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Sample records for nuclear material storage

  1. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  2. Surveillance systems for nuclear materials in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron Hawkins; Tom Williams; Lee ReFalo; Rod Martin

    1999-01-01

    The goal for the use of surveillance systems is the real time event detection and subsequent anomaly identification and investigation. The objective to be addressed by surveillance system include: timely and localized detection of changes in the status of nuclear materials (NM) whether from normal operations, unauthorized and unplanned incidents, or diversion of materials, or providing assurance that no changes have occurred; verifying that operations involving special NM were conducted in accordance with established procedures and assuring the quality of NM accounting and control data. There two general approaches to establishing a monitoring and surveillance system. In one case, containment of the materials is based on boundary and pathway control. The other approach is material and container oriented [ru

  3. Thermal Analysis of Storage Cans Containing Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerrell, J.W.

    2000-11-17

    A series of thermal analyses have been completed for ten storage can configurations representing various cases of materials stored in F-Area. The analyses determine the temperatures of the cans, the special nuclear material, and the air sealed within the cans. Analyses to aid in understanding the effect of oxide accumulation and metal aging on temperatures are also included.

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company special nuclear material vault storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisch, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Category 1 and 2 Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) require storage in vault or vault type rooms as specified in DOE orders 5633.3A and 6430.1A. All category 1 and 2 SNM in dry storage on the Hanford site that is managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co (WHC) is located in the 200 West Area at Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities. This document provides current and projected SNM vault inventories in terms of storage space filled and forecasts available space for possible future storage needs

  5. Inventory extension at the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Olinger, C.T.; Argo, P.E.

    1996-09-01

    The planned renovation of the Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be a significant addition to the plutonium storage capacity of the nuclear weapons complex. However, the utility of the facility may be impaired by an overly conservative approach to performing inventories of material in storage. This report examines options for taking advantage of provisions in Department of Energy orders to extend the time between inventories. These extensions are based on a combination of modern surveillance technology, facility design features, and revised operational procedures. The report also addresses the possibility that NMSF could be the site of some form of international inspection as part of the US arms control and nonproliferation policy

  6. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  7. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia's Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project

  8. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia's Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project

  9. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Mangan, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  10. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  11. Legal aspects and liabilities of storage in transit of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mees, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper considers the question of storage in transit of nuclear materials under the Paris Convention. It specifies the concepts of storage in transit of nuclear materials and then sets out the basic principles of nuclear third party liability. The paper concludes with an analysis of the practical situation in this field and the extent of State liability. (NEA) [fr

  12. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  13. Assessment of 222Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-01-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to 222 Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm 2 , placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The 222 Rn concentrations varied from 196 ± 9 and 2048 ± 81 Bq·m -3 . The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv·y -1 . This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  14. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 7, Estimate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment III-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VII - Estimate Data, contains the project cost estimate information.

  15. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

  16. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  17. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses

  18. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system

  19. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 7, Estimate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment III-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VII - Estimate Data, contains the project cost estimate information

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design and performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  1. Simulation and Experimental Validation of Electromagnetic Signatures for Monitoring of Nuclear Material Storage Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, Pamela M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that the low frequency electromagnetic (EM) response of a sealed metallic container interrogated with an encircling coil is a strong function of its contents and can be used to form a distinct signature which can confirm the presence of specific components without revealing hidden geometry or classified design information. Finite element simulations have recently been performed to further investigate this response for a variety of configurations composed of an encircling coil and a typical nuclear material storage container. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulated and measured impedance signatures of electrically conducting spheres placed inside an AT-400R nuclear container. Simulations were used to determine the effects of excitation frequency and the geometry of the encircling coil, nuclear container, and internal contents. The results show that it is possible to use electromagnetic models to evaluate the application of the EM signature technique to proposed versions of nuclear weapons containers which can accommodate restrictions imposed by international arms control and treaty verification legislation.

  2. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage

  3. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  4. Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters. End of Year Report FY 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-03

    A test system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the aerosol collection efficiency of filters in the lids of storage canisters for special nuclear materials. Two FTS (filter test system) devices have been constructed; one will be used in the LANL TA-55 facility with lids from canisters that have stored nuclear material. The other FTS device will be used in TA-3 at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility. The TA-3 system will have an expanded analytical capability, compared to the TA-55 system that will be used for operational performance testing. The LANL FTS is intended to be automatic in operation, with independent instrument checks for each system component. The FTS has been described in a complete P&ID (piping and instrumentation diagram) sketch, included in this report. The TA-3 FTS system is currently in a proof-of-concept status, and TA-55 FTS is a production-quality prototype. The LANL specification for (Hagan and SAVY) storage canisters requires the filter shall “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45-micron mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter”. The percent penetration (PEN%) and pressure drop (DP) of fifteen (15) Hagan canister lids were measured by NFT Inc. (Golden, CO) over a period of time, starting in the year 2002. The Los Alamos FTS measured these quantities on June 21, 2013 and on Oct. 30, 2013. The LANL(6-21-2013) results did not statistically match the NFT Inc. data, and the LANL FTS system was re-evaluated, and the aerosol generator was replaced and the air flow measurement method was corrected. The subsequent LANL(10-30-2013) tests indicate that the PEN% results are statistically identical to the NFT Inc. results. The LANL(10-30-2013) pressure drop measurements are closer to the NFT Inc. data, but future work will be investigated. An operating procedure for the FTS (filter test system) was written, and

  5. Use of filler materials to aid spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The use of filler materials (also known as stabilizer or encapsulating materials) was investigated in conjunction with the dry storage of irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel. The results of this investigation appear to be equally valid for the wet storage of fuel. The need for encapsulation and suitable techniques for closing was also investigated. Various materials were reviewed (including solids, liquids, and gases) which were assumed to fill the void areas within a storage can containing either intact or disassembled spent fuel. Materials were reviewed and compared on the basis of cost, thermal characteristics, and overall suitability in the proposed environment. A thermal analysis was conducted to yield maximum centerline and surface temperatures of a design basis fuel encapsulated within various filler materials. In general, air was found to be the most likely choice as a filler material for the dry storage of spent fuel. The choice of any other filler material would probably be based on a desire, or need, to maximize specific selection criteria, such as surface temperatures, criticality safety, or confinement

  6. CFD analysis and experimental investigation associated with the design of the Los Alamos nuclear materials storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Hopkins, S.; Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is being renovated for long-term storage of canisters designed to hold heat-generating nuclear materials, such as powders, ingots, and other components. The continual heat generation within the canisters necessitates a reliable cooling scheme of sufficient magnitude which maintains the stored material temperatures within acceptable limits. The primary goal of this study was to develop both an experimental facility and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a subsection of the NMSF which could be used to observe general performance trends of a proposed passive cooling scheme and serve as a design tool for canister holding fixtures. Comparisons of numerical temperature and velocity predictions with empirical data indicate that the CFD model provides an accurate representation of the NMSF experimental facility. Minor modifications in the model geometry and boundary conditions are needed to enhance its accuracy, however, the various fluid and thermal models correctly capture the basic physics.

