro de 1987.

  12. Envolvimento pulmonar na polimiosite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direndra Hasmucrai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: A polimiosite (PM e a dermatomiosite são classificadas como miopatias inflamatórias idiopáticas. O envolvimento pulmonar por PM é pouco frequente, estando descrito na literatura em cerca de 10% de casos.Os autores apresentam um caso de uma mulher de 75 anos, com queixas de febre, perda ponderal, artralgias, mialgias e diminuição simétrica e proximal da força muscular com impotência funcional dos membros superiores e inferiores, com início um mês antes do internamento. Apresentava infiltrados pulmonares na telerradiografia de tórax. Após estudo exaustivo estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de envolvimento pulmonar na forma de pneumonia organizativa por PM. Efectuou-se corticoterapia e terapêutica com micofenolato com melhoria clínica, analítica e radiológica.Conclusão: Neste caso, foi a alteração na telerradiografia de tórax numa doente sem sintomatologia respiratória que levou ao estudo exaustivo até ao diagnóstico de PM, realçando mais uma vez a importância da telerradiografia no rastreio de patologias de outros foros.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (4: 671-677 Abstract: Introduction: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Interstitial lung disease is rare and is described in the literature in about 10% of cases.The authors describes a case of 75 year old woman presenting with one month evolution of fever, weight loss, arthralgia, myalgia and symmetric and proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower limbs. Nonspecific interstitial changes was found in chest X-ray. After exhaustive study, the diagnosis of pulmonary envolvement in the form of organizing pneumonia by polymyositis, was established. Glucocorticoids and mycophenolate were prescribed with good clinical, analytical and radiological outcome.Conclusion: In this case, it was the changes in the chest X-ray in a patient without respiratory sym ptomatology, that conducted to exhaustive study to polymyositis

  13. Envolvimento pulmonar na polimiosite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direndra Hasmucrai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: A polimiosite (PM e a dermatomiosite são classificadas como miopatias inflamatórias idiopáticas. O envolvimento pulmonar por PM é pouco frequente, estando descrito na literatura em cerca de 10% de casos.Os autores apresentam um caso de uma mulher de 75 anos, com queixas de febre, perda ponderal, artralgias, mialgias e diminuição simétrica e proximal da força muscular com impotência funcional dos membros superiores e inferiores, com início um mês antes do internamento. Apresentava infiltrados pulmonares na telerradiografia de tórax. Após estudo exaustivo estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de envolvimento pulmonar na forma de pneumonia organizativa por PM. Efectuou-se corticoterapia e terapêutica com micofenolato com melhoria clínica, analítica e radiológica. Conclusão: Neste caso, foi a alteração na telerradiografia de tórax numa doente sem sintomatologia respiratória que levou ao estudo exaustivo até ao diagnóstico de PM, realçando mais uma vez a importância da telerradiografia no rastreio de patologias de outros foros. Abstract: Introduction: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Interstitial lung disease is rare and is described in the literature in about 10% of cases.The authors describes a case of 75 year old woman presenting with one month evolution of fever, weight loss, arthralgia, myalgia and symmetric and proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower limbs. Nonspecific interstitial changes was found in chest X-ray. After exhaustive study, the diagnosis of pulmonary envolvement in the form of organizing pneumonia by polymyositis, was established. Glucocorticoids and mycophenolate were prescribed with good clinical, analytical and radiological outcome. Conclusion: In this case, it was the changes in the chest X-ray in a patient without respiratory symptomatology, that conducted to exhaustive study to polymyositis diagnosis, enhancing once again the

  14. Stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Yunshang; Lei Zhangyun; Zen Yu; Gong Hua

    1996-01-01

    A detecting system using NaI(Tl) is widely used in research and industry of nuclear science and other fields. For providing the high accuracy and working well under inclement environment, the stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl) is very important. The variation of environment temperature, the change of counting rate and long time continuous working of detector will cause un-negligible effect on the measurement. Three approaches were used. They are: 1) temperature control (It makes the effect of the variation of environment temperature on the measurement negligible.); 2) spectrum stabilizing (It adjust the peak position of the spectrum when the counting rate changes.); and 3) auto-checking and adjusting (It adjusts the drift of the NaI(Tl) detecting system when it works continuously)

  15. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles; Determinacao de componentes organicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em forma de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF). Determinacao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M.; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: lawless@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N{sub 2} atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  16. Review of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.)

  17. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  18. Security with nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental questions about their purpose. Why have some states chosen to acquire nuclear weapons? How and why have these decisions been maintained over time? Why have some states elected to approach, but not cross, the nuclear threshold? This book examines the commonalities and differences in political approaches to nuclear weapons both within and between three groups of states: nuclear, non-nuclear and threshold. The chapters explore the evolution of thinking about nuclear weapons and the role these weapons play in national security planning, and question the official security rationales offered by the nuclear weapon states for the maintenance of nuclear capabilities. For the non-nuclear weapon states, the book presents an analysis of alternative ways of assuring security and foreign policy effectiveness. For the threshold states, it examines the regional contexts within which these states maintain their threshold status. This book transcends traditional East-West approaches to analysis of nuclear issues by giving equal prominence to the issues of nuclear proliferation and non-nuclearism. The book also provides a comprehensive analysis of how current approaches to nuclear weapons have evolved both within and among the groups of countries under study

  19. Nuclear power publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This booklet lists 69 publications on nuclear energy available free from some of the main organisations concerned with its development and operation in the UK. Headings are: general information; the need for nuclear energy; the nuclear industry; nuclear power stations; fuel cycle; safety; waste management. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  1. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  2. Applications of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanagodimath, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiations are powerful and non destructive tools in industry, medicine, defence, agriculture and research. In the present lecture, the types of nuclear radiations, radiation sources, detection of radiation, uses of radiation, dangers of nuclear radiation and nuclear energy will be discussed. (author)

  3. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  4. Nuclear theory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research performed at University of Washington in nuclear theory. Some of the topics discussed are: nuclear astrophysics; symmetry; time reversal invariance; quark matter; superallowed beta decay; exclusive reactions; nuclear probes; soliton model; relativistic heavy ion collisions; supernova explosions; neutrino processes in dense matter; field theories; weak interaction physics; and nuclear structure

  5. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  6. Nuclear power revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grear, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues - high capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear wastes and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry - that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power.

