WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear molecular imaging

  1. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect.

  2. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Song, Tae Yong; Choi, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Small animal models are extensively utilized in the study of biomedical sciences. Current animal experiments and analysis are largely restricted to in vitro measurements and need to sacrifice animals to perform tissue or molecular analysis. This prevents researchers from observing in vivo the natural evolution of the process under study. Imaging techniques can provide repeatedly in vivo anatomic and molecular information noninvasively. Small animal imaging systems have been developed to assess biological process in experimental animals and increasingly employed in the field of molecular imaging studies. This review outlines the current developments in nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations including fused multi-modality imaging systems for small animal imaging

  4. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  5. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive molecular targeting in living subjects is highly demanded for better understanding of such diverse topics as the efficient delivery of drugs, genes, or radionuclides for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering and polymer chemistry provides various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. We used chitosan as a polymer, and 99m Tc as a radionuclide. We developed 99m Tc-galactosylated chitosan to target asialoglycoprotein receptors for nuclear imaging. We also developed 99m Tc-HYNIC-chitosan-transferrin to target inflammatory cells, which was more effective than 67 Ga-citrate for imaging inflammatory lesions. For an effective delivery of molecules, a longer circulation time is needed. We found that around 10% PEGylation was most effective to prolong the circulation time of liposomes for nuclear imaging of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled liposomes in rats. Using various characteristics of molecules, we can deliver drugs into targets more effectively. We found that 99m Tc-labeled biodegradable pullulan-derivatives are retained in tumor tissue in response to extracellular ion-strength. For the trafficking of various cells or bacteria in an intact animal, we used optical imaging techniques or radiolabeled cells. We monitored tumor-targeting bacteria by bioluminescent imaging techniques, dentritic cells by radiolabeling and neuronal stem cells by sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene imaging. In summary, we introduced recent achievements of molecular nuclear imaging technologies in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques

  6. Molecular Imaging and nuclear medicine: expectations and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular Imaging with Nuclear Medicine offers earlier, more accurate and more specific diagnosis, as well as targeted molecular therapy, providing significant improvements in clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  7. The research progress of nuclear medicine on cardiovascular molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaohua; Zhang Yongxue

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving discipline and its clinical application is promising. Nuclear medicine is playing a leading role in this field with its special superiority of noninvasive, quantifiability, high sensitivity and specificity. It provides broad opportunities for exploring the pathophysiologic process of cardiovascular diseases and monitoring its gene therapy in the molecular level. In this review, we mainly discuss some basic knowledge on cardiovascular molecular imaging, and then focus on the applied research prospect of nuclear medicine radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  8. Molecular imaging: a new approach to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrucki, L.W.; Sinusas, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has historically played an important role in detection of cardiovascular disease as well as risk statification. With the growth of molecular biology have come new therapeutic interventions and the requirement for new diagnostic imaging approaches. Noninvasive targeted radiotracer based as well as transporter gene imaging strategies are evolving to meet these new needs, but require the development of an interdisciplinary approach which focuses on molecular processes, as well as the pathogenesis and progression of disease. This progress has been made possible with the availability of transgenic animal models along with many technological advances. Future adaptations of the developing experimental procedures and instrumentations will allow for the smooth translation and application to clinical practice. This review is intended as a brief overview on the subject molecular imaging. Basic concepts and historical perspective of molecular imaging will be reviewed first, followed by description of current technology, and concluding with current applications in cardiology. The emphasis will be on the use of both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers, although other imaging modalities will be also briefly discussed. The specific approaches presented here will include receptor-based and reporter gene imaging of natural and therapeutical angiogenesis

  9. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy

  10. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho [Gil Medical Center, Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  11. The development of nuclear medicine molecular imaging: An era of multiparametric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yuyuan; Huang Gang

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medical molecular imaging is developing toward a multimodality and multitracer future. Abundant complementary data generated from different tracers in different modalities are successfully serving the biological research and clinical treatment. Among the others, PER-MRI has the greatest potential and will be a research of interest in the near future. This article focused on the evolution history on nuclear medicine from single modality to multimodality, single tracer to multitracer. It also gave a brief summary to the identifications, differences, pros and consofmultimodality, multitracer, multiparametric molecular imaging. Issues, problems and challenges concerned with her development and recognition are also discussed. (authors)

  12. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  13. Nuclear molecular imaging of paragangliomas; Imagerie moleculaire nucleaire des paragangliomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Service central de biophysique et de medecine nucleaire, CHU de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-08-15

    Paragangliomas (PGL) are relatively rare neural crest tumors originating in the adrenal medulla (usually called pheochromocytoma), chemoreceptors (i.e., carotid and aortic bodies) or autonomic ganglia. These tumors are highly vascular, usually benign and slow-growing. PGL may occur as sporadic or familial entities, the latter mostly in association with germline mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, SDHC, SDHD, SDH5, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), ret proto-oncogene (RET), neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) (von Recklinghausen's disease), prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) genes and TMEM127. Molecular nuclear imaging has a central role in characterization of PGL and include: somatostatin receptor imaging ({sup 111}In, {sup 68}Ga), MIBG scintigraphy ({sup 131}I, {sup 123}I), {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET), and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET. The choice of the tracer is not yet fully established but the work-up of familial forms often require the combination of multiple approaches. (authors)

  14. Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Kasper F; Hendel, Helle W; Langer, Seppo W

    2017-01-01

    this, new response criteria for evaluating these patients with morphologic imaging have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current evidence for the use of molecular imaging, e.g., PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography) with18F-Fluorodeoxyglucoes (FDG...

  15. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  16. Advancing Precision Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging for Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chadwick L; Maly, Joseph J; Zhang, Jun; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-01-01

    PET with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 ( 18 F FDG-PET) is a meaningful biomarker for the detection, targeted biopsy, and treatment of lymphoma. This article reviews the evolution of 18 F FDG-PET as a putative biomarker for lymphoma and addresses the current capabilities, challenges, and opportunities to enable precision medicine practices for lymphoma. Precision nuclear medicine is driven by new imaging technologies and methodologies to more accurately detect malignant disease. Although quantitative assessment of response is limited, such technologies will enable a more precise metabolic mapping with much higher definition image detail and thus may make it a robust and valid quantitative response assessment methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011.

  18. Development of molecular nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of molecular nuclear medicine is briefly introduced. The hot areas of molecular nuclear medicine including metabolic imaging and blood flow imaging, radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy, radioreceptor imaging and receptor-radioligand therapy, and imaging gene expression and gene radiation therapy are emphatically described

  19. The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine

  20. Progress in molecular nuclear medicine imaging of pancreatic beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifei; Yin Hongyan; Liu Shuai; Zhang Yifan

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common and frequently occurring disease which seriously threaten the health of human beings. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes respectively results from being destroyed and insufficient beta-cell mass. The associated symptoms appear until 50%-60% decrease of beta-cell mass. Because pancreas is deeply located in the body, with few beta-cell mass, the current methods of clinical diagnosis are invasive and late. So diagnosis of metabolism disease of beta-cell early non-invasively becomes more and more popular, imaging diagnosis of diabetes mellitus becomes the focus of researches, but how to estimate the mass of beta-cell still an important subject in imaging technology. (authors)

  1. Nuclear Medicine Technologists' Perception and Current Assessment of Quality: A Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, April; Farrell, Mary Beth; Williams, Jessica; Basso, Danny

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section (SNMMI-TS) launched a multiyear quality initiative to help prepare the technologist workforce for an evidence-based health-care delivery system that focuses on quality. To best implement the quality strategy, the SNMMI-TS first surveyed technologists to ascertain their perception of quality and current measurement of quality indicators. Methods: An internet survey was sent to 27,989 e-mail contacts. Questions related to demographic data, perceptions of quality, quality measurement, and opinions on the minimum level of education are discussed in this article. Results: A total of 4,007 (14.3%) responses were received. When asked to list 3 words or phrases that represent quality, there were a plethora of different responses. The top 3 responses were image quality, quality control, and technologist education or competency. Surveying patient satisfaction was the most common quality measure (80.9%), followed by evaluation of image quality (78.2%). Evaluation of image quality (90.3%) and equipment functionality (89.4%) were considered the most effective measures. Technologists' differentiation between quality, quality improvement, quality control, quality assurance, and quality assessment seemed ambiguous. Respondents were confident in their ability to assess and improve quality at their workplace (91.9%) and agreed their colleagues were committed to delivering quality work. Of note, 70.7% of respondents believed that quality is directly related to the technologist's level of education. Correspondingly, respondents felt there should be a minimum level of education (99.5%) and that certification or registry should be required (74.4%). Most respondents (59.6%) felt that a Bachelor's degree should be the minimum level of education, followed by an Associate's degree (40.4%). Conclusion: To best help nuclear medicine technologists provide quality care, the SNMMI-TS queried technologists to

  2. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  3. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is generally defined as noninvasive and quantitative imaging of targeted macromolecules and biological processes in living organisms. A characteristic of molecular imaging is the ability to perform repeated studies and assess changes in biological processes over time. Thus molecular imaging lends itself well for monitoring the effectiveness of tumor therapy. In animal models a variety of techniques can be used for molecular imaging. These include optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine techniques. In the clinical setting, however, nuclear medicine techniques predominate, because so far only radioactive tracers provide the necessary sensitivity to study expression and function of macromolecules non-invasively in patients. Nuclear medicine techniques allows to study a variety of biological processes in patients. These include the expression of various receptors (estrogen, androgen, somatostatin receptors and integrins). In addition, tracers are available to study tumor cell proliferation and hypoxia. The by far most commonly used molecular imaging technique in oncology is, however, positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). FDG-PET permits non-invasive quantitative assessment of the accelerated exogenous glucose use of malignant tumors. Numerous studies have now shown that reduction of tumor FDG-uptake during therapy allows early prediction of tumor response and patient survival. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine whether FDG-PET can be used to individualize tumor therapy by signaling early in the course of therapy the need for therapeutic adjustments in patients with likely non-responding tumors. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear imaging drug development tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, L.; Jurek, P.; Redshaw, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development of nuclear imaging as an enabling technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Molecular imaging is maturing into an important tool with expanding applications from validating that a drug reaches the intended target through to market launch of a new drug. Molecular imaging includes anatomical imaging of organs or tissues, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound.

  5. Molecular imaging techniques in magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging; Molekulare Bildgebung in der Magnetresonanztomographie und der Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegemann, D.; Basilion, J.P.; Weissleder, R. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charleston, MA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The identification of genetic and biochemical changes allows a more conclusive characterization and classification of disease. Up to now this information is mostly obtained through in vitro analysis after resection or biopsy by immunohistopathology and molecular biology. There is a definite need for non-invasive detection and repeated monitoring of such changes in experimental research as well as in clinical trials. Therefore, it is necessary to develop radiological imaging techniques that not only visualize morphologic and physiologic alterations, but track genetic and biochemical processes. This short review reports some of the various ongoing research projects that address this problem and provide some very promising approaches. (orig.) [German] Die Bestimmung genetischer und biochemischer Veraenderungen erlaubt in zunehmendem Masse die eindeutige Charakterisierung und Klassifikation von Erkrankungen. Bisher ist hierzu in der Regel eine gezielte immunohistopathologische oder molekularbiologische In-vitro-Analyse nach Resektion oder Entnahme einer Biopsie erforderlich. In der experimentellen Forschung wie auch in der klinischen Anwendung sind bildgebende Verfahren wuenschenswert, die eine nichtinvasive Detektion und ein wiederholt durchfuehrbares Monitoring gewaehrleisten. Aus diesem Grunde ist die Entwicklung radiologischer Untersuchungsmethoden erforderlich, die ueber die morphologischen und physiologischen Veraenderungen hinaus eine Beurteilung der genetischen und biochemischen Vorgaenge ermoeglichen. In diesem kurzen Uebersichtsartikel werden einige der zahlreichen aktuellen Forschungsprojekte zusammengefasst, die sich mit diesem Problem beschaeftigen und inzwischen aussichtsreiche Techniken zur Verfuegung stellen. (orig.)

  6. Is hybridic positron emission tomography/computerized tomography the only option? The future of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip; Zerva, Cherry; Asteriadis, Ioannis; Trontzos, Christos; Hatziioannou, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    sources of radiation" b) nuclear radiation and c) molecular nuclear medicine. The "European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging" shall have to erase the three last words of its title and be renamed. As Professor Abass Alavi et al (2007), have mentioned: "Is PET/CT the only option?" In favor of PET/CT are the following: Attenuation correction (AC) and better anatomical localization of lesions visualized with PET. Also PET/CT can be used as a diagnostic CT scanner (dCT). Against using the PET/CT scanners are the following arguments: a) This equipment is not necessary because we can always ask the Radiologists for a dCT scan. Many patients have already done a dCT scan at the time they are referred for a PET scan to the Nuclear Medicine Department. b) The absolute clinical indications for PET/CT with the use of a contrast agent, are under investigation. c) Although there is at present a list of indications suggested for the PET/CT scanner, there are studies disputing some of these indications, as for example in metastatic colon cancer where a high diagnostic accuracy for PET study alone, has been reported. d) The option of AC performed by the PET/CT scanner has also been questioned. Artifacts may be up to 84%. e) The PET/CT is expensive, time consuming, space occupying, and needs additional medical and technical personnel. f) Not to mention the extra radiation dose to the patients. g) Shall we inform those young medical students who wish to become nuclear medicine physicians, to hold their decision till the content of future Nuclear Medicine is clarified? We may suggest that: Our specialty could be renamed as: "Clinical Nuclear Medicine" and include additional "proper certified education" on the PET/CT equipment. The PET/CT scanner should remain in the Nuclear Medicine Department where Radiologists could act as advisors.

  7. Molecular MR Imaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD, UMAR; JOSEPHSON, LEE

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully applied to many of the applications of molecular imaging. This review discusses by example some of the advances in areas such as multimodality MR-optical agents, receptor imaging, apoptosis imaging, angiogenesis imaging, noninvasive cell tracking, and imaging of MR marker genes.

  8. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  9. Molecular-nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.B.; Miller, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The spectra in some light nuclei have one interesting property. For example, in the closed vicinity of some resonance states of such nuclei as 5 He, 8 Be, 18 F, 18 Ne the thresholds exist for two- or three-body decay of those nuclei. Let us consider the lightest of the above nuclei, 5 He. The energy threshold for 5 He > d+t decay is ∼50 keV lower than the energy of 3/2 + state of 5 He nucleus. However, due to a rather large width of this state, ∼70 keV, the nuclear capture of deuterons by tritons in dtm-molecule is highly enhanced in comparison with the process of dd capture in the ddm molecule. The physical reason for the enhancement of the probability of the capture into the resonant state can be associated with a long tail of wave function of the resonant state and, accordingly, with the large value of the overlap integral determining in general the probability of the transition between two systems. Thus, one can expect the enhancement of the molecular-nuclear transitions, and this was indeed observed experimentally for the case of dtm molecule. Now, let us consider some other molecular-nuclear combinations: 18 Ne - H 2 O, 18 F - 17 OH, and 8 Be - 6 LiD molecule. With the high accuracy the energies of the above molecular systems coincide with the energies of the resonant states in the appropriate nuclei. Due to the uncertainty in the experimental nuclear data it is not known at present whether the energies of these thresholds are lower or higher of the corresponding energies of the nuclear resonances. Let us assume that the molecular energy is few keV over the energy of the nuclear resonance. Then, we will deal with a very interesting phenomenon: the molecular-nuclear complex constitutes a two level system, which in some sense is analogous to the two-level atomic system, as in a laser. The crucial difference between this one and the two-level atomic systems consists in a fact that in the molecular-nuclear case no special procedure of pumping up

  10. Historic images in nuclear medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-01-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution...... set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone...

  11. Targeted molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important. Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved. Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes. It is believed that recent advances in reporter probes, imaging technologies and gene transfer strategies will enhance the effectiveness of gene therapy trials

  12. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  13. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  14. EDITORIAL: Molecular Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keisuke; Okamoto, Koji

    2006-06-01

    'Molecular Imaging Technology' focuses on image-based techniques using nanoscale molecules as sensor probes to measure spatial variations of various species (molecular oxygen, singlet oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric monoxide, etc) and physical properties (pressure, temperature, skin friction, velocity, mechanical stress, etc). This special feature, starting on page 1237, contains selected papers from The International Workshop on Molecular Imaging for Interdisciplinary Research, sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan, which was held at the Sendai Mediatheque, Sendai, Japan, on 8 9 November 2004. The workshop was held as a sequel to the MOSAIC International Workshop that was held in Tokyo in 2003, to summarize the outcome of the 'MOSAIC Project', a five-year interdisciplinary project supported by Techno-Infrastructure Program, the Special Coordination Fund for Promotion of Science Technology to develop molecular sensor technology for aero-thermodynamic research. The workshop focused on molecular imaging technology and its applications to interdisciplinary research areas. More than 110 people attended this workshop from various research fields such as aerospace engineering, automotive engineering, radiotechnology, fluid dynamics, bio-science/engineering and medical engineering. The purpose of this workshop is to stimulate intermixing of these interdisciplinary fields for further development of molecular sensor and imaging technology. It is our pleasure to publish the seven papers selected from our workshop as a special feature in Measurement and Science Technology. We will be happy if this issue inspires people to explore the future direction of molecular imaging technology for interdisciplinary research.

  15. Nanoplatform-based molecular imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoplathform-Based Molecular Imaging provides rationale for using nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, then discusses general strategies for this underutilized, yet promising, technology...

  16. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  17. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  18. The developments and applications of molecular nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shengwei; Xi Wang; Zhang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Molecular nuclear medicine including PET and SPECT is one of the most important parts of the molecular imaging. The combinations of molecular unclear medicine with CT, MRI, ultrasound or optical imaging and synthesis of multimodality radiopharmaceuticals are the major trends of the development of nuclear medicine. Molecular nuclear medicine has more and more and more important value on the monitoring of response to biology involved gene therapy or stem cell therapy and the developments of new drug. (authors)

  19. Molecular MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, G.; Hamm, B.

    2000-01-01

    Basic medicobiological research in recent years has made rapid advances in the functional understanding of normal and pathological processes down to the molecular level. At the same time, various imaging modalities have developed from the depiction of organs to approaching the depiction of the cellular level and are about to make the visualization of molecular processes an established procedure. Besides other modalities like PET and near-infrared fluorescence, MR imaging offers some promising options for molecular imaging as well as some applications that have already been tested such as the visualization of enzyme activity, the depiction of the expression of certain genes, the visualization of surface receptors, or the specific demonstration of cells involved in the body's immune response. A major advantage of molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) over other more sensitive modalities is its high spatial resolution. However, the establishment of mMRI crucially relies on further improvements in resolution and the development of molecular markers for improving its sensitivity and specificity. The state of the art of mMRI is presented by giving a survey of the literature on experimental studies and reporting the results our study group obtained during investigation on gliomas. (orig.) [de

  20. Molecular imaging II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, Wolfhard; Schwaiger, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this textbook of molecular imaging is to provide an up to date review of this rapidly growing field and to discuss basic methodological aspects necessary for the interpretation of experimental and clinical results. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of imaging technology and probe development, since the physical properties of the imaging approach need to be closely linked with the biologic application of the probe (i.e. nanoparticles and microbubbles). Various chemical strategies are discussed and related to the biologic applications. Reporter-gene imaging is being addressed not only in experimental protocols, but also first clinical applications are discussed. Finally, strategies of imaging to characterize apoptosis and angiogenesis are described and discussed in the context of possible clinical translation. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.; Horrigan, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear imaging system for mapping the source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound by spatially coding the energy from the source in a Fresnel pattern on a detector and decoding the detector output to prouce an image of the source. The coding is produced by a Fresnel zone plate interposed between the nuclear energy source and the detector whose position is adjustable with respect to the detector to focus the slices of the nuclear source on the detector. By adjusting the zone plate to a plurality of positions, data from a plurality of cross-sectional slices are produced from which a three-dimensional image of the nuclear source may be obtained. (Patent Office Record)

  2. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  3. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed

  4. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  5. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, Augusto; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  6. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giussani, Augusto [BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Protection and Health; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Research Unit Medical Raditation Physics and Diagnostics

    2013-08-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  7. Nuclear imaging: Advances and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herk, G. van

    1986-01-01

    In this article, nuclear imaging instruments that are likely to be of interest to the nuclear medicine community of developing countries are emphasized. The advances, trends, developments, and future directions in the field of nuclear imaging are mentioned

  8. Molecular imaging promotes progress in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Boskey, Adele L

    2006-11-01

    Modern orthopedic research is directed towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms that determine development, maintenance and health of musculoskeletal tissues. In recent years, many genetic and proteomic discoveries have been made which necessitate investigation under physiological conditions in intact, living tissues. Molecular imaging can meet this demand and is, in fact, the only strategy currently available for noninvasive, quantitative, real-time biology studies in living subjects. In this review, techniques of molecular imaging are summarized, and applications to bone and joint biology are presented. The imaging modality most frequently used in the past was optical imaging, particularly bioluminescence and near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Alternate technologies including nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging were also employed. Orthopedic researchers have applied molecular imaging to murine models including transgenic mice to monitor gene expression, protein degradation, cell migration and cell death. Within the bone compartment, osteoblasts and their stem cells have been investigated, and the organic and mineral bone phases have been assessed. These studies addressed malignancy and injury as well as repair, including fracture healing and cell/gene therapy for skeletal defects. In the joints, molecular imaging has focused on the inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that cause arthritis. As described in this review, the feasibility of applying molecular imaging to numerous areas of orthopedic research has been demonstrated and will likely result in an increase in research dedicated to this powerful strategy. Molecular imaging holds great promise in the future for preclinical orthopedic research as well as next-generation clinical musculoskeletal diagnostics.

  9. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In a method of imaging a body in which nuclear magnetic resonance is excited in a region including part of the body, and the free induction decay signal is measured, a known quantity of a material of known nuclear magnetic resonance properties, for example a bag of water, is included in the region so as to enhance the measured free induction decay signal. This then reduces the generation of noise during subsequent processing of the signal. (author)

  11. NANOPARTICLES IN NUCLEAR IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vicky V Mody PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review article summarizes the current state radiolabeled nanoparticles for molecular imaging applications mainly targeting cancer. Due to their enormous flexibility, and versatility the radiolabeled nanoparticles have shown their potential in the diagnosis and therapy. As the matter of fact, these radiolabeled imaging agents enable the visualization of the cellular function and the follow-up of the molecular process in living organisms. Moreover, the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology has provided various innovative radionuclides and delivery systems, such as liposomes, magnetic agents, polymers, dendrimers, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes to cope up with the hurdles which have been posed by various disease states.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report summarises the aspects of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) considered by the National Health Technology Advisory Panel and makes recommendations on its introduction in Australia with particular regard to the need for thorough evaluation of its cost effectiveness. Topics covered are: principles of the technique, equipment required, installation, costs, reliability, performance parameters, clinical indications, training and staff requirements, and safety considerations

  13. Highlights lecture EANM 2016: ''Embracing molecular imaging and multi-modal imaging: a smart move for nuclear medicine towards personalized medicine''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Cancer Imaging Centre, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Nantes (France); CRCINA, Inserm U1232, Nantes (France); ICO Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Herblain (France)

    2017-08-15

    The 2016 EANM Congress took place in Barcelona, Spain, from 15 to 19 October under the leadership of Prof. Wim Oyen, chair of the EANM Scientific Committee. With more than 6,000 participants, this congress was the most important European event in nuclear medicine, bringing together a multidisciplinary community involved in the different fields of nuclear medicine. There were over 600 oral and 1,200 poster or e-Poster presentations with an overwhelming focus on development and application of imaging for personalized care, which is timely for the community. Beyond FDG PET, major highlights included progress in the use of PSMA and SSTR receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and associated theranostics in oncology. Innovations in radiopharmaceuticals for imaging pathologies of the brain and cardiovascular system, as well as infection and inflammation, were also highlighted. In the areas of physics and instrumentation, multimodality imaging and radiomics were highlighted as promising areas of research. (orig.)

  14. Highlights lecture EANM 2016: "Embracing molecular imaging and multi-modal imaging: a smart move for nuclear medicine towards personalized medicine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Eric O; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2017-08-01

    The 2016 EANM Congress took place in Barcelona, Spain, from 15 to 19 October under the leadership of Prof. Wim Oyen, chair of the EANM Scientific Committee. With more than 6,000 participants, this congress was the most important European event in nuclear medicine, bringing together a multidisciplinary community involved in the different fields of nuclear medicine. There were over 600 oral and 1,200 poster or e-Poster presentations with an overwhelming focus on development and application of imaging for personalized care, which is timely for the community. Beyond FDG PET, major highlights included progress in the use of PSMA and SSTR receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and associated theranostics in oncology. Innovations in radiopharmaceuticals for imaging pathologies of the brain and cardiovascular system, as well as infection and inflammation, were also highlighted. In the areas of physics and instrumentation, multimodality imaging and radiomics were highlighted as promising areas of research.

  15. Nuclear molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of polarization on the stability of α-cluster structures in 8 Be and 12 C nuclei are studied in the intrinsic states. The extent of the polarization of α-clusters is investigated by employing a molecular-orbital model. Two α-cluster structure of 8 Be is shown to be extremely stable, and a triangular configuration of three α-clusters is also shown to be stable, but the polarizations of α-clusters are found rather large. Gruemmer--Faessler's method is discussed and their results are shown to be trivial

  16. New perspectives in nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, biodistribution is studied by quantitative nuclear imaging; chemistry is translated into radio-pharmacology; physics into instrumentation; and biology into physiology. Nuclear medicine can be thought of as applied physiology and physiological chemistry. The modern nuclear chemist is concerned with molecules, with relating chemical structure to biological distributions, as for iminodiacetate compounds. Using mixed ligand analysis, the hepatobiliary agent, HIDA, developed by Loberg, proved an anionic bis-complex with a charge of minus one. Further studies elsewhere showed that the co-ordination number of technetium was 5 and that an oxo-oxygen was in the apical position. From a series of analogues the amount of the complexes excreted in the bile was found to be directly proportional to the natural log of the molecular weight to charge ratio. The trend is towards the synthesis of labelled compounds whose biodistribution depends on their chemical interaction with structurally specific binding sites, i.e. receptors, enzymes or binding sites of active transport systems. Other examples include amino acids for pancreatic imaging; deoxyglucose for studies of regional brain and heart metabolism; fatty acids for studies of the heart; steroid hormones for breast tumours; and muscarinic compounds for study of the cholinergic system of the heart. Most of these compounds are labelled with 11 C, 18 F or 13 N, available only from cyclotrons, but the extension to the more widely available 123 I and sup(99m)Tc is also proceeding rapidly, stimulated chiefly by the success with the positron-emitting compounds. Advances in nuclear imaging include the development of both positron and single photon emission tomography. Biodistribution studies in man permit measurement of regional as well as global function. Improved perception is being augmented by improved quantification and automation

  17. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L.; Narula, J.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  18. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  19. Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at

  20. Molecular photoacoustic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frogh Jafarian Dehkordi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hybrid imaging modalities which simultaneously benefit from capabilities of combined modalities provides an opportunity to modify quality of the images which can be obtained by each of the combined imaging systems. One of the imaging modalities, emerged in medical research area as a hybrid of ultrasound imaging and optical imaging, is photoacoustic imaging which apply ultrasound wave generated by tissue, after receiving laser pulse, to produce medical images. Materials and Methods: In this review, using keywords such as photoacoustic, optoacoustic, laser-ultrasound, thermoacoustic at databases such as PubMed and ISI, studies performed in the field of photoacoustic and related findings were evaluated. Results: Photoacoustic imaging, acquiring images with high contrast and desired resolution, provides an opportunity to perform physiologic and anatomic studies. Because this technique does not use ionizing radiation, it is not restricted by the limitation of the ionizing-based imaging systems therefore it can be used noninvasively to make images from cell, vessels, whole body imaging of the animal and distinguish tumor from normal tissue. Conclusion: Photoacoustic imaging is a new method in preclinical researches which can be used in various physiologic and anatomic studies. This method, because of application of non-ionizing radiation, may resolve limitation of radiation based method in diagnostic assessments.

  1. Role of PET/CT for precision medicine in lung cancer: perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Bennett S

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management. PET/CT is essential in determining staging and re-staging of disease, detecting recurrent or residual disease, evaluating response to therapy, and providing prognostic information. PET/CT is also critically important in radiation therapy planning by determining the extent of active disease, including an assessment of functional tumor volume. The current approach in tumor imaging is a significant advance over conventional imaging. However, recent advances suggest that therapeutic response criteria in the near future will be based on metabolic characteristics and will include the evaluation of biologic characteristics of tumors to further enhance the effectiveness of precision medicine in lung cancer, producing improved patient outcomes with less morbidity.

  2. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  3. Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mettler, Fred A. Jr

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging, by Drs. Fred A Mettler and Milton J Guiberteau, provides the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to master key nuclear imaging techniques. From physics, instrumentation, quality control, and legal requirements to hot topics such as sodium fluoride, radiopharmaceuticals, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines, this sixth edition covers the fundamentals and recent developments in the practice of nuclear medicine.

  4. Super-resolution imaging of a 2.5 kb non-repetitive DNA in situ in the nuclear genome using molecular beacon probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yanxiang; Cao, Bo; Ma, Tszshan; Niu, Gang; Huo, Yingdong; Huang, Jiandong; Chen, Danni; Liu, Yi; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Michael Q; Niu, Hanben

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution visualization of short non-repetitive DNA in situ in the nuclear genome is essential for studying looping interactions and chromatin organization in single cells. Recent advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using Oligopaint probes have enabled super-resolution imaging of genomic domains with a resolution limit of 4.9 kb. To target shorter elements, we developed a simple FISH method that uses molecular beacon (MB) probes to facilitate the probe-target binding, while minimizing non-specific fluorescence. We used three-dimensional stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (3D-STORM) with optimized imaging conditions to efficiently distinguish sparsely distributed Alexa-647 from background cellular autofluorescence. Utilizing 3D-STORM and only 29–34 individual MB probes, we observed 3D fine-scale nanostructures of 2.5 kb integrated or endogenous unique DNA in situ in human or mouse genome, respectively. We demonstrated our MB-based FISH method was capable of visualizing the so far shortest non-repetitive genomic sequence in 3D at super-resolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21660.001 PMID:28485713

  5. Nuclear imaging of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Y.W.

    1998-01-01

    This book provides up-to-the minute information on the diagnostic nuclear imaging of chest disorders. The authors have endeavored to integrate and consolidate the many different subspecialities in order to enable a holistic understanding of chest diseases from the nuclear medicine standpoint. Highlights of the book include in addition to the cardiac scan the description of aerosol lung imaging in COPD and other important pulmonary diseases and the updates on breast and lung cancer imaging, as well as imaging of the bony thorax and esophagus. It is required reading not only for nuclear medicine practitioners and researchers but also for all interested radiologists, traumatologists, pulmonologists, oncologists and cardiologists. (orig.)

  6. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled ''Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy'' to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study; and the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  7. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botnar, R.M.; Ebersberger, H.; Noerenberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  8. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  9. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  10. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... necesita saber acerca de... Estudios de Imagen de Medicina Nuclear Un procedimiento de medicina nuclear se describe algunas veces como unos rayos- ... través del cuerpo del paciente. Los procedimientos de medicina nuclear utilizan pequeñas cantidades de mate- riales radiactivos, ...

  11. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  12. Ethical and regulatory problems of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Min

    2004-01-01

    As a molecular imaging is the most up-to-date technology in nuclear medicine, it has complicate ethical and regulatory problems. For animal experiment, we have to follow institutional animal care committee. For clinical experiment, we have to get approval of Institutional Review Board according to Helsinki declaration. In addition, approval from Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is essential for manufacturing and commercialization. However, too much regulation would suppress development of new technology, which would result in the loss of national competitive power. In addition, most new radioactive ligands for molecular imaging are administered to human at sub-pharmacological and sub-toxicological level. In conclusion, a balanced regulation is essential for the safety of clinical application and development of new technology

  13. Molecular imaging by cardiovascular MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    Do molecularly-targeted contrast agents have what it takes to usher in a paradigm shift as to how we will image cardiovascular disease in the near future? Moreover, are non-invasive vulnerable plaque detection and preemptive treatments with these novel nanoparticulate agents within reach for clinical applications? In this article, we attempt to make a compelling case for how the advent of molecularly-targeted nanoparticle technology may change the way we detect atherosclerotic lesions, determine their clinical significance and even provide non-invasive treatments. Focusing on imaging with cardiovascular MR, an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field of so-called "intelligent" contrast agents that are able to interrogate the vascular wall and various complementary advanced imaging technologies are presented.

  14. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHAN, Sairah R.; ROCKALL, Andrea G.; BARWICK, Tara D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed.

  15. 3D molecular imaging SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Greg [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)]. E-mail: Greg.gillen@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Wagner, Matt [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Mahoney, Christine [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Thin monolayer and bilayer films of spin cast poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and PLA doped with several pharmaceuticals have been analyzed by dynamic SIMS using SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion bombardment. Each of these systems exhibited minimal primary beam-induced degradation under cluster ion bombardment allowing molecular depth profiles to be obtained through the film. By combing secondary ion imaging with depth profiling, three-dimensional molecular image depth profiles have been obtained from these systems. In another approach, bevel cross-sections are cut in the samples with the SF{sub 5} {sup +} primary ion beam to produce a laterally magnified cross-section of the sample that does not contain the beam-induced damage that would be induced by conventional focussed ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning. The bevel surface can then be examined using cluster SIMS imaging or other appropriate microanalysis technique.

  16. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  17. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter, as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers.

  18. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  19. Images compression in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)

  20. Molecular imaging in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) is a diverse technology that revolutionized preclinical, clinical and drug-discovery research. It integrates biology and medicine, and the technique presents a unique opportunity to examine living systems in vivo as a dynamic biological system. It is a hybrid technology that combines PET, SPECT, ultrasound, optical imaging and MR. Several MI methodologies are developed to examine the integrative functions of molecules, cells, organ systems and whole organisms. MI is superior to conventional diagnostic techniques in allowing better staging as well as to monitor the response of cancer/tumour to treatment. In addition, it helps visualization of specific molecular targets or pathways and cells in living systems and ultimately in the clinic. (author)

  1. Molecular methods in nuclear medicine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear medicine has traditionally contributed to molecular oncology by allowing noninvasive monitoring of tumor metabolism, growth and genetic changes, thereby providing a basis for appropriate biology-based treatment planning. However, NM techniques are now being applied as an active therapeutic tool in novel molecular approaches for cancer treatment. Such areas include research on cancer therapy with radiolabeled ligands or oligonucleotides, and utilization of synergism between NM radiotherapy and gene transfer techniques. Here we will focus on novel aspects of nuclear medicine therapy

  2. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  4. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  5. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung Ah

    2007-01-01

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization

  6. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization.