  7. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  9. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    Today various materials for fuel cell applications are urgently needed, including potential electrodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells. Identification of appropriate storage concepts are also urgently needed in order to initiate necessary steps for implementation of such technologies in daily life. Recent progress in nuclear analyses and observation/imaging techniques can significantly contribute to a successful achievement of ongoing research challenges. Primary importance is given to areas of characterization and in-situ testing of materials and/or components of hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems. Dedicated attention is addressed to issues related to hydrogen storage concepts, such as metal hydrides and other systems (e.g. fullerene structures) as well as their stability and the changes induced by hydrogen sorption process. In total 14 papers report on various scientific and research issues related to hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. Based on presented results, it can be concluded that nuclear- based techniques, specifically those involving neutrons, X rays and particle beams, play very important roles in ongoing research activities among many IAEA Member States. A short overview of individual reports is summarized below. The presented papers give an overview of typical applications of such techniques and their experimental setups based either on X ray or neutron sources, which can be used effectively to study specific properties of materials for hydrogen storage as well as microstructural features and hydrogen interaction with solid matter. The papers presented by Canadian, Dutch, Italian and Norwegian groups, report on research results related to application of thermal neutron scattering and neutron diffraction in studies of hydrogen containing materials, particularly in situ characterization as a means to study metal hydrides' structure and their modification upon hydrogen sorption. The investigation on solid state hydrogen storage

  12. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy's memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability

  13. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  14. Corrosion resistance of tank material for flock storage in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Anbai, Hiromu; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Ogino, Hideki; Koizumi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The installation of the storage tank made of SS400 is under planning in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant for the flock which was generated in the coagulation process for radioactive contaminated water. The flock contains the seawater and has a possibility to make a crevice and local corrosion on the surface of the tank. Air agitation will be applied in the storage tank to prevent the accumulation of the flock and hydrogen generated by radiolysis, which will increase the diffusion of oxygen and the corrosion of SS400. In addition, the effect of radiation from the flock on the corrosion should be considered. In this study, we investigated the corrosion behavior of SS400 in the flock under the aeration-agitation condition with γ-ray irradiation. Based on the flock storage condition announced by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), immersion tests were performed with SS400 coupons under several conditions and corrosion rates were estimated by the weight loss of the coupons. After the immersion tests, the surfaces of the coupons were observed by microscopy for evaluating the local corrosion. To evaluate corrosion mechanism in detail, electrochemical tests were also carried out. In all of these tests, the non-radioactive flock as a surrogate and artificial seawater were used. Corrosion rates of SS400 increased significantly with aeration flow rates in the seawater with/without the flock, but this tendency was weaker in the seawater with the flock, especially under the condition where coupons were buried in the flock. The electrochemical tests indicated the suppression of the cathodic reaction, i.e. dissolved oxygen reduction, in the seawater with the flock. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on the corrosion rates was not remarkable under the assumed dose rate. Microscopic analysis of the immersed coupons showed no severe corrosion including local corrosion occurred. The corrosion rate could be decreased effectively by suppressing the dissolved oxygen reduction

  15. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Ensuring preservation of nuclear materials at RT plant storage facilities by upgrading physical protection, containment (TID) and TV surveillance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The upgrading of nuclear material (NM) physical protection system of storage facilities for plutonium dioxide has been carried out in the frame of contract between Sandia National Laboratories and PA Mayak. The implementation of this project is of great importance for ensuring the preservation of NM in storage. The project envisages a complex approach to the solution of the task: the use of engineered fences, detection means, observation devices, access and control thereof for the personnel; the organization of security force in such way that to give a possibility to take adequate and purposeful actions towards possible adversaries. The design includes upgrading the system for physical protection through the introduction of modern, efficient engineering devices for security, integrated system for access control and security, the system for TV surveillance [ru

  17. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  18. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff <0.95 or Keff <0.98 or Keff < 1.0 depending on the design specification for the service...

  19. Radiation protection of staff during treatment, transport and storage of radioactive materials and dismantling of nuclear facilities. Release of radioactive materials and radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 4th meeting of radiation protection experts, held at Bad Kohlgrub in Bavaria on March 23 - 26, 2004. Subjects were: Protection of staff during dismantling of nuclear plants and facilities; Protection of staff during treatment,transport and storage of radioactive materials; Release of radioactive materials and radiation measuring technology, and three parallel workshops on the above subjects for discussion of the three years of experience in the implementation of the new StrlSchV. (orig.)

  20. Syntheses and sintering of materials in view of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picot, V.; Glorieux, B.; Montel, J.M.; Deschanels, X.; Jorion, F.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste conditioning, the solid solution monazite-brabantite is extensively studied. Previous works have already shown its potential ability to confine minor actinides with excellent performance in term of chemical durability and structural stability. This present work concerns the synthesis and the sintering of such matrices. The challenge is to propose a synthesis and a sintering processes able to ensure the containment of actinides up to 10%wt. (Am, Cm, Np) in dense matrices (about 95% of the theoretical density). Those processes have to be performed on the equipment similar to that used in a facility dedicated to the high-level radioactive materials studies (glove box and hot cell). The optimized protocols, implying mixer-mill, synthesis by solid reaction at high temperature, uniaxial press compaction and sintering, are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES ampersand H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary's request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford's RINM storage circumstances. ES ampersand H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks

  2. Nuclear Material Management Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-01-01

    Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical and critical role of weapons testing to another critical role for the nation. This new role focuses on being a integral element in solving the multiple challenges facing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with nuclear material management. NTS is positioned to be a solution for other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to consolidate and modernize the production complex . With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through disposition and consolidation. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State of the art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that assigned activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS activities and challenges will be addressed

  3. Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shunji; Shionaga, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

  4. Thermal energy storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  5. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fort, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  6. Spent fuel working group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    In a memo dated 19 August 1993, Secretary O'Leary assigned the Office of Environment, Safety and Health the primary responsibility to identify, characterize, and assess the safety, health, and environmental vulnerabilities of the DOE's existing storage conditions and facilities for the storage of irradiated reactor fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. This volume is divided into three major sections. Section 1 contains the Working Group Assessment Team reports on the following facilities: Hanford Site, INEL, SRS, Oak Ridge Site, West Valley Site, LANL, BNL, Sandia, General Atomics (San Diego), Babcock ampersand Wilcox (Lynchburg Technology Center), and ANL. Section 2 contains the Vulnerability Development Forms from most of these sites. Section 3 contains the documents used by the Working Group in implementing this initiative

  7. Storage, inspection and sip testing of spent nuclear fuel from the HIFAR materials test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, H.; Finlay, R.; Bull, P.; Irwin, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum clad U-Al fuel used within the HIFAR MTR has been stored both in dry (underground) and wet (pond) storage facilities at the Lucas Heights site since the 1960's. As part of ANSTO's current program to send this fuel for long term storage or reprocessing, a significant level of visual inspection and water sip testing has been performed. This data has been used to demonstrate the integrity and suitability of the fuel for transport and receipt at the re processors interim storage ponds. This paper presents the key technical background-history of HIFAR fuel and its storage at Lucas Heights, presents the data obtained to date regarding its condition and discusses some observations regarding visual corrosion indicators and actual sip test results. (author)

  8. End of FY2014 Report - Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters (Including Altitude Correction for Filter Pressure Drop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Two LANL FTS (Filter Test System ) devices for nuclear material storage canisters are fully operational. One is located in PF-4 ( i.e. the TA-55 FTS) while the other is located at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility ( i.e. the TA-3 FTS). The systems are functionally equivalent , with the TA-3 FTS being the test-bed for new additions and for resolving any issues found in the TA-55 FTS. There is currently one unresolved issue regarding the TA-55 FTS device. The canister lid clamp does not give a leak tight seal when testing the 1 QT (quart) or 2 QT SAVY lids. An adapter plate is being developed that will ensure a correct test configuration when the 1 or 2 QT SAVY lid s are being tested .