  7. Nuclear literacy - Hungarian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants and the related environmental sentiments make basic nuclear education to a precondition of modern democratic decision making. Nuclear chapters of the curriculum used to treat the topics in historical and descriptive, thus less convincing way. The question arises: how to offer nuclear literacy to the youth in general, to show its empirical aspects and relevance to citizens. (author)

  8. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  9. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  10. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.

    1979-12-01

    The main areas of nuclear safety are considered in this paper, recalling the laws and resolutions in force and also the appropriate authority in each case. The following topics are reviewed: radiological protection, protection of workers, measures to be taken in case of an accident, radioactive effluents, impact on the environment of non-nuclear pollution, nuclear plant safety, protection against malicious acts, control and safeguard of nuclear materials, radioisotopes, transport of radioactive substances, naval propulsion, waste management, nuclear plant decommissioning and export of nuclear equipment and materials. Finally, the author describes the role of the general Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nuclear Safety

  11. Nuclear energy. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled:(Part 1 - basic concepts) energy and states of matter; atoms and nuclei; radioactivity; nuclear reactions; reaction rates; radiation and materials; fission; fusion; (Part 2- nuclear systems) particle accelerators; isotope separators; radiation detectors; neutron chain reactions; nuclear reactor concepts; energy conversion methods; breeder reactors; fusion reactors; (Part 3- nuclear energy and man) the history of nuclear energy; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection and control; reactor safety; radioactive waste processing and disposal; beneficial uses of isotopes; applications of radiation; nuclear explosives; alternative nuclear power systems; thermal effects and the environment; energy and resources. (U.K.)

  12. Collective nuclear dynamics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, V.I.; Kolomietz, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects: liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities

  13. IAEA nuclear security program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. IAEA nuclear security program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, D.

    2006-01-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1977-05-01

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  16. Corrosion of simulated nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Gotic, M.; Foric, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this study the preparation and characterization of borosilicate glasses of different chemical composition were investigated. Borosilicate glasses were doped with simulated nuclear waste oxides. The chemical corrosion in water of these glasses was followed by measuring the leach rates as a function of time. It was found that a simulated nuclear waste glass with the chemical composition (weight %), 15.61% Na 2 O, 10.39% B 2 O 3 , 45.31% SiO 2 , 13.42% ZnO, 6.61% TiO 2 and 8.66% waste oxides, is characterized by low melting temperature and with good corrosion resistance in water. Influence of passive layers on the leaching behaviour of nuclear waste glasses is discussed. (author) 20 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    nuclear energy, or 400 MWe and electricity consumption in Pakistan is increasing. Islamabad plans to increase nuclear energy production to 8,800 MWe by...Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Paul K. Kerr Analyst in Nonproliferation Mary Beth Nikitin Specialist in Nonproliferation February 12, 2016...Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL34248 Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Congressional Research Service Summary Pakistan’s nuclear

  18. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  19. Ontario Hydro's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCredie, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report briefly describes Ontario Hydro's nuclear program, examining the design and construction status, and the future from Ontario Hydro's perspective. Ontario Hydro relies heavily on nuclear power. Nuclear fuel was responsible for approximately 34% of Ontario Hydro's energy production in 1983. The nuclear proportion was supplied by twelve operating units located: NPD, Douglas Point, Pickering A and B. It is expected that by approximately 1992, 65% of the total energy needs will be generated through nuclear power

  20. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (authors)

  2. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  3. Porter with nuclear reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ontario Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning, chaired by Arthur Porter is reviewed. This interim report on nuclear power is relevant to nuclear power planning far beyond the confines of Ontario and discusses nuclear issues in the explicit context of electricity generation and use. Problems considered in the report include safety aspects of uranium mining, milling, and spent fuel disposal, the economic issues which affect nuclear planning and nuclear industry, and the proliferation issue. (U.K.)

  4. The nuclear era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a guide in the space and in the time, along the nuclear energy history and through all the industrial installations such as nuclear power plants and the associated plants. The main points developed in this book are the following ones: the nuclear energy in its historic perspective, the variety of reactors, safety and environment, architecture and large engineering, installation of the reactor components and associated machines, nuclear fuels, and the nuclear energy in the electricity service [fr

  5. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  6. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  7. ANALIZA POSLOVNE KULTURE NA JAPONSKEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ocvirk, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Poslovanje na mednarodnih trgih se z globalizacijo vedno bolj spreminja. V delu diplomskega seminarja sem opredelila kulturo in opisala njene pomembne sestavine ter značilnosti. Spoznala sem, da mora biti poslovnež, ki deluje na mednarodnem trgu, zelo dobro pripravljen in seznanjen s kulturnimi razlikami, da se izogne nepotrebnim napakam in spodrsljajem. Menim, da moramo pri poslovanju s poslovnimi partnerji, ki prihajajo iz drugih kultur, vedeti, kako deluje njihovo poslovno okolje. Na ...

  8. Mapping sequences in loops of nuclear DNA by their progressive detachment from the nuclear cage.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, P R; Brazell, I A

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is organised into loops, probably by attachment to a supramolecular structure. We describe a method which enables us to map the position of sequences within a loop relative to the point of attachment. Nuclear DNA is isolated unbroken by lysing HeLa cells in 2M NaCl to release structures which retain many of the morphological features of nuclei. Their DNA is supercoiled and so must remain unbroken and looped during lysis. Nucleoids are digested to various degrees with a restriction...