  7. Molecular–Genetic Imaging: A Nuclear Medicine–Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Blasberg

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline, which developed over the past decade, initially driven by in situ reporter imaging technology. Noninvasive in vivo molecular–genetic imaging developed more recently and is based on nuclear (positron emission tomography [PET], gamma camera, autoradiography imaging as well as magnetic resonance (MR and in vivo optical imaging. Molecular–genetic imaging has its roots in both molecular biology and cell biology, as well as in new imaging technologies. The focus of this presentation will be nuclear-based molecular–genetic imaging, but it will comment on the value and utility of combining different imaging modalities. Nuclear-based molecular imaging can be viewed in terms of three different imaging strategies: (1 “indirect” reporter gene imaging; (2 “direct” imaging of endogenous molecules; or (3 “surrogate” or “bio-marker” imaging. Examples of each imaging strategy will be presented and discussed. The rapid growth of in vivo molecular imaging is due to the established base of in vivo imaging technologies, the established programs in molecular and cell biology, and the convergence of these disciplines. The development of versatile and sensitive assays that do not require tissue samples will be of considerable value for monitoring molecular–genetic and cellular processes in animal models of human disease, as well as for studies in human subjects in the future. Noninvasive imaging of molecular–genetic and cellular processes will complement established ex vivo molecular–biological assays that require tissue sampling, and will provide a spatial as well as a temporal dimension to our understanding of various diseases and disease processes.

  8. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    for molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm......Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...

  9. Challenges in nuclear molecular physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, R.R. [Argonne, IL (United States). Physics Division, National Laboratory]|[Chicago, IL, Univ. (United States). Dep. Physics

    1997-09-01

    Despite over thirty years of experimental and theoretical effort in the study of molecular resonance and cluster phenomena in nuclei, fundamental questions still remain to be answered. The most important of these relate precisely to those experimental quantities which would directly prove the underlying nature of the phenomenon-decay widths and transition strengths. The status of the understanding of these quantities is reviewed and new experiments suggested.

  10. Molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation during inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsen Harald

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular imaging enables non-invasive visualization of the dynamics of molecular processes within living organisms in vivo. Different imaging modalities as MRI, SPECT, PET and optic imaging are used together with molecular probes specific for the biological process of interest. Molecular imaging of transcription factor activity is done in animal models and mostly in transgenic reporter mice, where the transgene essentially consists of a promoter that regulates a reporter gene. During inflammation, the transcription factor NF-κB is widely involved in orchestration and regulation of the immune system and almost all imaging studies in this field has revolved around the role and regulation of NF-κB. We here present a brief introduction to experimental use and design of transgenic reporter mice and a more extensive review of the various studies where molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation has been applied during inflammation.

  11. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  12. Lasers in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on laser applications in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. Specifically discussed are: laser isotope separation; laser spectroscopy of chlorophyll; laser spectroscopy of molecules and cell membranes; laser detection of atom-molecule collisions and lasers in astrophysics

  13. Molecular imaging of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)

  14. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  15. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  16. Current state of molecular imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Wunder, A.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have seen significant advances in both molecular biology, allowing the identification of genes and pathways related to disease, and imaging technologies that allow for improved spatial and temporal resolution, enhanced sensitivity, better depth penetration, improved image processing, and beneficial combinations of different imaging modalities. These advances have led to a paradigm shift in the scope of diagnostic imaging. The traditional role of radiological diagnostic imaging is to define gross anatomy and structure in order to detect pathological abnormalities. Available contrast agents are mostly non-specific and can be used to image physiological processes such as changes in blood volume, flow, and perfusion but not to demonstrate pathological alterations at molecular levels. However, alterations at the anatomical-morphological level are relatively late manifestations of underlying molecular changes. Using molecular probes or markers that bind specifically to molecular targets allows for the non-invasive visualization and quantitation of biological processes such as gene expression, apoptosis, or angiogenesis at the molecular level within intact living organisms. This rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary approach, referred to as molecular imaging, promises to enable early diagnosis, can provide improved classification of stage and severity of disease, an objective assessment of treatment efficacy, and a reliable prognosis. Furthermore, molecular imaging is an important tool for the evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and for the development of new therapies. This article comprises a review of current technologies of molecular imaging, describes the development of contrast agents and various imaging modalities, new applications in specific disease models, and potential future developments. (orig.)

  17. Electron-nuclear dynamics of molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diz, A.; Oehrn, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The content of an ab initio time-dependent theory of quantum molecular dynamics of electrons and atomic nuclei is presented. Employing the time-dependent variational principle and a family of approximate state vectors yields a set of dynamical equations approximating the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. These equations govern the time evolution of the relevant state vector parameters as molecular orbital coefficients, nuclear positions, and momenta. This approach does not impose the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, does not use potential energy surfaces, and takes into account electron-nuclear coupling. Basic conservation laws are fully obeyed. The simplest model of the theory employs a single determinantal state for the electrons and classical nuclei and is implemented in the computer code ENDyne. Results from this ab-initio theory are reported for ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions

  18. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Molecular nuclear imaging of tumoral angio genesis using a rgd-containing tracer, Raft-RGD, targeted at the neo vessel-specific integrin αvβ3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancey, L.

    2006-06-01

    Tumoral neo-angio genesis targeting is currently a major field of research for the diagnostic and treatment of solid tumors. Endothelial cells from neo vessels over express several specific markers such as the α v β 3 integrin, which binds RGD (-Arg-Gly-Asp-)- containing peptides. We evaluated the potential of a novel radiotracer - RAFT-RGD - for the molecular nuclear imaging of neo vessels. In vitro, the coupling of 4 c(RGDfK) to the RAFT platform resulted in an increased cellular uptake of the tracer by α v β 3 positive cells when compared to c(RGDfK). Furthermore, RAFTRGD has a higher affinity than c(RGDfK) and similar properties for angio genesis inhibition. In vivo, both α v β 3 positive and negative tumors were visible by non invasive whole body planar and tomographic imaging from 30 min to 24 h post-injection, using a gamma camera dedicated to small animal imaging. Despite a lack of significant contrast improvement compare with c(RGDfK), RAFT-RGD could represent a promising tracer for tumoral angio genesis since it could provide invaluable information about tumor development and treatment efficacy in Nuclear Medicine departments. Furthermore, thanks to its chemical structure, RAFT-RGD can be labelled with a variety of radioisotopes including γ and β - emitters, allowing interesting therapeutical applications such as internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Nanobody: the "magic bullet" for molecular imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases.

  1. Medical Imaging Informatics in Nuclear Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Peter; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Medema, Jitze; van Zanten, Annie K.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ahaus, C.T.B. (Kees)

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging informatics is gaining importance in medicine both in clinical practice and in scientific research. Besides radiology, nuclear medicine is also a major stakeholder in medical imaging informatics because of the variety of available imaging modalities and the imaging-oriented operation

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.; MacDonald, J.; Hutchison, S.; Eastwood, L.M.; Redpath, T.W.T.; Mallard, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of deriving three dimensional image information from an object using nuclear magnetic resonance signals comprises subjecting the object to a continuous, static magnetic field and carrying out the following set of sequential steps: 1) exciting nuclear spins in a selected volume (90deg pulse); 2) applying non-aligned first, second and third gradients of the magnetic field; 3) causing the spins to rephase periodically by reversal of the first gradient to produce spin echoes, and applying pulses of the second gradient prior to every read-out of an echo signal from the object, to differently encode the spin in the second gradient direction for each read-out signal. The above steps 1-3 are then successively repeated with different values of gradient of the third gradient, there being a recovery interval between the repetition of successive sets of steps. Alternate echoes only are read out, the other echoes being time-reversed and ignored for convenience. The resulting signals are appropriately sampled, set out in an array and subjected to three dimensional Fourier transformation. (author)

  3. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fluorescence based molecular in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging represents a modern research area that allows the in vivo study of molecular biological process kinetics using appropriate probes and visualization methods. This methodology may be defined- apart from the contrast media injection - as non-abrasive. In order to reach an in vivo molecular process imaging as accurate as possible the effects of the used probes on the biological should not be too large. The contrast media as important part of the molecular imaging can significantly contribute to the understanding of molecular processes and to the development of tailored diagnostics and therapy. Since more than 15 years PTB is developing optic imaging systems that may be used for fluorescence based visualization of tissue phantoms, small animal models and the localization of tumors and their predecessors, and for the early recognition of inflammatory processes in clinical trials. Cellular changes occur during many diseases, thus the molecular imaging might be of importance for the early diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Fluorescent dyes can be used as unspecific or also as specific contrast media, which allow enhanced detection sensitivity

  5. Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de

  6. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Swirski, Filip K.; Zernecke, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Acute rupture of vulnerable plaques frequently leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. Within the last decades, several cellular and molecular players have been identified that promote atherosclerotic lesion formation, maturation and plaque rupture. It is now widely recognized that inflammation of the vessel wall and distinct leukocyte subsets are involved throughout all phases of atherosclerotic lesion development. The mechanisms that render a stable plaque unstable and prone to rupture, however, remain unknown and the identification of the vulnerable plaque remains a major challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Imaging technologies used in the clinic offer minimal information about the underlying biology and potential risk for rupture. New imaging technologies are therefore being developed, and in the preclinical setting have enabled new and dynamic insights into the vessel wall for a better understanding of this complex disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to track biological processes, such as the activity of cellular and molecular biomarkers in vivo and over time. Similarly, novel imaging technologies specifically detect effects of therapies that aim to stabilize vulnerable plaques and silence vascular inflammation. Here we will review the potential of established and new molecular imaging technologies in the setting of atherosclerosis, and discuss the cumbersome steps required for translating molecular imaging approaches into the clinic. PMID:24312156

  7. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  8. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  9. Nuclear molecular structure in heavy mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctaedius, T.; Bargholtz, C.

    1989-04-01

    A study is made of nuclear molecular configurations involving one heavy mass partner. The stability of these configurations to mass flow and to fission is investigated as well as their population in fusion reactions. It is concluded that shell effects in combination with the effects of angular momentum may be important in stabilizing certain configurations. A possible relation of these configurations to the so called superdeformed states is pointed out. The spectrum of rotational and vibrational trasitions within molecular configurations is investigated. For sufficiently mass-asymmetric systems the engergies of vibrational transitions are comparable to the neutron separation energy. Gamma radiation from such transitions may then be observable above the background of statistical transitions. The gamma spectrum and the directional distribution of the radioation following fusion reactions with 12 C and 16 O are calculated. (authors)

  10. Has molecular imaging delivered to drug development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Philip S.; Patel, Neel; McCarthy, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    Pharmaceutical research and development requires a systematic interrogation of a candidate molecule through clinical studies. To ensure resources are spent on only the most promising molecules, early clinical studies must understand fundamental attributes of the drug candidate, including exposure at the target site, target binding and pharmacological response in disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to quantitatively characterize these properties in small, efficient clinical studies. Specific benefits of molecular imaging in this setting (compared to blood and tissue sampling) include non-invasiveness and the ability to survey the whole body temporally. These methods have been adopted primarily for neuroscience drug development, catalysed by the inability to access the brain compartment by other means. If we believe molecular imaging is a technology platform able to underpin clinical drug development, why is it not adopted further to enable earlier decisions? This article considers current drug development needs, progress towards integration of molecular imaging into studies, current impediments and proposed models to broaden use and increase impact. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  11. Image processing technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Beom; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Young

    1993-05-01

    Digital image processing technique is being actively studied since microprocessors and semiconductor memory devices have been developed in 1960's. Now image processing board for personal computer as well as image processing system for workstation is developed and widely applied to medical science, military, remote inspection, and nuclear industry. Image processing technology which provides computer system with vision ability not only recognizes nonobvious information but processes large information and therefore this technique is applied to various fields like remote measurement, object recognition and decision in adverse environment, and analysis of X-ray penetration image in nuclear facilities. In this report, various applications of image processing to nuclear facilities are examined, and image processing techniques are also analysed with the view of proposing the ideas for future applications. (Author)

  12. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R

    2004-02-07

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field.

  13. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field. (topical review)

  14. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Simon R

    2004-01-01

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field. (topical review)

  15. Classical molecular dynamics simulation of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Krack, M.; Bertolus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation using forces calculated from empirical potentials, commonly called classical molecular dynamics, is well suited to study primary damage production by irradiation, defect interactions with fission gas atoms, gas bubble nucleation, grain boundary effects on defect and gas bubble evolution in nuclear fuel, and the resulting changes in thermomechanical properties. This enables one to obtain insights into fundamental mechanisms governing the behaviour of nuclear fuel, as well as parameters that can be used as inputs for mesoscale models. The interaction potentials used for the force calculations are generated by fitting properties of interest to experimental data and electronic structure calculations (see Chapter 12). We present here the different types of potentials currently available for UO 2 and illustrations of applications to the description of the behaviour of this material under irradiation. The results obtained from the present generation of potentials for UO 2 are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different. There is a need to refine these existing potentials to provide a better representation of the performance of polycrystalline fuel under a variety of operating conditions, develop models that are equipped to handle deviations from stoichiometry, and validate the models and assumptions used. (authors)

  16. A review of molecular imaging studies reaching the clinical stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Franklin C.; Kim, E. Edmund

    2009-01-01

    The practice of molecular imaging in the clinics is examined across various imaging modalities to assess the current status of clinical molecular imaging. The various physiologic and scientific bases of clinical molecular imaging are surveyed to assess the possibilities and opportunities for the deployment of the different imaging modalities in the near future. The requisites for successful candidate(s) of clinical molecular imaging are reviewed for future development.

  17. In Vivo Imaging of Molecularly Targeted Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Kelly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of in vivo affinity ligands would have far-reaching applications for imaging specific molecular targets, in vivo systems imaging, and medical use. We have developed a high-throughput method for identifying and optimizing ligands to map and image biologic targets of interest in vivo. We directly labeled viable phage clones with far-red fluorochromes and comparatively imaged them in vivo by multichannel fluorescence ratio imaging. Using Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (osteonectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as model targets, we show that: 1 fluorescently labeled phage retains target specificity on labeling; 2 in vivo distribution can be quantitated (detection thresholds of ~ 300 phage/mm3 tissue throughout the entire depth of the tumor using fluorescent tomographic imaging; and 3 fluorescently labeled phage itself can serve as a replenishable molecular imaging agent. The described method should find widespread application in the rapid in vivo discovery and validation of affinity ligands and, importantly, in the use of fluorochrome-labeled phage clones as in vivo imaging agents.

  18. Current Molecular Imaging Positron Emitting Radiotracers in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Aizhi; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is one of the fastest growing areas of medical imaging. Positron emission tomography has been widely used in the clinical management of patients with cancer. Nuclear imaging provides biological information at the cellular, subcellular, and molecular level in living subjects with noninvasive procedures. In particular, PET imaging takes advantage of traditional diagnostic imaging techniques and introduces positron emitting probes to determine the expression of indicative molecular targets at different stages of cancer. 18F fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18F FDG), the only FDA approved oncological PET tracer, has been widely utilized in cancer diagnosis, staging, restaging, and even monitoring response to therapy; however, 18F FDG is not a tumor specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, many promising tumor specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, many promising tumor specific PET tracers have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides an overview of the current non 18F FDG PET tracers in oncology that have been developed based on tumor characteristics such as increased metabolism, hyperproliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and tumor specific antigens and surface receptors

  19. Molecular Imaging in Nanotechnology and Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrysafis; Pal, Suchetan; Rotter, Lara; Yang, Jiang; Kircher, Moritz F

    2017-06-01

    The fields of biomedical nanotechnology and theranostics have enjoyed exponential growth in recent years. The "Molecular Imaging in Nanotechnology and Theranostics" (MINT) Interest Group of the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) was created in order to provide a more organized and focused forum on these topics within the WMIS and at the World Molecular Imaging Conference (WMIC). The interest group was founded in 2015 and was officially inaugurated during the 2016 WMIC. The overarching goal of MINT is to bring together the many scientists who work on molecular imaging approaches using nanotechnology and those that work on theranostic agents. MINT therefore represents scientists, labs, and institutes that are very diverse in their scientific backgrounds and areas of expertise, reflecting the wide array of materials and approaches that drive these fields. In this short review, we attempt to provide a condensed overview over some of the key areas covered by MINT. Given the breadth of the fields and the given space constraints, we have limited the coverage to the realm of nanoconstructs, although theranostics is certainly not limited to this domain. We will also focus only on the most recent developments of the last 3-5 years, in order to provide the reader with an intuition of what is "in the pipeline" and has potential for clinical translation in the near future.

  20. Towards molecular imaging by means of MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norek, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in the thesis is focused on the design of highly efficient contrast agents for molecular imaging by means of MRI based on the detailed physical characterization of the given material. Specifically, attention is paid on the development of contrast agents for magnetic fields higher

  1. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  2. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, H. [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  3. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  4. Connotation and category of functional-molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianran; Tian Jiahe

    2007-01-01

    Function and molecular lmaging represent medical imaging' s direction. The review article introduce function and molecular's concept and category and its characteristic. Comparing with traditionary classics radiology, function and molecular imaging have many features, such as micro-mount and specificity and quantitative. There are many technology about function and molecular imaging. Function and molecular imaging is important ingredient of modern medical and play a considerable role. (authors)

  5. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  6. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  7. Infection imaging in nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osteomyelitis, particularly in children without previous trauma to their ... Anatomical imaging (such as X-rays, ... bacterial pneumonia, whereas diffuse ... imaging is superior to Ga-67 for the detection ... Clinical value of FDG PET in patients with.

  8. Imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Charleston, D.; Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This project deals with imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation and is presented as four subprojects. The goal of the first subproject is to improve diagnositc image quality by development of a general computer code for optimizing collimator design. The second subproject deals with a secondary emission and fluorescence technique for thyroid scanning while the third subproject emphasizes the need for more sophisticated image processing systems such as coherent optical spatial filtering systems and digital image processing. The fourth subproject presents a new approach for processing image data by taking into account the energy of each detected gamma-ray photon

  9. From molecular imaging to systems diagnostics: Time for another paradigm shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, King C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The term 'Molecular Imaging' has hit the consciousness of radiologists only in the past decade although many of the concepts that molecular imaging encompasses has been practiced in biomedical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine, for many decades. Many new imaging techniques have allowed us to interrogate biologic events at the cellular and molecular level in vivo in four dimensions but the challenge now is to translate these techniques into clinical practice in a way that will enable us to revolutionize healthcare delivery. The purpose of this article is to introduce the term 'Systems Diagnostics' and examine how radiologists can become translators of disparate sources of information into medical decisions and therapeutic actions.

  10. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Feelders, Richard A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Teunissen, Jaap J. M.; Papotti, M; DeHerder, WW

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with In-111-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

  11. Diffractive Imaging of Coherent Nuclear Motion in Isolated Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Guehr, Markus; Shen, Xiaozhe; Li, Renkai; Vecchione, Theodore; Coffee, Ryan; Corbett, Jeff; Fry, Alan; Hartmann, Nick; Hast, Carsten; Hegazy, Kareem; Jobe, Keith; Makasyuk, Igor; Robinson, Joseph; Robinson, Matthew S.; Vetter, Sharon; Weathersby, Stephen; Yoneda, Charles; Wang, Xijie; Centurion, Martin

    2016-10-03

    Observing the motion of the nuclear wave packets during a molecular reaction, in both space and time, is crucial for understanding and controlling the outcome of photoinduced chemical reactions. We have imaged the motion of a vibrational wave packet in isolated iodine molecules using ultrafast electron diffraction with relativistic electrons. The time-varying interatomic distance was measured with a precision 0.07 Å and temporal resolution of 230 fs full width at half maximum. The method is not only sensitive to the position but also the shape of the nuclear wave packet.

  12. Imaging of Nuclear Weapon Trainers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The Configurable Muon Tracker (CMT) is an adaptation of the existing drift tube detector commercially available from Decision Sciences International Corporation (DSIC). NSTec engineered the CMT around commercially available drift tube assemblies to make a detector that is more versatile than previous drift tube assemblies. The CMT became operational in February 2013. Traditionally, cosmic-ray muon trackers rely on near-vertical trajectory muons for imaging. Since there are scenarios where imaging using vertical trajectory muons is not practical, NSTec designed the CMT specifically for quick configurability to track muons from any trajectory. The CMT was originally designed to be changed from vertical imaging mode to horizontal imaging mode in a few hours with access to a crane or other lifting equipment. In FY14, locations for imaging weapon trainers and SNM were identified and it was determined that lifting equipment would not typically be available in experimental areas. The CMT was further modified and a portable lifting system was developed to allow reconfiguration of the CMT without access to lifting equipment at the facility. This system was first deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s W-division, where several trainers were imaged in both horizontal and vertical modes. Real-time images have been compared in both modes showing that imaging can be done in both modes with the expected longer integration time for horizontal mode. Further imaging and post processing of the data is expected to continue into early FY15.

  13. Clinical applications of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trung D; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hughes, Michael; Marsh, John N; Cyrus, Tillmann; Winter, Patrick M; Neubauer, Anne M; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a novel tool that has allowed non-invasive diagnostic imaging to transition from gross anatomical description to identification of specific tissue epitopes and observation of biological processes at the cellular level. This technique has been confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, recent advances in nanotechnology have extended this research to include ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The exploitation of nanotechnology for MR and US molecul...

  14. Clinical applications of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung D; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hughes, Michael; Marsh, John N; Cyrus, Tillmann; Winter, Patrick M; Neubauer, Anne M; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a novel tool that has allowed non-invasive diagnostic imaging to transition from gross anatomical description to identification of specific tissue epitopes and observation of biological processes at the cellular level. This technique has been confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, recent advances in nanotechnology have extended this research to include ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The exploitation of nanotechnology for MR and US molecular imaging has generated several candidate contrast agents. One multimodality platform, targeted perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles, is useful for noninvasive detection with US and MR, targeted drug delivery, and quantification.

  15. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  16. Molecular glasses for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropp, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a molecular glass based upon a polymerized phosphate of aluminum (PAP), indium or gallium overcomes all of the prior objections to use of glass as a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) encapsulation agent. This HLW glass product could not be made to devitrify, dissolved all of the oxides found in calcine, including the difficultly soluble ones, did not form microcrystallites in the melt or subsequent glass-casting, and possessed a hydrolytic etching rate to boiling water even lower than that of HLW-ZBS glass. A precursor compound, M(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 , is prepared, where M is a trivalent metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, indium and gallium. The impurity level is carefully controlled so as not to exceed 300 ppm total. The precursor crystals may be washed to remove excess phosphoric acid as desired. HLW is added to the crystals and the mixture is then heated at a controlled heating rate to induce solid state polymerization and to form a melt at 1350 degrees C in which the HLW oxides dissolve rapidly

  17. Myocardial viability assessment using nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Hisada, Kinichi; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial assessment continues to be an issue in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Nuclear imaging has long played an important role in this field. In particular, PET imaging using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose is regarded as the metabolic gold standard of tissue viability, which has been supported by a wide clinical experience. Viability assessment using SPECT techniques has gained more wide-spread clinical acceptance than PET, because it is more widely available at lower cost. Moreover, technical advances in SPECT technology such as gated-SPECT further improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. However, other imaging techniques such as dobutamine echocardiography have recently emerged as competitors to nuclear imaging. It is also important to note that they sometimes may work in a complementary fashion to nuclear imaging, indicating that an appropriate use of these techniques may significantly improve their overall accuracy. In keeping these circumstances in mind, further efforts are necessary to further improve the diagnostic performance of nuclear imaging as a reliable viability test. (author) 107 refs

  18. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  19. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  20. A fermionic molecular dynamics technique to model nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantournhout, K.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: At sub-nuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 , nuclear matter arranges itself in a variety of complex shapes. This can be the case in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. These slab like and rod like structures, designated as nuclear pasta, have been modelled with classical molecular dynamics techniques. We present a technique, based on fermionic molecular dynamics, to model nuclear matter at sub-nuclear densities in a semi classical framework. The dynamical evolution of an antisymmetric ground state is described making the assumption of periodic boundary conditions. Adding the concepts of antisymmetry, spin and probability distributions to classical molecular dynamics, brings the dynamical description of nuclear matter to a quantum mechanical level. Applications of this model vary from investigation of macroscopic observables and the equation of state to the study of fundamental interactions on the microscopic structure of the matter. (author)

  1. Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography.

  2. Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography

  3. Molecular Imaging with Activatable Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes, the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsu, G.; Webb, W.R.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.; Crooks, L.E.; Birnberg, F.A.; Goodman, P.; Hinchcliffe, W.A.; Hedgecock, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images of the thorax were obtained in ten normal volunteers, nine patients with advanced bronchogenic carcinoma, and three patients with benign thoracic abnormalities. In normal volunteers, mediastinal and hilar structures were seen with equal frequency on NMR images and computed tomographic scans. The hila were especially well displayed on spin-echo images. Spin-echo images showed mediastinal invasion by tumor, vascular and bronchial compression and invasion, and hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Tumor and benign abnormalities could be separated from mediastinal and hilar fat because of their longer T1 times. Lung masses and nodules as small as 1.5 cm could be seen on the spin-echo images. NMR imaging shows promise for assessment of benign and malignant mediastinal, hilar, and lung abnormalities

  5. Positron in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a rapid expansion of clinical indications of positron emission tomography (PET) based imaging in assessing a wide range of disorders influencing their clinical management. This is primarily based upon a large dataset of evidence that has been generated over the years. The impact has been most remarkable in the field of cancer, where it takes a pivotal role in the decision making (at initial diagnosis, early response assessment and following completion of therapeutic intervention) of a number of important malignancies. The concept of PET based personalized cancer medicine is an evolving and attractive proposition that has gained significant momentum in recent years. The non-oncological applications of PET and PET/CT are in (A) Cardiovascular Diseases (e.g. Myocardial Viability, Flow reserve with PET Perfusion Imaging and atherosclerosis imaging); (B) Neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Dementia, Epileptic Focus detection, Parkinson's Disease, Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders and Psychiatric diseases); (C) Infection and Inflammatory Disorders (e.g. Pyrexia of Unknown origin, complicated Diabetic Foot, Periprosthetic Infection, Tuberculosis, Sarcoidosis, Vasculitic disorders etc). Apart from these, there are certain novel clinical applications where it is undergoing critical evaluation in various large and small scale studies across several centres across the world. The modality represents a classical example of a successful translational research of recent times with a revolutionary and far-reaching impact in the field of medicine. (author)

  6. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, O.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  7. Molecular imaging with targeted contrast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Mark; Allroggen, Achim; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound uses targeted microbubbles that are retained in diseased tissue. The resonant properties of these microbubbles produce acoustic signals in an ultrasound field. The microbubbles are targeted to diseased tissue by using certain chemical constituents in the microbubble shell or by attaching disease-specific ligands such as antibodies to the microbubble. In this review, we discuss the applications of this technique to pathological states in the cerebrovascular system including atherosclerosis, tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, intravascular thrombus, and inflammation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult...... to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly...

  9. Nuclear medicine imaging. An encyclopedic dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly growing and somewhat complex area of nuclear medicine imaging receives only limited attention in broad-based medical dictionaries. This encyclopedic dictionary is intended to fill the gap. More than 400 entries of between one and three paragraphs are included, defining and carefully explaining terms in an appropriate degree of detail. The dictionary encompasses concepts used in planar, SPECT, and PET imaging protocols and covers both scanner operations and popular data analysis approaches. In spite of the mathematical complexities in the acquisition and analysis of images, the explanations given are kept simple and easy to understand; in addition, many helpful concrete examples are provided. Nuclear Medicine Imaging: An Encyclopedic Dictionary will be ideal for those who wish to obtain a rapid grasp of a concept beyond a definition of a few words but do not want to resort to a time-consuming search of the reference literature. The almost tutorial-like style accommodates the needs of students, nuclear medicine technologists, and varieties of other medical professionals who interface with specialists within nuclear medicine.

  10. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakumaeki, Juhana M.; Liimatainen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer. Mechanisms hindering its action are implicated in a number of malignancies. Also, the induction of apoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment regimes such as irradiation, chemotherapy, or hormones. Recent advanced in imaging science have made it now possible for us to detect and visualize previously inaccessible and even unrecognized biological phenomena in cells and tissue undergoing apoptosis in vivo. Not only are these imaging techniques painting an intriguing picture of the spatiotemporal characteristics and metabolic and biophysical of apoptosis in situ, but they are expected to have an ever increasing impact in preclinical testing and design of new anticancer agents as well. Rapid and accurate visualization of apoptotic response in the clinical settings can also be of significant diagnostic and prognostic worth. With the advent of molecular medicine and patient-tailored treatment options and therapeutic agents, such monitoring techniques are becoming paramount

  11. Algorithms of image processing in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of image restoration from noisy measurements as encountered in Nuclear Medicine is considered. A new approach for treating the measurements wherein they are represented by a spatial noncausal interaction model prior to maximum entropy restoration is given. This model describes the statistical dependence among the image values and their neighbourhood. The particular application of the algorithms presented here relates to gamma ray imaging systems, and is aimed at improving the resolution-noise suppression product. Results for actual gamma camera data are presented and compared with more conventional techniques. (author)

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has important applications in pharmaceutical research since it allows specific tissue and disease characterization in animal models noninvasively with excellent anatomical resolution and therefore provides improved ability to monitor the efficacy of novel drugs. The utility of NMR imaging in renal studies to monitor the mechanism of drug action and renal function in rats is described. The extension of the resolution of an NMR image to microscopic domain at higher magnetic field strengths and the utility of NMR microimaging in cerebrovascular and tumour metastasis studies in mice are discussed. (author). 40 refs., 14 figs

  13. Image cytometry: nuclear and chromosomal DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Abreu, Isabella Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Image cytometry (ICM) associates microscopy, digital image and software technologies, and has been particularly useful in spatial and densitometric cytological analyses, such as DNA ploidy and DNA content measurements. Basically, ICM integrates methodologies of optical microscopy calibration, standard density filters, digital CCD camera, and image analysis softwares for quantitative applications. Apart from all system calibration and setup, cytological protocols must provide good slide preparations for efficient and reliable ICM analysis. In this chapter, procedures for ICM applications employed in our laboratory are described. Protocols shown here for human DNA ploidy determination and quantification of nuclear and chromosomal DNA content in plants could be used as described, or adapted for other studies.

  14. Diversity of radioprobes targeted to tumor angiogenesis on molecular functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xia; Zhang Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular functional imaging could visualize, characterize, and measure the bio- logical processes including tumor angiogenesis at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The molecular probes labeled by a variety of radionuclide used in the field of the nuclear medicine play pivotal roles in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. However, the regulatory role of different probes in tumor angiogenesis has not been systematically illustrated. The current status of tumor angiogenesis imaging with radiolabeled probes of peptide, monoclonal antibody as well as its fragment, especially nanoparticle-based probes to gain insights into the robust tumor angiogenesis development were summarized. It was recognized that only the probes such as nanoparticle-based probes, which truly target the tumor vasculature rather than tumor cells because of poor extravasation, are really tumor angiogenesis imaging agent. The research of molecular probe targeted to angiogenesis would meet its flourish just after the outstanding improvements in the in vivo stability and biocompatibility, tumor-targeting efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tumor angiogenesis imaging probes are made. Translation to clinical applications will also be critical for the maximize benefits of these novel agents. The future of tumor angiogenesis imaging lies in liable imaging probes and multiple imaging modalities, imaging of protein-protein interactions, and quantitative molecular imaging. (authors)

  15. Proceedings of the forty third annual conference of Society of Nuclear Medicine India: empowering modern medicine with molecular nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Theme of the 43rd Annual Conference of the Society of Nuclear Medicine India is 'empowering modem medicine with molecular nuclear medicine'. Keeping the theme in mind, the scientific committee has arranged an attractive and comprehensive program for both physicians and scientists reflecting the multimodality background of Nuclear Medicine and Metabolic Imaging. During this meeting the present status and future prospects of Nuclear medicine are discussed at length by esteemed faculty in dedicated symposia and interesting featured sessions which are immensely facilitate in educating the participants. Nuclear Medicine has come a long way since the first applications of radioiodine in the diagnosis of thyroid disease. The specialty of nuclear medicine in India is growing very rapidly. Technology continues to push the field in new directions and open new pathways for providing optimal care to patients. It is indeed an exciting time in the world of imaging and in the field of nuclear medicine. Innovative techniques in hardware and software offer advantages for enhanced accuracy. New imaging agents, equipment, and software will provide us with new opportunities to improve current practices and to introduce new technology into the clinical protocols. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Development of nuclear imaging instrument and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Chung Jae Myung; Nam, Sang Won; Chang, Hyung Uk

    1999-03-01

    In the medical diagnosis, the nuclear medical instrument using the radioactive isotope are commonly utilized. In the foreign countries, the medical application and development of the most advanced nuclear medical instrument such as Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomograph (PET), have been extensively carried out. However, in Korea, such highly expensive instruments have been all, imported, paying foreign currency. Since 1997, much efforts, the development of the radio nuclide medical instrument, the drive of the domestic production, etc. have been made to establish our own technologies and to balance the international payments under the support of the Ministry of Science and Technology. At present time, 180 nuclear imaging instruments are now in operation and 60 of them are analog camera. In analog camera, the vector X-Y monitor is need for are image display. Since the analog camera, signal can not be process in the digital form, we have difficulties to transfer and store the image data. The image displayed at the monitor must be stored in the form of polaroid or X ray film. In order to discard these disadvantages, if we developed the computer interface system, the performance analog camera will be comparable with that of the digital camera. The final objective of the research is that using the interface system developed in this research, we reconstruct the image data transmitted to the personal computer in the form of the generalized data file

  17. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

  18. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging: concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, S.M. van; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  19. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging : Concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijnhoven, S.M.J.; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  20. [Molecular imaging; current status and future prospects in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, current status, and future prospects of the molecular imaging, which has recently been a hot topic in medicine and the biological science in USA. In vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are overviewed and discussed especially in combinations of imaging modalities (machines) and contrast agents(chemicals) used in the molecular imaging. Next, the close relationship between the molecular imaging and the nanotechnology, an important part of nanomedicine, is stressed from the aspect of united multidisciplinary sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  1. Nuclear imaging using Fuji Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodono, Hiraku; Tarusawa, Nobuko; Katto, Keiichi; Miyakawa, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Sadao; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo

    1988-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of the Fuji Computed Radiography system (FCR) in nuclear medicine. The basic principle of the system is the conversion of the X-ray energy pattern into digital signals utilizing scanning laser stimulated luminescence. A Rollo phantom filled with 12 mCi of Tc-99m pertechnetate was used in this study. In imaging by the FCR, a low energy high resolution parallel hole collimator for a gamma camera was placed over the phantom and photons through the collimator were stored on a single imaging plate (IP) or 3 IPs covered by the lead plate, 0.3 mm in thickness. For imaging, it took 30 minutes by a single IP and 20 minutes by 3 IPs with the lead plate respectively. Each image of the phantom by the FCR was compared with that of obtained by a gamma camera. The image by a single IP was inferior in quality than that of by a gamma camera. However using 3 IPs with the lead plate, same quality image as by a gamma camera was obtained. The image by 3 IPs is similar to that of by 3 IPs with the lead plate. Based on the results, we performed liver and lung imaging by FCR using 3 IPs. The imaging time is twenty minutes. The images obtained with FCR are as good as the scinticamera image. However it has two major flawes in that the sensitivity is poor and the imaging time is long. Furthermore, at present this method can only be employed for static imaging. However we feel that future improvements in the FCR system will overcome these problems. (author)

  2. Novel imaging techniques for the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint, A.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the developments of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been paralleled during the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe. Secondary electrons were used in the early development of both devices to provide specimen imaging due to the large numbers of secondaries produced per incident charged particle. Other imaging contrast techniques have also been developed on both machines. These include X-ray analysis, scattering contrast, transmission microscopy, channelling induced charge and others. The 'cross-section dependent' imaging techniques such as PIXE, RBS, NRA, etc., rely on the beam current on target for a given resolution. This has prompted research and development of brighter ion sources to maintain probe resolution at high beam current. Higher beam current bring problems with beam damage to the specimen. Low beam current techniques however rely on high countrate data collection systems, but this is only for spectroscopy. To produce an image we can increase beam currents to produce live-time images for specimen manipulation and observation. The work presented here will focus on some developments in live-time imaging with a nuclear micro probe that have taken place recently at the School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre (MARC), University of Melbourne

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging in endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease which requires early diagnosis and adequate therapy. Echocardiography plays a key role in diagnosis and follow-up. Subacute infective endocarditis, however, is often difficult to prove echocardiographically due to its more subtle morphological changes. Also, echocardiography cannot reliably differentiate florid vegetations from residual structural changes of the affected valves in cured patients. Therefor, scintigraphy of infection and inflammation has been investigated as a complementary tool in diagnosis and follow-up of infective endocarditis. Immunoscintigraphy with the 99m Tc labelled anti granulocyte antibody in SPECT technique is complementary to echocardiography and seems to assess the floridity of the underlying inflammatory process. The combined use of both imaging modalities allows detection of virtually all cases of subacute infective endocarditis. SPECT immunoscintigraphy with the anti granulocyte antibody seems useful in doubtful cases of infective endocarditis, especially, if echocardiography is non-diagnostic and valve pathology pre-existing. the method may be used for follow-up and monitoring antibiotic therapy

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging in endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L. (Univ. Hospital Charite' , Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Clinic for Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease which requires early diagnosis and adequate therapy. Echocardiography plays a key role in diagnosis and follow-up. Subacute infective endocarditis, however, is often difficult to prove echocardiographically due to its more subtle morphological changes. Also, echocardiography cannot reliably differentiate florid vegetations from residual structural changes of the affected valves in cured patients. Therefor, scintigraphy of infection and inflammation has been investigated as a complementary tool in diagnosis and follow-up of infective endocarditis. Immunoscintigraphy with the [sup 99m]Tc labelled anti granulocyte antibody in SPECT technique is complementary to echocardiography and seems to assess the floridity of the underlying inflammatory process. The combined use of both imaging modalities allows detection of virtually all cases of subacute infective endocarditis. SPECT immunoscintigraphy with the anti granulocyte antibody seems useful in doubtful cases of infective endocarditis, especially, if echocardiography is non-diagnostic and valve pathology pre-existing. the method may be used for follow-up and monitoring antibiotic therapy.