  9. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL's ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002

  10. Surveillance Report on SAVY-4000 and Hagan Nuclear Material Storage Containers for FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oka, Jude M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-14

    In accordance with the SAVY-4000 Surveillance Plan [1] and DOE M441.1-1 requirements, storage container surveillance continued through fiscal year 2017 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Surveillance items for the year consisted of 8 SAVY-4000 storage containers, 8 Hagan containers, and 39 SAVY-4000 transfer containers. The SAVY-4000 surveillance items ranged in age from 1 year to 5.6 years and the Hagan containers ranged in age from 6.3 years to 17.6 years. The surveillance containers for this year were selected primarily to better understand the extent of corrosion of the stainless steel components of the containers. Accelerated aging studies indicate that the O-ring and filter components of the SAVY-4000 will last at least 40 years under LANL storage conditions. However, the observation of corrosion on the inside of SAVY-4000 and Hagan surveillance containers has shifted the emphasis to understanding both the nature and the extent of corrosion on the stainless steel body. The restriction on handling soluble residues greater than 500 grams continued this year, delaying the surveillance of some items that was scheduled in earlier surveillance plans.

  11. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  12. CSER-98-002: Criticality analysis for the storage of special nuclear material sources and standards in the WRAP Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1998-06-22

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will store uranium and transuranic (TRU) sources and standards for certification that WRAP meets the requirements of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, WRAP must meet internal requirements for testing and validation of measuring instruments for nondestructive assay (NDA). In order to be certified for WIPP, WRAP will participate in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). This program is a blind test of the NDA capabilities for TRU waste. It is intended to ensure that the NDA capabilities of this facility satisfy the requirements of the quality assurance program plan for the WIPP. The PDP standards have been provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for this program. These standards will be used in the WRAP facility. To internally check the accuracy and sensitivity of the NDA instruments, a further set of sources and standards will also be used by the facility. Each sealed source or standard will be referred to herein as a unit. Various combinations of these units will be placed in test drums and/or boxes which will be subject to their own limits until unloaded. There will be two sealed test drums with five grams of weapons grade plutonium loaded in them. These drums will be appropriately marked and will be subject to the unit limits rather than the drum limits. This analysis shows that the storage and use of special nuclear material sources and standards within the limited control facility of WRAP (Rooms 101 and 104) is safe from a criticality standpoint. With the form, geometry, and masses involved with this evaluation, a criticality is not possible. The limits given in Section 2 should be imposed on facility operations.

  13. The Next Nuclear Gamble. Transportation and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Next Nuclear Gamble examines risks, costs, and alternatives in handling irradiated nuclear fuel. The debate over nuclear power and the disposal of its high-level radioactive waste is now nearly four decades old. Ever larger quantities of commercial radioactive fuel continue to accumulate in reactor storage pools throughout the country and no permanent storage solution has yet been designated. As an interim solution, the government and utilities prefer that radioactive wastes be transported to temporary storage facilities and subsequently to a permanent depository. If this temporary and centralized storage system is implemented, however, the number of nuclear waste shipments on the highway will increase one hundredfold over the next fifteen years. The question directly addressed is whether nuclear transport is safe or represents the American public's domestic nuclear gamble. This Council on Economic Priorities study, directed by Marvin Resnikoff, shows on the basis of hundreds of government and industry reports, interviews and surveys, and original research, that transportation of nuclear materials as currently practiced is unsafe

  14. Storage - Nuclear wastes are overflowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights that the dismantling of French nuclear installations will generate huge volumes of radioactive wastes and that France may lack space to store them. The Cigeo project (underground storage) only concerns 0.2 per cent of the nuclear waste volume produced by France in 50 years. If storage solutions exist for less active wastes, they will soon be insufficient, notably because of the quantity of wastes produced by the dismantling of existing reactors and fuel processing plants. Different assessments of these volumes are evoked. In order to store them, the ANDRA made a second call for innovating projects which would enable a reduction of this volume by 20 to 30 per cent. The article also evokes projects selected after the first call for projects. They mainly focus on nuclear waste characterization which will result in a finer management of wastes regarding their storage destination. Cost issues and the opposition of anti-nuclear NGOs are still obstacles to the development of new sites

  15. Thermal and flow analysis of the Fluor Daniel, Inc., Nuclear Material Storage Facility renovation design (initial 30% effort of Title 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.; Mueller, C.; Knight, T.D.

    1998-03-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code CFX4.2 was used to evaluate steady-state thermal-hydraulic conditions in the Fluor Daniel, Inc., Nuclear Material Storage Facility renovation design (initial 30% of Title 1). Thirteen facility cases were evaluated with varying temperature dependence, drywell-array heat-source magnitude and distribution, location of the inlet tower, and no-flow curtains in the drywell-array vault. Four cases of a detailed model of the inlet-tower top fixture were evaluated to show the effect of the canopy-cruciform fixture design on the air pressure and flow distributions

  16. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  20. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  1. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The science of chemical thermodynamics has substantially contributed to the understanding of the many problems encountered in nuclear and reactor technology. These problems include reaction of materials with their surroundings and chemical and physical changes of fuels. Modern reactor technology, by its very nature, has offered new fields of investigations for the scientists and engineers concerned with the design of nuclear fuel elements. Moreover, thermodynamics has been vital in predicting the behaviour of new materials for fission as well as fusion reactors. In this regard, the Symposium was organized to provide a mechanism for review and discussion of recent thermodynamic investigations of nuclear materials. The Symposium was held in the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre, at the invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The International Atomic Energy Agency has given much attention to the thermodynamics of nuclear materials, as is evidenced by its sponsorship of four international symposia in 1962, 1965, 1967, and 1974. The first three meetings were primarily concerned with the fundamental thermodynamics of nuclear materials; as with the 1974 meeting, this last Symposium was primarily aimed at the thermodynamic behaviour of nuclear materials in actual practice, i.e., applied thermodynamics. Many advances have been made since the 1974 meeting, both in fundamental and applied thermodynamics of nuclear materials, and this meeting provided opportunities for an exchange of new information on this topic. The Symposium dealt in part with the thermodynamic analysis of nuclear materials under conditions of high temperatures and a severe radiation environment. Several sessions were devoted to the thermodynamic studies of nuclear fuels and fission and fusion reactor materials under adverse conditions. These papers and ensuing discussions provided a better understanding of the chemical behaviour of fuels and materials under these