  9. Compact device for the extraction of sup(99m)TcO4Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliego, O.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A non automatic device for the extraction of sup(99m)TcO 4 Na by liquid-liquid extraction method is described. It has been developed at the Laboratory of Labelled Molecules of the CNEA and was installed at the Nuclear Medicine Centre of the Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin. The solutions of sup(99m)TcO 4 Na are used for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals and also for making radiodiagnosis. (author) [es

  10. Determination of phosphorus and calcium in biological samples by activation with 14 MeV neutrons; Determinacao de fosforo e calcio em amostras biologicas por ativacao com neutrons de 14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berretta, Jose Roberto

    1995-07-01

    Analytical methods for phosphorus and calcium in biological samples by means of activation with 14 MeV neutrons, using the Van de Graaff accelerator from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, SP, Brazil are developed. For phosphorus analysis, powder samples were pressed into pellets, weighed and transferred to polyethylene plastic envelopes. The pellets with cadmium shielding were irradiated under a fast neutron flux for 5 to 10 minutes, and further counted in a HPGe detector for 5 minutes. Calcium analysis was performed by cyclic irradiation. Samples were irradiated for 10 minutes. After a decay time of 2 minutes, gamma counting was performed for 10 minutes. After a decay time of 2 minutes, a new irradiation ws made. The irradiation cycle was repeated 5 times and the counting spectrum obtained in each cycle was accumulated in the multi channel analyser. The variation of the neutron flux was followed by using a BF{sub 3} detector calibrated with and aluminium monitor. By means of the gamma spectrum and the neutron counting of the BF{sub 3} detector it was possible to estimate phosphorus and calcium concentrations in the sample analyzed. The methods were checked in the reference samples from the International Atomic Energy Agency and in commercial samples of powder milk, fertilizer and animal bone. Phosphorus contents in bone (A3/74) and milk (A-11) reference materials were (15.6 +- 1.8%) and (0.9 +- 0.1)%, respectively. These values are in good agreement to the certified values (15.5 +- 0.5)% and (0.910 +- 0.102)%, respectively. Calcium analysis carried out in bone (A3/74) presented a value of (31.8+-4.1)% and the certified value was of (31.3 +- 0.3)%. Detection limits for phosphorus and calcium were determined in different analyzed samples. The agreement of the results obtained with the certified values confirmed the suitability of the methods for phosphorus and calcium analysis. The methods are fast and laborious chemical procedures are not required

  11. Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment ('Official Gazette' No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act ('Official Gazette' No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, submitting the application for the issue of a licence to perform nuclear activities, and the procedure for issuing decisions on granting a licence to perform a nuclear activity. The Ordinance also regulates the content of the forms for notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, as well as of the application for the issue of a licence to perform the nuclear activity and the method of keeping the register of nuclear activities. According to the Nuclear Safety Act, nuclear activities are the production, processing, use, storage, disposal, transport, import, export, possession or other handling of nuclear material or specified equipment. The Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, State Office for Nuclear Safety finalized the text of new Ordinance on conditions for nuclear safety and protection with regard to the siting, design, construction, use and decommissioning of a facility in which a nuclear activity is

  12. Electromagnetism applications in nuclear engineering: cyclotron; Aplicacoes do eletromagnetismo na engenharia nuclear; ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega Bastos; Dalla Riva, Maria Teresa Cristina da

    1995-08-01

    Particle accelerators, with special emphasis on cyclotrons, are presented. Other electromagnetic devices and their importance in technology and research are also shown. An experimental arrangement for positrons source productions using a cyclotron aiming at non-destructive testing for radiations damage studies is presented. 46 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B.

    2010-05-01

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  15. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The percentage of electricity generated by nuclear energy in each of the 26 countries that operated nuclear power plants in 1987 is given. The current policy and programs of some of these countries is described. News concerning uranium mining, enrichment, reprocessing and waste management is also included. Data in the form of a generalized status summary for all power reactors (> 30 MWEN) prepared from the nuclear power reactor data files of ANSTO is shown

  16. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  17. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  18. Implementation of a computational system at the Center for Nuclear Technology Development, for systematization the application of the FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, for identification of dangerous and developed risks evaluation; Implementacao de um sistema computacional no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear para sistemarizar a aplicacao da tecnica FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - na identificacao de perigos e avaliacao de riscos desenvolvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Danyel Pontelo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de, E-mail: dpc@cdtn.b, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The regulatory bodies request risks evaluations for nuclear and radioactive licensing purposes. In Brazil those evaluations are contained by the safety analysis reports requested by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and risk analysis studies requested by the environment organisms. A risk evaluation includes the identification of the risks and the accident sequence which can occur, and the estimation of the frequency and his undesirable effects on the industrial installations, the public, and the environment. The identification and the risk analysis are particularly important for the implementation of a health, environment and safety integrated management according to the regulation instruments ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001. The utilization of the risk identification techniques and the risk analysis is performed at the non nuclear industry, in a non standard form by the various sectors of an enterprise, diminishing the effectiveness of the recommended actions based on risk indexes. However, for the nuclear licensing, the CNEN request through their regulatory instruments and standard formats, that the risks, the failure mechanisms and detection be identified, which can allow the preventive and mitigate actions. This paper proposes the utilization of the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) technique in the licensing process. It was implemented a software through the Excel program, using the Visual Basic for Applications program which allows the automation and the standardization of FMEA studies as well

  19. A ENGENHARIA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pelizzer Casara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  20. Communication of nuclear data progress: No.4(1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    Communication of Nuclear Data Progress (CNDP) in English is set up by Chinese Nuclear Committee and Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC). This is the fourth issue. It includes measurements of neutron smaee angle scattering cross sections for Fe, Ni and Cr; n-D scattering phase-shift and 17 O R-matrix analyses; calculations of neutron elastic and inclastic scattering from 7 Li; evaluations of 2 H(n,2n), 23 Na, 59 Co(n, γ), 235,238 U, 239 Pu(n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections; and a fitting code of corrected SLBW with multlievel effect (CBNFIT); R-matrix analysis code (RAC) etc

  1. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addinall, E.; Ellington, H.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters: (the nature of nuclear power) the atomic nucleus - a potential source of energy; how nuclear reactors work; the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactivity - its nature and biological effects; (why we need nuclear power) use of energy in the non-communist world -the changing pattern since 1950; use of energy - possible future scenarios; how our future energy needs might be met; (a possible long term nuclear strategy) the history of nuclear power; a possible nuclear power strategy for the Western World; (social and environmental considerations) the hazards to workers in the nuclear power industry; the hazards to the general public (nuclear power industry; reactor operation; transport of radioactive materials; fuel reprocessing; radioactive waste disposal; genetic hazards); the threat to democratic freedom and world peace. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear information access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C. H.; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.