  5. Evaluations of Molecular Nuclear Medicine in pediatric urgencies; Evaluaciones de Medicina Nuclear Molecular en urgencias pediatricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Duncker R, C [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear Molecular, Hospital Infantil de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Several diagnostic procedures of Molecular Nuclear Medicine are considered in first choice in clinical evaluation of patients with different illnesses. So, the gammagraphy is the diagnostic form more sensitive to detect alterations of the perfusion on organs and systems such as bones, heart, brain, lungs or kidneys. Also is possible to identify, localize, evaluate the activity of inflammatory processes such as cellulitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, the abscesses and several primary or metastatic tumours before each other diagnostic technique. In this work is treated about the importance of treatments with radioactive materials have been an important reappearance in last years since with the present capacity to localize specifically intracellular processes (for example, synthesis of DNA) new gateways are opened to research which in coming years would be of great utility. (Author)

  6. Induced-Fission Imaging of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blackston, Matthew A.; Mullens, James Allen; McConchie, Seth M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Bingham, Philip R.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents initial results from development of the induced-fission imaging technique, which can be used for the purpose of measuring or verifying the distribution of fissionable material in an unopened container. The technique is based on stimulating fissions in nuclear material with 14 MeV neutrons from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (D-T) generator and counting the subsequent induced fast fission neutrons with an array of fast organic scintillation detectors. For each source neutron incident on the container, the neutron creation time and initial trajectory are known from detection of the associated alpha particle of the d + t → α + n reaction. Many induced fissions will lie along (or near) the interrogating neutron path, allowing an image of the spatial distribution of prompt induced fissions, and thereby fissionable material, to be constructed. A variety of induced-fission imaging measurements have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a portable, low-dose D-T generator, including single-view radiographic measurements and three-dimensional tomographic measurements. Results from these measurements will be presented along with the neutron transmission images that have been performed simultaneously. This new capability may have applications to a number of areas in which there may be a need to confirm the presence or configuration of nuclear materials, such as nuclear material control and accountability, quality assurance, treaty confirmation, or homeland security applications.

  7. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  8. Molecular imaging in neurological diseases; Molekulare Bildgebung bei neurologischen Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Fougere, C. la [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abteilung Nuklearmedizin und Klinische Molekulare Bildgebung, Department Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    In neurodegeneration and in neuro-oncology, the standard imaging procedure, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows limited sensitivity and specificity. Molecular imaging with specific positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers allows various molecular targets and metabolic processes to be assessed and is thus a valuable adjunct to MRI. Two important examples are referred to here: amino acid transport for neuro-oncological issues, and the recently approved PET tracers for detecting amyloid depositions during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses the clinical relevance and indications for the following nuclear medicine imaging procedures: amyloid PET, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and dopamine transporter (DaT)-SPECT for the diagnosis of dementia and the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, in addition to amino acid PET for the diagnosis of brain tumors and somatostatin receptor imaging in meningioma. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) weist als Standardverfahren bei neurodegenerativen und neuroonkologischen Fragestellungen eine eingeschraenkte Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet auf. Die nuklearmedizinische molekulare Bildgebung mit spezifischen Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)- und single-photon-emission-computed-tomography(SPECT)-Tracern ermoeglicht die Darstellung verschiedener molekularer Targets bzw. Stoffwechselprozesse und stellt damit eine wichtige Ergaenzung zur MRT dar. Hier sei exemplarisch auf die Darstellung des Aminosaeuretransports im Rahmen neuroonkologischer Fragestellungen verwiesen, sowie auf die bereits im praeklinischen Stadium der Alzheimer-Demenz nachweisbaren Amyloidablagerungen mit hierfuer seit Kurzem zugelassenen PET-Tracern. Dieser Uebersichtsbeitrag bespricht die klinische Bedeutung bzw. die Indikationen der folgenden nuklearmedizinischen Untersuchungsverfahren: der Amyloid-PET, der {sup 18}F

  9. Analysis of renal nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, R.M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging of the renal system involves producing time-sequential images showing the distribution of a radiopharmaceutical in the renal system. Producing numerical and graphical data from nuclear medicine studies requires defining regions of interest (ROIs) around various organs within the field of view, such as the left kidney, right kidney and bladder. Automating this process has several advantages: a saving of a clinician's time; enhanced objectivity and reproducibility. This thesis describes the design, implementation and assessment of an automatic ROI generation system. The performance of the system described in this work is assessed by comparing the results to those obtained using manual techniques. Since nuclear medicine images are inherently noisy, the sequence of images is reconstructed using the first few components of a principal components analysis in order to reduce the noise in the images. An image of the summed reconstructed sequence is then formed. This summed image is segmented by using an edge co-occurrence matrix as a feature space for simultaneously classifying regions and locating boundaries. Two methods for assigning the regions of a segmented image to organ class labels are assessed. The first method is based on using Dempster-Shafer theory to combine uncertain evidence from several sources into a single evidence; the second method makes use of a neural network classifier. The use of each technique in classifying the regions of a segmented image are assessed in separate experiments using 40 real patient-studies. A comparative assessment of the two techniques shows that the neural network produces more accurate region labels for the kidneys. The optimum neural system is determined experimentally. Results indicate that combining temporal and spatial information with a priori clinical knowledge produces reasonable ROIs. Consistency in the neural network assignment of regions is enhanced by taking account of the contextual

  10. Symmetries in molecular and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.

    1987-01-01

    Algebric techniques (interacting boson and boson-fermion models) used in the study of nuclear structures, and are able to predict properties of complex nuclei with high accuracy described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Megamasers: Molecular Diagnostics of the Nuclear Ism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Willem A.; Klöckner, Hans-R.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular emissions are powerful tracers of intense heating and star-formation processes in galactic nuclei. In this paper we consider the characteristics of molecular Megamaser emission among the population of (Ultra-) Luminous Infrared Galaxies that are powered by intense star-formation or accretion onto a massive compact object. In addition, we consider the systematic behavior of the line emission of high-density tracer molecules. An evolutionary scenario is presented for ULIRGs that may explain the molecular line ratios observed in the population of FIR galaxies.

  12. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  13. Generation of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, N.X.

    1986-01-01

    Two generation techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance images, the retro-projection and the direct transformation method are studied these techniques are based on the acquisition of NMR signals which phases and frequency components are codified in space by application of magnetic field gradients. The construction of magnet coils is discussed, in particular a suitable magnet geometry with polar pieces and air gap. The obtention of image contrast by T1 and T2 relaxation times reconstructed from generated signals using sequences such as spin-echo, inversion-recovery and stimulated echo, is discussed. The mathematical formalism of matrix solution for Bloch equations is also presented. (M.C.K.)

  14. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  15. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  16. A gamma-ray tracking detector for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Helsby, W.I.; Nolan, P.; Boston, A.

    2003-01-01

    A design for a gamma-ray detector for molecular imaging is presented. The system is based on solid-state strip detector technology. The advantages of position sensitivity coupled with fine spectral resolution are exploited to produce a tracking detector for use with a variety of isotopes in nuclear medicine. Current design concepts employ both silicon and germanium layers to provide an energy range from 60 keV to >1 MeV. This allows a reference X-ray image to be collected simultaneously with the gamma-ray image providing accurate anatomical registration. The tracking ability of the gamma-ray detector allows ambiguities in the data set to be resolved which would otherwise cause events to be rejected in standard non-tracking system. Efficiency improvements that high solid angle coverage and the use of a higher proportion of events make time resolved imaging and multi-isotope work possible. A modular detector system, designed for viewing small animals has been accepted for funding

  17. Nuclear imaging of the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Whee Bahk

    1992-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is one of the most valuable nuclear imaging procedure, especially remarkable for its high sensitivity in disclosing bone metastasis of cancer long before radiographic demonstration. Bone scintigraphy is also useful in the diagnosis of covert fracture, occult trauma, bone contusion, early acute osteomyelitis, acute pyogenic arthritis and avascular bone necrosis. Measurements of bone clearance of radiopharmaceuticals, absorptiometry and quantitative bone scintigraphy are applied to the study of metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weiping; Wang Qi; Zhou Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the basic principle of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Protein's structures and functions and dynamics studied by liquid NMR are elaborated; methods for enhancing the resolution of solid state NMR and its applications are discussed; the principle of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is interpreted, and applications in different aspects are reviewed. Finally, the progress of NMR is commented. (authors)

  19. Nuclear imaging of the skeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee

    1993-12-31

    Bone scintigraphy is one of the most valuable nuclear imaging procedure, especially remarkable for its high sensitivity in disclosing bone metastasis of cancer long before radiographic demonstration. Bone scintigraphy is also useful in the diagnosis of covert fracture, occult trauma, bone contusion, early acute osteomyelitis, acute pyogenic arthritis and avascular bone necrosis. Measurements of bone clearance of radiopharmaceuticals, absorptiometry and quantitative bone scintigraphy are applied to the study of metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...

  1. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  2. Images of mycobacterium for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.T.S.; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis is responsible for 2.9 million deaths annually worldwide. The necessity for optimizing time to detect the tuberculosis bacillus (mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the sputum samples of affected individuals (TB patients) led to the development of a methodology based on the doping with boron of the bacillus, submission of the samples to thermal neutron beam and ionizing particles, generating nuclear reactions of the types: 10 B (n,α) 7 Li and 10 B(α, p) 13 C. Images of these bacilli are obtained by means of the nuclear tracks produced in the CR-39 detector for particles products of these nuclear reactions, α and p. When the CR-39 is submitted to a chemical attack the traces are developed and the images of the microorganisms registered in the detector can be observed with a conventional light microscope, characterizing them by morphology. The use of this methodology results in images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis becoming more defined and enlarged than those obtained by bacilloscopy, in which the sample is submitted to the method of coloration of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and observed in light microscopy. (author)

  3. Developing a programme on molecular nuclear medicine. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    During the last decades, new methodologies have emerged in the molecular nuclear medicine field developed to contribute to the detection, diagnosis, staging and treatment follow-up of human diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are two examples of this methodology that enabled the study of molecular alterations of cell metabolism in the living subject with non-invasive approaches. 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used for many disease diagnoses, differential diagnosis and treatment follow-up. Like FDG, new molecules are also being identified and are promising candidates to be used. Molecular imaging studies the expression of genes involved in the evolution of different diseases. This data has been shown to be a reliable prognostic marker, for accurate diagnosis or for predicting response to treatment in certain cases. The use of molecular imaging in the evaluation of exogenous gene therapy and the study of endogenous gene expression in genetic, neurological, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases will be of significant importance worldwide in the near future. The use of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging for the study of a disease assures the determination of integral parameters for prognosis and diagnosis. The improvement of the therapeutic decisions involved with the stage and prognosis of a disease will certainly add to the clinical studies that are designed for patient care, treatment and survival improvement. Many efforts have been made and will continue in the future to demonstrate the potential of the association of molecular nuclear technology and nuclear medicine imaging, since it has been shown to be useful and applicable to many important diseases. In addition, molecular biology techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differential gene expression have added important findings to the study of disease pathogenesis. These techniques have

  4. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-01-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Molecular imaging in the era of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Clinical imaging creates visual representations of the body interior for disease assessment. The role of clinical imaging significantly overlaps with that of pathology, and diagnostic workflows largely depend on both fields. The field of clinical imaging is presently undergoing a radical change through the emergence of a new field called molecular imaging. This new technology, which lies at the intersection between imaging and molecular biology, enables noninvasive visualization of biochemical processes at the molecular level within living bodies. Molecular imaging differs from traditional anatomical imaging in that biomarkers known as imaging probes are used to visualize target molecules-of-interest. This ability opens up exciting new possibilities for applications in oncologic, neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Molecular imaging is expected to make major contributions to personalized medicine by allowing earlier diagnosis and predicting treatment response. The technique is also making a huge impact on pharmaceutical development by optimizing preclinical and clinical tests for new drug candidates. This review will describe the basic principles of molecular imaging and will briefly touch on three examples (from an immense list of new techniques) that may contribute to personalized medicine: receptor imaging, angiogenesis imaging, and apoptosis imaging.

  6. Nuclear imaging in the realm of medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, Frank

    2003-01-01

    In medical imaging, information concerning the anatomy or biological processes of a patient is detected and presented on film or screen for interpretation by a reader. The information flow from patient to reader optimally implies: - the emission, transmission or reflection of information carriers, typically photons or sound waves, which have to be correctly modulated by patient information through interactions in the patient; - their detection by adequate imaging equipment preserving essential spectral, spatial and/or temporal information; - the presentation of the information in the most perceivable way; - the observation by an unbiased and trained expert. In reality, only an approximation to this optimal situation is achieved. It is the goal of R and D in the medical imaging field to approach the optimum as much as possible within societal constraints such as patient risk and comfort, economics, etc. First, the basic physical concepts underlying the imaging process will be introduced. Different imaging modalities will then be situated in the realm of medical imaging with some emphasis on nuclear imaging

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  8. Application of mathematical morphology in discrimination nuclear track images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingxian; Ge Liangquan; Xiao Caijin

    2008-01-01

    Solid nuclear tracks test is an important and usual method in radioactivity test. But how to divide the overlapped tracks is the key of the processing of digital images of the nuclear tracks. Mathematical Morphology is used in processing of digital images of the nuclear tracks. As a result, the method has been programmed by c++ and used in experiments. It is successful in processing of digital images of the nuclear tracks. (authors)

  9. Electron-nuclear corellations for photoinduced dynamics in molecular dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilin, Dmitri S.; Pereversev, Yuryi V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2003-03-01

    Ultrafast photoinduced dynamics of electronic excitation in molecular dimers is drastically affected by dynamic reorganization of of inter- and intra- molecular nuclear configuration modelled by quantized nuclear degree of freedom [1]. The dynamics of the electronic population and nuclear coherence is analyzed with help of both numerical solution of the chain of coupled differential equations for mean coordinate, population inversion, electronic-vibrational correlation etc.[2] and by propagating the Gaussian wavepackets in relevant adiabatic potentials. Intriguing results were obtained in the approximation of small energy difference and small change of nuclear equilibrium configuration for excited electronic states. In the limiting case of resonance between electronic states energy difference and frequency of the nuclear mode these results have been justified by comparison to exactly solvable Jaynes-Cummings model. It has been found that the photoinduced processes in dimer are arranged according to their time scales:(i) fast scale of nuclear motion,(ii) intermediate scale of dynamical redistribution of electronic population between excited states as well as growth and dynamics of electronic -nuclear correlation,(iii) slow scale of electronic population approaching to the quasiequilibrium distribution, decay of electronic-nuclear correlation, and diminishing the amplitude of mean coordinate oscillations, accompanied by essential growth of the nuclear coordinate dispersion associated with the overall nuclear wavepacket width. Demonstrated quantum-relaxational features of photoinduced vibronic dinamical processess in molecular dimers are obtained by simple method, applicable to large biological systems with many degrees of freedom. [1] J. A. Cina, D. S. Kilin, T. S. Humble, J. Chem. Phys. (2003) in press. [2] O. V. Prezhdo, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2995 (2002).

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-01-01

    The role of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the kidney was analyzed in 18 persons (6 normal volunteers, 3 patients with pelvocaliectasis, 2 with peripelvic cysts, 1 with renal sinus lipomatosis, 3 with renal failure, 1 with glycogen storage disease, and 2 with polycystic kidney disease). Ultrasound and/or computed tomography (CT) studies were available for comparison in every case. In the normal kidney distinct anatomical structures were clearly differentiated by NMR. The best anatomical detail ws obtained with spin echo (SE) imaging, using a pulse sequence interval of 1,000 msec and an echo delay time of 28 msec. However, in the evaluation of normal and pathological conditions, all four intensity images (SE 500/28, SE 500/56, SE 1,000/28, and SE 1,000/56) have to be analyzed. No definite advantage was found in using SE imaging with a pulse sequence interval of 1,500 msec. Inversion recovery imaging enhanced the differences between the cortex and medulla, but it had a low signal-to-noise level and, therefore, a suboptimal overall resolution. The advantages of NMR compared with CT and ultrasound are discussed, and it is concluded that NMR imaging will prove to be a useful modality in the evaluation of renal disease

  11. Filter's importance in nuclear cardiology imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Maria C. de; Lima, Ana L.S.; Santos, Joyra A. dos; Megueriam, Berdj A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality which employs tomography procedures for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. One of the most commonly used apparatus is the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). To perform exams, a very small amount of a radiopharmaceutical must be given to the patient. Then, a gamma camera is placed in convenient positions to perform the photon counting, which is used to reconstruct a full 3 dimensional distribution of the radionuclide inside the body or organ. This reconstruction provides a 3-dimensional image in spatial coordinates, of the body or organ under study, allowing the physician to give the diagnostic. Image reconstruction is usually worked in the frequency domain, due to a great simplification introduced by the Fourier decomposition of image spectra. After the reconstruction, an inverse Fourier transform must be applied to trace back the image into spatial coordinates. To optimize this reconstruction procedure, digital filters are used to remove undesirable components of frequency, which can 'shadow' relevant physical signatures of diseases. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the applied filter is strongly dependent on its own mathematical parameters. In this work we demonstrate how filters interfere on image quality in cardiology examinations with SPECT, concerning perfusion and myocardial viability and the importance of the medical physicist in the choice of the right filters avoiding some serious problems that could occur in the inadequate processing of an image damaging the medical diagnosis. (author)

  12. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  13. Tumour angiogenesis pathways: related clinical issues and implications for nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiele, Christophe van de; De Winter, Olivier; Dierckx, Rudi Andre; Oltenfreiter, Ruth; Slegers, Guido; Signore, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis is essential for growth, invasion and metastasis. Retrospective studies suggest that it is an independent prognostic factor that merits prospective validation. Furthermore, as tumour blood vessels show many differences from normal vessels and are not genetically unstable, they form a key area for therapy development. However, as anti-angiogenic therapy is primarily cytostatic and not cytotoxic, novel tailor-made specific end-points for treatment monitoring are required. In this regard, suitable molecular parameters for imaging tumour angiogenesis by means of nuclear medicine are being explored. Here we review current knowledge on the multiple pathways controlling tumour angiogenesis and try to assess which are the most clinically relevant for nuclear medicine imaging. Parameters that may influence the imaging potential of radiopharmaceuticals for angiogenesis imaging such as molecular weight and structure, their targeted location within the tumour and their usefulness in terms of specificity and constancy of the targeted molecular pathway are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylergil, Volkan, E-mail: beylergv@mskcc.org [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  15. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Beylergil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  16. Molecular Imaging : Computer Reconstruction and Practice - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Imaging from Physical Principles to Computer Reconstruction and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the lectures presented at the ninth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2006 and is dedicated to nuclear physics applications in molecular imaging. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of image reconstruction processing and management and illustrate the role of digital imaging in clinical practice. Medical computing and image reconstruction are introduced by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, relevant quality aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Several stages of the imaging process are specifically addressed, e.g. optimisation of data acquisition and storage, distributed computing, physiology and detector modelling, computer algorithms for image reconstruction and measurement in tomography applications, for both clinical and biomedical research applications. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehen...

  17. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Francesco; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss about the role of new probes for molecular imaging in the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa). This review focuses particularly on the role of new promising radiotracers for the molecular imaging with PET/computed tomography in the detection of PCa recurrence. The role of these new imaging techniques to guide lesion-target therapies and the potential application of these molecular probes as theranostics agents is discussed. Finally, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to castration in PCa and the maintenance of active androgen receptor are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Helping Your Heart with Nuclear Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA is helping in the fight against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by assisting its Member States in using nuclear science and technology to track and monitor CVDs. Nuclear imaging techniques allow doctors to look inside a patient’s body and see how organs function without running the risk of surgery. CVDs kill more people than just about anything else on the planet. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that roughly 30 per cent of all deaths in 2008 were caused by CVDs. That number is increasing, and by 2030 the WHO estimates that more than 23 million people will die annually from CVDs. For comparison, that is equivalent to roughly the entire population of a medium-sized country

  19. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  20. Microscopic study of nuclear 'pasta' by quantum molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    Structure of cold dense matter at subnuclear densities is investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. We succeeded in showing that the phases with slab-like and rod-like nuclei etc. and be formed dynamically from hot uniform nuclear matter without any assumptions on nuclear shape. We also observe intermediate phases, which has complicated nuclear shapes. Geometrical structures of matter are analyzed with Minkowski functionals, and it is found out that intermediate phases can be characterized as ones with negative Euler characteristic. Our result suggests the existence of these kinds of phases in addition to the simple 'pasta' phases in neutron star crusts. (author)

  1. From molecular imaging to systems diagnostics: Time for another paradigm shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, King C.P. [Department of Radiology, Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, D280 Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: kli@tmhs.org

    2009-05-15

    The term 'Molecular Imaging' has hit the consciousness of radiologists only in the past decade although many of the concepts that molecular imaging encompasses has been practiced in biomedical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine, for many decades. Many new imaging techniques have allowed us to interrogate biologic events at the cellular and molecular level in vivo in four dimensions but the challenge now is to translate these techniques into clinical practice in a way that will enable us to revolutionize healthcare delivery. The purpose of this article is to introduce the term 'Systems Diagnostics' and examine how radiologists can become translators of disparate sources of information into medical decisions and therapeutic actions.

  2. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  3. Current applications of molecular imaging and luminescence-based techniques in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Wan, Haitong; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2011-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is fundamentally different from Western medicine, has been widely investigated using various approaches. Cellular- or molecular-based imaging has been used to investigate and illuminate the various challenges identified and progress made using therapeutic methods in TCM. Insight into the processes of TCM at the cellular and molecular changes and the ability to image these processes will enhance our understanding of various diseases of TCM and will provide new tools to diagnose and treat patients. Various TCM therapies including herbs and formulations, acupuncture and moxibustion, massage, Gua Sha, and diet therapy have been analyzed using positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and optical imaging. These imaging tools have kept pace with developments in molecular biology, nuclear medicine, and computer technology. We provide an overview of recent developments in demystifying ancient knowledge - like the power of energy flow and blood flow meridians, and serial naturopathies - which are essential to visually and vividly recognize the body using modern technology. In TCM, treatment can be individualized in a holistic or systematic view that is consistent with molecular imaging technologies. Future studies might include using molecular imaging in conjunction with TCM to easily diagnose or monitor patients naturally and noninvasively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the physical interpretation of the nuclear molecular orbital energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charry, Jorge; Pedraza-González, Laura; Reyes, Andrés

    2017-06-07

    Recently, several groups have extended and implemented molecular orbital (MO) schemes to simultaneously obtain wave functions for electrons and selected nuclei. Many of these schemes employ an extended Hartree-Fock approach as a first step to find approximate electron-nuclear wave functions and energies. Numerous studies conducted with these extended MO methodologies have explored various effects of quantum nuclei on physical and chemical properties. However, to the best of our knowledge no physical interpretation has been assigned to the nuclear molecular orbital energy (NMOE) resulting after solving extended Hartree-Fock equations. This study confirms that the NMOE is directly related to the molecular electrostatic potential at the position of the nucleus.

  5. Eigenimage filtering of nuclear medicine image sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windham, J.P.; Froelich, J.W.; Abd-Allah, M.

    1985-01-01

    In many nuclear medicine imaging sequences the localization of radioactivity in organs other than the target organ interferes with imaging of the desired anatomical structure or physiological process. A filtering technique has been developed which suppresses the interfering process while enhancing the desired process. This technique requires the identification of temporal sequential signatures for both the interfering and desired processes. These signatures are placed in the form of signature vectors. Signature matrices, M/sub D/ and M/sub U/, are formed by taking the outer product expansion of the temporal signature vectors for the desired and interfering processes respectively. By using the transformation from the simultaneous diagonalization of these two signature matrices a weighting vector is obtained. The technique is shown to maximize the projection of the desired process while minimizing the interfering process based upon an extension of Rayleigh's Principle. The technique is demonstrated for first pass renal and cardiac flow studies. This filter offers a potential for simplifying and extending the accuracy of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

  6. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  7. Computational methods in molecular imaging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunjan, Vinit Kumar; Venkatesh, C; Amarnath, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the experimental investigations that have been carried out on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (MRI & CT) images using state-of-the-art Computational Image processing techniques, and tabulates the statistical values wherever necessary. In a very simple and straightforward way, it explains how image processing methods are used to improve the quality of medical images and facilitate analysis. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, medical doctors and bioinformatics experts alike.

  8. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Dipanjan [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: dipanjan@wustl.edu; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA (United States)], E-mail: scaruthers@cmrl.wustl.edu

    2009-05-15

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  9. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Caruthers, Shelton D.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  10. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in the Dentomaxillofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Heidi R; Colletti, Patrick M

    2018-07-01

    Nuclear medicine studies evaluate physiology on a molecular level providing earlier detection of lesions before morphologic change is evident. 99m Tc-MDP and 18 F-fluoride bone scans detect osteomyelitis earlier than radiographs and computed tomography (CT); aid in diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorder; and evaluate activity of condylar hyperplasia, extent of Paget disease, and viability of bone grafts. 18 F-FDG PET/CT distinguish between soft tissue and bone infections and diagnose osteomyelitis complicated by fracture or surgery. FDG PET is more accurate than CT alone and has a major role in staging, restaging, and assessing response to therapy for head and neck malignancies and in detecting sequelae of therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers.

  12. Nuclear imaging evaluation of galactosylation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, In Kyu; Cho, Chong Su; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    Chitosan has been studied as a non-viral gene delivery vector, drug delivery carrier, metal chelater, food additive, and radiopharmaceutical, among other things. Recently, galactose-graft chitosan was studied as a non-viral gene and drug delivery vector to target hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of nuclear imaging for in vivo evaluation of targeting the hepatocyte by galactose grafting. Galactosyl methylated chitosan (GMC) was produced by methylation to lactobionic acid coupled chitosan Cytotoxicity of 99 mTc-GMC was determined by MTT assay. Rabbits were injected via their auricular vein with 99 mTc-GMC and 99 mTc-methylated chitosan (MC), the latter of which does not contain a galactose group, and images were acquired with a gamma camera equipped with a parallel hole collimator. The composition of the galactose group in galactosylated chitosan (GC), as well as the tri-, di-, or mono-methylation of GMC, was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The results of MTT assay indicated that 99 mTc-GMC was non-toxic. 99 mTc-GMC specifically accumulated in the liver within 10 minutes of injection and maintained high hepatic uptake. In contrast, 99 mTc-MC showed faint liver uptake. 99 mTc-GMC scintigraphy of rabbits showed that the galactose ligand principally targeted the liver while the chitosan functionalities led to excretion through the urinary system. Bioconjugation with a specific ligand endows some degree of targetability to an administered molecule or drug, as in the case of galactose for hepatocyte in vivo, and evaluating said targetability is a clear example of the great benefit proffered by nuclear imaging

  13. Invariant delineation of nuclear architecture in glioblastoma multiforme for clinical and molecular association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Borowsky, Alexander; Loss, Leandro; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-04-01

    Automated analysis of whole mount tissue sections can provide insights into tumor subtypes and the underlying molecular basis of neoplasm. However, since tumor sections are collected from different laboratories, inherent technical and biological variations impede analysis for very large datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our objective is to characterize tumor histopathology, through the delineation of the nuclear regions, from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections. Such a representation can then be mined for intrinsic subtypes across a large dataset for prediction and molecular association. Furthermore, nuclear segmentation is formulated within a multi-reference graph framework with geodesic constraints, which enables computation of multidimensional representations, on a cell-by-cell basis, for functional enrichment and bioinformatics analysis. Here, we present a novel method, multi-reference graph cut (MRGC), for nuclear segmentation that overcomes technical variations associated with sample preparation by incorporating prior knowledge from manually annotated reference images and local image features. The proposed approach has been validated on manually annotated samples and then applied to a dataset of 377 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) whole slide images from 146 patients. For the GBM cohort, multidimensional representation of the nuclear features and their organization have identified 1) statistically significant subtypes based on several morphometric indexes, 2) whether each subtype can be predictive or not, and 3) that the molecular correlates of predictive subtypes are consistent with the literature. Data and intermediaries for a number of tumor types (GBM, low grade glial, and kidney renal clear carcinoma) are available at: http://tcga.lbl.gov for correlation with TCGA molecular data. The website also provides an interface for panning and zooming of whole mount tissue sections with/without overlaid segmentation results for quality

  14. Combination of radiological and nuclear medical imaging in animals: an overview about the today's possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behe, M.; Keil, B.; Kiessling, A.; Heverhagen, J.T.; Alfke, H.; Boehm, I.; Gotthardt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging of small animals has made considerable progress in the last years. Various research fields are interested in imaging small animals due to the lower numbers of animals per experiment. This has advantages with respect to financial, ethical and research aspects. Non-invasive imaging allows examination of one animal several times during the same experiment. This makes it possible to follow a pathological process in the same animal over time. However, the radiological methods used such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography as well as the nuclear medicine methods such as single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography suffer from disadvantages. Molecular aspects are limited in the radiological methods while anatomical localization is difficult in nuclear medicine. The fusion of these methods leads to additional information. This review shows today's possibilities with their advantages as well as disadvantages. (orig.)

  15. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Palumbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI is discussed.

  16. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  17. Cellular dosimetry in nuclear medicine imaging: training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardin, I.; Faraggi, M.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.; Bok, B.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides used in nuclear medicine imaging emit not only diagnostically useful photons, but also energy electron emissions, responsible for dose heterogeneity at the cellular level. The mean dose delivered to the cell nucleus by electron emissions of 99m Tc, 123 I, 111 In, 67 Ga, and 201 Tl, has been calculated, for the cell nucleus, a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distribution of radioactivity. This model takes into account both the self-dose which results from the radionuclide located in the target cell, and the cross-dose, which comes from the surrounding cells. The results obtained by cellular dosimetry (D cel ) have been compared with those obtained with conventional dosimetry (D conv ), by assuming the same amount of radioactivity per cell. Cellular dosimetry shows, for a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, that the main contribution to the dose to the cell nucleus, comes from the surrounding cells. On the other hand, for a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity, the self-dose is not negligible and may be the main contribution. The comparison between cellular and conventional dosimetry shows that D cel /D conv ratio ranges from 0.61 and O.89, in case of a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, depending on the radionuclide and cell dimensions. Thus, conventional dosimetry slightly overestimates the mean dose to the cell nucleus. On the other hand, D cel /D conv ranges from 1.1 to 75, in case of a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity. Conventional dosimetry may strongly underestimates the absorbed dose to the nucleus, when radioactivity is located in the nucleus. The study indicates that in nuclear medicine imaging, cellular dosimetry may lead to a better understanding of biological effects of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  18. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, C.; Palestro, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ("9"9"mTc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ("6"7Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. "6"7Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1–3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. "1"1"1In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-["1"8F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75–99% have

  19. Molecular-resolution imaging of pentacene on KCl(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. Neff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of pentacene on KCl(001 at submonolayer coverage was studied by dynamic scanning force microscopy. At coverages below one monolayer pentacene was found to arrange in islands with an upright configuration. The molecular arrangement was resolved in high-resolution images. In these images two different types of patterns were observed, which switch repeatedly. In addition, defects were found, such as a molecular vacancy and domain boundaries.