  2. Security in transport, storage and disposal of radioactive materials, providing to the department of nuclear medicine in hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo Valle, Alejandro; Jimenez Mendez, Christian; Leiton Araya, Christopher; Villalobos Rodriguez, Geovanny; Leal Vega, Olga Maritza; Lopez Gatjens, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The security is analysed for the transport and storage of radioactive sources and the management of radioactive waste product of practices and interventions in nuclear medicine services in hospitals Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico. The objective is to assess the compliance with current regulations, the effectiveness and efficiency of the same. The security and compliance with current regulations were considered related to the transport of radioactive sources by the two private companies that provide this service, from the Juan Santamaria airport customs to three hospitals evaluated. Compliance with national and international rules on storage of radioactive sources and waste materials were analyzed. For this has been studied Costa Rican law and the recommendations of international organizations related to the subject matter, in the three nuclear medicine services valued. The national and international background related to radiological accidents occurred with radioactive sources during transport, storage and waste were revised, where highlights that in most cases, these accidents occurred for breach of the regulations established. Studies in Costa Rica on radioactive waste management were analysed, and the current status of nuclear medicine services in terms of radiation safety, which helped with the investigation. The compliance and regulations were analyzed by the result of observation and interviews during development, to finally make a series of findings and provide recommendations that are considered relevant. Various variants and indicators that are defined in the theoretical framework were used; also, the strategy of methodology is described. The purpose of the work has been to provide a scientific nature, and that methodology met the objectives, offering an approach from different angles and the actors involved, and a critical and objective analysis strictly in order to contribute to public health. The research is a valuable tool that provides

  3. Nuclear materials management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, K.; Silver, J.M.; Quealy, K.J.; Steege, E. van der.

    1987-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures for the management of nuclear materials and associated materials at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The procedures are designed to comply with Australia's nuclear non-proliferation obligations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), bilateral agreements with other countries and ANSTO's responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, 1987. The manual replaces those issued by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in 1959, 1960 and 1969

  4. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  5. Concrete-polymer composite materials and their potential for construction, urban waste utilization, and nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.; Steinberg, Meyer.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of concrete-polymer composites have been investigated by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) is basically formed by drying cured conventional concrete, displacing the air from open cell void volume, diffusing low viscosity monomer (less than 10 cps) through the open cell structure, saturating the concrete with the monomer and in-situ polymerizing the monomer to polymer by most convenient means. Mainly free-radical vinyl type monomers are used. For increased thermal stability, crosslinking agents and thermosetting monomers such as styrene-trimethylol propane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene are used. Much informations on the formation, structural properties and durability of PIC have been accumulated over past five years. U.S. Patent 3,567,496 has been issued on the production of PIC. Compressive strength can be increased from 352 kg/cm 2 of conventional concrete to 1,410 kg/cm 2 . Water absorption is reduced by 99% and the freeze-thaw resistance is remarkably improved. With high silica cement, strong basaltic aggregate, and high temperature steam curing, strength increase from 845 to over 2,630 kg/cm 2 can be obtained. A maximum of 238 kg/cm 2 tensile strength has been obtained with the steam-cured concrete. In the steam- cured concrete, polymer loading roughly around 8% by weight is obtained. Aggregates can include the urban solid waste discarded by man. Sewage and solid waste refuse-polymer concrete has been produced by using garbage as aggregate and sewage as the hydrating media for cement. The potentially important application of hydrauric cement concrete, in combination with the polymers in PIC and PC, is the storage of long-living radioactive wastes from nuclear industry. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  7. Materials demands for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Stanciu, V.; Armeanu, A.; Sandru, C.

    2006-01-01

    In a future sustainable energy system based on renewable energy, environmentally harmless energy carriers like hydrogen, will be of crucial importance. One of the major impediments for the transition to a hydrogen-based energy system is the lack of satisfactory hydrogen storage facility. In the last years the possibility to store the hydrogen in various materials was extensively studied. This paper is a preliminary study with the fucus on advanced nanostructured materials such as solids of large surface areas based on carbon structures, metals and different types of metal alloys, other intermetallic compounds, etc, as possibilities for hydrogen storage. The newest materials used for hydrogen storage are light metal alloys. We have so far focus in this review almost extensively on experimental studies. Also there are presented the most important characteristics of these materials such as mechanical strength, porosity and affinity to hydrogen, and also the recent developments in the search for innovative materials with high hydrogen - storage capacity as well as our own contribution to this field. (authors)

  8. Physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: An Advisory Group met to consider the up-dating and extension of the Recommendations for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, produced in 1972. Twenty-seven experts from 11 countries and EURATOM were present. Growing concern has been expressed in many countries that nuclear material may one day be used for acts of sabotage or terrorism. Serious attention is therefore being given to the need for States to develop national systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials during use, storage and transport throughout the nuclear fuel cycle which should minimize risks of sabotage or theft. The revised Recommendations formulated by the Advisory Group include new definitions of the objectives of national systems of physical protection and proposals for minimizing possibilities of unauthorized removal and sabotage to nuclear facilities. The Recommendations also describe administrative or organizational steps to be taken for this purpose and the essential technical requirements of physical protection for various types and locations of nuclear material, e.g., the setting up of protected areas, the use of physical barriers and alarms, the need for security survey, and the need of advance arrangements between the States concerned in case of international transportation, among others. (author)

  9. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  10. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  11. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  12. Spent fuel working group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Each Site Team, consisting of M ampersand O contractor and Operations Office personnel, performed data collection and identified ES ampersand H concerns relative to RINM storage by preparing responses to the detailed question set for each storage facility at the site. These responses formed the basis for the Site Team reports. These reports are contained in this volume and are from the following facilities: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site, Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, West Valley Demonstration Project Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, General Atomics, San Diego, Babcock ampersand Wilcox, Lynchburg Technical Center, Argonne National Laboratory - East, Naval Reactors Facilities, Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory, EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, Ohio, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Battelle Columbus Laboratory. This volume also contains information received from the sites that were not visited. These sites include the Naval Reactor Facility at the INEL, EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, The Catholic University of America, Rocky Flats Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory, Energy Technology Engineering Center, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Information received through the Chicago Operations Office for University Reactors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Battelle Columbus Laboratory is also included. Materials contained in this volume consist of information, data and site documents. They are unedited

  13. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

  14. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  15. Automated nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacak, P.; Moravec, J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated state system of accounting for nuclear materials data was established in Czechoslovakia in 1979. A file was compiled of 12 programs in the PL/1 language. The file is divided into four groups according to logical associations, namely programs for data input and checking, programs for handling the basic data file, programs for report outputs in the form of worksheets and magnetic tape records, and programs for book inventory listing, document inventory handling and materials balance listing. A similar automated system of nuclear fuel inventory for a light water reactor was introduced for internal purposes in the Institute of Nuclear Research (UJV). (H.S.)