    1998-01-01

    The energy supply in the countries, which have abundant energy resources, may not be affected by accepting the assertion of anti-nuclear and environment groups. Anti-nuclear movements in the countries which have little energy resources may cause serious problem in securing energy supply. Especially, it is distinct in Korea because she heavily depends on nuclear energy in electricity supply(nuclear share in total electricity supply is about 40%).The cause of social trouble surrounding nuclear energy is being involved with various circumstances. However, it is very important that we are not aware of the importance of information access and prepared for such a situation from the early stage of nuclear energy's development. In those matter, this paper analyzes the contents of nuclear information access system in France and Japan which have dynamic nuclear development program and presents the direction of the nuclear access regime through comparing Korean status and referring to progresses of the regime

  3. Nuclear technology in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with the Nuclear Energy in Peru. It consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter is presented a rapid overview on nuclear science history. The second chapter describes the nuclear proliferation and the nuclear competition in South America. The nuclear organization in Peru, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, and the main centers are described in the third chapter. The following chapters deals with peruvian advances in nuclear medicine, agriculture and food, nuclear application to industry, hydrology, earth sciences and environmental considerations. In the last chapter, the perspectives for nuclear science and technology in Peru are described from the inter institutional cooperation point of view. This book also includes appendix and bibliography. (author)

  4. The nuclear economic fraud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on the comparative economics of electricity from nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The present paper discusses further publications on this topic, and continues under the headings: propaganda money; the commitment of the CEGB to nuclear power; how to have nuclear electricity without paying for it; hiding the real nuclear costs; the effect of nuclear power on coal prices - the dilemma of nuclear power and dear coal or restricted nuclear power and cheap coal; the effects on electricity prices; the future of coal prices and subsidies; summary of the costs of building nuclear power stations; minimum total costs; the driving forces behind the nuclear programme. (U.K.)

  5. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  6. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  7. CIRFT Data Update and Data Analyses for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this research is to collect experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), Catawba Nuclear Station, North Anna Nuclear Power Station (NA), and the Limerick Nuclear Power Station (LMK) boiling water reactor (BWR). Data will be collected under simulated transportation environments using the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT), an enabling hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These data will be used to support ongoing SNF modeling activities and to address regulatory issues associated with SNF transport.

  8. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range; Determinacao dos coeficientes de conversao medios entre kerma no ar e H*(10) usando feixes de raios-X primarios, secundarios e transmitidos na faixa de energia da radiologia diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  9. Development of an polarization sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and it utilization on the Mueller matrix determination; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de tomografia por coerencia optica no dominio de Fourier sensivel a polarizacao e sua utilizacao na determinacao das matrizes de Mueller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raele, Marcus Paulo

    2009-07-01

    This study approached theoretical and experimental aspects related with the development of a polarization sensitive, Fourier domain, optical coherence tomography system (PS-FD-OCT) and its utilization on the Mueller Matrix determination. This work began with a bibliographic revision, which describes since the early studies to the actual state of the art of the technique. The mathematical formalism of Fourier domain low coherence interferometry and light polarization was performed as well. Studies based on numerical simulations, of three different algorithm types, responsible to recover the scattering profile, were done. The implemented algorithms were: Direct Fourier Transform, Interpolation and zero-filling. By the end of the simulation study, was possible to conclude that the algorithm zero-filling 2N presented better characteristics when compared with the others. In the experimental part, firstly different OCT setups were assembled and measurements were done in order to verify aspects related with the theory. Then, using a polymeric sample, birefringence images were performed, which allowed determining the sample birefringence quantitatively. Finally, images taken of different polarization states were collected, and through then images related with the Mueller Matrix elements were calculated, which were analyzed individually. (author)

  10. Correlation between clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography with histopathological exam in the determination of tumor size in breast cancer; Correlacao entre o exame clinico, a mamografia e a ultra-sonografia com o exame anatomopatologico na determinacao do tamanho tumoral no cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Fernanda Monteiro de Paula; Rezende, Cezar Alencar de Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia]. E-mail: fersiqueira75@yahoo.com.br; Barra, Alexandre de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate which method is the best to determine pre-surgically the size of breast cancer: clinical examination, mammography or ultrasonography, using as a reference the anatomopathological exam. Methods: this study has included 184 patients with palpable-or-not breast lesions, detected by mammography and ultrasonography, that were submitted to surgical resection of the tumor, with histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer. The same examiner evaluated clinically the largest tumoral diameter, through clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography, and the measurements obtained by each method were correlated with the maximum diameter obtained by the anatomopathological exam. The comparative analysis has been done by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient between the anatomopathological and the clinical exams was 0.8; between the anatomopathological exam and the mammography, 0.7; and between anatomopathological exam and ultrasonography 0.7 (p<0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficients among the methods evaluated were also calculated and r=0.7 was obtained between clinical exam and mammography, r=0.8 between clinical examination and ultrasonography, and r=0.8 between mammography and ultrasonography (p<0.05). Conclusions: clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography have presented high correlation with the anatomopathological measures, besides high correlations among themselves, what seems to show that they may be used as equivalent methods in the pre-surgical evaluation of the breast tumoral size. Nevertheless, due to specific limitations of each method, clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography should be seen as complementary to each other, in order to obtain a more accurate measurement of the breast cancer tumor.(author)

  11. Effect of field size on determination of mean free path of a magnetized mortar irradiated with energy photons between 65 and 1250 keV; Efeito do tamanho do campo de radiacao na determinacao do livre caminho medio de uma argamassa magnetizada irradiada com fotons de energia entre 65 e 1250 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, M. Paes de; Vieira, J.W.; Filho, Joao Antonio, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Austerlitz, C.; Hazin, J.C., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The size effect of the radiation field in determining the half value layer (HVL) and the relaxation length of a magnetized mortar was evaluated for photon beams of energy between 65 and 1250 keV. The mortar consists of water, cement, limonite and magnetite has been shaped and constructed a computer simulation of photon beam attenuation for different radiation fields with diameters between 3 and 20 cm using the Monte Carlo code Penelope. For the same energy and different sizes of the radiation field, the ratio of HVL and {mu}x showed a deviation of up to 21% when the radiation beam was attenuated 99%. It was concluded that the experimental determination of the magnitudes of the HVL and {mu}x for the mortar and the irradiation conditions used in this study were made with narrow radiation fields. (author)