  20. Nuclear imaging of hepatic impact injury on rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Rongbing; Wen Jianliang; Tang Weijia; Ma Xiaolin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect and clinic application value of nuclear imaging on hepatic impact experiment. Methods: Experimental rabbits were impact injured on liver with BIM-IV bio-impact machine. Liver imaging was performed with sodium phytate labeled by 99m Tc. Liver blood pool imaging was performed with labeled red blood cells. The results of imaging were similar with the results of anatomy. Results: There were significant difference between normal liver and injured liver. Radio diminution and defect were showed on injured liver areas in labeled hepatic cells. Many types of abnormal radioactivity distribution were observed in liver pool imaging. The results of liver imaging and liver blood pool imaging were corresponded to the results of anatomy. Conclusion: Changes of hepatic cell structures and function after injury could be showed by nuclear imaging. Nuclear imaging was valuable in determining injured liver position or injured degree

  1. Artificial intelligence as a diagnostic adjunct in cardiovascular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The radiologist and/or nuclear medicine physician is literally bombarded with information from today's diagnostic imaging technologies. As a consequence of this, whereas a decade ago the emphasis in medical image analysis was on improving the extraction of diagnostic information by developing and using more sophisticated imaging modalities, today those working on the development of medical imaging technology are struggling to find ways to handle all gathered information effectively. This chapter gives an introduction to the area of artificial intelligence, with an emphasis on the research ongoing in cardiovascular nuclear imaging. This chapter has reviewed the place of artificial intelligence in cardiovascular nuclear imaging. It is intended to provide a general sense of this new and emerging field, an insight into some of its specific methodologies and applications, and a closer look at the several AI approaches currently being applied in cardiovascular nuclear imaging

  2. Nanobody: The “Magic Bullet” for Molecular Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases. PMID:24578722

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Molecular Tumor Targets in Nuclear Medicine: Immunohistochemistry Is One Option, but Under Which Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    The identification of new molecular targets for diagnostic and therapeutic applications using in vitro methods is an important challenge in nuclear medicine. One such method is immunohistochemistry, increasingly popular because it is easy to perform. This review presents the case for conducting receptor immunohistochemistry to evaluate potential molecular targets in human tumor tissue sections. The focus is on the immunohistochemistry of G-protein-coupled receptors, one of the largest families of cell surface proteins, representing a major class of drug targets and thus playing an important role in nuclear medicine. This review identifies common pitfalls and challenges and provides guidelines on performing such immunohistochemical studies. An appropriate validation of the target is a prerequisite for developing robust and informative new molecular probes. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, Gabriela; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Signore, Alberto; Chianelli, Marco; Prandini, Napoleone

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Osteomyelitis of the foot is the most frequent complication in diabetic patients. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in diagnosis and for therapy follow-up, using different tracers. We reviewed 57 papers on diabetic foot imaging (published from 1982 to 2004, 50 original papers and 7 reviews), for a total of 2889 lesions. Data analysis has been carried out to establish which imaging technique could be used as a 'gold standard' for diagnosis of infection and to evaluate the extent of disease and to monitor the efficacy of therapy. Data analysis revealed that three-phase bone-scan is sensitive but not specific whereas specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc-WBC scintigraphy is higher than 111 In- WBC scintigraphy. In the forefoot leukocyte scintigraphy may be useful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis and for monitoring the response to medical treatment. In the mid/hind foot the leukocytes uptake is not related only to the presence of infected region, but it is attributed to inflammation, fractures and reparative processes. Other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc/ 111 In-HIG, radiolabelled antibody and their fragments, showed high sensibility, but lower specificity than WBC (96.8/66.5, 95.8/70.2, 91.3/62 vs 85.8/84.5). Conclusion: It emerged that in the forefoot when clinical suspicious of osteomyelitis is low and medical treatment is contemplated, three-phase bon scan is the procedure of choice. A positive test is not diagnostic for osteomyelitis, and radiolabelled WBC scintigraphy is necessary. In the mid/hind foot, diagnosis of neuropathic joint with infection is problematic. Radiolabelled WBC imaging is probably the most accurate test for determining the presence of infection. Although a negative study strongly indicate the absence of osteomyelitis, it is important to note that a positive result requires a complementary study with marrow agent. (author)

  5. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  6. Proceedings of a workshop on molecular nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reba, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy (DOE) has increased the emphasis on research in structural biology and molecular biology. The Department has increased support substantially in the area of basic molecular and structural biology research. To exploit the advances in these fields, OHER has sought to apply those advances in their other areas of responsibility, e.g., health effects research, environmental biology, and, in particular, nuclear medicine. The applications of biotechnology have contributed greatly to the productive research efforts of molecular biology. These techniques include gene manipulation for targeted gene delivery; characterization of molecular probes for hormone, tumor, and neuroreceptors; the receptor-agonist/antagonist binding interactions; studies of mechanisms of cellular communication; and the development of in vitro diagnostics such as molecular probes for studying the aging process and patients with mental disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. The importance of this work is the reasonable expectation that mainly, through an appreciation of the molecular basis of disease, will the most effective and rapid progress be made toward understanding, identifying, solving, and preventing specific disease processes. Critical questions arising before and during the Workshop are how the following technologies can be applied in a practical clinical research or patient management setting: the recombinant DNA methodology, the technology of engineered monoclonal antibodies, the new methods for protein production and purification, and the production of transgenic animals

  7. Whole mount nuclear fluorescent imaging: convenient documentation of embryo morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Lisa L; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Here, we describe a relatively inexpensive and easy method to produce high quality images that reveal fine topological details of vertebrate embryonic structures. The method relies on nuclear staining of whole mount embryos in combination with confocal microscopy or conventional wide field fluorescent microscopy. In cases where confocal microscopy is used in combination with whole mount nuclear staining, the resulting embryo images can rival the clarity and resolution of images produced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescent nuclear staining may be performed with a variety of cell permeable nuclear dyes, enabling the technique to be performed with multiple standard microscope/illumination or confocal/laser systems. The method may be used to document morphology of embryos of a variety of organisms, as well as individual organs and tissues. Nuclear stain imaging imposes minimal impact on embryonic specimens, enabling imaged specimens to be utilized for additional assays. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens

  9. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Dementia and Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Atul K; Drzezga, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine (PM) has been defined as "prevention and treatment strategies that take individual variability into account." Molecular imaging (MI) is an ideally suited tool for PM approaches to neurodegenerative dementia and movement disorders (MD). Here we review PM approaches and discuss how they may be applied to other associated neurodegenerative dementia and MD. With ongoing major therapeutic research initiatives that include the use of molecular imaging, we look forward to established interventions targeted to specific molecular pathophysiology and expect the potential benefit of MI PM approaches in neurodegenerative dementia and MD will only increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal radiation dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Byun, Byun Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been an important field in nuclear medicine. In radionuclide therapy, relevant evaluation of internally absorbed dose is essential for the achievement of efficient and sufficient treatment of incurable disease, and can be accomplished by means of accurate measurement of radioactivity in body and its changes with time. Recently, the advances of nuclear medicine imaging and multi modality imaging processing techniques can provide chance of more accurate and easier measurement of the measures commented above, in cooperation of conventional imaging based approaches. In this review, basic concept for internal dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging is summarized with several check points which should be considered in real practice

  11. Molecular mass spectrometry imaging in biomedical and life science research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Strohalm, Martin; Havlíček, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 5 (2010), s. 423-443 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GPP206/10/P018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Chemical imaging * Molecular imaging Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals: nanoparticles like multi-functional systems for the obtaining in vivo of molecular images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Ramirez de la Cruz, F. M.; Ocampo G, B. E.; Morales A, E.; Santos C, C. L.; Mendoza S, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of obtaining direct or indirect molecular images detect and register the space-temporary distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biological, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The advanced techniques of image like the nuclear magnetic resonance, the single photon emission computed tomography, the positron emission tomography and the images of optic fluorescence have been used successfully to detect these processes. On the other hand, the utility of the nanoparticles for any application is dependent of the physicochemical properties that present, being possible to modify their surface when making them react with different biomolecules what allows the formation of conjugates with specific molecular recognition. The joint of various protein molecules, peptides or oligonucleotides to the surface of a nanoparticle produce a multi-functional system able to increase the multivalent joints from the nanoparticles-biomolecules to their receivers for the obtaining of molecular images in vivo. The peptides stimulate, regulate or inhibit numerous functions of the life, acting mainly as information transmitters and activity coordinators of several tissues in the organism. The receivers of regulator peptides are over represented in numerous types of cancer cells and they are protein structures. These receivers have been used as white molecular of marked peptides, to locate primary malignant tumors and their metastasis, using the diagnostic techniques of molecular image mentioned above, which consist basically on the radio peptides use and conjugated peptides to fluoro chromes, to metallic nanoparticles and nano crystals. A summary of the work is presented carried out by the personnel of the Radio-active Materials and Chemistry Departments of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares in this field. (Author)

  13. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  14. The development of nanobody probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhiling; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The nanobody is a novel antibody fragment, which has beneficial biophysical and pharmacokinetic properties, such as the small molecular weight, high affinity and specificity for antigen. Nanobody is ideally suitable for molecular imaging as a targeting probe that could label antigen at nmol level in vitro. In animal models of xenografted tumor, atherosclerotic plaques and brain disorders, the target tissues were specifically and clearly detected and the high tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratios were obtained. Structural or chemical modified nanobodies will have higher affinity and retention to target tissues, and be convenient for the application of molecular imaging. With the development of the related research, nanobody-based molecular imaging will be gradually transformed into the clinical applications, and play an important role in early diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. (authors)

  15. Mechanically magnified imaging of molecular interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stibor, A.; Stefanov, A.; Goldfarb, F.; Reiger, E.; Arndt, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Imaging of surface adsorbed molecules is presented as a valuable detection method for matter interferometry with fluorescent particles. A mechanical magnification scheme is implemented to circumvent the optical resolution limit. Mechanically magnified fluorescence imaging turns out to be an excellent tool for recording quantum interference patterns with high visibility. A unique advantage of this technique is its scalability: for certain classes of nanosized objects, the detection sensitivity will even increase significantly with increasing size of the particle. (author)

  16. Cancerology: to see and to treat with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    By allowing to visualize, beyond the organs and tissues structure, the molecules present inside cells and their action in cell functioning, to the genome level, the molecular imaging opens a new era in biology and medicine and creates the conditions for the perfecting of targeting and personalised treatments of cancers. The E.M.I.L. network is the only European network in molecular imaging for the cancer. It has been initiated and is coordinated by 'the genes expression in vivo imaging group' of the Cea at Orsay. The E.M.I.L network represents 43 organisms of 13 european countries with 6 technological platforms. (N.C.)

  17. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy

    2006-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  18. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2008-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  19. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2007-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  20. [Future perspectives for diagnostic imaging in urology: from anatomic and functional to molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macis, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Silvia; Di Franco, Davide; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The future approach of diagnostic imaging in urology follows the technological progress, which made the visualization of in vivo molecular processes possible. From anatomo-morphological diagnostic imaging and through functional imaging molecular radiology is reached. Based on molecular probes, imaging is aimed at assessing the in vivo molecular processes, their physiology and function at cellular level. The future imaging will investigate the complex tumor functioning as metabolism, aerobic glycolysis in particular, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, metastatic potential, hypoxia, apoptosis and receptors expressed by neoplastic cells. Methods for performing molecular radiology are CT, MRI, PET-CT, PET-MRI, SPECT and optical imaging. Molecular ultrasound combines technological advancement with targeted contrast media based on microbubbles, this allowing the selective registration of microbubble signal while that of stationary tissues is suppressed. An experimental study was carried out where the ultrasound molecular probe BR55 strictly bound to prostate tumor results in strong enhancement in the early phase after contrast, this contrast being maintained in the late phase. This late enhancement is markedly significant for the detection of prostatic cancer foci and to guide the biopsy sampling. The 124I-cG250 molecular antibody which is strictly linked to cellular carbonic anhydrase IX of clear cell renal carcinoma, allows the acquisition of diagnostic PET images of clear cell renal carcinoma without biopsy. This WG-250 (RENCAREX) antibody was used as a therapy in metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Future advancements and applications will result in early cancer diagnosis, personalized therapy that will be specific according to the molecular features of cancer and leading to the development of catheter-based multichannel molecular imaging devices for cystoscopy-based molecular imaging diagnosis and intervention.

  1. International conference on clinical PET and molecular nuclear medicine (IPET 2007). Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is organizing its first international conference on 'Clinical PET and Molecular Nuclear Medicine'. Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past two decades. Today, imaging is at a crossroad, with molecular targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Observing molecular interactions in the living body by the radiotracer technique has become known as 'molecular nuclear medicine'. Molecular nuclear medicine techniques analyze cellular biochemistry and its relationship to disease processes expressed in tissue and organ dysfunction, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. People can often have similar manifestations of disease, but no two patients will be the same. Functional radionuclide imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) provide excellent opportunities to follow the pathology in individual patients and therefore provide a means for tailored clinical management. These also provide the means to assess the response to treatment in a safe and non-invasive manner. Changes at molecular and cellular levels provide vital clues for evaluating the effectiveness of chosen clinical treatment plans. This information is expected to have a major impact on understanding disease, disease detection, individualised treatment, and drug development. Recently, considerable attention has been drawn to nuclear medicine with the visualization of biochemical processes in vivo such as PET studies with 18F-FDG in many different organs and in cancerous tissues. With the arrival of PET/CT systems there is a new era of accurate mapping of disease processes. Today, 18F-FDG is the most useful PET tracer for the detection, staging, treatment planning and management of cancer. There is mounting evidence for its competitive advantage over conventional techniques in major medical areas including oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Nuclear medicine is

  2. International conference on clinical PET and molecular nuclear medicine (IPET 2007). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is organizing its first international conference on 'Clinical PET and Molecular Nuclear Medicine'. Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past two decades. Today, imaging is at a crossroad, with molecular targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Observing molecular interactions in the living body by the radiotracer technique has become known as 'molecular nuclear medicine'. Molecular nuclear medicine techniques analyze cellular biochemistry and its relationship to disease processes expressed in tissue and organ dysfunction, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. People can often have similar manifestations of disease, but no two patients will be the same. Functional radionuclide imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) provide excellent opportunities to follow the pathology in individual patients and therefore provide a means for tailored clinical management. These also provide the means to assess the response to treatment in a safe and non-invasive manner. Changes at molecular and cellular levels provide vital clues for evaluating the effectiveness of chosen clinical treatment plans. This information is expected to have a major impact on understanding disease, disease detection, individualised treatment, and drug development. Recently, considerable attention has been drawn to nuclear medicine with the visualization of biochemical processes in vivo such as PET studies with 18F-FDG in many different organs and in cancerous tissues. With the arrival of PET/CT systems there is a new era of accurate mapping of disease processes. Today, 18F-FDG is the most useful PET tracer for the detection, staging, treatment planning and management of cancer. There is mounting evidence for its competitive advantage over conventional techniques in major medical areas including oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Nuclear medicine is

  3. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  4. Simultaneous acquisition of physiological data and nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Klein, H.A.; Orenstein, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed that allows the simultaneous acquisition of both image and physiological data into a standard nuclear medicine computer system. The physiological data can be displayed along with the nuclear medicine images allowing temporal correlation between the two. This technique has been used to acquire images of gastroesophageal reflux simultaneously with the intraluminal esophageal pH. The resulting data are displayed either as a standard dynamic sequence with the physiological data appearing in a corner of the image or as condensed dynamic images

  5. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging.

  6. Aptamers as radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijs, Marlies; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie; Baatout, Sarah; Luxen, André

    2016-01-01

    Today, radiopharmaceuticals belong to the standard instrumentation of nuclear medicine, both in the context of diagnosis and therapy. The majority of radiopharmaceuticals consist of targeting biomolecules which are designed to interact with a disease-related molecular target. A plethora of targeting biomolecules of radiopharmaceuticals exists, including antibodies, antibody fragments, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids. Nucleic acids have some significant advantages relative to proteinaceous biomolecules in terms of size, production, modifications, possible targets and immunogenicity. In particular, aptamers (non-coding, synthetic, single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides) are of interest because they can bind a molecular target with high affinity and specificity. At present, few aptamers have been investigated preclinically for imaging and therapeutic applications. In this review, we describe the use of aptamers as targeting biomolecules of radiopharmaceuticals. We also discuss the chemical modifications which are needed to turn aptamers into valuable (radio-)pharmaceuticals, as well as the different radiolabeling strategies that can be used to radiolabel oligonucleotides and, in particular, aptamers.

  7. Video image processing for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.A.; Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N.; Chare, P.; Gorten, J.

    1995-01-01

    The field of nuclear safeguards has received increasing amounts of public attention since the events of the Iraq-UN conflict over Kuwait, the dismantlement of the former Soviet Union, and more recently, the North Korean resistance to nuclear facility inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The role of nuclear safeguards in these and other events relating to the world's nuclear material inventory is to assure safekeeping of these materials and to verify the inventory and use of nuclear materials as reported by states that have signed the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty throughout the world. Nuclear safeguards are measures prescribed by domestic and international regulatory bodies such as DOE, NRC, IAEA, and EURATOM and implemented by the nuclear facility or the regulatory body. These measures include destructive and non destructive analysis of product materials/process by-products for materials control and accountancy purposes, physical protection for domestic safeguards, and containment and surveillance for international safeguards

  8. A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yujie; Zhu Banghe; Rasmussen, John C; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Shen Haiou; Wang Ge

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SP N ) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SP N approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SP N can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation.

  9. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for molecular imaging in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    For over twenty years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been developed for a number of medical applications ranging from bioseparations, magnetic drug targeting, hyperthermia and imaging. Recent studies have shown that they can be functionalized for in vivo biological targeting, potentially enabling nanoagents for molecular imaging and site-localized drug delivery. Here we review several imaging technologies developed using functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as targeted molecular agents. Several imaging modalities have exploited the large induced magnetic moment of SPIONs to create local mechanical force. Magnetic force microscopy can probe nanoparticle uptake in single cells. For in vivo applications, magnetomotive modulation of primary images in ultrasound (US), photoacoustics (PA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can help identify very small concentrations of nanoagents while simultaneously suppressing intrinsic background signals from tissue.

  11. Multi-target molecular imaging and its progress in research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2011-01-01

    Multi-target molecular imaging (MMI) is an important field of research in molecular imaging. It includes multi-tracer multi-target molecular imaging(MTMI), fusion-molecule multi-target imaging (FMMI), coupling-molecule multi-target imaging (CMMI), and multi-target multifunctional molecular imaging(MMMI). In this paper,imaging modes of MMI are reviewed, and potential applications of positron emission tomography MMI in near future are discussed. (author)

  12. Online molecular image repository and analysis system: A multicenter collaborative open-source infrastructure for molecular imaging research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahabubur; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management. As a cost-effective and open-source approach to address these challenges related to molecular imaging, we develop a flexible, transparent, and secure infrastructure, named MIRA, which stands for Molecular Imaging Repository and Analysis, primarily using the Python programming language, and a MySQL relational database system deployed on a Linux server. MIRA is designed with a centralized image archiving infrastructure and information database so that a multicenter collaborative informatics platform can be built. The capability of dealing with metadata, image file format normalization, and storing and viewing different types of documents and multimedia files make MIRA considerably flexible. With features like logging, auditing, commenting, sharing, and searching, MIRA is useful as an Electronic Laboratory Notebook for effective knowledge management. In addition, the centralized approach for MIRA facilitates on-the-fly access to all its features remotely through any web browser. Furthermore, the open-source approach provides the opportunity for sustainable continued development. MIRA offers an infrastructure that can be used as cross-boundary collaborative MI research platform for the rapid

  13. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    specifically taken up by several benign conditions such as inflammatory disease, pneumonia, brown fat, muscle, bowel uptake, and granulomatous disease...demonstrated in vivo imaging of vascular cell proliferation- associated states, whether focal, as in postangioplasty re- stenosis , or diffuse, as in pulmonary...limitations. The tracer can be nonspecifically taken up by several benign condi- tions such as inflammatory disease, pneumonia, brown fat, muscle

  14. The chaos and order in nuclear molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of the presented report is role of chaos in scattering processes in the frame of molecular dynamics. In this model, it is assumed that scattering particles (nuclei) consist of not-interacted components as alpha particles or 12 C, 16 O and 20 Ne clusters. The results show such effects as dynamical in stabilities and fractal structure as well as compound nuclei decay and heavy-ion fusion. The goal of the report is to make the reader more familiar with the chaos model and its application to nuclear phenomena. 157 refs, 40 figs

  15. Mathematical analysis of compressive/tensile molecular and nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayu

    Mathematical analysis in chemistry is a fascinating and critical tool to explain experimental observations. In this dissertation, mathematical methods to present chemical bonding and other structures for many-particle systems are discussed at different levels (molecular, atomic, and nuclear). First, the tetrahedral geometry of single, double, or triple carbon-carbon bonds gives an unsatisfying demonstration of bond lengths, compared to experimental trends. To correct this, Platonic solids and Archimedean solids were evaluated as atoms in covalent carbon or nitrogen bond systems in order to find the best solids for geometric fitting. Pentagonal solids, e.g. the dodecahedron and icosidodecahedron, give the best fit with experimental bond lengths; an ideal pyramidal solid which models covalent bonds was also generated. Second, the macroscopic compression/tension architectural approach was applied to forces at the molecular level, considering atomic interactions as compressive (repulsive) and tensile (attractive) forces. Two particle interactions were considered, followed by a model of the dihydrogen molecule (H2; two protons and two electrons). Dihydrogen was evaluated as two different types of compression/tension structures: a coaxial spring model and a ring model. Using similar methods, covalent diatomic molecules (made up of C, N, O, or F) were evaluated. Finally, the compression/tension model was extended to the nuclear level, based on the observation that nuclei with certain numbers of protons/neutrons (magic numbers) have extra stability compared to other nucleon ratios. A hollow spherical model was developed that combines elements of the classic nuclear shell model and liquid drop model. Nuclear structure and the trend of the "island of stability" for the current and extended periodic table were studied.

  16. Nuclear molecular halo: the ubiquitous occurrence of van der Waals molecular states near threshold in molecular, nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Moshe

    1999-01-01

    The observation of large E1 strength near threshold in the electromagnetic dissociation of 11 Li poses a fundamental question: Is the large E1 strength due to the threshold or is it due to a low lying E1 state? Such molecular cluster states were observed in 18 O and in several nuclei near the drip line. We discuss the nature of the threshold effect as well as review the situation in Molecular (and Particle Physics) where such Molecular States are observed near the dissociation limit. We suggest that the situation in 11 Li is reminiscent of the argon-benzene molecule where the argon atom is loosely bound by a polarization (van der Waals) mechanism and thus leads to a very extended object lying near the dissociation limit. Such states are also suggested to dominate the structure of mesons [α 0 (980), f 0 (975)] and baryons [λ(1405)] with proposed Kaon molecular structure (Dalitz) near threshold. The inspection of such states throughout Physics allows us to gain insight into this phenomenon and suggest that a new collective Molecular Dipole Degree of Freedom plays a major role in the structure of hadrons (halo nuclei, mesons and baryons), and that quantitative tools such as the E1 Molecular Sum Rule are useful for elucidating the nature of the observed low lying E1 strength in halo nuclei. (author)

  17. Applicability of compton imaging in nuclear decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.Lj.; Marinkovic, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    During the decommissioning of nuclear facilities significant part of the activities is related to the radiological characterization, waste classification and management. For these purposes a relatively new imaging technique, based on information from the gamma radiation that undergoes Compton scattering, is applicable. Compton imaging systems have a number of advantages for nuclear waste characterization, such as identifying hot spots in mixed waste in order to reduce the volume of high-level waste requiring extensive treatment or long-term storage, imaging large contaminated areas and objects etc. Compton imaging also has potential applications for monitoring of production, transport and storage of nuclear materials and components. This paper discusses some system design requirements and performance specifications for these applications. The advantages of Compton imaging are compared to competing imaging techniques. (author)

  18. Nuclear imaging: A powerful novel approach for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Daniel H.; Via, Laura E.; Kim, Peter; Laddy, Dominick; Lau, Chuen-Yen; Weinstein, Edward A.; Jain, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 20 years after the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis (TB) a global public health emergency, TB still remains a major global threat with 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis adapts to a quiescent physiological state, and is notable for complex interaction with the host, producing poorly-understood disease states ranging from latent infection to fully active disease. Of the approximately 2.5 billion people latently infected with M. tuberculosis, many will develop reactivation disease (relapse), years after the initial infection. While progress has been made on some fronts, the alarming spread of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and more recently totally-drug resistant strains is of grave concern. New tools are urgently needed for rapidly diagnosing TB, monitoring TB treatments and to allow unique insights into disease pathogenesis. Nuclear bioimaging is a powerful, noninvasive tool that can rapidly provide three-dimensional views of disease processes deep within the body and conduct noninvasive longitudinal assessments of the same patient. In this review, we discuss the application of nuclear bioimaging to TB, including the current state of the field, considerations for radioprobe development, study of TB drug pharmacokinetics in infected tissues, and areas of research and clinical needs that could be addressed by nuclear bioimaging. These technologies are an emerging field of research, overcome several fundamental limitations of current tools, and will have a broad impact on both basic research and patient care. Beyond diagnosis and monitoring disease, these technologies will also allow unique insights into understanding disease pathogenesis; and expedite bench-to-bedside translation of new therapeutics. Finally, since molecular imaging is readily available for humans, validated tracers will become valuable tools for clinical applications

  19. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  20. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  1. Image cytometric nuclear texture features in inoperable head and neck cancer: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojan-Flezar, Margareta; Lavrencak, Jaka; Zganec, Mario; Strojan, Primoz

    2011-01-01

    Image cytometry can measure numerous nuclear features which could be considered a surrogate end-point marker of molecular genetic changes in a nucleus. The aim of the study was to analyze image cytometric nuclear features in paired samples of primary tumor and neck metastasis in patients with inoperable carcinoma of the head and neck. Image cytometric analysis of cell suspensions prepared from primary tumor tissue and fine needle aspiration biopsy cell samples of neck metastases from 21 patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy was performed. Nuclear features were correlated with clinical characteristics and response to therapy. Manifestation of distant metastases and new primaries was associated (p<0.05) with several chromatin characteristics from primary tumor cells, whereas the origin of index cancer and disease response in the neck was related to those in the cells from metastases. Many nuclear features of primary tumors and metastases correlated with the TNM stage. A specific pattern of correlation between well-established prognostic indicators and nuclear features of samples from primary tumors and those from neck metastases was observed. Image cytometric nuclear features represent a promising candidate marker for recognition of biologically different tumor subgroups

  2. Molecular images as a tool in research. From radiopharmacy to radiopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubillaga, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The rapidly emerging biomedical research discipline of Molecular Imaging (MI) enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic process taking place at the cellular and sub-cellular levels within the intact living organism. The overall goal of MI is to interrogate biologic process in the cell of a living subject to report on and reveal their molecular abnormalities that form the basis of disease. This is in contrast to classical diagnostic imaging where documented findings are the result of the end effects of these molecular alterations, usually in the form of macroscopic and well-established gross pathology. MI includes the field of Nuclear Medicine (SPECT and PET) and other strategies that do not depend on radioactivity to produce imaging signals (optical, bioluminescence and Magnetic Resonance). The emergence of MI strategies has made possible the achievement of several important biomedical research goals that open the door to advancement of study in molecular medicine. These various accomplishments include: (1) development of non invasive 'in vivo' imaging methods to reflect gene expression and more complex events such as protein-protein interactions; (2) ability to monitor multiple molecular events near simultaneously; (3) capacity to follow cell trafficking and cell targeting; (4) optimization of drug and gene therapy; (5) capability of imaging drug effects at a molecular and cellular level; (6) assessment of disease progression at a molecular pathologic level; (7) advancement of the possibility of achieving all the above mentioned goals rapidly, reproducibly and quantitatively, in support of monitoring a time-dependent manner the experimental, developmental, environmental and therapeutic influences on gene products in a single living subject. Although many laboratory based proof-of-principle and validation studies have been conducted using MI approaches, a great deal more experimental research will be necessary to

  3. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  4. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, Dominik; Ebersberger, Hans U.; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Botnar, Rene M.; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear medicine imaging and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.R.; Dillon, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) is a software operating system structure around the Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-8 minicomputer which provides a complete range of image manipulation procedures. Through its modular design it remains open-ended for easy expansion to meet future needs. Already included in the system are image access routines for use with the rectilinear scanner or gamma camera (both static and flow studies); display hardware design and corresponding software; archival storage provisions; and, most important, many image processing techniques. The image processing capabilities include image defect removal, smoothing, nonlinear bounding, preparation of functional images, and transaxial emission tomography reconstruction from a limited number of views

  6. Ultrafast molecular imaging by laser-induced electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Nguyen-Dang, T. T.; Cornaggia, C.; Saugout, S.; Charron, E.; Keller, A.; Atabek, O.

    2011-01-01

    We address the feasibility of imaging geometric and orbital structures of a polyatomic molecule on an attosecond time scale using the laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) technique. We present numerical results for the highest molecular orbitals of the CO 2 molecule excited by a near-infrared few-cycle laser pulse. The molecular geometry (bond lengths) is determined within 3% of accuracy from a diffraction pattern which also reflects the nodal properties of the initial molecular orbital. Robustness of the structure determination is discussed with respect to vibrational and rotational motions with a complete interpretation of the laser-induced mechanisms.

  7. Advances in study of molecular imaging reporte gene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; An Rui

    2010-01-01

    The use of molecular imaging reporter gene systems has allowed gene therapy to move from the laboratory to the clinical application, which provides methodology to monitor the expression of therapeutic gene noninvasively and achieve quantitative outcome in vivo. Recently, the radionuclide reporter gene still is the focus many studies, but MRI and optical reporter gene have gradually played a important part in reporter gene systems. On the basis of combination of multi-subject, for example applied chemistry and molecular biology, more and more new modified reporter genes and molecular probes have spread out. This paper mainly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of reporter gene system and development trends. (authors)

  8. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its utilization in image formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.; Tannus, A.; Panepucci, H.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects about Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (as Larmor Theorem, radio frequency pulse, relaxation of spins system) and its utilization in two dimensional image processing with the necessity of a tomography plane are studied. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. FY08 Annual Report for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-06

    FY08 annual report for project the "Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging" project. Reviews accomplishments of last 3 years, including U-235 signature search, comparison of different photon sources, and examination of NRF measurements using monochromatic photon source.

  10. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D.; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  11. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  12. [Microdose clinical trial--impact of PET molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Microdose (MD) clinical trial and exploratory IND study including sub-therapeutic dose and therapeutic dose which are higher than microdoses are expected to bring about innovations in drug development. The outlines of guidances for microdose clinical trial and ICH-M3 (R2) issued by the MHLW in June, 2008, and February, 2010, are first explained, respectively, and some examples of their application to clinical developments of therapeutic drugs in the infection and cancer fields are introduced. Especially, thanks to the progress of molecular imaging research, a new field of drug development is explored by using imaging biomarkers for efficacy or safety evaluation which visualize biomarkers by PET imaging agents. Finally, the roadmap for drug development in infection and cancer fields utilizing PET molecular imaging is discussed.

  13. Molecular Imaging: A Promising Tool to Monitor Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of insulin production by pancreatic islet transplantation has great potential as a therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. At present, the lack of an effective approach to islet grafts assessment limits the success of this treatment. The development of molecular imaging techniques has the potential to fulfill the goal of real-time noninvasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of the islet grafts. We review the application of a variety of imaging modalities for detecting endogenous and transplanted beta-cell mass. The review also explores the various molecular imaging strategies for assessing islet delivery, the metabolic effects on the islet grafts as well as detection of immunorejection. Here, we highlight the use of combined imaging and therapeutic interventions in islet transplantation and the in vivo monitoring of stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

  14. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R

    2002-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice

  15. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, Andrew L [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Meadors, A Ken [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Silverman, Robert W [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2002-12-21

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.

  16. Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkmans, G.; Anghel, V. N. P.; Jewett, C.; Thompson, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry stor...

  17. Threedimensional imaging of organ structures by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, W.; Smolorz, J.; Wellner, U.

    1985-01-01

    A simple method for threedimensional imaging of organ structures is presented. The method is based on a special acquisition mode in a nuclear resonance tomograph, exciting layers of 20 cm thickness at different angulations. The display is done by cinematography (which is usually used in nuclear cardiology) projecting the structures in a rotating movement. (orig.) [de

  18. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  19. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  20. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A.; Conti, F.; Chianelli, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Signore, A.

    2010-01-01

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-α, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with 99m Tc or 111 In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for therapy decision-making and

  1. Nuclear imaging of amyloid deposits based upon thioflavins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanming; Wu Chunying; Wei Jinjun

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillar tangles in the brain. Direct assessment of local changes of amyloid deposits in vivo would greatly facilitate the diagnosis and therapeutic treatments of AD. The goal of this study is to develop small-molecule probes that can be used to follow amyloid deposition in vivo in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past years, we set out to develop a series of small molecules based on thioflavins as radiotracers for use in nuclear imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. The potential of these amyloid-imaging agents for in vivo studies of amyloid deposition has been evaluated based on the following methods: 1) spectrophotometric binding. assays with synthetic amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils and AD brain homogenates; 2) fluorescent staining of brain tissue sections to evaluate specificity of binding to amyloid deposits; 3) fluorescent microscopy in mouse models to determine the brain permeability and characterize the binding specificity in vivo, and 4) PET studies in human subjects diagnosed with AD and age-matched control subjects. To date, we have identified some lead compounds as molecular probes with specificity towards amyloid deposits. The in vitro and in vivo binding properties of these compounds have been demonstrated in the following ways: 1) they selectively binds to Aβ fibrils; 2) they selectively stains amyloid deposits in AD brain tissue sections; 3) they readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier, selectively detects amyloid deposits in vivo iri living mice; and 4) One of these compounds, termed PIB, has been successfully used in PET studies in human subjects. In conclusion, amyloid-imaging probes have been developed that could be used to monitor amyloid load in vivo. Applications of the probes are under investigation for potential pathophysiology studies

  2. Coded Aperture Nuclear Scintigraphy: A Novel Small Animal Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and demonstrate the utility of coded aperture (CA nuclear scintigraphy for imaging small animals. CA imaging uses multiple pinholes in a carefully designed mask pattern, mounted on a conventional gamma camera. System performance was assessed using point sources and phantoms, while several animal experiments were performed to test the usefulness of the imaging system in vivo, with commonly used radiopharmaceuticals. The sensitivity of the CA system for 99mTc was 4.2 × 103 cps/Bq (9400 cpm/μCi, compared to 4.4 × 104 cps/Bq (990 cpm/μCi for a conventional collimator system. The system resolution was 1.7 mm, as compared to 4–6 mm for the conventional imaging system (using a high-sensitivity low-energy collimator. Animal imaging demonstrated artifact-free imaging with superior resolution and image quality compared to conventional collimator images in several mouse and rat models. We conclude that: (a CA imaging is a useful nuclear imaging technique for small animal imaging. The advantage in signal-to-noise can be traded to achieve higher resolution, decreased dose or reduced imaging time. (b CA imaging works best for images where activity is concentrated in small volumes; a low count outline may be better demonstrated using conventional collimator imaging. Thus, CA imaging should be viewed as a technique to complement rather than replace traditional nuclear imaging methods. (c CA hardware and software can be readily adapted to existing gamma cameras, making their implementation a relatively inexpensive retrofit to most systems.