  16. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented of the Fourth International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials held in Vienna, 21-25 October 1974. The technological theme of the Symposium was the application of thermodynamics to the understanding of the chemistry of irradiated nuclear fuels and to safety assessments for hypothetical accident conditions in reactors. The first four sessions were devoted to these topics and they were followed by four more sessions on the more basic thermodynamics, phase diagrams and the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of nuclear materials. Sixty-seven papers were presented

  17. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  18. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide

  19. LECI Department of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The LECI is a 'hot' laboratory dedicated mostly to the characterization of irradiated materials. It has, however, limited activities on fuel, as a back up to the LECA STAR in Cadarache. The LECI belongs to the Section of Research on Irradiated Materials (Department of Nuclear Materials). The Department for Nuclear Materials (DMN) has for its missions: - to contribute, through theoretical and experimental investigations, to the development of knowledge in materials science in order to be able to predict the evolution of the material physical and mechanical properties under service conditions (irradiation, thermomechanical solicitations, influence of the environment,..); - to characterize the properties of the materials used in the nuclear industry in order to determine their performance and to be able to predict their life expectancy, in particular via modelling. These materials can be irradiated or not, and originate from surveillance programs, experimental neutron irradiations or simulated irradiations with charged particles; - to establish, maintain and make use of the databases generated by these data; - to propose new or optimized materials, satisfying future service conditions and extend the life or the competitiveness of the associated systems; - to establish constitutive laws and models for the materials in service, incidental, accidental and storage conditions, and contribute to the development of the associated design codes in order to support the safety argumentation of utilities and vendors; - to provide expertise on industrial components, in particular to investigate strain or rupture mechanisms and to offer leads for improvement. This document presents, first, the purpose of the LECI (Historical data, Strategy, I and K shielded cell lines (building 605), M shielded cell line (building 625), Authorized materials). Then, it presents the microscopy and irradiation damage studies laboratory of the Saclay centre (Building 605) Which belongs to the Nuclear

  20. Nuclear material accounting handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The handbook documents existing best practices and methods used to account for nuclear material and to prepare the required nuclear material accounting reports for submission to the IAEA. It provides a description of the processes and steps necessary for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of nuclear material accounting and control at the material balance area, facility and State levels, and defines the relevant terms. This handbook serves the needs of State personnel at various levels, including State authorities, facility operators and participants in training programmes. It can assist in developing and maintaining accounting systems which will support a State's ability to account for its nuclear material such that the IAEA can verify State declarations, and at the same time support the State's ability to ensure its nuclear security. In addition, the handbook is useful for IAEA staff, who is closely involved with nuclear material accounting. The handbook includes the steps and procedures a State needs to set up and maintain to provide assurance that it can account for its nuclear material and submit the prescribed nuclear material accounting reports defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4 in terms of the relevant agreement(s), thereby enabling the IAEA to discharge its verification function as defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4. The contents of the handbook are based on the model safeguards agreement and, where applicable, there will also be reference to the model additional protocol. As a State using The handbook consists of five sections. In Section 1, definitions or descriptions of terms used are provided in relation to where the IAEA applies safeguards or, for that matter, accounting for and control of nuclear material in a State. The IAEA's approach in applying safeguards in a State is also defined and briefly described, with special emphasis on verification. In Section 2, the obligations of the State

  1. Storage and handling of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Guide defines the safety requirements and the control procedure for the storage and handling of fresh and spent fuel of a nuclear power plant. The control procedure applies to all those structures and components of the storage and handling systems that may affect fuel safety. The Guide does not deal with the control of any process-related technical systems (e.g. cooling and purification systems), including their structures and components, connected with fuel storage. With regard to the storage of spent fuel, this Guide only deals with storage in a water pool. Guide YVL6.1 describes the regulatory control of nuclear fuel by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland (STUK) in general. The detailed requirements for fuel control are given in Guide YVL6.3. The regulatory control of nuclear power plants by STUK on the whole is discussed in Guide YVL1.1

  2. Latent Heat Storage Through Phase Change Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    heat storage system. 1.3 Phase Change Material. A PCM is the heart of any latent heat storage system. Having a high latent heat is not the only requirement to use a material as a thermal energy storage material. The desired PCM properties are: • Melting point should be in the desired temperature range. For example, if we ...

  3. Storage depot for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulinski, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson

  4. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Rob; Van den Akker, Bret

    2014-01-01

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  5. Further research on melting activated and contaminated materials from the decommissioning of nuclear installations for the final storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deipenau, H.; Seidler, M.

    1990-07-01

    The unconditional reuse of activated and contaminated materials by melting and the production of qualified casks (type A- and type B-containers) was proved. Investigations on nuclide distribution in the melting furnace, molten material, dust and slag were used as a basis for the erection of a new central melting facility. Melting contaminated carbon steel a mass of 2-5% of the contaminated material was generated as dust and slag. They must be handled and transported as radioactive waste. Melting non-ferrous material activity contents could be reached for unconditional reuse. Binding radioactive carbon in the metal matrix of cast iron is only possible by using crushed graphite. The investigations of this project showed that unconditional reuse of contaminated material is possible in industrial scale. Doses of the workers and of the people in the environment of the facility resulting from melting were far below the limits of the German radiation protection law. Up to 1990 a mass of 2000 Mg of contaminated material was melted in the Siempelkamp foundry. Mass inventories for the dismantling of a reference power plant SWR 900 MWe are calculated. (orig./HP) With 7 refs., 18 tabs., 12 figs [de

  6. Transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Lenail, B.

    1987-01-01

    From a safety standpoint, spent fuel is clearly not ideal for permanent disposal and reprocessing is the best method of preparing wastes for long-term storage in a repository. Furthermore, the future may demonstrate that some fission products recovered in reprocessing have economic applications. Many countries have in fact reached the point at which the recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent fuel is economical in LWR's. Even in countries where this is not yet evident, (i.e., the United States), the French example shows that the day will come when spent fuel will be retrieved for reprocessing and recycle. It is highly questionable whether spent fuel will ever be considered and treated as waste in the same sense as fission products and processed as such, i.e., packaged in a waste form for permanent disposal. Even when recycled fuel material can no longer be reused in LWR's because of poor reactivity, it will be usable in FBR's. Based on the considerable experience gained by SGN and Cogema, this paper has provided practical discussion and illustrations of spent fuel transport and storage of a very important step in the nuclear fuel management process. The best of spent fuel storage depends on technical, economic and policy considerations. Each design has a role to play and we hope that the above discussion will help clarify certain issues

  7. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  9. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Azmi Syed Ali

    1985-01-01

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  10. The convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    This document contains the full text of a convention to facilitate the safe transfer of nuclear material, and to insure the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage, and transport. Two annexes are included, which establish categories of nuclear materials and levels of physical protection to be applied in international transport

  11. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  12. Materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy/materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear reactor materials (fuels and structural materials), are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO 2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO 2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques and in-reactor degradation mechanisms. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. The presentation will conclude by listing various materials related phenomena, which have a strong bearing on the successful development of future nuclear energy systems. (author)

  13. Phase change material storage heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  14. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  15. In transit storage of radioactive material under national customs administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, C.E.; Cesario, R.H.; Milsztain, C.; Pollach, L.; Liossa, R.