  12. Determining the better solvent and time for extracting soil by soxhlet in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetric method; A determinacao de qual o melhor solvente e o melhor tempo de extracao de sedimento em aparato Soxhlet na metodologia do TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Renato S.; Lima, Guilherme; Baisch, Paulo R. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    There are several methods of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants in sediment. The TPH gravimetric has been widely used in many studies and in oil spill monitoring case. The present work examined three different solvents (DCM, DCM/N-HEX and N-HEX), in three different times, to the purpose to optimize the contaminants extraction using USEPA 9071 and 3540 reference method. Then was realized analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for monitoring the reproducible extracts. The sediments used in this experiment was collected in the Cavalos Island, localized in the city of Rio Grande, RS-Brasil. The sediment was 'washed' and after then contaminated with petroleum. The extracts were realized in Soxhlet apparatus, in three different times (4, 8 and 12 hours), and TOC analysis were realized before and after the extraction. The result demonstrated that eight hours with DCM/N-HEX solvent is more indicated for TPH gravimetric in sediment analysis with high concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. TOC analysis demonstrated inappropriate for monitoring extract reproducibility. (author)

  13. Determination of the frequency of polymorphisms in genes related to the genome stability maintenance of the population residing at Monte Alegre, PA (Brazil) municipality; Determinacao da frequencia de polimorfismos em genes relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma na populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Cristiny Gomes

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on earth, for man and all living things have always been exposed to these sources. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent which can affect the genomic stability and genes related to DNA repair may play a role when they have committed certain polymorphism. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair and cell cycle control: hOGG1 (Ser326Cys), XRCC3 (Thr241 Met) and p53 (Arg72Pro) in saliva samples from a population located Monte Alegre, state of Para were collected in August 2008 and 40 samples of men and 46 samples of women, adding a total of 86 samples. By RFLP was determined the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous for polymorphic genes. The I)OGG1 gene was 5% of the allele 326Cys, XRCC3 gene found about 21 % of the allele 241 Met and p53 gene showed 40.8% of the 72Pro allele. And the genotype frequencies of individuals for the three genes were 91.04%, 88.06% and 59.7% for homozygous wild genotype, 5.97%, 11.94% and 22.39% for heterozygote genotype and 2,99%, zero and 17:91% for homozygous polymorphic hOGG1 genes respectively, XRCC3, p53. These values are similar to those found in previous studies. The influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, which is statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology in Monte Alegre, that help to characterization of local population. (author)

  14. Determination of the sedimentation rates in the Sepetiba bay northeastern area by using dating with the excesses {sup 210} Pb radioisotope; Determinacao das taxas de sedimentacao na porcao nordeste da baia de Sepetiba utilizando datacao com o radioisotopo {sup 210} Pb em excesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Cristiane Maria Sampaio

    1996-07-01

    {sup 210} Pb dating, using two modes of data analysis, CIC and CRS, was used to determine sedimentation in the North East part of Sepetiba Bay. {sup 210} Pb was leached from samples using dilute HBr and subsequently separated onto anionic exchange columns, followed by re-extraction and precipitation as Pb CrO{sub 4}. The original method was modified by the introduction of a pre-digestion step whose purpose was to liberate the lead bound as sulphide. The sedimentation rates found o.68 - 0.98 cm.y{sup -1} were moderate, compared to other authors estimates. Dating using the CRS model showed a maximum rate of sedimentation in the period between 1954 and 1977, when the riverine input was probably at its greatest. The CRS model appears to be more applicable to the data, since it works over longer periods and allows for variations in sedimentation rate. (author)

  15. Determination of absorbed dose distribution in water for COC ophthalmic applicator of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh using Monte Carlo code-MCNPX; Determinacao da distribuicao de dose absorvida na agua para o aplicador oftalmico COC de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh utilizando o codigo de Monte Carlo - MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Nilseia A.; Rosa, Luiz A. Ribeiro da, E-mail: nilseia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2014-07-01

    The COC ophthalmic applicators using beta radiation source of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh are used in the treatment of intraocular tumors near the optic nerve. In this type of treatment is very important to know the dose distribution in order to provide the best possible delivery of prescribed dose to the tumor, preserves the optic nerve region extremely critical, that if damaged, can compromise the patient's visual acuity, and cause brain sequelae. These dose distributions are complex and doctors, who will have the responsibility on the therapy, only have the source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer Eckert and Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. These certificates provide 10 absorbed dose values at water depth along the central axis applicator with the uncertainties of the order of 20% isodose and in a plane located 1 mm from the applicator surface. Thus, it is important to know with more detail and precision the dose distributions in water generated by such applicators. To this end, the Monte Carlo simulation was used using MCNPX code. Initially, was validated the simulation by comparing the obtained results to the central axis of the applicator with those provided by the certificate. The different percentages were lower than 5%, validating the used method. Lateral dose profile was calculated for 6 different depths in intervals of 1 mm and the dose rates in mGy.min{sup -1} for the same depths.

  16. Methods of statistical analysis, dimensioning and determination of production of electric power for description of the scheme applied to wind in Botucatu/ SP region, Brazil; Metodos de analise estatistica, dimensionamento e determinacao da energia eletrica produtivel para descricao do regime eolico aplicados na regiao de Botocatu-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], email: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br; Cremasco, Camila P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica; Verri, Juliano A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao; Viais Neto, Daniel dos S. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Seraphim, Odivaldo J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    The wind energy is an abundant source of renewable energy, clean and available almost everywhere. For its use, studies are needed to adequately describe its intensity for statistical methods and design for wind turbines. The objective is to structure the mathematical methods used to conduct a general description of the wind, to establish a description of the wind regime using the parameters described using the Weibull function and the analytical model of power from a wind turbine, as well as applications of these methods show. This work was developed at Rural Empowerment Lab of FCA/UNESP in Botucatu-SP. For the application of methods were utilized measurements of wind speed and direction, between 2004 and 2005, obtained by anemometer RM Young Wind Monitor-Campbell. As a result, they estimated the wind behavior and distribution of wind in the region, with 78 kWh of energy production, relatively low potential to supply a small house. Moreover, this energy could possibly be applied in ambient illumination, power supply for electric fences and irrigation of vegetables. (author)

  17. Determination and estimation of the key-variables, in a natural gas small vehicles conversion, based on the stated preference technique; Determinacao e estimacao das variaveis de decisao, na conversao de veiculos de pequeno porte para gas natural, utilizando a tecnica de preferencia declarada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Carlos Andre Marques; Nobre Junior, Ernesto Ferreira; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Transportes. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transporte e Desenvolvimento (NUPELTD)]. E-mail: amarques@det.ufc.br; nobre@det.ufc.br; barruda@det.ufc.br