  3. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Terence M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Nyati, Shyam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ross, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rehemtulla, Alnawaz, E-mail: alnawaz@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  4. Imaging in hematology. Part 2: Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic increase of the role of imaging in diagnosis of blood diseases occurred with the development of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At present CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis is routinely employed in diagnostic and staging evaluation. The bone marrow may be imaged by one of several methods, including scintigraphy, CT and MRI. Nuclear imaging at diagnosis can clarify findings of uncertain significance on conventional staging and may be very useful in the setting of large masses to follow responses to therapy nad to evaluate the residual tumor in a large mass that has responded to treatment. Recent developments such as helical CT, single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) have continued to advance diagnosis and therapy

  5. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolorz, J.; Linden, A.; Schicha, H.; Sechtem, U.

    1988-01-01

    NMR imaging is a noninvasive technique that has been shown to provide high-quality images of the heart. Due to the signal characteristics of flowing blood, inherent contrast between blood pool and myocardium is achieved without the use of contrast media. This paper briefly describes technical aspects of NMR imaging of the heart, normal cardiovascular anatomy, applications of the technique in patients with ischemic heart disease, and the potential of NMR imaging for functional studies in various forms of heart disease. (orig.)

  7. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, A.; Goh, V.; Basu, S.; Vaish, R.; Weeks, A.J.; Thakur, M.H.; Cook, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  8. Proceedings of II Molecular Imaging Symposium Cuba - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Theater, University Hospital 'General Calixto Garcia' took place the II Symposium on Molecular Imaging Cuba Japan in the framework of the Scientific Convention for the 120th anniversary of the hospital. The event was organized by the hospital itself with the support of the Society of Medical Physics (medical physics section), CEADEN, the Embassy of Japan and the Theragnostic Compounds R&D Center Neuroscience Research Institute Gachon University, Incheon Korea. It was attended by 80 national scientific leaders and with the invaluable presence of Dr. Tatsuo IDO, Emeritus professor of Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) who presented the results of the scientific papers presented this year in national and international events , referring to the new technologies of molecular imaging and the importance of medical physics in its development. During the meeting the importance of the new technologies of molecular imaging, its undisputed diagnosis intake and medical treatment and the value of human capital struggled to deal with the new technologies, the view that these are only used best when it is understood that they are multidisciplinary systems where each specialist and technical personnel plays an indispensable role. The challenge has medical physics to address these new technologies and the need for changes in the theoretical and practical training in the specialty. These analyzes will be given continuity in the next symposia molecular imaging. (author)

  9. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  10. PET-MRI: the likely future of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua; Zhao Jun

    2008-01-01

    PET-CT is a successful combination of functional and morphologic information, and it has already been shown to have great value both in clinics and in scientific research. MRI is another kind of morphologic imaging method, in contrast to CT, MRI can yield images with higher soft-tissue contrast and better spatial resolution. The combination of PET and MRI for simultaneous data acquisition should have far- reaching consequences for molecular imaging. This review will talk about the problems met in the development of PET-MRI and describe the progress to date and look forward to its potential application. (authors)

  11. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Uterine and Ovarian Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K

    2017-10-01

    Gynecologic cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases both functionally and morphologically. Today, PET coupled with computed tomography (PET/CT) or PET/MR imaging play a central role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with gynecologic malignancy. In particular, PET/CT and PET/MR imaging are molecular imaging techniques that not only are useful tools for initial staging and restaging but provide anatomofunctional insight and can serve as predictive and prognostic biomarkers of response in patients with gynecologic malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics

  14. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  15. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  16. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging for the Detection of Neural Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kevin R.

    Molecular imaging is a form of nanotechnology that enables the noninvasive examination of biological processes in vivo. Radiopharmaceutical agents are used to selectively target biochemical markers, which permits their detection and evaluation. Early visualization of molecular variations indicative of pathophysiological processes can aid in patient diagnoses and management decisions. Molecular imaging is performed by introducing molecular probes into the body. Molecular probes are often contrast agents that have been nanoengineered to selectively target and tether to molecules, enabling their radiologic identification. Ultrasound contrast agents have been demonstrated as an effective method of detecting perfusion at the tissue level. Through a nanoengineering process, ultrasound contrast agents can be targeted to specific molecules, thereby extending ultrasound's capabilities from the tissue to molecular level. Molecular ultrasound, or targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (TCEUS), has recently emerged as a popular molecular imaging technique due to its ability to provide real-time anatomical and functional information in the absence of ionizing radiation. However, molecular ultrasound represents a novel form of molecular imaging, and consequently remains largely preclinical. A review of the TCEUS literature revealed multiple preclinical studies demonstrating its success in detecting inflammation in a variety of tissues. Although, a gap was identified in the existing evidence, as TCEUS effectiveness for detection of neural inflammation in the spinal cord was unable to be uncovered. This gap in knowledge, coupled with the profound impacts that this TCEUS application could have clinically, provided rationale for its exploration, and use as contributory evidence for the molecular ultrasound body of literature. An animal model that underwent a contusive spinal cord injury was used to establish preclinical evidence of TCEUS to detect neural inflammation. Imaging was

  17. Chromatin organization at the nuclear periphery as revealed by image analysis of structured illumination microscopy data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Jindřiška; Efenberková, Michaela; Sieger, T.; Maninová, Miloslava; Uhlířová, Jana; Hozák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 12 (2017), s. 2066-2077 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-08835Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Structured illumination * Image analysis * Chromation * Nucleus * Histone modification * Nuclear pore complexes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016

  18. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research

  19. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  20. Molecular Imaging of Apoptosis: From Micro to Macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Gang; Eden, Henry S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is involved in numerous human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer, and is often confused with other types of cell death. Therefore strategies that enable visualized detection of apoptosis would be of enormous benefit in the clinic for diagnosis, patient management, and development of new therapies. In recent years, improved understanding of the apoptotic machinery and progress in imaging modalities have provided opportunities for researchers to formulate microscopic and macroscopic imaging strategies based on well-defined molecular markers and/or physiological features. Correspondingly, a large collection of apoptosis imaging probes and approaches have been documented in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we mainly discuss microscopic imaging assays and macroscopic imaging probes, ranging in complexity from simple attachments of reporter moieties to proteins that interact with apoptotic biomarkers, to rationally designed probes that target biochemical changes. Their clinical translation will also be our focus. PMID:25825597

  1. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pykett, I.L.; Newhouse, J.H.; Buonanno, F.S.; Brady, T.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Kistler, J.P.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The physical principles which underlie the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are presented in this primer. The major scanning methods are reviewed, and the principles of technique are discussed. A glossary of NMR terms is included

  2. The use of anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms: Attention/Scatter correction, motion compensation, and noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples.

  3. Medical imaging. From nuclear medicine to neuro-sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Nuclear medicine and functional imaging were born of the CEA's ambition to promote and develop nuclear applications in the fields of biology and health. Nuclear medicine is based on the use of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It could never have developed so rapidly without the progress made in atomic and nuclear physics. One major breakthrough was the discovery of artificial radioelements by Irene and Frederic Joliot in 1934, when a short-lived radioactive isotope was created for the first time ever. Whether natural or synthetic, isotopes possess the same chemical properties as their non-radioactive counterparts. The only difference is that they are unstable and this instability causes disintegration, leading to radiation emission. All we need are suitable detection tools to keep track of them. 'The discovery of artificial radioelements is at the root of the most advanced medical imaging techniques'. The notion of tracer dates back to 1913. Invented by George de Hevesy, it lies at the root of nuclear medicine. By discovering how to produce radioactive isotopes, Irene and Frederic Joliot provided biology researchers with nuclear tools of unrivalled efficiency. Today, nuclear medicine and functional imaging are the only techniques capable of giving us extremely precise information about living organisms in a non-traumatic manner and without upsetting their balance. Positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the main imaging techniques used at the CEA in its neuro-imaging research activities. These techniques are now developing rapidly and becoming increasingly important not only in the neuroscience world, but also for innovative therapies and cancer treatment. (authors)

  4. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  5. [New imaging systems in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs

  6. Nuclear medicine imaging in podiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, R.D. Jr.; Hammes, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is a valuable diagnostic tool based on metabolic and anatomic imaging. When used in the appropriate clinical setting, radionuclide imaging is a sensitive, minimally invasive imaging modality that detects and differentiates skeletal from nonskeletal pathology in the painful foot. Isotopic scanning is of particular value in the evaluation of the diabetic foot and in the subsequent follow-up of response to therapy.72 references

  7. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valk, J.; MacLean, C.; Algra, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this book is to help clinicians understand the basic physical principles of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The book consists of the following: a discussion of elementary considerations; pulse sequencing; localization of MR signals in space; MR equipment; MR contrast agents; clinical applications; MR spectroscopy; and biological effects of MR imaging; a set of appendixes; and a bibliography. Illustrations and images are included

  8. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, W.S.; Andrew, E.R.; Bottomley, P.A.; Holland, G.N.; Moore, W.S.; Worthington, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonace (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique. (author)

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and brain functional exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, D.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging for functional analysis of the brain is presented: the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flowing in the brain do not have the same effect on NMR images; the oxygenated blood, related to brain activity, may be detected and the corresponding activity zone in the brain, identified; functional NMR imaging could be used to gain a better understanding of functional troubles linked to neurological or psychiatric diseases

  10. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, W S; Andrew, E R; Bottomley, P A; Holland, G N; Moore, W S

    1978-04-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique.

  11. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  12. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  13. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, James; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yan, Susu; Roper, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  14. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  15. Evaluations of Molecular Nuclear Medicine in pediatric urgencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Duncker R, C.

    2000-01-01

    Several diagnostic procedures of Molecular Nuclear Medicine are considered in first choice in clinical evaluation of patients with different illnesses. So, the gammagraphy is the diagnostic form more sensitive to detect alterations of the perfusion on organs and systems such as bones, heart, brain, lungs or kidneys. Also is possible to identify, localize, evaluate the activity of inflammatory processes such as cellulitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, the abscesses and several primary or metastatic tumours before each other diagnostic technique. In this work is treated about the importance of treatments with radioactive materials have been an important reappearance in last years since with the present capacity to localize specifically intracellular processes (for example, synthesis of DNA) new gateways are opened to research which in coming years would be of great utility. (Author)

  16. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  17. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  18. Method for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, J.J.; Joel, D.D.; Adams, W.H.; Stein, H.L.

    1988-05-26

    A method for in vivo NMR imaging of the blood vessels and organs of a patient characterized by using a dark dye-like imaging substance consisting essentially of a stable, high-purity concentration of D/sub 2/O in a solution with water.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.E.; Matthiass, H.H.; Reiser, M.

    1990-01-01

    NMR imaging (MR tomography) allows the non-invasive diagnostic evaluation of cartilage, ligaments, tendons and muscles of the limbs, joints and the vertebral spine. The images are characterized by a good spatial resolution, and in contrast to the X-ray CT, sectional images can be done in all planes, as well as three-dimensional image reconstructions. The book reviews the current state of the art and foreseeable developments of NMR imaging of the supporting and connective tissue, also discussing the application of paramagnetic contrast media, and the novel NMR spectroscopy as a method pointing into the future. All contributions discussing the clinical aspects have been written jointly by experts in orthopedics and radiology. (orig.) With 153 figs., 8 tabs [de

  20. Three dimensional imaging in cardiac nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ishii, Yasushi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamaki, Takeyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Methods to obtain three dimensional images of the heart were reviewed. Gated three dimensional display reconstructed from images using bidirectional collimator, was a useful method to detect akinesis of the heart wall. Tomographic observation of the heart can be carried out by a pinhole collimator to image ischemia with high sensitivity. However the focusing plane must be carefully selected to prevent false positives. In the case of emission CT (ECT), utilization of positron emitters gave a quantitative image without correction, whereas single photon ECT needed the correction due to the absorption of γ-ray. Though the reliability of the images by ECT was high, the time required for data acquisition was much longer than that by a 7 pinhole or bidirectional collimator. (Nakanishi, T.)

  1. Progress in Molecular Imaging in Endoscopy and Endomicroscopy for Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supang Khondee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is an essential tool for effective cancer management. Endoscopes are important medical instruments for performing in vivo imaging in hollow organs. Early detection of cancer can be achieved with surveillance using endoscopy, and has been shown to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. Recently, great advancements have been made in endoscopic instruments, including new developments in optical designs, light sources, optical fibers, miniature scanners, and multimodal systems, allowing for improved resolution, greater tissue penetration, and multispectral imaging. In addition, progress has been made in the development of highly-specific optical probes, allowing for improved specificity for molecular targets. Integration of these new endoscopic instruments with molecular probes provides a unique opportunity for significantly improving patient outcomes and has potential to further improve early detection, image guided therapy, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. This work summarizes current and evolving endoscopic technologies, and provides an overview of various promising optical molecular probes.

  2. Detection of multidrug resistance using molecular nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2004-01-01

    Although the outcome of cancer patients after cytotoxic chemotherapy is related diverse mechanisms, multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs due to cellular P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) is most important factor in the chemotherapy failure to cancer. A large number of pharmacologic compounds, including verapamil, quinidine, tamoxifen, cyclosporin A and quinolone derivatives have been reported to overcome MDR. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available for the detection of Pgp and MRP-mediated transporter. 99 m-Tc-MIBI and other 99 m-Tc-radiopharmaceuticals are substrates for Pgp and MRP, and have been used in clinical studies for tumor imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of Pgp pump. Colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin labeled with 11 C have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo and reported to be feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumors. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP and N-( 11 C)acetyl-leukotriene E4 provides an opportunity to study MRP function non-invasively in vivo. SPECT and PET pharmaceuticals have successfully used to evaluate pharmacologic effects of MDR modulators. Imaging of MDR and reversal of MDR with bioluminescence in a living animal is also evaluated for future clinical trial. We have described recent advances in molecular imaging of MDR and reviewed recent publications regarding feasibility of SPECT and PET imaging to study the functionality of MDR transporters in vivo

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals: nanoparticles like multi-functional systems for the obtaining in vivo of molecular images; Radiofarmacos: nanoparticulas como sistemas multifuncionales para la obtencion in vivo de imagenes moleculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G.; Ramirez de la Cruz, F. M.; Ocampo G, B. E.; Morales A, E.; Santos C, C. L.; Mendoza S, A. N., E-mail: guillermina.ferro@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The techniques of obtaining direct or indirect molecular images detect and register the space-temporary distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biological, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The advanced techniques of image like the nuclear magnetic resonance, the single photon emission computed tomography, the positron emission tomography and the images of optic fluorescence have been used successfully to detect these processes. On the other hand, the utility of the nanoparticles for any application is dependent of the physicochemical properties that present, being possible to modify their surface when making them react with different biomolecules what allows the formation of conjugates with specific molecular recognition. The joint of various protein molecules, peptides or oligonucleotides to the surface of a nanoparticle produce a multi-functional system able to increase the multivalent joints from the nanoparticles-biomolecules to their receivers for the obtaining of molecular images in vivo. The peptides stimulate, regulate or inhibit numerous functions of the life, acting mainly as information transmitters and activity coordinators of several tissues in the organism. The receivers of regulator peptides are over represented in numerous types of cancer cells and they are protein structures. These receivers have been used as white molecular of marked peptides, to locate primary malignant tumors and their metastasis, using the diagnostic techniques of molecular image mentioned above, which consist basically on the radio peptides use and conjugated peptides to fluoro chromes, to metallic nanoparticles and nano crystals. A summary of the work is presented carried out by the personnel of the Radio-active Materials and Chemistry Departments of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares in this field. (Author)

  4. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  5. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  6. The three public images of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritti, Jules

    1982-01-01

    The author outlines the three main fears which, to his mind, have stemmed from the nuclear power question over the three post-war decades and marked public opinion to a greater or lesser extent: fear of the atom bomb, fear of cancer, fear of pollution [fr

  7. Nuclear imaging technology and global requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lele, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    After a brief review of the present state of availability of nuclear medicine services in the countries of world, a mention has been made of WHO programme on nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine services in the developing countries are dependent on the availability of appropriate instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals at affordable costs and existence of basic infrastructure required for giving such services. Basic infrastructure requirements are stable power supplies, air-conditioning systems, preventive maintenance and repair facilities. These are discussed. It is pointed out that the use of rectilinear scanners with 113m In instead of costly gamma cameras is still relevant in the third world countries. Need to develop a too low-cost gamma camera is emphasized. Electronics Corporation of India Ltd has plans to manufacture such cameras. Design of this camera is described. Foreign collaboration or technology transfer through concerned governement department needs to be explored so that the benefits of nuclear medicine can be brought to the third world countries by 2000 AD. (M.G.B.). 2 tabs

  8. Imaging of Nuclear Fragmentation in Nuclear Track Emulsion Relativistic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, I.G. JINR

    2011-01-01

    The method of nuclear track emulsion provides a uniquely complete observation of multiple fragment systems produced in dissociation of relativistic nuclei. The most valuable events of coherent dissociation of nuclei in narrow jets of light and the lightest nuclei with a net charge as in the initial nucleus, occurring without the production of fragments of the target nuclei and mesons (the so-called w hite s tars), comprise a few percent among the observed interactions. The data on this phenomenon are fragmented, and the interpretation is not offered. The dissociation degree of light O, Ne, Mg and Si, and as well as heavy Au, Pb and U nuclei may reach a complete destruction to light and the lightest nuclei and nucleons, resulting in cluster systems of an unprecedented complexity. Studies with relativistic neutron-deficient nuclei have special advantages due to more complete observations. An extensive collection of macro videos of such interactions in nuclear track emulsion gathered by the Becquerel collaboration is presented

  9. Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Hoeschen, Christoph; Mattsson, Soeren; Mansson, Lars Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry is based on contributions to Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015 - the 4. Malmoe Conference on Medical Imaging (OXMI 2015). The conference was jointly organised by members of former and current research projects supported by the European Commission EURATOM Radiation Protection Research Programme, in cooperation with the Swedish Society for Radiation Physics. The conference brought together over 150 researchers and other professionals from hospitals, universities and industries with interests in different aspects of the optimisation of medical imaging. More than 100 presentations were given at this international gathering of medical physicists, radiologists, engineers, technicians, nurses and educational researchers. Additionally, invited talks were offered by world-renowned experts on radiation protection, spectral imaging and medical image perception, thus covering several important aspects of the generation and interpretation of medical images. The conference consisted of 13 oral sessions and a poster session, as reflected by the conference title connected by their focus on the optimisation of the use ionising radiation in medical imaging. The conference included technology-specific topics such as computed tomography and tomosynthesis, but also generic issues of interest for the optimisation of all medical imaging, such as image perception and quality assurance. Radiation protection was covered by e.g. sessions on patient dose benchmarking and occupational exposure. Technically-advanced topics such as modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, reconstruction, classification, and segmentation were seen taking advantage of recent developments of hardware and software, showing that the optimisation community is at the forefront of technology and adapts well to new requirements. These peer-reviewed proceedings, representing a continuation of a series of selected reports from meetings in the field of medical imaging

  10. Molecular imaging and the neuropathologies of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, Paul; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) fibers, especially those innervating the putamen. This degeneration can be assessed in molecular imaging studies with presynaptic tracers such as [(18)F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA...... with denervation upregulation, but there is an accelerated rate of DA receptor loss as the disease advances. Animal studies and post mortem investigations reveal changes in brain opioid peptide systems, but these are poorly documented in imaging studies of PD. Relatively minor changes in the binding sites for GABA...

  11. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Thippsandra, Shwetha; Yanamadala, Anusha; Redy, Siddaling; Pattanayak, Puskar; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized personalized cancer treatment. Head and neck (HN) cancer management is being influenced by recent discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and related targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted therapies for Kristen Rat Sarcoma, and MET proto-oncogenes. Molecular imaging using PET plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of HN cancer with the goal of delivering individualized cancer treatment. This review summarizes recent genomic discoveries in HN cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging in assessing response to targeted therapies, and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear Architecture : Image Processing and Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most well-known groups of diseases that finds its cause in cells having chromosomal aberrations. How and why these aberrations can occur is one of the most important questions asked in modern molecular biology. In the last decades it has become clear that gene regulation in the

  13. Image sequence analysis in nuclear medicine: (1) Parametric imaging using statistical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liehn, J.C.; Hannequin, P.; Valeyre, J.

    1989-01-01

    This is a review of parametric imaging methods on Nuclear Medicine. A Parametric Image is an image in which each pixel value is a function of the value of the same pixel of an image sequence. The Local Model Method is the fitting of each pixel time activity curve by a model which parameter values form the Parametric Images. The Global Model Method is the modelling of the changes between two images. It is applied to image comparison. For both methods, the different models, the identification criterion, the optimization methods and the statistical properties of the images are discussed. The analysis of one or more Parametric Images is performed using 1D or 2D histograms. The statistically significant Parametric Images, (Images of significant Variances, Amplitudes and Differences) are also proposed [fr

  14. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions rela...... currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank....

  15. Molecular imaging of retinal endothelial injury in diabetic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Frimmel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that molecular imaging can be used to detect subtle changes in the diabetic retina prior to the occurrence of irreversible pathology. Thus, ICAM-1 could serve as a diagnostic target in patients with diabetes. This study provides a proof of principle for non-invasive subclinical diagnosis in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Further development of this technology could improve management of diabetic complications.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Assembly Assessment Project and Image Categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Lindblad, T.; Waldemark, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Hildingsson, Lars [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-07-01

    A project has been underway to add digital imaging and processing to the inspection of nuclear fuel by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The ultimate goals are to provide the inspector not only with the advantages of Ccd imaging, such as high sensitivity and digital image enhancements, but also with an intelligent agent that can analyze the images and provide useful information about the fuel assemblies in real time. The project is still in the early stages and several interesting sub-projects have been inspired. Here we give first a review of the work on the fuel assembly image analysis and then give a brief status report on one of these sub-projects that concerns automatic categorization of fuel assembly images. The technique could be of benefit to the general challenge of image categorization

  17. Imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Charleston, D.; Metz, C.; Tsui, B.

    1981-01-01

    A general computer code to simulate the imaging properties of existing and hypothetical imaging systems viewing realistic source distributions within non-uniform media. Such a code allows comparative evaluations of existing and hypothetical systems, and optimization of critical parameters of system design by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. To be most useful, such a code allows simulation of conventional scintillation scanners and cameras as well as single-photon and position tomographic systems

  18. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  19. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging:Concepts and in vivo applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duijnhoven, van, SMJ Sander; Robillard, MS Marc; Langereis, S Sander; Grüll, H Holger

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of molecular imaging probes, known as bioresponsive molecular probes, has been developed. These probes generally benefit from signal enhancement at the site of interaction with its target. There are mainly ...

  20. Featured Image: A Molecular Cloud Outside Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    What do molecular clouds look like outside of our own galaxy? See for yourself in the images above and below of N55, a molecular cloud located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In a recent study led by Naslim Neelamkodan (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan), a team of scientists explore N55 to determine how its cloud properties differ from clouds within the Milky Way. The image above reveals the distribution of infrared-emitting gas and dust observed in three bands by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Overplotted in cyan are observations from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment tracing the clumpy, warm molecular gas. Below, new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the sub-parsec-scale molecular clumps in greater detail, showing the correlation of massive clumps with Spitzer-identified young stellar objects (crosses). The study presented here indicates that this cloud in the LMC is the site of massive star formation, with properties similar to equivalent clouds in the Milky Way. To learn more about the authors findings, check out the article linked below.CitationNaslim N. et al 2018 ApJ 853 175. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa5b0

  1. Tracking nuclear wave-packet dynamics in molecular oxygen ions with few-cycle infrared laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Thumm, U.; Cocke, C. L.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have tracked nuclear wave-packet dynamics in doubly charged states of molecular oxygen using few-cycle infrared laser pulses. Bound and dissociating wave packets were launched and subsequently probed via a pair of 8-fs pulses of 790 nm radiation. Ionic fragments from the dissociating molecules were monitored by velocity-map imaging. Pronounced oscillations in the delay-dependent kinetic energy release spectra were observed. The occurrence of vibrational revivals permits us to identify the potential curves of the O 2 dication which are most relevant to the molecular dynamics. These studies show the accessibility to the dynamics of such higher-charged molecules.

  2. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Susceptibility effects in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziener, Christian Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The properties of dephasing and the resulting relaxation of the magnetization are the basic principle on which all magnetic resonance imaging methods are based. The signal obtained from the gyrating spins is essentially determined by the properties of the considered tissue. Especially the susceptibility differences caused by magnetized materials (for example, deoxygenated blood, BOLD-effect) or magnetic nanoparticles are becoming more important for biomedical imaging. In the present work, the influence of such field inhomogeneities on the NMR-signal is analyzed. (orig.)

  4. Molecular imaging in the management of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyong-Huey Lai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and integrated 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography are valuable techniques for assessing prognosis, treatment response after the completion of concurrent chemoradiation, suspicious or documented recurrence, unexplained post therapy elevations in tumor markers, and the response to salvage treatment when managing cervical cancer. However, PET plays a limited role in the primary staging of MRI-defined node-negative patients. Currently, 18F-FDG is still the only tracer approved for routine use, but several novel targeting PET compounds, high-Tesla MRI machines, diffusion-weighted imaging without contrast, and dynamic nuclear polarized-enhanced 13C-MR spectroscopic imaging may hold promising applications.

  5. Molecular Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Expressing Human PET Reporter Genes After Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Ordovas, Laura; Breuls, Natacha; Helsen, Nicky; Schönberger, Matthias; Raitano, Susanna; Struys, Tom; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Van Laere, Koen; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of nonhuman genes. Methods: We used zinc finger nucleases to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe-harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 in human embryonic stem cells. Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging, and human PET reporter genes. Results: In vitro assays confirmed their functionality, and embryonic stem cells retained differentiation capacity. Teratoma formation assays were performed, and tumors were imaged over time with PET and bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the application of genome editing for targeted integration of human imaging reporter genes in human embryonic stem cells for long-term molecular imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging in sports injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Gielen, Jan L.M.A. [Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Sports Medicine; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Medicine; Zwerver, Johannes (ed.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Center for Sports Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.

  7. Restoration and functional analysis of nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, R.E. III.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear medicine physician uses visual interpretation of a movie-like display of the beating human heart to detect wall motion abnormalities which might be related to impaired cardiac function. The present work is directed toward extracting more information from the heart motion study, and presenting it in a useful manner. A spatially adaptive smoothing routine using a quadtree image representation gives an improvement in mean squared error compared to the S9 smoother commonly used for nuclear medicine studies. Functional images show the two-dimensional distribution of parameters of the heart motion. The most popular, the first harmonic phase functional image, formed from the first Fourier harmonic fit to each pixel time-activity curve, is subject to significant artifacts which make a simple interpretation of it difficult. A multi-harmonic approximation is more accurate and offers a wealth of unique parameters with which to construct more directly meaningful functional images

  8. Nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging in sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M.; Gielen, Jan L.M.A.; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Zwerver, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.

  9. Advancing Molecular Therapies through In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton McCaffrey

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective development of therapeutics that target the molecular basis of disease is dependent on testing new therapeutic moieties and delivery strategies in animal models of human disease. Accelerating the analyses of these models and improving their predictive value through whole animal imaging methods, which provide data in real time and are sensitive to the subtle changes, are crucial for rapid advancement of these approaches. Modalities based on optics are rapid, sensitive, and accessible methods for in vivo analyses with relatively low instrumentation costs. In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI is one of these optically based imaging methods that enable rapid in vivo analyses of a variety of cellular and molecular events with extreme sensitivity. BLI is based on the use of light-emitting enzymes as internal biological light sources that can be detected externally as biological indicators. BLI has been used to test spatio-temporal expression patterns of both target and therapeutic genes in living laboratory animals where the contextual influences of whole biological systems are preserved. BLI has also been used to analyze gene delivery, immune cell therapies, and the in vivo efficacy of inhibitory RNAs. New tools for BLI are being developed that will offer greater flexibility in detection and analyses. BLI can be used to accelerate the evaluation of experimental therapeutic strategies and whole body imaging offers the opportunity of revealing the effects of novel approaches on key steps in disease processes.

  10. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scanfield imaging apparatus is described comprising a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; and means for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each collimator uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  11. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutman, Aaron M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Kuo, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Center for Translational Medical Systems, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States)], E-mail: mkuo@ucsd.edu

    2009-05-15

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  12. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutman, Aaron M.; Kuo, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  13. The Use of Radiation Detectors in Medicine: The Future of Molecular Imaging and Multimodality Imaging: Advantages and Technological Challenges (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late ’70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this series of three lectures I will try to present how high energy physics and medical imaging development have both benefited by t...

  14. Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. PMID:22475429

  15. A nuclear method to authenticate Buddha images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaweerat, S; Ratanatongchai, W; Channuie, J; Wonglee, S; Picha, R; Promping, J; Silva, K; Liamsuwan, T

    2015-01-01

    The value of Buddha images in Thailand varies dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make the justification which frequently leads to obscurity, deception and illegal activities. Here, we propose two non-destructive techniques of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) to reveal respectively structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. For NR, a thermal neutron flux of 10 5 n cm -2 s -1 was applied. NAAR needed a higher neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 to activate the samples. Results from NR and NAAR revealed unique characteristic of the samples. Similarity of the profile played a key role in the classification of the samples. The results provided visual evidence to enhance the reliability of authenticity approval. The method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers in Thailand. (paper)

  16. A nuclear method to authenticate Buddha images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Channuie, J.; Wonglee, S.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Silva, K.; Liamsuwan, T.

    2015-05-01

    The value of Buddha images in Thailand varies dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make the justification which frequently leads to obscurity, deception and illegal activities. Here, we propose two non-destructive techniques of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) to reveal respectively structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. For NR, a thermal neutron flux of 105 n cm-2s-1 was applied. NAAR needed a higher neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 to activate the samples. Results from NR and NAAR revealed unique characteristic of the samples. Similarity of the profile played a key role in the classification of the samples. The results provided visual evidence to enhance the reliability of authenticity approval. The method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers in Thailand.

  17. In vivo nuclear imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis plays a role in the pathophysiology of many kinds of diseases and in the response of treatment. Compared to the necrosis, the apoptosis a genetically controlled and energy-dependent process which removes the unwanted cells from the body; programmed cell death or cell suicide. During the apoptosis, phosphatidylserine is expressed in the cytoplasmic outer membrane in the early phase. Annexin V, an endogenous human protein (MW=35 kD), has an affinity of about 10{sup -9} M for the phosphatidylserine exposed on the outer membrane of apoptotic cells. Annexin V can be radiolabeled with {sup 99}mTc by HYNIC or EC chelators, which can be used as an radiotracer for the in vivo imaging of apoptosis. In this article, we reviewed the apoptosis, radiolabeling of annexin V, and the experimental and clinical data using annexin V imaging.

  18. Image in nuclear dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinsburg, G.; Matsuoka, M.; Watanabe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A low cost methodology to produce images of internal sick organs by radioisotopic intake, is presented. Dosimetries of thermoluminescent material and Teflon (ratio:50%) in bidimensional matrix shape are used with a Pb collimator. This collimator-bidimensional matrix system was tested ''in vivo'' and in thyroid phantoms using 99m Tc. A comparative evaluation between this method and the scintigraphy one is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  20. A Nuclear Medthod to Authenticate Buddha Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Channuie, J.; Wonglee, S.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Silva, K.; Liamsuwan, T.

    2014-01-01

    The value of Buddha images in Thailand change dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make justification which frequently lead to obscurity, deception and unlawful activities. Here, we proposed a non-destructive technique of neutron-activation-autoradiography to reveal structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. With neutron flux of 1012 cm-2s-1, irradiation conditions were varied from 10 seconds to 1 hour for obtaining wide range of elemental composition in objects. Autoradiograph of particular objects demonstrates unique profiles at a time. In complimentary with INAA qualitative data, the profile integration was carried out. Similarity of profile plays a key role in object classification. The genuine profile was established and used as prototype model to compare with other suspects. The results provide significant evidences to ensure the accurate justification. On the other hand, the method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers. TINT is possible to be only one authorized organization in Thailand to provide authentication certification of Buddha images in the near future.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of elasmobranchs inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Babu, P P Suresh; Jaiswar, A K; Hari Krishna, V; Prasasd, K Pani; Chaudhari, Aparna; Raje, S G; Chakraborty, S K; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2014-01-01

    The elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) being the extant survivors of one of the earliest offshoots of the vertebrate evolutionary tree are good model organisms to study the primitive vertebrate conditions. They play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance and have high economic value. Due to over-exploitation and illegal fishing worldwide, the elasmobranch stocks are being decimated at an alarming rate. Appropriate management measures are necessary for restoring depleted elasmobranch stocks. One approach for restoring stocks is implementation of conservation measures and these measures can be formulated effectively by knowing the evolutionary relationship among the elasmobranchs. In this study, a total of 30 species were chosen for molecular phylogeny studies using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 12S ribosomal RNA gene and nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2. Among different genes, the combined dataset of COI and 12S rRNA resulted in a well resolved tree topology with significant bootstrap/posterior probabilities values. The results supported the reciprocal monophyly of sharks and batoids. Within Galeomorphii, Heterodontiformes (bullhead sharks) formed as a sister group to Lamniformes (mackerel sharks): Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) and to Carcharhiniformes (ground sharks). Within batoids, the Myliobatiformes formed a monophyly group while Pristiformes (sawfishes) and Rhinobatiformes (guitar fishes) formed a sister group to all other batoids.

  2. Harnessing Preclinical Molecular Imaging to Inform Advances in Personalized Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter M; Ebiana, Victoria A; Gosa, Laura; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Nathanson, David A

    2017-05-01

    Comprehensive molecular analysis of individual tumors provides great potential for personalized cancer therapy. However, the presence of a particular genetic alteration is often insufficient to predict therapeutic efficacy. Drugs with distinct mechanisms of action can affect the biology of tumors in specific and unique ways. Therefore, assays that can measure drug-induced perturbations of defined functional tumor properties can be highly complementary to genomic analysis. PET provides the capacity to noninvasively measure the dynamics of various tumor biologic processes in vivo. Here, we review the underlying biochemical and biologic basis for a variety of PET tracers and how they may be used to better optimize cancer therapy. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. Hardware and software for image acquisition in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fideles, E.L.; Vilar, G.; Silva, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    A system for image acquisition and processing in nuclear medicine is presented, including the hardware and software referring to acquisition. The hardware is consisted of an analog-digital conversion card, developed in wire-wape. Its function is digitate the analogic signs provided by gamma camera. The acquisitions are made in list or frame mode. (C.G.C.)