    1998-01-01

    A model of an 'in transit storage of radioactive materials' under National Customs Administration control is described account the relevant Custom House Legislation and the Nuclear Regulatory Standards in force in Argentina. Evaluation of the physical protection systems applied to the above mentioned storage by means of a software named 'IntruBuster' is also described. This software is routinely updated and is also used by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to evaluate the adequacy of physical protection systems implemented at nuclear installations in the Country. The interaction with National and International related Organisations to minimise the probability of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is another important aspect to be considered. This is particularly true in those cases in which the administration of these stores is privately operated. Finally, the paper described the experience obtained in the implementation of the above mentioned software as well as prosecution and control activities by the Custom House and the Nuclear Authority of Argentina. (authors)

  16. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage-system components in dry interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions

  17. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  18. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  19. Control of corrosion in an aqueous nuclear fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Observations made during thirty years of experience in operating a nuclear fuel storage basin, used for storing a wide variety of spent nuclear fuels underwater have identified several forms of corrosion such as galvanic, pitting and crevice attack. Examples of some of the forms of corrosion observed and their causes are discussed, along with the measures taken to mitigate the corrosive attack. The paper also describes the procedure used to reduce corrosion by: surveillance of design, selection of materials for application in the basin, and inspection of items in the storage basin

  20. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  1. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  2. Tergiversating the price of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Tergiversation, the evasion of straightforward action of clearcut statement of position, was a characteristic of high-level nuclear waste disposal until the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. How the price of waste storage is administered will affect the design requirements of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities as well as repositories. Those decisions, in part, are internal to the Department of Energy. From the utility's viewpoint, the options are few but clearer. Reprocessing, as performed in Europe, is not a perfect substitute for MRS. The European reprocess-repository sequence will not yield the same nuclear resource base as the American MRS-repository scheme. For the future price of the energy resource represented by nuclear waste, the author notes that tergiversation continues. 3 references

  3. Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the storage of spent nuclear fuel, with particular reference to the options which would be available for long-term storage. Two reference programmes of nuclear power generation in the UK are defined and these are used as a basis for the projection of arisings of spent fuel and the storage capacity which might be needed. The characteristics of spent fuel which are relevant to long-term storage include the dimensions, materials and physical construction of the elements, their radioactive inventory and the associated decay heating as a function of time after removal from the reactor. Information on the behaviour of spent fuel in storage ponds is reviewed with particular reference to the corrosion of the cladding. The review indicates that, for long-term storage, both Magnox and AGR fuel would need to be packaged because of the high rate of cladding corrosion and the resulting radiological problems. The position on PWR fuel is less certain. Experience of dry storage is less extensive but it appears that the rate of corrosion of cladding is much lower than in water. Unit costs are discussed. Consideration is given to the radiological impact of fuel storage. (author)

  4. National and international nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The status of nuclear materials in both the U.S. and Former Soviet Union is changing based upon the execution of agreements relative to weapons materials production and weapon dismantlement. The result of these activities is that a considerably different emphasis is being placed on how nuclear materials are viewed and utilized. Even though much effort is being expended on the final disposition of these materials, the interim need for storage and security of the material is increasing. Both safety and security requirements exist to govern activities when these materials are placed in storage. These requirements are intended to provide confidence that the material is not being misused and that the storage operations are conducted safely. Both of these goals can be significantly enhanced if technological monitoring of the material is performed. This paper will briefly discuss the traditional manual methods of U.S. and international material monitoring and then present approaches and technology that are available to achieve the same goals under the evolving environment

  5. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  6. Study of nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, H.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of deliberate diversion of nuclear materials on materials accounting, the validity of the MUF concept to establish assurance concerning the possible diversion of special nuclear materials, and an economic analysis to permit cost comparison of varying the inventory frequency are being studied. An inventory cost model, the statistical hypothesis testing approach, the game theoretic approach, and analysis of generic plants are considered

  7. Zeolites as candidate materials for aqueous tritiated waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Radak-Jovanovic, Z.; Gal, I.J.; Brucher, H.

    1987-01-01

    Zeolites have been considered as storage materials for aqueous tritiated waste, owing to their relatively high water contents, low diffusion coefficient of water in their pores and their accessibility. The diffusion coefficient of tritiated water in the solid particles seems to be the most important factor in the selection of zeolites for tritiated water storage. This work summarizes investigations done in The Boris Kidric Institute and Juelich Nuclear Research Center on zeolites as storage materials for tritiated water. Modified 4A zeolites as CsA, ZnA, CoA, Fe(III)A, as well as synthetic and natural analcime, have been investigated. Self-diffusion coefficients of THO in zeolites have been calculated using the Boyd-Reichenberg model of diffusion. The results obtained are discussed from the point of view of using zeolites as storage materials for tritiated waste water. In this respect, natural and synthetic analcime seem to be promising

  8. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  9. Storage rings for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a brief tutorial for the physicist who is not an accelerator expert, introducing terminology and concepts useful in understanding the basic properties of beam storage devices and the beam processing that they make possible. It also deals with performance- limiting phenomena: stored beam intensity limits; beam target interactions and their effects on target thickness and beam quality; and the luminosity domains at different energies and for various ion species for applicability of the stored beam technology. Examples are presented from among facilities in operation or under construction to show some of the diversity of this rapidly evolving field. A glossary of terms and abbreviations used in this review is included for the reader's convenience

  10. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  11. Licensing of spent nuclear fuel dry storage in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislov, A.I.; Kolesnikov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal nuclear and radiation safety authority of Russia (Gosatomnadzor) being the state regulation body, organizes and carries out the state regulation and supervision for safety at handling, transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel. In Russia, the use of dry storage in casks will be the primary spent nuclear fuel storage option for the next twenty years. The cask for spent nuclear fuel must be applied for licensing by Gosatomnadzor for both storage and transportation. There are a number of regulations for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in Russia. Up to now, there are no special regulations for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Such regulations will be prepared up to the end of 1998. Principally, it will be required that only type B(U)F, packages can be used for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, there are two dual-purpose cask designs under consideration in Russia. One of them is the CONSTOR steel concrete cask, developed in Russia (NPO CKTI) under the leadership of GNB, Germany. The other cask design is the TUK-104 cask of KBSM, Russia. Both cask types were designed for spent nuclear RBMK fuel. The CONSTOR steel concrete cask was designed to be in full compliance with both Russian and IAEA regulations for transport of packages for radioactive material. The evaluation of the design criteria by Russian experts for the CONSTOR steel concrete cask project was performed at a first stage of licensing (1995 - 1997). The CONSTOR cask design has been assessed (strength analysis, thermal physics, nuclear physics and others) by different Russian experts. To show finally the compliance of the CONSTOR steel concrete cask with Russian and IAEA regulations, six drop tests have been performed with a 1:2 scale model manufactured in Russia. A test report was prepared. The test results have shown that the CONSTOR cask integrity is guaranteed under both transport and storage accident conditions. The final stage of the certification procedure

  12. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Mail Stop EBB-3D-02M, U.S..., LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Issuance of Amendment to Materials License... Materials License No. SNM- 2505 DATES: A request for a hearing must be filed by November 29, 2010. FOR...