    2003-07-01

    The recent crisis in the Brazilian energy sector had shown the scarce alternative sources available in the country to satisfy its present and future demands. Particularly, in the automotive sector, many of the developed and developing countries are searching for means to avoid the extreme dependence of oil based fuel, not only because of its increasing costs but also due to the necessity to support clean environmental policies. This work aims to determine the key-variables in the process of individual decision making, where the individuals are imposed to a situation of choice of what fuel to use and the formatation of the experiment based on the stated preference technique, with the objective of estimate the weights of main key-variables in a individual decision making concerning the choice of automotive fuel sources. The focus is on the appeal of VNG fuel to potential demand (author)

  18. Analysis of the influence of well spacing on the injection rate behaviour for water injection under fracturing conditions; Analise da influencia do espacamento de pocos na determinacao da vazao de injecao para o processo de injecao com pressao cima da pressao de fratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Mazo, Eduin Orlando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM); Costa, Odair Jose; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Water injection under fracturing conditions is a proved manner of overcoming injectivity loss in reservoirs affected by formation damage. Nevertheless, as shown by Munoz Mazo et al. (2006), there is the possibility of the generated and propagated fractures intercept the producer wells making that the injected water shall be re-circulated into the reservoir instead of its main function which is to drive the oil contained in the reservoir pore space. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of well spacing on the determination of the water injection rate under fracturing conditions, aiming to study its effects on the production performance and the sweep efficiency. To accomplish the work, an analytical model for representing the absolute permeability reduction near the wellbore and a model which reproduces the fracture propagation in a coupled manner are used. In this way the model sensitivity to several well spacing and the injection rate effects are analyzed using the Net Present Value and the sweep efficiency is evaluated as a function of the Recovery Factor. The results show that the water injection under fracturing conditions is an effective way of overcoming the injectivity loss problem and evidence its sensitivity to different spacing between the injector and the producer wells. (author)

  19. LS1 Report: NA62 readies for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 10 September, the last NA62 straw tracker chamber was lowered into position in the experiment. This feat brings almost 8 years of CERN construction and design to a close, as the tracker has gone from the drawing board to construction and installation.   The final straw tracker module is lowered into position in NA62. The NA62 straw tracker is one of a kind. As the first of its scale to be placed directly into the vacuum tank of an experiment, it will allow NA62 physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with high precision. "From the first design to the final plug-in and testing, CERN teams have been 100% involved in developing this unique tracker," says Hans Danielsson, NA62 straw project leader. "We worked in close collaboration with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia, who helped develop the straw tracker technology and will participate in the running of the detector now that construction and installa...

  20. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  1. Nuclear and radiochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Konya, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this concise book explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of

  2. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Nuclear cratering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.M.

    1969-01-01

    The development of nuclear excavation technology is based on the promise that the relatively inexpensive energy available from thermonuclear explosives can be used to simultaneously break and move age quantities of rock and earth economically and safety. This paper discusses the economic and other advantages of using nuclear excavation for large engineering projects. A brief description of the phenomenology of nuclear excavation is given. Each of the several proposed general applications of nuclear excavation is discussed to include a few specific example of possible nuclear excavation projects. The discussion includes nuclear excavation for harbors, canals, terrain transits, aggregate production, mining and water resource development and conservation. (author)

  4. Introduction to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sun

    1987-03-01

    This book deals with nuclear physics with basic introduction, like atomic theory of material, movement theory of material, an atom, natural radioactivity, nuclear atom, electromagnetic waves, X rays, the quantum theory, special commercial theory, wavelength and particle, spectrum and hydrogen atom, meaning of wavelength driven, optics spectrum and electronic distribution, microstructure and Zeeman's effect, X rays spectrum and atom structure, an atomic nucleus, conversion rule of a radioactive element, properties of radiation and interaction with material, artificial nuclear decay and artificial radioactivity, acceleration of electric charge particle, neutron physics, nuclear fission, nuclear fission reactor and a thermonuclear reaction and nuclear fusion.

  5. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakacs, Istvan; Czeizel, Endre; Hajdu, Janos; Marx, Gyoergy.

    1984-01-01

    The text of a round-table discussion held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of neutron is given. The participants were the Chief Engineer of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Hungary started in November 1982, a geneticist treating the problems of genetic damages caused by nuclear and chemical effects, a nuclear physicist and a journalist interested in the social aspects of nuclear energy. They discussed the political, economical and social problems of nuclear energy in the context of its establishment in Hungary. (D.Gy.)

  6. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  7. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  8. How the Nuclear Applications Laboratories Help in Strengthening Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is one of the most important considerations when engaging in highly advanced scientific and technological activities. In this respect, utilizing the potential of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes also involves risks, and nuclear techniques themselves can be useful in strengthening emergency response measures related to the use of nuclear technology. In the case of a nuclear incident, the rapid measurement and subsequent monitoring of radiation levels are top priorities as they help to determine the degree of risk faced by emergency responders and the general public. Instruments for the remote measurement of radioactivity are particularly important when there are potential health risks associated with entering areas with elevated radiation levels. The Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL) — one of the eight laboratories of the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA) in Seibersdorf, Austria — focuses on developing a variety of specialized analytical and diagnostic instruments and methods, and transferring knowledge to IAEA Member States. These include instruments capable of carrying out remote measurements. This emergency response work carried out by the NA laboratories supports health and safety in Member States and supports the IAEA’s mandate to promote the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy

  9. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  10. Hodler à Iéna

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    A la mort de Hodler, on demanda que les planches qui recouvrait la fresque de Iéna, depuis la protestation contre le bombardement de Reims, soit enlevées. Les autorités de Iéna ont refusé énergiquement.