  4. Pseudo-color processing in nuclear medical image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqian; Jin Yongjie

    1992-01-01

    The application of pseudo-color technology in nuclear medical image processing is discussed. It includes selection of the number of pseudo-colors, method of realizing pseudo-color transformation, function of pseudo-color transformation and operation on the function

  5. The influence nuclear power has on corporate image and the effect of offering merit information of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Many electric power companies in Japan, irrespective of their nuclear power generation ratio's difference, have nuclear power plants. These days, corporate brand image is becoming more and more important. Therefore, a survey was carried out to study the effect that nuclear power (including comparison with the other type of industry besides electric power) has on the corporate image of an electric power company. Further more, the survey includes a research about the effect on people's attitude change towards nuclear power before and after discovering the merits or benefits of nuclear power. The possibility of enhancing the corporate brand image of electric power companies by providing merit information of nuclear power was studied. (author)

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Lukas, P.; Sehlen, S.; Weidenmaier, W.; Steiner, G.

    1990-01-01

    This pocket book is a clearly arranged and amply illustrated textbook presenting practice-oriented information for readers who seek a concise but nevertheless complete introduction to the complex subject: The technical aspects and physical principles are explained, and a catalogue of reference data and principles for image interpretation is given. The specific information refers to the clinical neuroanatomy and neuropathology of the most frequent lesions (intracranial tumors; cerebrovascular, inflammatory and degenerative lesions; hydrocephalus, multiple sclerosis, traumata, post-surgical changes, radiation effects). There also is a chapter discussing neuropediatric lesions. (orig.) With 257 ill. covering 401 figs., 15 tabs [de

  7. The public image and image shaping of the nuclear and radiation safety regulatory organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Good image is the basis of trust. It is imminent to build good public image as our society and the public pay close attention to the negative information of relevant government departments which directly or indirectly affects the public image of the government departments in recent years. In order to promote the public image of the government regulatory department, it is required for all staff to figure out how to conscientiously fulfill social responsibility, how to respond to and properly handle emergencies, and how to establish and improve a full-time public relations team. Based on nuclear and radiation safety regulatory task, this paper discussed the necessity of government departments to set up the public image, and how to shape the public image of the nuclear and radiation safety regulatory organization. (author)

  8. Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of particular interest as they can detect, localize and quantify molecular targets like abnormal glycosylation sites that are biomarkers of cancer and infection. Targeting these biomarkers is often challenging due to a lack of receptor materials. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising artificial receptors; they can be tailored to bind targets specifically, be labeled easily, and are physically and chemically stable. Herein, we demonstrate the application of MIPs as artificial antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of cellular targets, on the example of hyaluronan and sialylation moieties on fixated human skin cells and tissues. Thus, fluorescently labeled MIP nanoparticles templated with glucuronic acid (MIPGlcA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (MIPNANA) are respectively applied. Two different fluorescent probes are used: (1) MIPGlcA particles, ~400 nm in size are labeled with the dye rhodamine that target the extracellular hyaluronan on cells and tissue specimens and (2) MIP-coated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of two different colors, ~125 nm in size that target the extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan and sialylation sites. Green and red emitting QDs are functionalized with MIPGlcA and MIPNANA respectively, enabling multiplexed cell imaging. This is a general approach that can also be adapted to other target molecules on and in cells.

  9. In Situ Correlated Molecular Imaging of Chemically Communicating Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Paul W. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Shrout, J. D. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Sweedler, J. V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Farrand, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document constitutes the final technical report for DE-SC0006642, In Situ Correlated Molecular Imaging of Chemically Communicating Microbial Communities, a project carried out collaboratively by investigators at Notre Dame and UIUC. The work carried out under DOE support in this project produced advances in two areas: development of new highly sophisticated correlated imaging approaches and the application of these new tools to the growth and differentiation of microbial communities under a variety of environmental conditions. A significant effort involved the creation of technical enhancements and sampling approaches to allow us to advance heterocorrelated mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and correlated Raman microscopy (CRM) from bacterial cultures and biofilms. We then exploited these measurement advances in heterocorrelated MS/CRM imaging to determine relationship of signaling molecules and excreted signaling molecules produced by P. aeruginosa to conditions relevant to the rhizosphere. In particular, we: (1) developed a laboratory testbed mimic for the rhizosphere to enable microbial growth on slides under controlled conditions; (2) integrated specific measurements of (a) rhamnolipids, (b) quinolone/quinolones, and (c) phenazines specific to P. aeruginosa; and (3) utilized the imaging tools to probe how messenger secretion, quorum sensing and swarming behavior are correlated with behavior.

  10. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    PCR-I, an analog coded single ring positron tomograph, demonstrates the concepts of analog coding and the utility of high resolution systems. PCR-I, with a resolution of 4.5mm, has been employed in a series of biological studies using small animals that have been highly successful and will lead to clinical application. The emphasis now is turning to even higher sensitivity instruments in order to provide adequate number of events to populate a volume image. For this purpose, we have designed and are constructing PCR-II, a cylindrical analog coded positron tomograph incorporating 12,800 small detectors coded to 1760 phototubes. The increased sensitivity is achieved by recording all events within a cylindrical source that produce annihilation radiation striking any point on the cylindrical detector. PCR-II is projected to have a sensitivity of 1.6 million counts per second for a 20 centimeter diameter sphere uniformly filled with activity at 1 μCi/cm 3 . This system, with a resolution of 3mm, will approach the limits of sensitivity and resolution for positron tomographs. It is our opinion that this system will revolutionize the concept of positron imaging

  11. Some computer applications and digital image processing in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowinger, T.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of digital image processing are applied to problems in nuclear medicine imaging. The symmetry properties of central nervous system lesions are exploited in an attempt to determine the three-dimensional radioisotope density distribution within the lesions. An algorithm developed by astronomers at the end of the 19th century to determine the distribution of matter in globular clusters is applied to tumors. This algorithm permits the emission-computed-tomographic reconstruction of spherical lesions from a single view. The three-dimensional radioisotope distribution derived by the application of the algorithm can be used to characterize the lesions. The applicability to nuclear medicine images of ten edge detection methods in general usage in digital image processing were evaluated. A general model of image formation by scintillation cameras is developed. The model assumes that objects to be imaged are composed of a finite set of points. The validity of the model has been verified by its ability to duplicate experimental results. Practical applications of this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of radipharmaceuticals under clinical situations and the study of image processing algorithms

  12. Nuclear medicine and multimodality imaging of pediatric neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang Peter; Pfluger, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Coppenrath, Eva [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and is metastatic or high risk for relapse in nearly 50% of cases. Therefore, exact staging with radiological and nuclear medicine imaging methods is crucial for defining the adequate therapeutic choice. Tumor cells express the norepinephrine transporter, which makes metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine, an ideal tumor specific agent for imaging. MIBG imaging has several disadvantages, such as limited spatial resolution, limited sensitivity in small lesions and the need for two or even more acquisition sessions. Most of these limitations can be overcome with positron emission tomography (PET) using [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose [FDG]. Furthermore, new tracers, such as fluorodopa or somatostatin receptor agonists, have been tested for imaging neuroblastoma recently. However, MIBG scintigraphy and PET alone are not sufficient for operative or biopsy planning. In this regard, a combination with morphological imaging is indispensable. This article will discuss strategies for primary and follow-up diagnosis in neuroblastoma using different nuclear medicine and radiological imaging methods as well as multimodality imaging. (orig.)

  13. Nanoparticles in Nuclear Imaging | Mody | Internet Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the matter of fact, these radiolabeled imaging agents enable the visualization of the cellular function and the follow-up of the molecular process in living organisms. Moreover, the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology has provided various innovative radionuclides and delivery systems, such as liposomes, magnetic ...

  14. Biomedical nanotechnology for molecular imaging, diagnostics, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology is a cross-disciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine with broad applications for molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapy. The basic rationale is that nanometer-sized particles such as semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals have optical, magnetic or structural properties that are not available from either molecules or bulk solids. When linked with biotargeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules, these nanoparticles can be used to target diseased cells and organs (such as malignant tumors and cardiovascular plaques) with high affinity and specificity. In the "mesoscopic" size range of 5-100 nm diameter, nanoparticles also have large surface areas and functional groups for conjugating to multiple diagnostic (e.g., optical, radioisotopic, or magnetic) and therapeutic (e.g., anticancer) agents.

  15. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, G.

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [de

  16. The origins and future of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrli, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    What began as a curiosity of physics has become the preeminent method of diagnostic medical imaging and may displace x-ray-based techniques in the 21st century. During the past two decades nuclear magnetic resonance has revolutionized chemistry, biochemistry, biology and, more recently, diagnostic medicine. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI) as it is commonly called, is fundamentally different from x-ray-based techniques in terms of the principles of spatial encoding and mechanisms of signal and contrast generation involved. MRI has a far richer ultimate potential than any other imaging technique known today, and its technology and applications are still far from maturation, which may not occur until early in the 21st century. 23 refs., 6 figs

  17. Nuclear medicine and imaging research. Progress report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.C.

    1981-09-01

    The Progress Report for the period January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981 of the Franklin Memorial Research Institute discusses instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation in nuclear medicine and imaging research. Imaging systems and image evaluation are discussed in four projects: Radiation Detector Studies, Dual Purpose Scanner for Thyroid Imaging, Instrumentation for Image Processing and Enhancement, and Energy-Coded Processing in Nuclear Medicine

  18. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Fales, Andrew; Register, Janna; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-08-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS) exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  19. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Price, Eric W; Phenix, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled substrates, reversible inhibitors, and irreversible inhibitors investigated as PET and SPECT tracers for imaging hydrolytic enzymes. By learning from the most successful examples of tracer development for hydrolytic enzymes, it appears that an early focus on careful enzyme kinetics and cell-based studies are key factors for identifying potentially useful new molecular imaging agents.

  20. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  1. The design of a new model circuit for image acquisition from nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nan; Jin Yongjie

    1995-01-01

    A new practical model of image acquisition circuit is given. It can be applied to data acquisition system of γ camera from nuclear medicine directly. Its idea also can be applied to some image acquisition system of nuclear event

  2. Functional histology of tumors as a basis of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.; Van Der Kogel, A.; Kaanders, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the various elements of the microenvironment and their interrelationships by quantitative image analysis. Tumor cell proliferation, hypoxia, and apoptosis are detected by immunohistochemical methods, and mapped in relation to the vasculature. This allows quantitative relationships to be measured in the context of tissue structure. Guided by e.g., gene expression profiles for hypoxia induced-genes, several molecular markers of tumor hypoxia were identified and are immunohistochemically detectable. We have thus far concentrated on the glucose transporters glut-1 and glut-3, as well as a pH-regulating enzyme, carbonic anhydrase IX. The extent and distribution of hypoxia is assessed by administering nitroimidazole-based markers such as pimonidazole, that can be detected immunohistochemically. Multiple hypoxia markers (CCI-103F, pimonidazole) can be used to study the effects of modifiers of perfusion or oxygenation on the distribution and dynamics of hypoxic cells in the same tumor. Proliferating cells are detected by thymidine analogues. Apoptotic cells are imaged by TUNEL and caspase-3 detection. In xenografted human tumors, examples of the use of quantitative imaging of hypoxia and proliferation are the study of reoxygenation after irradiation, or the investigation of the lifespan and dynamics of hypoxic cell populations over time. Perturbation of the microenvironment after cytotoxic treatments has been investigated by co-registration of the various markers, e.g. after treatment with the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine. The combination of well-timed administration of external markers of hypoxia and proliferation with the detection of intrinsic molecular markers followed by quantitative image-registration yields a comprehensive view of the dynamics of the microenvironment in individual tumors

  3. Molecular imaging of cannabis leaf tissue with MeV-SIMS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Kovačec, Eva; Regvar, Marjana; Siketić, Zdravko; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Kelemen, Mitja; Kovač, Janez; Pelicon, Primož

    2016-03-01

    To broaden our analytical capabilities with molecular imaging in addition to the existing elemental imaging with micro-PIXE, a linear Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) was constructed and added to the existing nuclear microprobe at the Jožef Stefan Institute. We measured absolute molecular yields and damage cross-section of reference materials, without significant alteration of the fragile biological samples during the duration of measurements in the mapping mode. We explored the analytical capability of the MeV-SIMS technique for chemical mapping of the plant tissue of medicinal cannabis leaves. A series of hand-cut plant tissue slices were prepared by standard shock-freezing and freeze-drying protocol and deposited on the Si wafer. We show the measured MeV-SIMS spectra showing a series of peaks in the mass area of cannabinoids, as well as their corresponding maps. The indicated molecular distributions at masses of 345.5 u and 359.4 u may be attributed to the protonated THCA and THCA-C4 acids, and show enhancement in the areas with opened trichome morphology.

  4. Molecular imaging of cannabis leaf tissue with MeV-SIMS method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenčič, Boštjan, E-mail: bostjan.jencic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); M4I, Maastricht University, Peter Debijelaan 25A, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. of Biology, Večna pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovačec, Eva; Regvar, Marjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. of Biology, Večna pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Siketić, Zdravko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Kelemen, Mitja; Kovač, Janez; Pelicon, Primož [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-03-15

    To broaden our analytical capabilities with molecular imaging in addition to the existing elemental imaging with micro-PIXE, a linear Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) was constructed and added to the existing nuclear microprobe at the Jožef Stefan Institute. We measured absolute molecular yields and damage cross-section of reference materials, without significant alteration of the fragile biological samples during the duration of measurements in the mapping mode. We explored the analytical capability of the MeV-SIMS technique for chemical mapping of the plant tissue of medicinal cannabis leaves. A series of hand-cut plant tissue slices were prepared by standard shock-freezing and freeze-drying protocol and deposited on the Si wafer. We show the measured MeV-SIMS spectra showing a series of peaks in the mass area of cannabinoids, as well as their corresponding maps. The indicated molecular distributions at masses of 345.5 u and 359.4 u may be attributed to the protonated THCA and THCA-C4 acids, and show enhancement in the areas with opened trichome morphology.

  5. Molecular imaging of cannabis leaf tissue with MeV-SIMS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Kovačec, Eva; Regvar, Marjana; Siketić, Zdravko; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Kelemen, Mitja; Kovač, Janez; Pelicon, Primož

    2016-01-01

    To broaden our analytical capabilities with molecular imaging in addition to the existing elemental imaging with micro-PIXE, a linear Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) was constructed and added to the existing nuclear microprobe at the Jožef Stefan Institute. We measured absolute molecular yields and damage cross-section of reference materials, without significant alteration of the fragile biological samples during the duration of measurements in the mapping mode. We explored the analytical capability of the MeV-SIMS technique for chemical mapping of the plant tissue of medicinal cannabis leaves. A series of hand-cut plant tissue slices were prepared by standard shock-freezing and freeze-drying protocol and deposited on the Si wafer. We show the measured MeV-SIMS spectra showing a series of peaks in the mass area of cannabinoids, as well as their corresponding maps. The indicated molecular distributions at masses of 345.5 u and 359.4 u may be attributed to the protonated THCA and THCA-C4 acids, and show enhancement in the areas with opened trichome morphology.

  6. Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; Lorenser, Dirk; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kramer, Anne S.; Yeoh, George C.; Godbout, Nicolas; Sampson, David D.; Boudoux, Caroline; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging using optical techniques provides insight into disease at the cellular level. In this paper, we report on a novel dual-modality probe capable of performing molecular imaging by combining simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-dimensional fluorescence imaging in a hypodermic needle. The probe, referred to as a molecular imaging (MI) needle, may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue. The MI needle utilizes double-clad fiber to carry both imaging modalities, and is interfaced to a 1310-nm OCT system and a fluorescence imaging subsystem using an asymmetrical double-clad fiber coupler customized to achieve high fluorescence collection efficiency. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first dual-modality OCT and fluorescence needle probe with sufficient sensitivity to image fluorescently labeled antibodies. Such probes enable high-resolution molecular imaging deep within tissue. PMID:26137379

  7. Recommendations on the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in oncology: consensus between the Brazilian Society of Cancerology and the Brazilian Society of Biology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Junior, Jose, E-mail: sbbmn@sbbmn.org.b [Sociedade Brasileira de Biologia, Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular (SBBMN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Roberto Porto [Sociedade Brasileira de Cancerologia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Cerci, Juliano Julio [Quanta Diagnostico Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear e PET/CT; Mamed, Marcelo [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Sergio Altino de [Clinica Felippe Mattoso, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    The authors present a list of recommendations on the utilization of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in oncology for the diagnosis, staging and detection of cancer, as well as in the follow-up of the disease progression and possible recurrence. The recommendations were based on the analysis of controlled studies and a systematic review of the literature including both retrospective and prospective studies regarding the clinical usefulness and the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT on the management of cancer patients. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT should be utilized as a supplement to other conventional imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Positive results suggesting changes in the clinical management should be confirmed by histopathological studies. {sup 18}F-FDG PET should be utilized in the diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of cancer involving the respiratory system, head and neck, digestive system, breast, genital organs, thyroid, central nervous system, besides melanomas, lymphomas and occult primary tumors (author)

  8. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, B.M.; Linss, G.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.) [de

  9. Production of sestamibi kit for nuclear imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Hakim; Zakaria, Ahmad; Yaacob, Hadzri; Ramli, Jamaluddin [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan (Malaysia). School of Medical Sciences

    1997-12-01

    One of the research projects undertaken during the implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Cooperation Program in our department was inhouse production of sestamibi (MIBI) kit to be labelled with Tc99m pertechnetate for myocardial studies and for malignant tumor imaging. 100 mg raw materials of sestamibi was supplied by IAEA and the kit was prepared based on Janoki recipe. Using 6 mg MIBI, 192 mg glycine, 3.6 mg stannous chloride, 62.4 mg Na sub 4 Po sub 4 and 24 mg cysteine we have prepared 24 vials of MIBI kit under sterile condition and stored in the freezer at -70 degree C. The sterility of the kit was confirmed by microbiological test using cultured method. The stability test was done by labelling the kit with Tc-99m pertechnetate at day 1, 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after kit preparation. Using two system butanone and saline with ITLC the labelling efficiency of Tc-99m (MIBI) was found to be more than 90% in each case. The labelling efficiency was found to maintain at 90% up to 24 hours post reconstitution at room temperature. Biodistribution study was carried out by administering Tc-99m (MIBI) to mice intravenously at the dosage of IOO {mu} Ci per 20 gm body weight. The mice were sacrificed at 3 hours and 24 hours after the dose administration. Blood, heart, lung, intestine, kidney and stomach samples were obtained, weighed and measured for radioactivity using gamma well counter. The data showed that after 3 hours about 60% of the injected dose accumulated in the intestine which was in agreement with IAEA standard. At 24 hours the amount in the heart still remained about 25% of the 3 hour uptake. In house production of MIBI kit is easy, fast and cost effective. The data suggested that the quality of our kit was good enough to be used for further animal research and clinical trials.

  10. Hybrid imaging, PET-CT and SPECT-CT: What impact on nuclear medicine education and practice in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundler, O.

    2009-01-01

    To define the policy of our specialty with a consensus opinion, a questionnaire entitled 'hybrid imaging' was sent to practicing nuclear medicine specialist physicians in France to obtain their opinion on the impact of this recent method in training and in the practice of nuclear medicine and on the relations between nuclear medicine specialists and other medical imaging specialists. This questionnaire, written by the office of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine (F.S.N.M.) and molecular imaging, was divided into four parts: Profile and experience in hybrid imaging, Relations with radiologists, Practice of CT scans with hybrid equipment, and the Future of the specialty and of training in nuclear medicine. The response rate was 60%, i.e. 374 completed questionnaires. Overall, the responses were uniform, whatever the respondent's experience, type and place of practice. Regular participation in hybrid imaging practice was the reply provided by the majority of respondents. In terms of relations with radiologists, such contacts existed in over 85% of cases and are considered as being of high quality in over 90% of cases. The vast majority of practitioners believe that hybrid imaging will become the standard. Opinions on the diagnostic use of CT scans are divided, as well as their interpretation by a radiologist, a nuclear medicine specialist or by both. In the opinion of the vast majority, hybrid equipment systems should be managed by nuclear medicine specialists. With regard to the future, nuclear medicine should remain an independent specialty with enhanced training in morphological imaging and a residency training program whose length should be increased to 5 years. (author)

  11. Tunable Molecular Logic Gates Designed for Imaging Released Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Jessica L; Hettie, Kenneth S; Secor, Kristen E; Barman, Dipti N; Glass, Timothy E

    2015-08-03

    Tunable dual-analyte fluorescent molecular logic gates (ExoSensors) were designed for the purpose of imaging select vesicular primary-amine neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. ExoSensors are based on the coumarin-3-aldehyde scaffold and rely on both neurotransmitter binding and the change in environmental pH associated with exocytosis to afford a unique turn-on fluorescence output. A pH-functionality was directly integrated into the fluorophore π-system of the scaffold, thereby allowing for an enhanced fluorescence output upon the release of labeled neurotransmitters. By altering the pH-sensitive unit with various electron-donating and -withdrawing sulfonamide substituents, we identified a correlation between the pKa of the pH-sensitive group and the fluorescence output from the activated fluorophore. In doing so, we achieved a twelvefold fluorescence enhancement upon evaluating the ExoSensors under conditions that mimic exocytosis. ExoSensors are aptly suited to serve as molecular imaging tools that allow for the direct visualization of only the neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Raman molecular imaging of brain frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Rosenblum, Mark L; Mikkelsen, Tom; Yurgelevic, Sally M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Poisson, Laila M; Kalkanis, Steven N

    2014-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature of the region being studied. It is ideal for neurosurgical applications because it is non-destructive, label-free, not impacted by water concentration, and can map an entire region of tissue. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the meaningful spatial molecular information provided by Raman spectroscopy for identification of regions of normal brain, necrosis, diffusely infiltrating glioma and solid glioblastoma (GBM). Five frozen section tissues (1 normal, 1 necrotic, 1 GBM, and 2 infiltrating glioma) were mapped in their entirety using a 300-µm-square step size. Smaller regions of interest were also mapped using a 25-µm step size. The relative concentrations of relevant biomolecules were mapped across all tissues and compared with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, allowing identification of normal, GBM, and necrotic regions. Raman peaks and peak ratios mapped included 1003, 1313, 1431, 1585, and 1659 cm(-1). Tissue maps identified boundaries of grey and white matter, necrosis, GBM, and infiltrating tumor. Complementary information, including relative concentration of lipids, protein, nucleic acid, and hemoglobin, was presented in a manner which can be easily adapted for in vivo tissue mapping. Raman spectroscopy can successfully provide label-free imaging of tissue characteristics with high accuracy. It can be translated to a surgical or laboratory tool for rapid, non-destructive imaging of tumor margins.

  13. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  14. Nuclear medicine image and data interchange through e-mail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, M; Skouroliakou, K; Perris, A; Georgossopoulos, C; Pappas, D [Radiology Department, Athens University, Athens (Greece); Stefanides, C [Pediatric Hospital, Aglaia Kyriakou, Athens (Greece)

    1999-12-31

    Prosperity of easy interchange in every day practice of Nuclear Medicine found its application through the INTERNET media. We use a simple and safe way to interchange images and diagnostic information between the scintigraphic acquisition and processing location and the clinical department in order to improve patient`s health care and young doctor`s education. images and patient reports are transferred and saved through dedicated software to a workstation that transforms y-camera scintigraphic images in a PC readable format. Diagnosis reports and scintigraphic images are incorporated to a database directory in hypertext form. Usual WWW connection gives the possibility of patients` examinations transfer by email attachments as well as interchange of relative comments towards both directions. Cost effective solution has been achieved using standard hard- and soft-ware. Furthermore, both educational files can be downloaded from our department ftp location, by a unique password. (authors) 7 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Nuclear medicine image and data interchange through e-mail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, M.; Skouroliakou, K.; Perris, A.; Georgossopoulos, C.; Pappas, D.; Stefanides, C.

    1998-01-01

    Prosperity of easy interchange in every day practice of Nuclear Medicine found its application through the INTERNET media. We use a simple and safe way to interchange images and diagnostic information between the scintigraphic acquisition and processing location and the clinical department in order to improve patient's health care and young doctor's education. images and patient reports are transferred and saved through dedicated software to a workstation that transforms y-camera scintigraphic images in a PC readable format. Diagnosis reports and scintigraphic images are incorporated to a database directory in hypertext form. Usual WWW connection gives the possibility of patients' examinations transfer by email attachments as well as interchange of relative comments towards both directions. Cost effective solution has been achieved using standard hard- and soft-ware. Furthermore, both educational files can be downloaded from our department ftp location, by a unique password. (authors)

  16. Restoration of nuclear medicine images using adaptive Wiener filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, G.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive Wiener filter implementation for restoration of nuclear medicine images is described. These are considerably disturbed both deterministically (definition) and stochastically (Poisson's quantum noise). After introduction of an image model, description of necessary parameter approximations and information on optimum design methods the implementation is described. The filter operates adaptively as concerns the local signal-to-noise ratio and is based on a filter band concept. To verify the restoration effect size numbers are introduced and the filter is tested against these numbers. (author)

  17. Magnetic imaging: a new tool for UK national nuclear security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Brendan J; Watson, Joe C; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-22

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications.

  18. NUCLEAR IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIAC AMYLOIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sergienko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological analysis of endomyocardial tissue is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis but has its limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for noninvasive techniques to cardiac amyloidosis diagnostics. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging can show characteristics which may not be very specific for cardiac amyloid. Recently, new opportunities of nuclear imaging in risk stratification and assessment of prognosis for patients with cardiac amyloidosis have appeared. During the last two decades different classes of radiopharmaceuticals have been developed based on compounds tropic to the components of amyloid infiltrates. In this paper we describe the current possibilities and perspectives of nuclear medicine techniques in patients with cardiac amyloidosis, including osteotropic and neurotropic scintigraphy, single-photon and positron emission tomography

  19. Magnetic Imaging: a New Tool for UK National Nuclear Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joe C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications.

  20. Impact of molecular imaging with PET on healthcare worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET imaging has substantially improved healthcare throughout the world. This technique has been applied to patients with some of the most serious diseases, including cancer, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease and infections including infected prostheses. There is also enormous potential for further improvement in patient management using this technique, for example, in the detection of atherosclerosis and clots, and assessment of muscle function. Studies using FDG-PET methodology have led to the development of many novel radiotracers that have been designed to explore new diagnostic and therapeutic domains. We therefore expect that molecular imaging with PET will play an increasingly central role in research and in the optimal management of patients with many disorders. This will include diagnosing pathological processes at the molecular level and individualizing treatment for these patients. By utilizing PET and the appropriately labeled pharmaceuticals, one will be able to select the most suitable therapeutic drugs for a particular disease, instead of administering drugs to patients without a good idea of the chance of efficacy. Likewise, PET will increasingly play a major role in drug development by demonstrating the degree to which the intended pharmaceutical targets the diseased tissues in animal models and in human beings. PET will also assist in determining the rate of metabolism of the administered drugs by different tissues. PET imaging will also allow accurate staging of cancer and other serious diseases and will be adopted as the most accurate technique for monitoring response to treatment and detecting recurrence. The role of CT and/or MRI as independent modalities in medicine will decrease as the efficacy of PET is realized by scientists and clinicians alike. In particular, the use of contrast agents such as iodinated compounds and gadolinium based agents will be minimized. Similarly, imaging with single gamma

  1. Transferring Biomarker into Molecular Probe: Melanin Nanoparticle as a Naturally Active Platform for Multimodality Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (

  2. Visualizing the molecular sociology at the HeLa cell nuclear periphery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahamid, Julia; Pfeffer, Stefan; Schaffer, Miroslava; Villa, Elizabeth; Danev, Radostin; Cuellar, Luis Kuhn; Förster, Friedrich|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516438; Hyman, Anthony A; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The molecular organization of eukaryotic nuclear volumes remains largely unexplored. Here we combined recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to produce three-dimensional snapshots of the HeLa cell nuclear periphery. Subtomogram averaging and classification of ribosomes revealed

  3. Image interface in Java for tomographic reconstruction in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.A.; Silva, A.M. Marques da

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to implement a software for tomographic reconstruction of SPECT data from Nuclear Medicine with a flexible interface design, cross-platform, written in Java. Validation tests were performed based on SPECT simulated data. The results showed that the implemented algorithms and filters agree with the theoretical context. We intend to extend the system by implementing additional tomographic reconstruction techniques and Java threads, in order to provide simultaneously image processing. (author)

  4. Molecular and Ionized Hydrogen in 30 Doradus. I. Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first fully calibrated H2 1-0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H2-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H2, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H2 to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H2 emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2-3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <104 cm-3. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H2 emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  5. Molecular Imaging Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Mutant IDH Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra eViswanath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70-90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an oncometabolite, inhibits key α-KG- dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprogramming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprogramming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH cells and how this reprogramming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo.

  6. MOLECULAR AND IONIZED HYDROGEN IN 30 DORADUS. I. IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Pellegrini, Eric W., E-mail: yeh@naoj.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    We present the first fully calibrated H{sub 2} 1–0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H{sub 2}-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H{sub 2}, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H{sub 2} to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H{sub 2} emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2–3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H{sub 2} emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  7. Molecular nuclear imaging of tumoral angio genesis using a rgd-containing tracer, Raft-RGD, targeted at the neo vessel-specific integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}; Evaluation d'un radioligand de l'integrine {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} (RAFT-RGD) pour l'imagerie moleculaire de l'angiogenese tumorale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancey, L

    2006-06-15

    Tumoral neo-angio genesis targeting is currently a major field of research for the diagnostic and treatment of solid tumors. Endothelial cells from neo vessels over express several specific markers such as the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin, which binds RGD (-Arg-Gly-Asp-)- containing peptides. We evaluated the potential of a novel radiotracer - RAFT-RGD - for the molecular nuclear imaging of neo vessels. In vitro, the coupling of 4 c(RGDfK) to the RAFT platform resulted in an increased cellular uptake of the tracer by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} positive cells when compared to c(RGDfK). Furthermore, RAFTRGD has a higher affinity than c(RGDfK) and similar properties for angio genesis inhibition. In vivo, both {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} positive and negative tumors were visible by non invasive whole body planar and tomographic imaging from 30 min to 24 h post-injection, using a gamma camera dedicated to small animal imaging. Despite a lack of significant contrast improvement compare with c(RGDfK), RAFT-RGD could represent a promising tracer for tumoral angio genesis since it could provide invaluable information about tumor development and treatment efficacy in Nuclear Medicine departments. Furthermore, thanks to its chemical structure, RAFT-RGD can be labelled with a variety of radioisotopes including {gamma} and {beta}{sup -} emitters, allowing interesting therapeutical applications such as internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Metal-Based Systems for Molecular Imaging Applications - COST D38 Annual Workshop - Scientific Program and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajczak, R.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the Action is the development of metal-based imaging probes for cellular and molecular imaging applications, based on MRI, PET, SPECT and optical imaging that will facilitate early diagnosis, assessment of disease progression and treatment evaluation.The goal of this Action is to further the development of innovative imaging probes through the pursuit of innovations in a number of different areas, ranging from the design of imaging units endowed with enhanced sensitivity to the control of the structural and electronic determinants responsible for the molecular recognition of the target molecule.At present, in vivo diagnostic systems basically assess the structure and function of human organs. Therefore, for important diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular pathologies,and also diseases of the central nervous system, only the late symptoms are detected. It is expected that the advances in genomics and proteomics will have a tremendous impact on human health care of the future. However, advances in molecular biology are already redefining diseases in terms of molecular abnormalities. With this knowledge, new generations of diagnostic imaging agents can be defined that aim at the detection of those molecular processes in vivo.The molecular imaging approach offers a great potential for earlier detection and characterisation of disease, and evaluation of treatment. However, more research is necessary to bring these ideas to clinical applications and a key aspect relates to the development of high-specificity, high-sensitivity imaging probes for the different detection modalities. Additionally, the Action includes research activities dealing with the exploitation of peculiar nuclear properties of given isotopes for therapeutic effects, thus integrating the diagnostic and the therapeutic stages.Apart from its use in early diagnosis in clinical practice, the molecular imaging approach will have also a major impact on the development of new

  9. Parallel 3-D image processing for nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Toshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The history of nuclear plate was explained. The first nuclear plate was named as pellicles covered with 600 μm of emulsion in Europe. In Japan Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) using thin emulsion (50 μm) type nuclear plate was developed in 1960. Then, the semi-automatic analyzer (1971) and automatic analyzer (1980), Track Selector (TS) with memory stored 16 layer images in 512 x 512 x 16 pixel were developed. Moreover, NTS (New Track Selector), speeding up analyzer, was produced for analysis of results of CHORUS experiment in 1996. Simultaneous readout of 16 layer images had been carried out, but UTS (Ultra Track Selector) made possible to progressive treatment of 16 layers of some data and determination of traces in all angles. Direct detection of tau neutrino (VT) was studied by DONUT (FNAL E872) using UTS and nuclear plate. Neutrino beam was produced by 800 GeV proton beam hitting the fixed target. About 1100 phenomena of neutrino reactions were observed during six months of irradiation. 203 phenomena were detected. 4 examples were shown in this paper. OPERA experiment by SK is explained. (S.Y.)

  10. Breast-specific gamma-imaging: molecular imaging of the breast using 99mTc-sestamibi and a small-field-of-view gamma-camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Phan, Trinh D; Blanchard, Deborah A; Miley, Abbe

    2009-12-01

    Breast-specific gamma-imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging, is breast scintigraphy using a small-field-of-view gamma-camera and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. There are many different types of breast cancer, and many have characteristics making them challenging to detect by mammography and ultrasound. BSGI is a cost-effective, highly sensitive and specific technique that complements other imaging modalities currently being used to identify malignant lesions in the breast. Using the current Society of Nuclear Medicine guidelines for breast scintigraphy, Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital began conducting BSGI, breast scintigraphy with a breast-optimized gamma-camera. In our experience, optimal imaging has been conducted in the Breast Center by a nuclear medicine technologist. In addition, the breast radiologists read the BSGI images in correlation with the mammograms, ultrasounds, and other imaging studies performed. By modifying the current Society of Nuclear Medicine protocol to adapt it to the practice of breast scintigraphy with these new systems and by providing image interpretation in conjunction with the other breast imaging studies, our center has found BSGI to be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The development of a small-field-of-view gamma-camera, designed to optimize breast imaging, has resulted in improved detection capabilities, particularly for lesions less than 1 cm. Our experience with this procedure has proven to aid in the clinical work-up of many of our breast patients. After reading this article, the reader should understand the history of breast scintigraphy, the pharmaceutical used, patient preparation and positioning, imaging protocol guidelines, clinical indications, and the role of breast scintigraphy in breast cancer diagnosis.