  13. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  14. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear Materials Management for the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical role of weapons testing to a broader role that is focused on being a solution to multiple National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) challenges and opportunities with nuclear materials for the nation. NTS is supporting other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to make the production complex smaller, more consolidated, and more modern. With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through dispositioning and consolidating nuclear material. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State-of-the-art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that these new activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS is aggressively addressing this challenge

  16. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Illicit diversion of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, F.L.

    1975-08-01

    This paper discusses the means of preventing illegal use of nuclear material by terrorists or other sub-national groups and by governments. With respect to sub-national groups, it concludes that the preventive measures of national safeguards systems, when taken together with the practical difficulties of using nuclear material, would make the diversion and illegal use of nuclear material unattractive in comparison with other avenues open to these groups to attain their ends. It notes that there are only certain areas in the nuclear fuel cycle, e.g. production of some types of nuclear fuel embodying highly enriched uranium and shipment of strategically significant nuclear material, which contain material potentially useful to these groups. It also discusses the difficult practical problems, e.g. coping with radiation, which would face the groups in making use of the materials for terrorist purposes. Concerning illegal use by Governments, the paper describes the role of international safeguards, as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the real deterrent effect of these safeguards which is achieved through the requirements to maintain comprehensive operating records of the use of nuclear material and by regular inspections to verify these records. The paper makes the point that Australia would not consider supplying nuclear material unless it were subject to international safeguards. (author)

  19. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper

  20. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel interim storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays safety and security of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) interim storage installations are very important, due to a great concentration of fission products, actinides and activation products. In this kind of storage it is necessary to consider the physical security. Nuclear installations have become more vulnerable. New types of accidents must be considered in the design of these installations, which in the early days were not considered like: fissile material stolen, terrorists' acts and war conflicts, and traditional accidents concerning the transport of the spent fuel from the reactor to the storage location, earthquakes occurrence, airplanes crash, etc. Studies related to airplane falling had showed that a collision of big commercials airplanes at velocity of 800 km/h against SNF storage and specially designed concrete casks, do not result in serious structural injury to the casks, and not even radionuclides liberation to the environment. However, it was demonstrated that attacks with modern military ammunitions, against metallic casks, are calamitous. The casks could not support a direct impact of this ammo and the released radioactive materials can expose the workers and public as well the local environment to harmful radiation. This paper deals about the main basic aspects of a dry SNF storage installation, that must be physically well protected, getting barriers that difficult the access of unauthorized persons or vehicles, as well as, must structurally resist to incidents or accidents caused by unauthorized intrusion. (author)

  1. Robotic inspection of nuclear waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulbright, R.; Stephens, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The University of South Carolina and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have developed a prototype mobile robot designed to perform autonomous inspection of nuclear waste storage facilities. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) navigates and inspects rows of nuclear waste storage drums, in isles as narrow as 34 inches with drums stacked three high on each side. SWAMI reads drum barcodes, captures drum images, and monitors floor-level radiation levels. The topics covered in this article reporting on SWAMI include the following: overall system design; typical mission scenario; barcode reader subsystem; video subsystem; radiation monitoring subsystem; position determination subsystem; onboard control system hardware; software development environment; GENISAS, a C++ library; MOSAS, an automatic code generating tool. 10 figs

  2. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    As the amount of used nuclear fuel continues to grow, more and more used nuclear fuel will be transferred to storage casks. A consolidated storage facility is currently in the planning stages for storing these casks, where at least 10,000 MTHM of fuel will be stored. This site will have potentially thousands of casks once it is operational. A facility this large presents new safeguards and nuclear material accounting concerns. A new signature based on the distribution of neutron sources and multiplication within casks was part of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Material Protection, Account and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign. Under this project we looked at fingerprinting each cask's neutron signature. Each cask has a unique set of fuel, with a unique spread of initial enrichment, burnup, cooling time, and power history. The unique set of fuel creates a unique signature of neutron intensity based on the arrangement of the assemblies. The unique arrangement of neutron sources and multiplication produces a reliable and unique identification of the cask that has been shown to be relatively constant over long time periods. The work presented here could be used to restore from a loss of continuity of knowledge at the storage site. This presentation will show the steps used to simulate and form this signature from the start of the effort through its conclusion in September 2016.

  3. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for designation of undertakings of refining (spallation and eaching filtration facilities, thickening facilities, refining facilities, nuclear material substances or nuclear fuel substances storage facilities, waste disposal facilities, etc.), application for permission for alteration (business management plan, procurement plan, fund raising plan, etc.), application for approval of merger (procedure, conditions, reason and date of merger, etc.), submission of report on alteration (location, structure, arrangements processes and construction plan for refining facilities, etc.), revocation of designation, rules for records, rules for safety (personnel, organization, safety training for employees, handling of important apparatus and tools, monitoring and removal of comtaminants, management of radioactivity measuring devices, inspection and testing, acceptance, transport and storage of nuclear material and fuel, etc.), measures for emergency, submission of report on abolition of an undertaking, submission of report on disorganization, measures required in the wake of revocation of designation, submission of information report (exposure to radioactive rays, stolen or missing nuclear material or nuclear fuel, unusual leak of nuclear fuel or material contaminated with nuclear fuel), etc. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  5. Thermodynamics study of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lifang; Wang Shuang; Jiao Chengli; Si Xiaoliang; Li Zhibao; Liu Shuang; Liu Shusheng; Jiang Chunhong; Li Fen; Zhang Jian; Sun Lixian; Xu Fen; Huang Fenglei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemical modification is an effective way to improve the thermodynamics. ► Nanodispersion can improve the thermodynamics of chemical storage system. ► Hybridization is an practicable strategy to improve the thermodynamics. ► Nanoconfinement is feasible to improve thermodynamics of chemical storage system. ► MOFs materials possess suitable interaction with H 2 molecule should be investigated. - Abstract: The growing use of conventional energy such as fossil fuels results in problems degrading our environment. Hydrogen is frequently discussed as a clean energy in the future without pollution. However, efficient and safe storage of hydrogen constitute a key challenge and unresolved problem. One of the main options is solid-state storage technology. A successful solid-state reversible storage material should meet the requirements of high storage capacity, suitable thermodynamic properties, reversibility and fast adsorption and desorption kinetics. This feature article focuses mainly on the development of thermodynamic improvement of hydrogen storage materials in the past few years including the complex hydride, ammonia borane, and metal-organic frameworks.