  11. Aqueous partial molar heat capacities and volumes for NaReO4 and NaTcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Saluja, P.P.S.; Campbell, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, data are required to model the equilibrium thermodynamic behavior of key radionuclides at temperatures above 25 degree C. A flow microcalorimeter/densimeter system has been commissioned to measure heat capacities and densities of solutions containing radioactive species. Measurements for solutions of aqueous NaReO 4 (a common analogue for NaTcO 4 ) were made at seven temperatures (15 to 100 degree C) over the concentration range 0.05 to 0.2 mol·kg -1 . Subsequently, measurements were made for NaTcO 4 solutions under similar conditions. The heat capacity and density data are analyzed using Pitzer's ion-interaction model, and values of the NaReO 4 partial molar heat capacities are compared to literature values based on integral heats of solution. The agreement between the two sets of NaReO 4 data is good below 75 degree C, but only fair at the higher temperatures. Values of the partial molar volumes have also been derived. The uncertainties introduced by using thermodynamic data for ReO 4 - , in the absence of data for TcO 4 - , are discussed

  12. Valores na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.

  13. Nuclear and non-nuclear safety aspects in nuclear facilities dismantling. The example of a PWR pilot decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Deboodt, P.; Dadoumont, J.; Valenduc, P.; Denissen, L.

    2002-01-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities, and in particular of nuclear power plants, involves new challenges for the nuclear industry. Although the dismantling of various activated and contaminated components is nowadays considered as almost industrial practice, the safety aspects of decommissioning bring some specific features which are not always taken into account in the operation of the plants. Moreover, most of the plants and facilities currently decommissioned are rather old and were never foreseen to be decommissioned. The operations involved in dismantling and decontamination, often imply new or unforeseen situations. On the nuclear, or radiological side, the radioprotection optimisation of the operations involved often requires to model the environment and to analyse different scenarios to tackle the operation. Recent 3-D software (like the Visiplan software) allowing representation of the actual environment and the influence of the various sources present, is really needed to be able to minimise the radiological impact on the operators. The risk of contamination spread, by opening loops and components or by the dismantling process itself, is also an important aspect of the radiological protection study. Nevertheless, the radiological aspects of the safety approach are not the only ones to be dealt with when decommissioning nuclear facilities. Indeed, classical industrial safety aspects are also important: the dismantling can bring handling and transporting risk (heavy loads, difficult ways, uneasy access, etc.) but also the handling of toxic or hazardous materials. For instance, the removal of asbestos in contaminated areas can lead to additional hazard; the presence of alkali metals (like Na or NaK), of toxic metals (like e.g. Beryllium) or of corrosive fluids (acid,...) have to be tackled often in unstructured environment, and sometimes with limited knowledge of the actual situation. This leads to approach the operations following the ASARA principle (As

  14. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  15. Determination of7Be and22Na activity in air and rainwater samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, M I; Karangelos, D J; Anagnostakis, M J

    2018-04-01

    Natural radionuclides, such as short lived radon daughters and 7 Be, have been analyzed in aerosols at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since many years, with high accuracy and precision. During this research, an effort to detect 22 Na and determine 7 Be/ 22 Na ratio in aerosols is presented. In order to study the role of precipitation in surface air 7 Be and 22 Na activity concentration, a procedure for collecting and analyzing rainwater was developed. With this technique 22 Na was detected in air samples, although with relatively high uncertainties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. US nuclear survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This document gives a broad overview of the organization of nuclear activities in the USA: nuclear park and availability (reactors, R and D), fuel cycle (uranium enrichment, wastes management (storage and disposal sites)). (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    DOE's nuclear non-proliferation responsibilities are defined by the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). The Department's major responsibilities in this area are to: (1) provide technical assistance to the Department of State in negotiating agreements for civil cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy with other countries and international organizations; (2) join with other agencies to reach executive branch judgments with respect to the issuance of export licenses by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; (3) be responsible for processing subsequent arrangements with other agencies as required by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act; (4) control the distribution of special nuclear materials, components, equipment, and nuclear technology exports; (5) participate in bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign governments and organizations to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and (6) act as a primary technical resource with respect to US participation in the International Atomic Energy Agency

  18. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  19. Insurance of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.

    1976-01-01

    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  20. Commercial nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier d'Ange d'Orsay, P.; Andrieu, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports [fr

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) ... molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic ...

  2. Nuclear controls are stringent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnekus, D.

    1983-01-01

    The peace-time application of nuclear power in South Africa, the organisations concerned and certain provisions laid down by the Act on Nuclear Energy, aimed at safeguarding the general public, are discussed

  3. Nuclear Technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibils Machado, W. E- mail: wrcibils@adinet.com.uy

    2002-01-01

    The present work tries on the applications of the nuclear technology in the life daily, such as agriculture and feeding, human health, industry, non destructive essays, isotopic hydrology, and the nuclear power stations for electricity production and radioisotopes production

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... otherwise, your child may resume his/her normal activities after the nuclear medicine scan. If the child ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ... children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  7. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  9. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...

  14. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...

  16. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary covers nuclear engineering defined in its general sense as applied nuclear physics: industrial and other applications of nuclear power, isotopes and ionizing radiation, nuclear materials, nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons together with their scientific and technological fundamentals. During the compilation of terms, great attention was only given to generally valid basic expressions and to special terms where these occurred in all four languages. A great number of textbooks and monographs, as well as specialist journals covering many years, have been evaluated. Detailed attention has been paid to standards. Of importance in nuclear engineering are the international standards of the International Atomic Energy Organization (including the terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System INIS), the International Organization of Standardization, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the World Energy Conference, the International Electrical Engineering Commission, and also a great many national standards which, unfortunately, frequently deviate from one another as regards definition and, in particular, designation. (orig.)

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary ... area of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...