  11. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Bremer, Christoph; Weissleder, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    A recent development in biomedical imaging is the non-invasive mapping of molecular events in intact tissues using fluorescence. Underpinning to this development is the discovery of bio-compatible, specific fluorescent probes and proteins and the development of highly sensitive imaging technologies for in vivo fluorescent detection. Of particular interest are fluorochromes that emit in the near infrared (NIR), a spectral window, whereas hemoglobin and water absorb minimally so as to allow photons to penetrate for several centimetres in tissue. In this review article we concentrate on optical imaging technologies used for non-invasive imaging of the distribution of such probes. We illuminate the advantages and limitations of simple photographic methods and turn our attention to fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography (FMT), a technique that can three-dimensionally image gene expression by resolving fluorescence activation in deep tissues. We describe theoretical specifics, and we provide insight into its in vivo capacity and the sensitivity achieved. Finally, we discuss its clinical feasibility. (orig.)

  12. [Situation of supply and boom of PET imaging: what is the future for technetium-99m in nuclear medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, S; Ayachi Hatit, N; Paycha, F

    2011-05-01

    Molecular imaging has shown its interest in the diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer. This imaging modality can detect non-invasively early molecular changes specific to these diseases. Its expansion includes two aspects linked firstly with the advanced techniques of imaging modalities and secondly with the development of tracers as radio pharmaceuticals for imaging new molecular targets. Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), because of its physical characteristics, its widespread availability and low cost, is the most used radionuclide in molecular imaging with the technique of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nevertheless, the current difficulty concerning the supply and the great interest of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the "competitor" imaging modality-using molecules labelled with fluorine-18 ((18)F), legitimates the question about the future of (99m)Tc, its supremacy and the emergence of new tracer labelled with (99m)Tc. Focusing on the actual and future supply situation, the place of SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine, as well as the development of new molecules labelled with (99m)Tc is necessary to show that this radionuclide will remain essential for the speciality in the next years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital image processing for radiography in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, H.; Rose, P.; Raabe, P.; Daum, W.

    1985-01-01

    With the help of digital processing of radiographic images from reactor-components it is possible to increase the security and objectiveness of the evaluation. Several examples of image processing procedures (contrast enhancement, density profiles, shading correction, digital filtering, superposition of images etc.) show the advantages for the visualization and evaluation of radiographs. Digital image processing can reduce some of the restrictions of radiography in nuclear power plants. In addition a higher degree of automation can be cost-saving and increase the quality of radiographic evaluation. The aim of the work performed was to to improve the readability of radiographs for the human observer. The main problem is lack of contrast and the presence of disturbing structures like weld seams. Digital image processing of film radiographs starts with the digitization of the image. Conventional systems use TV-cameras or scanners and provide a dynamic range of 1.5. to 3 density units, which are digitized to 256 grey levels. For the enhancement process it is necessary that the grey level range covers the density range of the important regions of the presented film. On the other hand the grey level coverage should not be wider than necessary to minimize the width of digitization steps. Poor digitization makes flaws and cracks invisible and spoils all further image processing

  14. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine Imaging: Concepts, Requirements and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    The absolute quantification of radionuclide distribution has been a goal since the early days of nuclear medicine. Nevertheless, the apparent complexity and sometimes limited accuracy of these methods have prevented them from being widely used in important applications such as targeted radionuclide therapy or kinetic analysis. The intricacy of the effects degrading nuclear medicine images and the lack of availability of adequate methods to compensate for these effects have frequently been seen as insurmountable obstacles in the use of quantitative nuclear medicine in clinical institutions. In the last few decades, several research groups have consistently devoted their efforts to the filling of these gaps. As a result, many efficient methods are now available that make quantification a clinical reality, provided appropriate compensation tools are used. Despite these efforts, many clinical institutions still lack the knowledge and tools to adequately measure and estimate the accumulated activities in the human body, thereby using potentially outdated protocols and procedures. The purpose of the present publication is to review the current state of the art of image quantification and to provide medical physicists and other related professionals facing quantification tasks with a solid background of tools and methods. It describes and analyses the physical effects that degrade image quality and affect the accuracy of quantification, and describes methods to compensate for them in planar, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The fast paced development of the computational infrastructure, both hardware and software, has made drastic changes in the ways image quantification is now performed. The measuring equipment has evolved from the simple blind probes to planar and three dimensional imaging, supported by SPECT, PET and hybrid equipment. Methods of iterative reconstruction have been developed to allow for

  15. Gamma-ray imaging. Applications in nuclear non-proliferation and homeland security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kai; Mihailescu, Lucian

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the motivation and describes implementations of gamma-ray imaging for homeland security applications and more general for national and international nuclear security. As in nuclear medicine and astrophysics, the goal of gamma-ray imaging is the detection and localization of nuclear materials, however, here in a terrestrial environment with distances between nuclear medicine and astrophysics, i.e. in the range of 1-100 meters. Due to the recently increased threat of nuclear terrorism, the detection of illicit nuclear materials and the prevention of nuclear proliferation through the development of advanced gamma-ray imaging concepts and technologies has become and active research field. (author)

  16. Full aperture imaging with stereoscopic properties in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocovsky, Sergio G.; Otero, D.

    2011-01-01

    The imaging techniques based on gamma camera (CG) and used in nuclear medicine have low spatial resolution and low sensitivity due to the use of the collimator. However, this element is essential for the formation of images in CG. The aim of this work is to show the principles of a new technique to overcome the limitations of existing techniques based on CG. Here, we present a Full Aperture Imaging (FAI) technique which is based on the edge-encoding of gamma radiation and differential detection. It takes advantage of the fact that gamma radiation is spatially incoherent. The mathematical principles and the method of images reconstruction with the new proposed technique are explained in detail. The FAI technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with filiform and spherical sources. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (>100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times) than that of GC with LEHR collimator, in both cases, with and without attenuating material and long and short-distance configurations. The FAI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections which are located in separate image fields on the detector plane, while GC produces only one projection per acquisition. Simulations have allowed comparison of both techniques under ideal identical conditions. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple encoded imaging technique, and get three-dimensional radioactivity information for simplistic geometry sources. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex sources typical of nuclear medicine imaging. (author)

  17. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Current Functional and Future Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Elise M.; Martucci, Victoria; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Paragangliomas are neural crest-derived tumors, arising either from chromaffin sympathetic tissue (in adrenal, abdominal, intra-pelvic, or thoracic paraganglia) or from parasympathetic tissue (in head and neck paraganglia). They have a specific cellular metabolism, with the ability to synthesize, store, and secrete catecholamines (although most head and neck paragangliomas do not secrete any catecholamines). This disease is rare and also very heterogeneous, with various presentations (e.g., in regards to localization, multifocality, potential to metastasize, biochemical phenotype, and genetic background). With growing knowledge, notably about the pathophysiology and genetic background, guidelines are evolving rapidly. In this context, functional imaging is a challenge for the management of paragangliomas. Nuclear imaging has been used for exploring paragangliomas for the last three decades, with MIBG historically as the first-line exam. Tracers used in paragangliomas can be grouped in three different categories. Agents that specifically target catecholamine synthesis, storage, and secretion pathways include: 123 and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123/131I-MIBG), 18F-fluorodopamine (18F-FDA), and 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA). Agents that bind somatostatin receptors include 111In-pentetreotide and 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analog peptides (68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-NOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE). The non-specific agent most commonly used in paragangliomas is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). This review will first describe conventional scintigraphic exams that are used for imaging paragangliomas. In the second part we will emphasize the interest in new PET approaches (specific and non-specific), considering the growing knowledge about genetic background and pathophysiology, with the aim of understanding how tumors behave, and optimally adjusting imaging technique for each tumor type.

  18. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Paul C

    2006-01-01

    In the first year of this training grant, five faculty members from different departments at the Howard University were trained in molecular imaging with the faculty at the In Vivo Cellular Molecular...

  19. Dosimetry of FDG PET/CT and other molecular imaging applications in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Effective doses for PET and SPECT imaging of molecular imaging agents depend on the radiopharmaceutical, administered activity and the weight of the patient. Effective doses for the accompanying CT scan depend on the CT protocol being used. CT protocols can be designed to produce diagnostic quality images, localization images or attenuation correction data without imaging. In each case, the co-registered molecular imaging examination (PET or SPECT) and the CT study must be acquired without patient movement. For PET/CT, attention to the respiratory phase during the CT study is also of critical importance. In addition to the molecular imaging agents 18 F-FDG and 123 I-MIBG that are frequently used in children, additional PET and SPECT imaging agents may have promise for molecular imaging in children. (orig.)

  20. Antibody phage display applications for nuclear medicine imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winthrop, M.D.; Denardo, G.L.; Denardo, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antibody-based constructs genetically engineered from genes of diverse origin provide a remarkable opportunity to develop functional molecular imaging techniques and specific molecular targeted radionuclide therapies. Phage display libraries of antibody fragment genes can be used to select antibody-based constructs that bind any chosen epitope. A large naive human antibody-based library was used to illustrate binding of antibody constructs to a variety of common and unique antigens. Antibody-based libraries from hybridoma cells, lymphocytes from immunized humans or from mice and human antibody repertoires produced in transgenic mice have also been described. Several orders of magnitude of affinity enhancement can be achieved by random or site specific mutations of the selected binding peptide domains of the scFv. Affinities (K d ) as high as 10 - 11 M (10 pM) for affinity-matured scFv have been documented. Such gene libraries thus offer an almost limitless variety of antibody-based molecular binding peptide modules that can be used in creative ways for the construction of new targeting agents for functional or molecular imaging and therapy

  1. Muon tomography for imaging nuclear waste and spent fuel verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkmans, G.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the content of, and to detect high-Z special nuclear material inside, shielded containers. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry storage containers. We show that the tracking of individual muons, as they enter and exit a structure, can potentially improve the accuracy and availability of data on nuclear waste and the content of Dry Storage Containers (DSC) used for spent fuel storage at CANDU plants. This could be achieved in near real time, with the potential for unattended and remotely monitored operations. We show that the expected sensitivity to perform material accountancy, in the case of the DSC, exceeds the IAEA detection target for nuclear material accountancy. (author)

  2. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum dot-based molecular imaging of cancer cell growth using a clone formation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xia-Fei; Fang, Min; Liu, Shao-Ping; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    This aim of the present study was to investigate clonal growth behavior and analyze the proliferation characteristics of cancer cells. The MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, SW480 human colon cancer cell line and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell line were selected to investigate the morphology of cell clones. Quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques (which stained pan‑cytokeratin in the cytoplasm green and Ki67 in the cell nucleus yellow or red) were used to investigate the clone formation rate, cell morphology, discrete tendency, and Ki67 expression and distribution in clones. From the cell clone formation assay, the MCF‑7, SW480 and SGC7901 cells were observed to form clones on days 6, 8 and 12 of cell culture, respectively. These three types of cells had heterogeneous morphology, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios, and conspicuous pathological mitotic features. The cells at the clone periphery formed multiple pseudopodium. In certain clones, cancer cells at the borderline were separated from the central cell clusters or presented a discrete tendency. With quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques, cells with strong Ki67 expression were predominantly shown to be distributed at the clone periphery, or concentrated on one side of the clones. In conclusion, cancer cell clones showed asymmetric growth behavior, and Ki67 was widely expressed in clones of these three cell lines, with strong expression around the clones, or aggregated at one side. Cell clone formation assay based on quantum dots molecular imaging offered a novel method to study the proliferative features of cancer cells, thus providing a further insight into tumor biology.

  4. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Brussel, Aram SA van; Groep, Petra van der; Morsink, Folkert HM; Bult, Peter; Wall, Elsken van der; Diest, Paul J van

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  5. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  6. Light at the end of the tunnel in radiation therapy: molecular imaging in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.L. Papineni

    2013-01-01

    polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), was imaged in real-time. Robust increase in ROS activity was determined in mice subjected to 5 Gy irradiation compared to the controls. The increased ROS activity and their potential role in treatment strategies will be discussed. Such molecular imaging methodologies and modalities described will be useful tools in treatment design and process. Further, such tools will be valuable in biodosimetry, assessing radiation damage in humans during nuclear terrorism or mass radiation accidents. (author)

  7. Development of new Molecular Imaging probes; Desarrollo de nuevas sondas de Imagen Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Vallejo, V.; Baz, Z.; Llop, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are essential tools for the early diagnose of certain pathologies, and have been widely applied to the mechanistic investigation of disease, the visualization of biological and physiological phenomena and in the process of drug development. PET and SPECT require the administration of a radiotracer (compound labelled with a radioactive nuclide) to the subject under investigation (patient, healthy volunteer or experimental animal). Due to their high sensitivity and their noninvasive nature, nuclear imaging techniques have a great potential. However, only a few radiotracers are currently routinely used in clinical diagnose. In contrast, new tracers suitable for the visualization of new targets or showing improved specificity, selectivity or pharmacokinetic properties are continuously designed, synthesized and assayed in the preclinical setting. Far from performing an exhaustive revision of the new radiotracers currently under development, this paper aims to collate recent advances related to the preparation of novel nuclear imaging probes, which have a significant scientific impact in terms of literature volume, and which could be translated to the clinical environment in the near future. First, peptides and nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed. Finally, antibody derivatives and the recently developed pretargeting strategy, which enables the visualization of tumours while lowering significantly the effective dose posed on the subject under investigation, will be briefly covered. [Spanish] Las técnicas de imagen nuclear, entre las que se encuentran la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) y la tomografía por emisión de fotón único (SPECT) son herramientas fundamentales no sólo en el entorno clínico diagnóstico, sino también para el estudio mecanístico de determinadas patologías, la visualización de procesos biol

  8. Coded aperture imaging system for nuclear fuel motion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, K.T.; Kelly, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A Coded Aperature Imaging System (CAIS) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to image the motion of nuclear fuel rods undergoing tests simulating accident conditions within a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The tests require that the motion of the test fuel be monitored while it is immersed in a liquid sodium coolant precluding the use of normal optical means of imaging. However, using the fission gamma rays emitted by the fuel itself and coded aperture techniques, images with 1.5 mm radial and 5 mm axial resolution have been attained. Using an electro-optical detection system coupled to a high speed motion picture camera a time resolution of one millisecond can be achieved. This paper will discuss the application of coded aperture imaging to the problem, including the design of the one-dimensional Fresnel zone plate apertures used and the special problems arising from the reactor environment and use of high energy gamma ray photons to form the coded image. Also to be discussed will be the reconstruction techniques employed and the effect of various noise sources on system performance. Finally, some experimental results obtained using the system will be presented

  9. The benefits of paired-agent imaging in molecular-guided surgery: an update on methods and applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2016-03-01

    One of the major complications with conventional imaging-agent-based molecular imaging, particularly for cancer imaging, is variability in agent delivery and nonspecific retention in biological tissue. Such factors can account to "swamp" the signal arising from specifically bound imaging agent, which is presumably indicative of the concentration of targeted biomolecule. In the 1950s, Pressman et al. proposed a method of accounting for these delivery and retention effects by normalizing targeted antibody retention to the retention of a co-administered "untargeted"/control imaging agent [1]. Our group resurrected the approach within the last 5 years, finding ways to utilize this so-called "paired-agent" imaging approach to directly quantify biomolecule concentration in tissue (in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo) [2]. These novel paired-agent imaging approaches capable of quantifying biomolecule concentration provide enormous potential for being adapted to and optimizing molecular-guided surgery, which has a principle goal of identifying distinct biological tissues (tumor, nerves, etc…) based on their distinct molecular environment. This presentation will cover the principles and nuances of paired-agent imaging, as well as the current status of the field and future applications. [1] D. Pressman, E. D. Day, and M. Blau, "The use of paired labeling in the determination of tumor-localizing antibodies," Cancer Res, 17(9), 845-50 (1957). [2] K. M. Tichauer, Y. Wang, B. W. Pogue et al., "Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging," Phys Med Biol, 60(14), R239-69 (2015).

  10. 124Iodine: A Longer-Life Positron Emitter Isotope—New Opportunities in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucio Cascini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 124Iodine (124I with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of 124I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with 124I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of 124I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with 124I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of 124I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with 124I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on 124I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  11. Optical Molecular Imaging Frontiers in Oncology: The Pursuit of Accuracy and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge technologies in optical molecular imaging have ushered in new frontiers in cancer research, clinical translation, and medical practice, as evidenced by recent advances in optical multimodality imaging, Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI, and optical image-guided surgeries. New abilities allow in vivo cancer imaging with sensitivity and accuracy that are unprecedented in conventional imaging approaches. The visualization of cellular and molecular behaviors and events within tumors in living subjects is improving our deeper understanding of tumors at a systems level. These advances are being rapidly used to acquire tumor-to-tumor molecular heterogeneity, both dynamically and quantitatively, as well as to achieve more effective therapeutic interventions with the assistance of real-time imaging. In the era of molecular imaging, optical technologies hold great promise to facilitate the development of highly sensitive cancer diagnoses as well as personalized patient treatment—one of the ultimate goals of precision medicine.

  12. Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic molecular imaging employs contrast agents, such as microbubbles, nanoparticles, or liposomes, coated with ligands specific for receptors expressed on cells at sites of angiogenesis, inflammation, or thrombus. Concentration of these highly echogenic contrast agents at a target site enhances the ultrasound signal received from that site, promoting ultrasonic detection and analysis of disease states. In this article, we show that acoustic radiation force can be used to displace targeted contrast agents to a vessel wall, greatly increasing the number of agents binding to available surface receptors. We provide a theoretical evaluation of the magnitude of acoustic radiation force and show that it is possible to displace micron-sized agents physiologically relevant distances. Following this, we show in a series of experiments that acoustic radiation force can enhance the binding of targeted agents: The number of biotinylated microbubbles adherent to a synthetic vessel coated with avidin increases as much as 20-fold when acoustic radiation force is applied; the adhesion of contrast agents targeted to αvβ3 expressed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells increases 27-fold within a mimetic vessel when radiation force is applied; and finally, the image signal-to-noise ratio in a phantom vessel increases up to 25 dB using a combination of radiation force and a targeted contrast agent, over use of a targeted contrast agent alone.

  13. Nanocarriers for nuclear imaging and radiotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amitava; Nan, Anjan; Line, Bruce R; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2006-01-01

    Several nanoscale carriers (nanoparticles, liposomes, water-soluble polymers, micelles and dendrimers) have been developed for targeted delivery of cancer diagnostic and therapeutic agents. These carriers can selectively target cancer sites and carry large payloads, thereby improving cancer detection and therapy effectiveness. Further, the combination of newer nuclear imaging techniques providing high sensitivity and spatial resolution such as dual modality imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and use of nanoscale devices to carry diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides with high target specificity can enable more accurate detection, staging and therapy planning of cancer. The successful clinical applications of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for cancer detection and therapy bode well for the future of nanoscale carrier systems in clinical oncology. Several radiolabeled multifunctional nanocarriers have been effective in detecting and treating cancer in animal models. Nonetheless, further preclinical, clinical and long-term toxicity studies will be required to translate this technology to the care of patients with cancer. The objective of this review is to present a brief but comprehensive overview of the various nuclear imaging techniques and the use of nanocarriers to deliver radionuclides for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

  14. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuapio O, A.

    1990-10-01

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ohno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR imaging has high sensitivity to proton (1H and lithium (7Li. It is a useful measurement for electrolyte in Li-ion battery. 1H NMR images of lithium ion battery which is composed of LiMn2O4 / LiClO4 + propylene carbonate (PC / Li-metal have been studied. 1H NMR images of electrolyte near cathode material (LiMn2O4 showed anomalous intensity distribution, which was quite inhomogeneous. From NMR images as a function of repetition time (TR, it was concluded that the anomalous intensity distribution was not due to change of relaxation time but an indirect (spatial para-magnetization effect from cathode material. The paramagnetization induced by high magnetic field distorts linearity of magnetic gradient field, leading to apparent intensity variance. This functional image is an easy diagnostic measurement for magnetization of cathode material, which allows the possibility to check uniformity of cathode material and change of magnetization under electrochemical process.

  16. Hybrid Imaging Labels: Providing the Link Between Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Pathology and Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van der Wal, Steffen; van Malderen, Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; van Unen, Vincent; Peters, Ruud J.B.; van Bemmel, Margaretha E.M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear medicine. In this study a bimodal (or rather, hybrid) tracer that contains both a fluorescent dye and a chelate was used to evaluate the existence of a direct link between mass spectrometry (MS) and in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging findings using fluorescence and radioisotopes. At the same time, the hybrid label was used to determine whether the use of a single isotope label would allow for MS-based diagnostics. Methods: A hybrid label that contained both a DTPA chelate (that was coordinated with either 165Ho or 111In) and a Cy5 fluorescent dye was coupled to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) targeting peptide Ac-TZ14011 (hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011). This receptor targeting tracer was used to 1) validate the efficacy of (165Ho-based) mass-cytometry in determining the receptor affinity via comparison with fluorescence-based flow cytometry (Cy5), 2) evaluate the microscopic binding pattern of the tracer in tumor cells using both fluorescence confocal imaging (Cy5) and LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho), 3) compare in vivo biodistribution patterns obtained with ICP-MS (165Ho) and radiodetection (111In) after intravenous administration of hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011 in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho) was linked to fluorescence-based analysis of excised tissue samples (Cy5). Results: Analysis with both mass-cytometry and flow cytometry revealed a similar receptor affinity, respectively 352 ± 141 nM and 245 ± 65 nM (p = 0.08), but with a much lower detection sensitivity for the first modality. In vitro LA-ICP-MS imaging (165Ho) enabled clear discrimination between CXCR4 positive and negative cells, but fluorescence microscopy was required to determine the

  17. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  18. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. (ed.)

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  19. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G [ed.

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear EGFR as a molecular target in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Toni M.; Iida, Mari; Luthar, Neha; Starr, Megan M.; Huppert, Evan J.; Wheeler, Deric L.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most targeted receptors in the field of oncology. While anti-EGFR inhibitors have demonstrated clinical success in specific cancers, most patients demonstrate either intrinsic or acquired resistance within one year of treatment. Many mechanisms of resistance to EGFR inhibitors have been identified, one of these being attributed to alternatively localized EGFR from the cell membrane into the cell’s nucleus. Inside the nucleus, EGFR functions as a co-transcription factor for several genes involved in cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and as a tyrosine kinase to activate and stabilize proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA dependent protein kinase. Nuclear localized EGFR is highly associated with disease progression, worse overall survival in numerous cancers, and enhanced resistance to radiation, chemotherapy, and the anti-EGFR therapies gefitinib and cetuximab. In this review the current knowledge of how nuclear EGFR enhances resistance to cancer therapeutics is discussed, in addition to highlighting ways to target nuclear EGFR as an anti-cancer strategy in the future

  1. An efficient and cost effective nuclear medicine image network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampathkumaran, K.S.; Miller, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    An image network that is in use in a large nuclear medicine department is described. This network was designed to efficiently handle a large volume of clinical data at reasonable cost. Small, limited function computers are attached to each scintillation camera for data acquisition. The images are transferred by cable network or floppy disc to a large, powerful central computer for processing and display. Cost is minimized by use of small acquisition computers not equipped with expensive video display systems or elaborate analysis software. Thus, financial expenditure can be concentrated in a powerful central computer providing a centralized data base, rapid processing, and an efficient environment for program development. Clinical work is greatly facilitated because the physicians can process and display all studies without leaving the main reading area. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of gallstones in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Hricak, H.; Margulis, A.R.; Bernhoft, R.; Way, L.W.; Filly, R.A.; Crooks, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging characteristics of gallstones of various composition from 36 patients were studied in vitro using a spin-echo imaging technique. The majority of gallstones (83%) produced no measurable NMR signal despite having a mean water content of 12% and a mean cholesterol content of 61%. Six (17%) of the stones had a weak but measurable signal in the center of the stone, which was thought to represent signal from water in clefts or pores within the stones. The mean water and cholesterol content of the stones with measurable signal did not differ significantly from that of stones with no signal. A possible explanation for these findings, based on the known NMR characteristics of solid materials, is offered

  3. Various dedicated imaging systems for routine nuclear medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kari; Tamas Gyorke; Erno Mako; Laszlo Nagy; Jozsef Turak; Oszkar Partos

    2004-01-01

    The most essential problems of nuclear medical imaging are resolution, signal/noise ratio (S/N) and sensitivity. Nowadays, the vast majority of the Anger system gamma cameras in clinical application are using parallel projection. The main problem of this projection method is the highly dependence of the image quality on the distance from the collimator surface as well as any improvement in the resolution with the distance -i.e. reduction of image blur- significantly reduces sensitivity. The aim of our research and development work was to create imaging geometry, collimator and detector constructions optimized to particular organs (brain, heart, thyroid), where it is simultaneously possible to increase the resolution and sensitivity. Main concept of the imaging geometry construction is based on the size, location and shape of a particular organ. In case of brain SPECT imaging a multiple head (4 heads in cylinder symmetric approximation) arrangement with extra high intrinsic resolution (<2.5 mm) dedicated detector design provide feasible solution for routine clinical application. The imaging system was essentially designed for Tc-99m and I-123 isotopes. The application field can be easily extended for functional small animal research and new born baby studies. Very positive feedbacks were received from both technical (stability and reproducibility of the technical parameters) and clinical sides in the past 2 years routine applications. A unique, novel conception ultra compact dedicated dual head SPECT system has been created only for 2D, 3D nuclear cardiac applications for Tc-99m and T1-201 labeled radio-pharmaceuticals. The two rectangular detectors (with <2.6 mm intrinsic resolution) are mounted fix in 90 degree geometry and move inside the special formed gantry arrangement. The unique and unusual gantry is designed to keep the detector heads as close as possible to the patient, while the patient is not exposed by any moving part. This special construction also

  4. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  5. Prostate Cancer Molecular Imaging Standardized Evaluation (PROMISE): Proposed miTNM Classification for the Interpretation of PSMA-Ligand PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Matthias; Herrmann, Ken; Calais, Jeremie; Hadaschik, Boris; Giesel, Frederik L; Hartenbach, Markus; Hope, Thomas; Reiter, Robert; Maurer, Tobias; Weber, Wolfgang A; Fendler, Wolfgang P

    2018-03-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligand PET imaging provides unprecedented accuracy for whole-body staging of prostate cancer. As PSMA-ligand PET/CT is increasingly adopted in clinical trials and routine practice worldwide, a unified language for image reporting is urgently needed. We propose a molecular imaging TNM system (miTNM, version 1.0) as a standardized reporting framework for PSMA-ligand PET/CT or PET/MRI. miTNM is designed to organize findings in comprehensible categories to promote the exchange of information among physicians and institutions. Additionally, flowcharts integrating findings of PSMA-ligand PET and morphologic imaging have been designed to guide image interpretation. Specific applications, such as assessment of prognosis or impact on management, should be evaluated in future trials. miTNM is a living framework that evolves with clinical experience and scientific data. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Shihui; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging. PMID:29114182

  7. Work in progress: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricak, H.; Filly, R.A.; Margulis, A.R.; Moon, K.L.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the relation between food intake and intensity of gallbladder bile on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images was made. Twelve subjects (seven volunteers, five patients) were imaged following a minimum of 14 hours of fasting. Six of seven volunteers were reimaged one hour after stimulation by either a fatty meal or an alcoholic beverage. An additional seven patients were imaged two hours after a hospital breakfast. It was found that concentrated bile emits a high-intensity spin echo signal (SE), while hepatic bile in the gallbladder produces a low-intensity SE signal. Following ingestion of cholecystogogue, dilute hepatic bile settles on top of the concentrated bile, each emitting SE signals of different intensity. The average T1 value of concentrated bile was 594 msec, while the T1 vaue of dilute hepatic bile was 2,646 msec. The average T2 values were 104 msec for concentrated bile and 126 msec for dilute bile. The most likely cause for the different SE intensities of bile is the higher water content, and therefore longer T1 or T2 relaxation times, of hepatic bile. It is suggested that NMR imaging has the ability to provide physiological information about the gallbladder and that it may prove to be a simple and safe clinical test of gallbladder function

  8. Brief review of image reconstruction methods for imaging in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo

    1999-01-01

    Emission computed tomography (ECT) has as its major emphasis the quantitative determination of the moment to moment changes in the chemistry and flow physiology of injected or inhaled compounds labeled with radioactive atoms in a human body. The major difference lies in the fact that ECT seeks to describe the location and intensity of sources of emitted photons in an attenuating medium whereas transmission X-ray computed tomography (TCT) seeks to determine the distribution of the attenuating medium. A second important difference between ECT and TCT is that of available statistics. ECT statistics are low because each photon without control in emitting direction must be detected and analyzed, not as in TCT. The following sections review the historical development of image reconstruction methods for imaging in nuclear medicine, relevant intrinsic concepts for image reconstruction on ECT, and current status of volume imaging as well as a unique approach on iterative techniques for ECT. (author). 130 refs

  9. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  10. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging

  11. Molecular Imaging and Updated Diagnostic Criteria in Lewy Body Dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Müller, Martijn L T M; Frey, Kirk A

    2017-08-14

    The aims of the study were to review recent advances in molecular imaging in the Lewy body dementias (LBD) and determine if these may support the clinical but contested temporal profile distinction between Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) versus dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). There do not appear to be major regional cerebral metabolic or neurotransmitter distinctions between PDD and DLB. However, recent studies highlight the relative discriminating roles of Alzheimer proteinopathies. PDD patients have lower cortical β-amyloid deposition than DLB. Preliminary tau PET studies suggest a gradient of increasing tau binding from cognitively normal PD (absent to lowest) to cognitively impaired PD (low) to DLB (intermediate) to Alzheimer disease (AD; highest). However, tau binding in DLB, including the medial temporal lobe, is substantially lower than in AD. Alzheimer-type proteinopathies appear to be more common in DLB compared to PDD with relative but no absolute differences. Given the spectrum of overlapping pathologies, future α-synuclein ligands are expected to have the best potential to distinguish the LBD from pure AD.

  12. Inner/Outer nuclear membrane fusion in nuclear pore assembly: biochemical demonstration and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtman, Boris; Ramos, Corinne; Rasala, Beth; Harel, Amnon; Forbes, Douglass J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in double nuclear membranes, which carry out nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The mechanism of nuclear pore assembly involves a unique challenge, as it requires creation of a long-lived membrane-lined channel connecting the inner and outer nuclear membranes. This stabilized membrane channel has little evolutionary precedent. Here we mapped inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion in NPC assembly biochemically by using novel assembly intermediates and membrane fusion inhibitors. Incubation of a Xenopus in vitro nuclear assembly system at 14°C revealed an early pore intermediate where nucleoporin subunits POM121 and the Nup107-160 complex were organized in a punctate pattern on the inner nuclear membrane. With time, this intermediate progressed to diffusion channel formation and finally to complete nuclear pore assembly. Correct channel formation was blocked by the hemifusion inhibitor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not if a complementary-shaped lipid, oleic acid (OA), was simultaneously added, as determined with a novel fluorescent dextran-quenching assay. Importantly, recruitment of the bulk of FG nucleoporins, characteristic of mature nuclear pores, was not observed before diffusion channel formation and was prevented by LPC or OA, but not by LPC+OA. These results map the crucial inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion event of NPC assembly downstream of POM121/Nup107-160 complex interaction and upstream or at the time of FG nucleoporin recruitment.

  13. Oscillating molecular dipoles require strongly correlated electronic and nuclear motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Palacios, Alicia; Martín, Fernando; Sola, Ignacio R

    2015-01-01

    To create an oscillating electric dipole in an homonuclear diatomic cation without an oscillating driver one needs (i) to break the symmetry of the system and (ii) to sustain highly correlated electronic and nuclear motion. Based on numerical simulations in H 2 + we present results for two schemes. In the first one (i) is achieved by creating a superposition of symmetric and antisymmetric electronic states freely evolving, while (ii) fails. In a second scheme, by preparing the system in a dressed state of a strong static field, both conditions hold. We then analyze the robustness of this scheme with respect to features of the nuclear wave function and its intrinsic sources of decoherence. (tutorial)

  14. Computational modeling of the behavior of nuclear materials (2). Molecular simulations for nuclear materials. Current situation and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Taira; Itakura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Molecular simulations for nuclear materials aim to reproduce atomistic-scale phenomena induced by irradiation and infer the change in material properties. In the present work, recent progress in this field is presented. In particular, the following three topics are explained: (1) Quantification of lattice defects formation process induced by fast neutron collision. (2) Identification of dislocation-channeling mechanism induced by interactions between defect clusters and dislocations. (3) Modeling of the three dimensional movement of defect clusters using molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  15. Investigation of nuclear multifragmentation using molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, L. de; Nemeth, J.; Ben-Hao, Sa.; Leray, S.; Ngo, C.; Souza, S.R.; Yu-Ming, Zheng; Paula, L. de; Nemeth, J.; Ben-Hao, Sa.; Yu-Ming, Zheng; Ngo, H.

    1991-01-01

    We study the stability of excited 197 Au nuclei with respect to multifragmentation. For that we use a dynamical simulation based on molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation. A particular attention is paid to check the stability of the ground state nuclei generated by the simulation. Four kinds of excitations are considered: heat, compression, rotation and a geometrical instability created when a projectile drills a hole in a 197 Au nucleus

  16. Molecular Imaging: A Useful Tool for the Development of Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gangadaran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline that allows visualization, characterization, and measurement of the biological processes in living subjects, including humans, at a cellular and molecular level. The interaction between cancer cells and natural killer (NK cells is complex and incompletely understood. Despite our limited knowledge, progress in the search for immune cell therapies against cancer could be significantly improved by dynamic and non-invasive visualization and tracking of immune cells and by visualization of the response of cancer cells to therapies in preclinical and clinical studies. Molecular imaging is an essential tool for these studies, and a multimodal molecular imaging approach can be applied to monitor immune cells in vivo, for instance, to visualize therapeutic effects. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of NK cells in cancer therapies and the preclinical and clinical usefulness of molecular imaging in NK cell-based therapies. Furthermore, we discuss different molecular imaging modalities for use with NK cell-based therapies, and their preclinical and clinical applications in animal and human subjects. Molecular imaging has contributed to the development of NK cell-based therapies against cancers in animal models and to the refinement of current cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Developing sensitive and reproducible non-invasive molecular imaging technologies for in vivo NK cell monitoring and for real-time assessment of therapeutic effects will accelerate the development of NK cell therapies.

  17. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  18. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Marino, M.A.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Helbich, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ( 23 Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [de

  19. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Image in Biomedicine; Aplicaciones de la imagen Molecular Preclínica en Biomedicina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Bascuñana, P.; Fernández de la Rosa, R.; De Cristobal, J.; García-García, L.; Pozo, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular imaging is a broad platform, which provides valuable information about physiological and pathophysiological changes in living organisms by non-invasive methods. Depending on the used technique: anatomical, functional metabolic or molecular data could be assessed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provides with functional and molecular data, and combined with Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MRI) with the multimodality equipment, it can be exponentially improved. Metabolic pathways and changes on the molecular and cellular level are target in molecular imaging cancer research. Tumour microenvironment, stroma and new vessels can be assessed by PET imaging. Additionally the visualization of functions and monitoring data of provided therapies could be obtained. The aim of the current review is to summarize principles and novel findings in molecular imaging specifically in PET and its application in preclinical cancer research. The theoretical background of techniques and main applications will be highlighted [Spanish] La imagen molecular aporta información muy valiosa, mediante métodos no invasivos, acerca de la fisiología de organismos vivos y sus cambios debidos a patologías. Dependiendo de la técnica utilizada se pueden obtener datos anatómicos, funcionales, metabólicos o moleculares. La Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones (PET) aporta datos metabólicos y moleculares con una alta sensibilidad, y en asociación con la Tomografía Computarizada (TC) o con Resonancia Magnética (RM), con la aparición de los nuevos equipos multimodalidad, las posibilidades de diagnóstico se incrementan exponencialmente. La imagen molecular en investigación oncológica presenta como objetivos principales identificar las diferentes vías metabólicas tumorales y sus cambios a nivel molecular y celular, el comportamiento del microentorno tumoral, aparición de nuevos vasos, estroma, etc. Además, es posible el análisis y cuantificación del

  20. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  1. Maximum entropy deconvolution of low count nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, D.M.

    1998-12-01

    Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were

  2. Visualizing the molecular sociology at the HeLa cell nuclear periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamid, Julia; Pfeffer, Stefan; Schaffer, Miroslava; Villa, Elizabeth; Danev, Radostin; Cuellar, Luis Kuhn; Förster, Friedrich; Hyman, Anthony A; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2016-02-26

    The molecular organization of eukaryotic nuclear volumes remains largely unexplored. Here we combined recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to produce three-dimensional snapshots of the HeLa cell nuclear periphery. Subtomogram averaging and classification of ribosomes revealed the native structure and organization of the cytoplasmic translation machinery. Analysis of a large dynamic structure-the nuclear pore complex-revealed variations detectable at the level of individual complexes. Cryo-ET was used to visualize previously elusive structures, such as nucleosome chains and the filaments of the nuclear lamina, in situ. Elucidation of the lamina structure provides insight into its contribution to metazoan nuclear stiffness. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in solid bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Limin.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphorus ( 31 P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) double-pulse transient experiments of solid bone have shown that the spins dephased by the dipolar spin-spin interactions can be refocused with a 90 degree-β pulse sequence so that an echo is observable at some time following the second pulse. The decay time constant of the maximum echo amplitude is larger than that of the free induction decay (FID) signal from a single 90 degree pulse. Depending on the nutation angle of the second pulse, the former decay time constant is about three-five times as long as the latter one. The dipolar-echo properties of the bone may be relevant with the interpair dipolar interactions. The experiments have also show that, in general, the time for the transient signal from the double pulses to reach the maximum amplitude is not equal to the pulse separation. This can be attributed to the effect of the heteronuclear dipolar interactions. In addition, it is found experimentally that refocused gradients applied only in a time interval of the formation of an echo have the capability of phase-encoding spatial information. Based on this, a new imaging method was proposed. With the method, several 31 P images of the solid bone samples have been obtained. The picture element size is 1-1.5 mm with very good signal-to-noise ratios. The imaging ability of the refocused gradients may be relevant with the inhomogeneous local field produced by the interpair dipolar interactions

  4. In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio Imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, A.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Trachtenberg, J.; Wilson, B. C.; Lilge, L.

    2007-01-01

    Future applications of "molecular diagnostic screening" and "molecular image-guided surgery" will demand images of molecular markers with high resolution and high throughput (similar to >= 30 frames/second). MRI, SPECT, PET, optical fluorescence tomography, hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging, and

  5. From molecular imaging to personalized radionuclide therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. 68 Gallium is a positron emitter (t 1/2 68 min) which can be produced from a generator in a convenient, 'in-house' preparation and used for labeling of peptides, e.g. somatostatin analogues (SA) like DOTATOC or DOTATATE for molecular imaging of SSTR expressing tumors. Since 2004, we have performed over 7700 68 Ga PET/CT studies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have established SSTR PET/CT as the new gold standard for imaging G1 and G2 NET (staging, re-staging, therapy response evaluation and detection of unknown primary NET). The same peptides can be labeled with 177 Lutetium or 90 Yttrium for radionuclide therapy, a form of personalized treatment (THERANOSTICS approach). PRRNT is based on the receptor-mediated internalization of SA. Several clinical trials indicate that PRRNT can deliver effective radiation doses to tumors. A German multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow up in 450 patients indicates that PRRT is an effective therapy for patients with G1-2 neuroendocrine tumors, irrespective of previous therapies, with a survival advantage of several years compared to other therapies and only minor side effects. Median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the start of treatment was 59 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) measured from last cycle of therapy accounted to 41 mo. Median PFS of pancreatic NET was 39 mo. Similar results were obtained for NET of unknown primary (median PFS: 38 mo) whereas NET of small bowel had a median PFS of 51 months. Side effects like 3-4 NEThro- or hemato-toxicity were observed in only 0.2% and 2% of patients respectively. PRRNT is highly effective in the management of NET, even in advanced cases. In patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors, fractionated, personalized PRRNT with lower doses of radioactivity given over a longer period of time (Bad Berka Concept using sequential (DUO) PRRNT) results in excellent therapeutic responses

  6. A CZT-based blood counter for quantitative molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espagnet, Romain; Frezza, Andrea; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Louis-André; Lechippey, Laëtitia; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Després, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Robust quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) and in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) typically requires the time-activity curve as an input function for the pharmacokinetic modeling of tracer uptake. For this purpose, a new automated tool for the determination of blood activity as a function of time is presented. The device, compact enough to be used on the patient bed, relies on a peristaltic pump for continuous blood withdrawal at user-defined rates. Gamma detection is based on a 20 × 20 × 15 mm 3 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, read by custom-made electronics and a field-programmable gate array-based signal processing unit. A graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to select parameters and easily perform acquisitions. This paper presents the overall design of the device as well as the results related to the detector performance in terms of stability, sensitivity and energy resolution. Results from a patient study are also reported. The device achieved a sensitivity of 7.1 cps/(kBq/mL) and a minimum detectable activity of 2.5 kBq/ml for 18 F. The gamma counter also demonstrated an excellent stability with a deviation in count rates inferior to 0.05% over 6 h. An energy resolution of 8% was achieved at 662 keV. The patient study was conclusive and demonstrated that the compact gamma blood counter developed has the sensitivity and the stability required to conduct quantitative molecular imaging studies in PET and SPECT.

  7. Geospatial Image Mining For Nuclear Proliferation Detection: Challenges and New Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Arrowood, Lloyd [Y-12 National Security Complex; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Diegert, Carl [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Katsaggelos, Aggelos K [ORNL; Pappas, Thrasos N [ORNL; Porter, Reid [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bollinger, Jim [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Chen, Barry [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hohimer, Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2010-01-01

    With increasing understanding and availability of nuclear technologies, and increasing persuasion of nuclear technologies by several new countries, it is increasingly becoming important to monitor the nuclear proliferation activities. There is a great need for developing technologies to automatically or semi-automatically detect nuclear proliferation activities using remote sensing. Images acquired from earth observation satellites is an important source of information in detecting proliferation activities. High-resolution remote sensing images are highly useful in verifying the correctness, as well as completeness of any nuclear program. DOE national laboratories are interested in detecting nuclear proliferation by developing advanced geospatial image mining algorithms. In this paper we describe the current understanding of geospatial image mining techniques and enumerate key gaps and identify future research needs in the context of nuclear proliferation.

  8. MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aamir, R; Bateman, C.J.; Butler, A.P.H.; Butler, P.H.; Anderson, N.G.; Bell, S.T.; Panta, R.K.; Healy, J.L.; Mohr, J.L.; Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M.F.; Ruiter, N.de; Gieseg, S.P.; Woodfield, T.; Renaud, P.F.; Brooke, L.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Clyne, M.; Glendenning, R.; Bones, P.J.; Billinghurst, M.; Bartneck, C.; Mandalika, H.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Scott, N.; Nik, S.J.; Opie, A.; Janmale, T.; Tang, D.N.; Kim, D.; Doesburg, R.M.; Zainon, R.; Ronaldson, J.P.; Cook, N.J.; Smithies, D.J.; Hodge, K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral molecular imaging is a new imaging technique able to discriminate and quantify different components of tissue simultaneously at high spatial and high energy resolution. Our MARS scanner is an x-ray based small animal CT system designed to be used in the diagnostic energy range (20 to 140 keV). In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the MARS scanner, equipped with the Medipix3RX spectroscopic photon-processing detector, to discriminate fat, calcium, and water in tissue. We present data collected from a sample of lamb meat including bone as an illustrative example of human tissue imaging. The data is analyzed using our 3D Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm (MARS-ART) and by material decomposition based on a constrained linear least squares algorithm. The results presented here clearly show the quantification of lipid-like, water-like and bone-like components of tissue. However, it is also clear to us that better algorithms could extract more information of clinical interest from our data. Because we ...

  9. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Il; Kim, Hyeon Sik; Jeong, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyung Jae; Moon, Seung Min; Kwon, Seung Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon; Choi, Eun Seo

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the Oriental butterfly genus Arhopala (Lycaenidae, Theclinae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, H.J.W.C.; Nes, Van W.J.; Moorsel, van C.H.M.; Pierce, N.E.; Jong, de R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a phylogeny for a selection of species of the butterfly genus Arhopala Boisduval, 1832 based on molecular characters. We sequenced 1778 bases of the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase 1 and 2 including tRNALeu, and a 393-bp fragment of the nuclear wingless gene for a total of 42

  11. Effects of Quantum Nuclear Delocalisation on NMR Parameters from Path Integral Molecular Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2014), s. 2201-2207 ISSN 0947-6539 Grant - others:Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union(XE) FP7-299242 People Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional calculations * isotope effects * NMR spectroscopy * nuclear delocalisation * path integral molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014

  12. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  13. Translation of New Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Clinical Setting: Bridging the Gap to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Suzanne C; Venema, Clasina M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Elias, Sjoerd G; Boellaard, Ronald; Hospers, Geke A P; Schröder, Carolina P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2016-02-01

    Molecular imaging with PET is a rapidly emerging technique. In breast cancer patients, more than 45 different PET tracers have been or are presently being tested. With a good rationale, after development of the tracer and proven feasibility, it is of interest to evaluate whether there is a potential meaningful role for the tracer in the clinical setting-such as in staging, in the (early) prediction of a treatment response, or in supporting drug choices. So far, only (18)F-FDG PET has been incorporated into breast cancer guidelines. For proof of the clinical relevance of tracers, especially for analysis in a multicenter setting, standardization of the technology and access to the novel PET tracer are required. However, resources for PET implementation research are limited. Therefore, next to randomized studies, novel approaches are required for proving the clinical value of PET tracers with the smallest possible number of patients. The aim of this review is to describe the process of the development of PET tracers and the level of evidence needed for the use of these tracers in breast cancer. Several breast cancer trials have been performed with the PET tracers (18)F-FDG, 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), and (18)F-fluoroestradiol ((18)F-FES). We studied them to learn lessons for the implementation of novel tracers. After defining the gap between a good rationale for a tracer and implementation in the clinical setting, we propose solutions to fill the gap to try to bring more PET tracers to daily clinical practice. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Radiation Exposure by Nuclear Medicine Imaging Procedures: Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Marovic, G.; Prlic, I.; Sencar, J.; Zeljezic, D.; Ramic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using high-resolution gamma spectrometry, we investigated the activity concentrations of thallium radioisotopes in a urine sample collected during a period of 24 h following nuclear medicine cardiac imaging. As part of a thallium stress test the subject of the study received a radiopharmaceutical preparation with 201Tl (activity 111 MBq). In order to assess whether the cardiac imaging procedure resulted in lymphocyte genome damage, we studied the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and lymphocyte cell kinetics in the blood samples collected before and after the cardiac imaging. The highest activity concentration (538960.9 ± 405.9 Bq/L u rine) was estimated for 201Tl, followed by 1770.54 ± 3.57 Bq/L u rine for 202Tl, and 422.035 ± 2.091 Bq/Lurine for 200Tl. The applied radiopharmaceutical contained 99.595 % of 201Tl, 0.078 % of 200Tl and 0.327 % of 202Tl. The estimated effective dose received through a single exposure to the radiopharmaceutical and calculated for a period of two days was mostly affected by 201Tl (0.0453 mSv). Due to its half-life of 12.2 days, the contribution of 202Tl (0.0008 mSv) to the effective dose was also significant. Results of the cytogenetic analysis indicate that a single diagnostic exposure to thallium caused an increase of SCE frequency and decrease of the proliferation rate index (PRI). Both parameters normalized steadily 14 days after the cardiac imaging procedure, which is also in accord with data obtained in previous studies. Our results indicate the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical which should contain only 201Tl. This calls for a stricter process of quality control for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medical diagnostic procedures. In this particular case, we emphasize 'contamination' with 202Tl, whose contribution to the effective dose cannot be ignored if one takes into account that it has the longest half-life of all three thallium radioisotopes detected in the urine sample.(author)

  15. The development of epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoliang; Wang Hao; Shi Peiji; Liu Jianfeng; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    In vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy has great potential for cancer diagnosis and the evaluation of curative effects. Enhancement of EGFR-targeted therapy needs a reliable quantitative molecular imaging method which could enable monitoring of receptor drug binding and receptor occupancy in vivo, and identification of the mutation in EGFR. PET or SPECT is the most advanced molecular imaging technology of non-invasively selecting responders, predicting therapeutic outcome and monitoring EGFR-targeted treatment. This review analyzed the present situation and research progress of molecular imaging agents. (authors)

  16. Intelligent and interactive computer image of a nuclear power plant: The ImagIn project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubensack, D.; Malvache, P.; Valleix, P.

    1998-01-01

    The ImagIn project consists in a method and a set of computer tools apt to bring perceptible and assessable improvements in the operational safety of a nuclear plant. Its aim is to design an information system that would maintain a highly detailed computerized representation of a nuclear plant in its initial state and throughout its in-service life. It is not a tool to drive or help driving the nuclear plant, but a tool that manages concurrent operations that modify the plant configuration in a very general was (maintenance for example). The configuration of the plant, as well as rules and constraints about it, are described in a object-oriented knowledge database, which is built using a generic ImagIn meta-model based on the semantical network theory. An inference engine works on this database and is connected to reality through interfaces to operators and captors on the installation; it verifies constantly in real-time the consistency of the database according to its inner rules, and reports eventual problems to concerned operators. A special effort is made on interfaces to provide natural and intuitive tools (using virtual reality, natural language, voice recognition and synthesis). A laboratory application on a fictive but realistic installation already exists and is used to simulate various tests and scenarii. A real application is being constructed on Siloe, an experimental reactor of the CEA. (author)

  17. Molecular MR imaging of cancer gene therapy. Ferritin transgene reporter takes the stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been actively investigated and made rapid progress in the past decade. Applied to cancer gene therapy, the technique's high spatial resolution allows evaluation of gene delivery into target tissues. Because noninvasive monitoring of the duration, location, and magnitude of transgene expression in tumor tissues or cells provides useful information for assessing therapeutic efficacy and optimizing protocols, molecular imaging is expected to become a critical step in the success of cancer gene therapy in the near future. We present a brief overview of the current status of molecular MR imaging, especially in vivo reporter gene imaging using ferritin and other reporters, discuss its application to cancer gene therapy, and present our research of MR imaging detection of electroporation-mediated cancer gene therapy using the ferritin reporter gene. (author)

  18. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in mice with MRI and near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tong; Wen Song; Zhou Guanhui; Ju Shenghong; Teng Gaojun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of detecting atherosclerotic plaques with 7.0 T MRI and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) using molecular imaging probes. Methods: Atherosclerotic plaques were established in male atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed with high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were used as negative controls. 7.0 T MRI was performed before and 36 h after intravenously administration of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particle of iron oxide (USPIO). NIR 797 was conjugated with anti-mouse-oxidized modified low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) antibodies to construct an anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 probe while non-specific IgG-NIR 797 and PBS used as controls. NIRF was performed 24 h after tail vein injection of the probe. Independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the data by SPSS 17.0. Results: In APOE-/-mice, in vivo 36 h post-USPIO T 2 WI images revealed strong focal signal loss in the abdominal aorta than that of pre-USPIO, with relative signal intensity 0.70 ± 0.04 and 1.28 ± 0.06, respectively (t=3.376, P<0.05). The percent of signal reduced was (-56.58 ± 4.25)%. The Prussian blue staining confirmed the depositions of iron particles in the plaque lesions. Significant fluorochrome accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques was demonstrated in aortic root, aortic arch and the starting of descending aorta 24 h after injection of the anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 probe. Minimal antibody uptake was observed in normal vessels from wild-type mice receiving the anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 (SNR: 2.29 ± 1.11) and in atherosclerotic vessels from ApoE-/- mice receiving the non-specific IgG-NIR 797 (19.58 ±3.06) or PBS (4.19 ±0.82), which was significantly different from the uptake of anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 group (42.51 ±5.24, F=25.104, P<0.05). Comparison between oil red O staining and NIRF 24 h after injection of NIR 797 labeled oxLDL-antibody revealed a significant correlation (r=0.738, P

  19. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  20. Investigating Atmospheric Oxidation with Molecular Dynamics Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, W. G.; Case, A. S.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Earth's atmosphere constitute trace gas species emitted primarily from the biosphere, and are the subject of inquiry for a variety of air quality and climate studies. Reactions intiated (primarily) by the hydroxyl radical (OH) lead to a myriad of oxygenated species (OVOCs), which in turn are prone to further oxidation. Investigations of the role that VOC oxidation plays in tropospheric chemistry have brought to light two troubling scenarios: (1) VOCs are responsible in part for the production of two EPA-regulated pollutants---tropospheric ozone and organic aerosol---and (2) the mechanistic details of VOC oxidation remain convoluted and poorly understood. The latter issue hampers the implementation of near-explicit atmospheric simulations, and large discrepancies in OH reactivity exist between measurements and models at present. Such discrepancies underscore the need for a more thorough description of VOC oxidation. Time-of-flight measurements and ion-imaging techniques are viable options for resolving some of the mechanistic and energetic details of VOC oxidation. Molecular beam studies have the advantage of foregoing unwanted bimolecular reactions, allowing for the characterization of specific processes which must typically compete with the complex manifold of VOC oxidation pathways. The focus of this work is on the unimolecular channels of organic peroxy radical intermediates, which are necessarily generated during VOC oxidation. Such intermediates may isomerize and decompose into distinct chemical channels, enabling the unambiguous detection of each pathway. For instance, a (1 + 1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme may be employed to detect carbon monoxide generated from a particular unimolecular process. A number of more subtle mechanistic details may be explored as well. By varying the mean free path of the peroxy radicals in a flow tube, the role of collisional quenching in these unimolecular

  1. Visualization of cerebellopontine angle lesions by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Chikayuki; Takakura, Kintomo; Machida, Tohru; Araki, Tsutomu; Iio, Masahiro; Basugi, Norihiko.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary results from the clinical use a prototype whole body nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) machine constructed by Toshiba Inc. are presented. Cranial NMR scans were performed on more than 30 cases with broad spectrum of neurologic diseases using saturation-recovery and inversion-recovery sequences with a field strength of 1500 Gauss. Selective excitation sequence was used for the slice selection and filtered backprojection was used to reconstruct the images. They were displayed on a 256 x 256 matrix as 12 mm thick sections. Data aquisition time varied between 3 and 12 minutes. Our initial experiences with six cases harboring cerebellopontine angle lesions discolsed advantages and disadvantages of NMR imaging in comparison with X-ray CT. The advantages were the absence of linear artifacts from the surrounding bone, the marked gray-white matter differentiation, and the variety of tomographic planes available. The disadvantages included the lack of bone detail, the lack of visualization of the major intracranial vessels, and the long time required for scanning (several minutes per slice). Although much continued evaluation is necessary, NMR seems to have vast potential as a diagnostic tool. (author)

  2. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hakimzadeh

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9 with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice.

  3. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ger; de Waard, Vivian; Lutgens, Esther; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; de Bruin, Kora; Piek, Jan J.; Eersels, Jos L. H.; Booij, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9) with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates) were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice. PMID:29190653

  4. Statistics Refresher for Molecular Imaging Technologists, Part 2: Accuracy of Interpretation, Significance, and Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Mary Beth

    2018-06-01

    This article is the second part of a continuing education series reviewing basic statistics that nuclear medicine and molecular imaging technologists should understand. In this article, the statistics for evaluating interpretation accuracy, significance, and variance are discussed. Throughout the article, actual statistics are pulled from the published literature. We begin by explaining 2 methods for quantifying interpretive accuracy: interreader and intrareader reliability. Agreement among readers can be expressed simply as a percentage. However, the Cohen κ-statistic is a more robust measure of agreement that accounts for chance. The higher the κ-statistic is, the higher is the agreement between readers. When 3 or more readers are being compared, the Fleiss κ-statistic is used. Significance testing determines whether the difference between 2 conditions or interventions is meaningful. Statistical significance is usually expressed using a number called a probability ( P ) value. Calculation of P value is beyond the scope of this review. However, knowing how to interpret P values is important for understanding the scientific literature. Generally, a P value of less than 0.05 is considered significant and indicates that the results of the experiment are due to more than just chance. Variance, standard deviation (SD), confidence interval, and standard error (SE) explain the dispersion of data around a mean of a sample drawn from a population. SD is commonly reported in the literature. A small SD indicates that there is not much variation in the sample data. Many biologic measurements fall into what is referred to as a normal distribution taking the shape of a bell curve. In a normal distribution, 68% of the data will fall within 1 SD, 95% will fall within 2 SDs, and 99.7% will fall within 3 SDs. Confidence interval defines the range of possible values within which the population parameter is likely to lie and gives an idea of the precision of the statistic being

  5. Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion Studied by Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…

  6. Legal framework of Preclinical Molecular Imaging radioactive facilities; Marco legal de las instalaciones radiactivas de Imagen Molecular Preclínica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, C.; Lorenz, P.

    2014-07-01

    Preclinical Molecular Imaging facilities are 2ª category radioactive facilities, so the regulation that applies to them is the same as the rest of the radioactive facilities, both the regime of authorizations and the establishment of the basic standards of radiation protection of workers and members of the public. There are also specific and mandatory technical regulations coming from Nuclear Safety Council safety instructions and ministerial orders, applicable for installations using unsealed radioactive material and equipment generating ionizing radiation for diagnosis, also taking account the possible existence of sealed radioactive sources of verification. [Spanish] Las instalaciones de Imagen Molecular Preclínica son instalaciones radiactivas de 2ª categoría, por lo que la reglamentación que les aplica es la misma que al resto de las instalaciones radiactivas, tanto en el régimen de autorizaciones, como en el establecimiento de las normas básicas de protección radiológica para los trabajadores y los miembros del público. Existe además normativa técnica específica y de obligado cumplimiento, procedente de instrucciones de seguridad del Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear y de Órdenes Ministeriales , aplicable para instalaciones donde se utilice material radiactivo no encapsulado y equipos generadores de radiaciones ionizantes para diagnóstico, teniendo en cuenta también la posible existencia de fuentes radiactivas encapsuladas de verificación.

  7. Multimodality molecular imaging of disease progression in living ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    immune cell trafficking, stem cell therapy, transgenic animals and even molecular interactions in living subjects. .... measurement of the effect of absorbed electromagnetic ..... Changes in intracellular pH, electrical impulses by nerve cells and ...

  8. Potential of luminescence based molecular animal imaging in research areas pertaining to cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena G.; Balla Murali, M.S.; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal imaging is getting tremendous importance in biomedical research areas including drug delivery, radiobiology and cancer research. Even though, imaging techniques like CT, PET, SPECT, MRI are available for experimental animals, luminescence-based molecular imaging is still considered as crucial and common tool for biomedical laboratories due to easy handling/maintenance, cost effectiveness and various strategies available to manipulate the molecules/cells employed for imaging purposes. The Molecular Animal Imaging System available in our laboratory is being utilized for various cancer research activities including measurement of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, therapeutic efficacy evaluation and metastasis studies. Moreover, the imaging system is also been used for radio-luminescence imaging based on Cherenkov radiation of radio-pharmaceuticals. (author)

  9. Dynamic fluorescence imaging with molecular agents for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk

    Non-invasive dynamic optical imaging of small animals requires the development of a novel fluorescence imaging modality. Herein, fluorescence imaging is demonstrated with sub-second camera integration times using agents specifically targeted to disease markers, enabling rapid detection of cancerous regions. The continuous-wave fluorescence imaging acquires data with an intensified or an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device. The work presented in this dissertation (i) assessed dose-dependent uptake using dynamic fluorescence imaging and pharmacokinetic (PK) models, (ii) evaluated disease marker availability in two different xenograft tumors, (iii) compared the impact of autofluorescence in fluorescence imaging of near-infrared (NIR) vs. red light excitable fluorescent contrast agents, (iv) demonstrated dual-wavelength fluorescence imaging of angiogenic vessels and lymphatics associated with a xenograft tumor model, and (v) examined dynamic multi-wavelength, whole-body fluorescence imaging with two different fluorescent contrast agents. PK analysis showed that the uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) in xenograft tumor regions linearly increased with doses of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) up to 1.5 nmol/mouse. Above 1.5 nmol/mouse, the uptake did not increase with doses, suggesting receptor saturation. Target to background ratio (TBR) and PK analysis for two different tumor cell lines showed that while Kaposi's sarcoma (KS1767) exhibited early and rapid uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf), human melanoma tumors (M21) had non-significant TBR differences and early uptake rates similar to the contralateral normal tissue regions. The differences may be due to different compartment location of the target. A comparison of fluorescence imaging with NIR vs. red light excitable fluorescent dyes demonstrates that NIR dyes are associated with less background signal, enabling rapid tumor detection. In contrast, animals injected with red light excitable fluorescent dyes showed high autofluorescence. Dual

  10. Java-based remote viewing and processing of nuclear medicine images: toward "the imaging department without walls".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, P J; Elliott, E; Driedger, A A

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear medicine practice, images often need to be reviewed and reports prepared from locations outside the department, usually in the form of hard copy. Although hard-copy images are simple and portable, they do not offer electronic data search and image manipulation capabilities. On the other hand, picture archiving and communication systems or dedicated workstations cannot be easily deployed at numerous locations. To solve this problem, we propose a Java-based remote viewing station (JaRViS) for the reading and reporting of nuclear medicine images using Internet browser technology. JaRViS interfaces to the clinical patient database of a nuclear medicine workstation. All JaRViS software resides on a nuclear medicine department server. The contents of the clinical database can be searched by a browser interface after providing a password. Compressed images with the Java applet and color lookup tables are downloaded on the client side. This paradigm does not require nuclear medicine software to reside on remote computers, which simplifies support and deployment of such a system. To enable versatile reporting of the images, color tables and thresholds can be interactively manipulated and images can be displayed in a variety of layouts. Image filtering, frame grouping (adding frames), and movie display are available. Tomographic mode displays are supported, including gated SPECT. The time to display 14 lung perfusion images in 128 x 128 matrix together with the Java applet and color lookup tables over a V.90 modem is remote nuclear medicine viewing station using Java and an Internet or intranet browser. Images can be made easily and cost-effectively available to referring physicians and ambulatory clinics within and outside of the hospital, providing a convenient alternative to film media. We also find this system useful in home reporting of emergency procedures such as lung ventilation-perfusion scans or dynamic studies.

  11. White paper of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) on multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Carrio, Ignasi; Cuocolo, Alberto; Knapp, Wolfram; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; McCall, Iain; Reiser, Maximilian; Silberman, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    New multimodality imaging systems bring together anatomical and molecular information and require the competency and accreditation of individuals from both nuclear medicine and radiology. This paper sets out the positions and aspirations of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) working together on an equal and constructive basis for the future benefit of both specialties. EANM and ESR recognise the importance of coordinating working practices for multimodality imaging systems and that undertaking the nuclear medicine and radiology components of imaging with hybrid systems requires different skills. It is important to provide adequate and appropriate training in the two disciplines in order to offer a proper service to the patient using hybrid systems. Training models are proposed with the overall objective of providing opportunities for acquisition of special competency certification in multimodality imaging. Both organisations plan to develop common procedural guidelines and recognise the importance of coordinating the purchasing and management of hybrid systems to maximise the benefits to both specialties and to ensure appropriate reimbursement of these examinations. European multimodality imaging research is operating in a highly competitive environment. The coming years will decide whether European research in this area manages to defend its leading position or whether it falls behind research in other leading economies. Since research teams in the Member States are not always sufficiently interconnected, more European input is necessary to create interdisciplinary bridges between research institutions in Europe and to stimulate excellence. EANM and ESR will work with the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging Research (EIBIR) to develop further research opportunities across Europe. European Union grant-funding bodies should allocate funds to joint research initiatives that encompass clinical research

  12. White paper of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; McCall, Iain; Reiser, Maximilian; Silberman, Bruno; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Carrio, Ignacio; Cuocolo, Alberto; Knapp, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    New multimodality imaging systems bring together anatomical and molecular information and require the competency and accreditation of individuals from both radiology and nuclear medicine. This paper sets out the positions and aspirations of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) working together on an equal and constructive basis for the future benefit of both specialties. ESR and EANM recognise the importance of coordinating working practices for multimodality imaging systems and that undertaking the radiology and nuclear medicine components of imaging with hybrid systems requires different skills. It is important to provide adequate and appropriate training in the two disciplines in order to offer a proper service to the patient using hybrid systems. Training models are proposed with the overall objective of providing opportunities for acquisition of special competency certification in multimodality imaging. Both organisations plan to develop common procedural guidelines and recognise the importance of coordinating the purchasing and management of hybrid systems to maximise the benefits to both specialties and to ensure appropriate reimbursement of these examinations. European multimodality imaging research is operating in a highly competitive environment. The coming years will decide whether European research in this area manages to defend its leading position or whether it falls behind research in other leading economies. Since research teams in the member states are not always sufficiently interconnected, more European input is necessary to create interdisciplinary bridges between research institutions in Europe and to stimulate excellence. ESR and EANM will work with the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging Research (EIBIR) to develop further research opportunities across Europe. European Union grant-funding bodies should allocate funds to joint research initiatives that encompass clinical research

  13. Applications of the semiclassical spectral method to nuclear, atomic, molecular, and polymeric dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszykowski, M.L.; Pfeffer, G.A.; Noid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics plays a dominant role in a variety of important problems in chemical physics. Examples are unimolecular reactions, infrared multiphoton decomposition of molecules, the pumping process of the gamma ray laser, dissociation of vibrationally excited state-selected van der Waals's complexes, and many other chemical and atomic processes. The present article discusses recent theoretical studies on the quasi-periodic and chaotic dynamic aspects of vibrational-rotational states of atomic, nuclear, and molecular systems using the semiclassical spectral method (SSM). The authors note that the coordinates, momenta, and so on, are found using classical mechanics in the studies included in this review. They outline the semiclassical spectral method and a wide variety of applications. Although this technique was first developed ten years ago, it has proved to be tremendously successful as a tool used in dynamics problems. Applications include problems in nonlinear dynamics, molecular and atomic spectra, surface science, astronomy and stellar dynamics, nuclear physics, and polymer physics

  14. Lipid-based nanoparticles for magnetic resonance molecular imaging : design, characterization, and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis research is described which was aimed to develop lipidic nanoparticles for the investigation and visualization of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis with both magnetic resonance molecular imaging and optical techniques. The underlying rationale for this is that conventional MR imaging

  15. Lipid-based nanoparticles for contrast-enhanced MRI and molecular imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Willem J. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; van Tilborg, Geralda A. F.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    In the field of MR imaging and especially in the emerging field of cellular and molecular MR imaging, flexible strategies to synthesize contrast agents that can be manipulated in terms of size and composition and that can be easily conjugated with targeting ligands are required. Furthermore, the

  16. Molecular imaging for theranostics in gastroenterology: one stone to kill two birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Kown, Chang-Il; Park, Jong Min; Lee, Hoo Geun; Han, Na Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2014-09-01

    Molecular imaging in gastroenterology has become more feasible with recent advances in imaging technology, molecular genetics, and next-generation biochemistry, in addition to advances in endoscopic imaging techniques including magnified high-resolution endoscopy, narrow band imaging or autofluorescence imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. These developments have the potential to serve as "red flag" techniques enabling the earlier and accurate detection of mucosal abnormalities (such as precancerous lesions) beyond biomarkers, virtual histology of detected lesions, and molecular targeted therapy-the strategy of "one stone to kill two or three birds"; however, more effort should be done to be "blue ocean" benefit. This review deals with the introduction of Raman spectroscopy endoscopy, imaging mass spectroscopy, and nanomolecule development for theranostics. Imaging of molecular pathological changes in cells/tissues/organs might open the "royal road" to either convincing diagnosis of diseases that otherwise would only be detected in the advanced stages or novel therapeutic methods targeted to personalized medicine.

  17. PBCA-based polymeric microbubbles for molecular imaging and drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koczera, Patrick; Appold, Lia; Shi, Yang; Liu, Mengjiao; Dasgupta, Anshuman; Pathak, Vertika; Ojha, Tarun; Fokong, Stanley; Wu, Zhuojun; Van Zandvoort, Marc; Iranzo, Olga; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Pich, Andrij; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2017-01-01

    Microbubbles (MB) are routinely used as contrast agents for ultrasound (US) imaging. We describe different types of targeted and drug-loaded poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) MB, and demonstrate their suitability for multiple biomedical applications, including molecular US imaging and US-mediated

  18. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  19. Dynamical symmetries of molecular states in atomic, nuclear and hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.; Cseh, J.; Levai, G.

    1995-01-01

    The algebraic description of dipole degrees of freedom is discussed. These degrees of freedom are relevant to two and few-body systems, as well as in the collective motion of many-body systems. Applications to molecular, nuclear and hadron spectroscopy are presented. Different internal degrees of freedom can also be coupled to the spatial ones, leading to realistic models of several complex systems. (author)

  20. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A

    2016-06-08

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a "heteromeric" macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into "gene-sized" chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a "gene bank" that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using "nonmodel" organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.