  19. Nuclear Research and Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramly Muslim

    2012-01-01

    In his speech, Professor Noramly stressed on any research conducted in Malaysian Nuclear Agency must be comply with the national and international regulations. This to avoid any problems in the future. Moreover, research conducted in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are based on nuclear matters that seems sensitive to the public communities. In order to attract the publics on the benefit of nuclear technologies in many applications, researcher also must aware about the regulations and must take care on their safety during their experiment and working. This to make the public feels that nuclear are not the bad things and erased the worseness of nuclear technology into public minds. This strategies can be used for Malaysia in embarking for their first nuclear power program and the public feels that nuclear power are not threatened to them and consequently, they will accept that program without any issues. (author)

  20. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  3. Nuclear disarmament verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification

  4. Nuclear energy in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.N.; Carvalho, J.F. de; Goldemberg, J.; Menezes, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.; Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The basic requirements demanded for the physical protection of nuclear operational units, is established. These units can be, production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interesting to Brazilian Nuclear Program. (E.G.) [pt

  5. A aposta na filosofia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  6. A Arquitetura na Cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Sandeville Junior

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma reflexão sobre três casos em que a arquitetura define a configuração do espaço público, investigando seus significados e pressupostos. São levantadas questões que não comportam respostas definitivas, mas que induzem a alguns parâmetros para discutir a atuação do arquiteto no espaço público, nas áreas centrais de nossas cidades. Nosso título é, sem dúvida, devedor do célebre trabalho de Aldo Rossi, a Arquitetura da cidade (1966. Porém, nos ocupamos apenas da inserção da arquitetura na cidade e numa perspectiva teórica muito distinta, reconhecendo para o projeto do objeto arquitetônico uma dependência do espaço e do tempo e das relações sociais que assim se estabelecem. São analisados o Memorial da América Latina, a estação Barra Funda do Metrô e a Praça da Sé. São aqui entendidos como campos de projeto da paisagem e, como tal, problematizados.

  7. O SUBLIME NA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A obra Uma investigação filosófica sobre a origem de nossas idéias do sublime e dobelo, do sensualista inglês Edmund Burke (1757, data as origens do sublime na Modernidade. Nosublime ocorre é um prazer ligado à dor, um "horror delicioso" que sentimos quando acreditamosque estamos em perigo sem que isso esteja ocorrendo realmente. Em O mundo como Vontade erepresentação Schopenhauer assume as influências que sofreu de Kant no que diz respeito à suainterpretação sobre o belo e o sublime, porém difere dele quanto à natureza dessa impressão. ParaSchopenhauer a experiência estética pressupõe a dissolução da subjetividade num movimento decontemplação das idéias livre do querer imposto pela vontade individual. As idéias deSchopenhauer influenciaram a estética do Nietzsche de O nascimento da tragédia.

  8. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  9. The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    During his visit to South Africa, dr. Edward Teller, one of the most outstanding nuclear physicists of the age, and intimately associated with American research during the most sensitive period in the development of nuclear energy, were interviewed. Dr. Teller was questioned on the following: his feelings about nuclear weapons; the American atomic bomb that was dropped on Japan; the Soviet Union's development of a hydrogen bomb and the nuclear balance between the Soviet Union and America

  10. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  11. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  12. Planning for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper aims to stimulate discussions between nuclear engineers and the radiological protection professions in order to facilitate planning for nuclear emergencies. A brief review is given of the response to nuclear accidents. Studying accidents can lead to prevention, but some effort must be put into emergency response. Such issues as decontamination and decommissioning, socio-economic consequences, education and training for nuclear personnel and exercises and drills, are raised. (UK)

  13. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    Nuclear Power Station Projected for Jorf Lasfar [Casablanca LA VIE ECONOMIQUE , 18 Mar 88] 26 WEST EUROPE IRELAND Energy Minister Fights UK...factors mili- tate against further expansion. MOROCCO Nuclear Power Station Projected for Jorf Lasfar 51004603 Casablanca LA VIE ECONOMIQUE in...body to oversee nuclear activities at the national level and to hire and train personnel in nuclear sciences and techniques. A bill relating to the

  14. The IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Discusses the four threats of nuclear terrorism,which are theft of a nuclear weapon, theft of material to make an improvised nuclear explosive device,theft of other radioactive material for an Radiological dispersal device and sabotage of a facility or transport. The IAEA Nuclear Security programme combating Nuclear Terrorism therefore adopts a comprehensive approach. The programme addresses the need to cover nuclear and other radioactive materials, nuclear facilities and transports, non-nuclear, medical and industrial applications of sources

  15. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são discutidos alguns aspectos comerciais e políticos do problema. São também examinadas as estratégias de vendas da indústria nuclear no Brasil.This article reviews the history and describes the experience on nuclear energy in Brazil, showing that nuclear technology applied to biomedical sciences, industry and agriculture has been largely developed in this country, from the year 1950 on. Then the paper shows that Brazil can cover its electricity consumption with only renewable energy sources, without nuclear power plants. Finally the arguments usually employed in the press, pro and against nuclear power plants are analyzed and some commercial and political aspects of the problem are commented. The sales strategy of the nuclear industry in Brazil is also commented.

  16. The INS nuclear microprobe and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe directs a well-focused beam of high-energy protons or deuterons at a solid specimen inside a vacuum chamber. Atomic and nuclear reactions are induced in those elements in a layer about 20 micro m thick, leading to the emission of characteristic x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles as well as Rutherford scattering of the incident beam. These radiations impinge on several detectors near the specimen (NaI, Ge(Li), Si(Li) and Si surface barrier). Using proton-excited x-rays all elements above Na may be detected with sensitivities 10 or 100 times that of the electron probe, while elements which can be estimated from their gamma rays include C, N, O, F, Na and Al. In most of our projects the distribution of a trace or minor element (e.g. F, N) is compared to that of a major element (e.g. Ca or Fe). Recent areas of application include archaeometry (diffusion profiles of F in bones and teeth; depth profiles of sodium in obsidian), geology (F concentrations in mineral grains; studies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary), metallurgy (C, O, N in steel and in welds; S, O, C in corrosion layers), fisheries management (Zn, Sr in otoliths; F in dogfish fin spines and vertebrae), biology (Fe, Sr, N in egg shells; trace elements in human hair), and dental research

  17. Nuclear and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Among the industrial risks of nuclear facilities, the nuclear risk is often associated to the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents the nuclear major risk in a french PWR type power plant, with consequences on the personnel, the surrounding population and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  18. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  19. Introduction to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    After some descriptions about atoms, fission and fusion, explanations are given about the functioning of a nuclear power plant. The safety with the different plans of emergency and factors that lead to a better nuclear safety are exposed, then comes a part for the environmental protection; the fuel cycle is tackled. Some historical aspects of nuclear energy finish this file. (N.C.)

  20. Online nuclear data service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.; Burrows, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US National Nuclear Data Center and the IAEA Nuclear Data Section offer online computer access through international networks to their nuclear-physics and photo-atomic numeric databases, related bibliographic systems and other related information of interest to basic and applied research and technology. A detailed description of the access procedures, the technical requirements, and the available databases is given. (author)