  6. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel storage device and spent nuclear fuel storage method using the device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro

    1998-01-01

    Storage cells attachably/detachably support nuclear fuel containing vessels while keeping the vertical posture of them. A ventilation pipe which forms air channels for ventilating air to the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel is disposed at the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel contained in the storage cell. A shielding port for keeping the support openings gas tightly is moved, and a communication port thereof can be aligned with the upper portion of the support opening. The lower end of the transporting and containing vessel is placed on the shielding port, and an opening/closing shutter is opened. The gas tightness is kept by the shielding port, the nuclear fuel containing vessel filled with spent nuclear fuels is inserted to the support opening and supported. Then, the support opening is closed by a sealing lid. (I.N.)

  8. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  9. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin; Hess, Nancy J.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  10. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility

  11. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.; Corrales, L. Rene; Ness, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B. Peter; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Song, Jakyoung; Park, Byeongwon; Jiang, Weilin; Begg, Bruce D.; Birtcher, R. B.; Chen, X.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2000-10-02

    Radiation effects from the decay of radionuclides may impact the long-term performance and stability of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. In an effort to address these concerns, the objective of this project was the development of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, particularly on solid-state radiation effects and their influence on aqueous dissolution kinetics. This study has employed experimental, theoretical and computer simulation methods to obtain new results and insights into radiation damage processes and to initiate the development of predictive models. Consequently, the research that has been performed under this project has significant implications for the High-Level Waste and Nuclear Materials focus areas within the current DOE/EM mission. In the High-Level Waste (HLW) focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. Ultimately, this research could result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  12. Graphite materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    Graphite materials have been used in the nuclear fission reactors from the beginning of the reactor development for the speed reduction and reflection of neutron. Graphite materials are used both as a moderator and as a reflector in the core of high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and both as a radiation shielding material and as a reflector in the surrounding of the core for the fast breeder reactor. On the other hand, graphite materials are being positively used as a first wall of plasma as it is known that low Z materials are useful for holding high temperature plasma in the nuclear fusion devices. In this paper the present status of the application of graphite materials to the nuclear fission reactors and fusion devices (reactors) is presented. In addition, a part of results on the related properties to the structural design and safety evaluation and results examined on the subjects that should be done in the future are also described. (author)

  13. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling

  14. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  15. LIGHT-WEIGHT NANOCRYSTALLINE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; B. Zande; R.T. Obermyer; S. Simizu

    2005-11-21

    During Phase I of this SBIR Program, Advanced Materials Corporation has addressed two key issues concerning hydrogen storage: 1. We have conducted preliminary studies on the effect of certain catalysts in modifying the hydrogen absorption characteristics of nanocrystalline magnesium. 2. We have also conducted proof-of-concept design and construction of a prototype instrument that would rapidly screen materials for hydrogen storage employing chemical combinatorial technique in combination with a Pressure-Composition Isotherm Measurement (PCI) instrument. 3. Preliminary results obtained in this study approach are described in this report.

  16. Nuclear fuel storage apparatus for seismic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An earthquake resistant apparatus is claimed for storing nuclear fuel within a water-filled pool wherein a structural grid which supports the fuel is in turn supported by cables from an upper elevation. The grid is located below the water level and spaced from the walls of the pool an amount, preferably at least equal to the anticipated earthquake displacement. The grid is located below the water level a sufficient depth for radiation shielding during fuel handling and storage, and tension members are preferably ten times the design earthquake displacement. A horizontal baffle is located around the periphery of the pool at an elevation above the grid

  17. Next nuclear gamble: transportation and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, M.

    1983-01-01

    Accidents during transport of nuclear waste are more threatening - though less likely - than a reactor meltdown because transportation accidents could occur in the middle of a populous city, affecting more people and property than a plant accident, according to the Council on Economic Priorities, a non-profit public service research organization. Transportation, as presently practiced, is unsafe. Shipping containers, called casks, are poorly designed and constructed, CEP says. The problem needs attention because the number of casks filled with nuclear waste on the nation's highways could increase a hundred times during the next 15 years under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, which calls for storage areas. Recommendations, both technical and regulatory, for reducing the risks are presented

  18. Nuclear technology and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Current and expected problems in the materials of nuclear technology are reviewed. In the fuel elements of LWRs, cladding waterside corrosion, secondary hydriding and pellet-cladding interaction may be significant impediments to extended burnup. In the fuel, fission gas release remains a key issue. Materials issues in the structural alloys of the primary system include stress-corrosion cracking of steel, corrosion of steam generator tubing and pressurized thermal shock of the reactor vessel. Prediction of core behavior in severe accidents requires basic data and models for fuel liquefaction, aerosol formation, fission product transport and core-concrete interaction. Materials questions in nuclear waste management and fusion technology are briefly reviewed. (author)

  19. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  20. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.

  1. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  2. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  3. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  4. Safety protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukavsky, J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety protection is discussed of nuclear facilities and of nuclear materials, which is a specific element of guaranteeing nuclear safety. Its task is to maximally restrict the risk of misuse of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials for endangering human lives and health and the environment. Concrete requirements for the barriers and technical means and for security of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials are based on this approach. In the CSSR, a legal norm is being prepared that will enact the said requirements for safety protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials. (Z.M.)

  5. The century of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Lou; Was, Gary S.; Zinkle, Steve; Petti, David; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2018-03-01

    In the spring of 1959 the well-read metallurgist would have noticed the first issue of an infant Journal, one dedicated to a unique and fast growing field of materials issues associated with nuclear energy systems. The periodical, Journal of Nuclear Materials (JNM), is now the leading publication in the field from which it takes its name, thriving beyond the rosiest expectations of its founders. The discipline is well into the second half-century. During that time much has been achieved in nuclear materials; the Journal provides the authoritative record of virtually all those accomplishments. These pages introduce the 500th volume, a significant measure in the world of publishing. The Editors reflect on the progress in the field and the role of this journal.

  6. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items

  7. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely-activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. A list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (auth)

  8. Safety in transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrahi, A.; Xavier, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing utilization of radioisotopes in Industrial, Medical and Research Facilities as well as the processing of Nuclear Materials involve transport activities in a routine basis. The present work has the following main objectives: I) the identification of the safety aspects related to handling, transport and storage of radioactive materials; II) the orientation of the personnel responsible for the radiological safety of Radioactive Installations viewing the elaboration and implementation of procedures to minimize accidents; III) the report of case-examples of accidents that have occured in Brazil due to non-compliance with Transport Regulations. (author) [pt

  9. Nuclear waste and nuclear ethics. Societal and ethical aspects of retrievable storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, H.; Van den Berg, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the literature study on the title subject is to provide information to researchers, engineers, decision makers, administrators, and the public in the Netherlands on the subject of retrievable storage of nuclear waste, mainly from nuclear power plants. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated with respect to retrievability and ethics, sustainability, risk assessment, information transfer, environmental impacts, and discussions on radioactive waste storage. 170 refs

  10. Dry storage cell for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a dry storage cell for irradiated nuclear fuel or other highly active waste, cooling air flow is by natural draught in heat exchange with fuel containing canisters housed in channels. To inhibit corrosion by ensuring that the temperature of the air flowing over the canisters does not fall below the dew point when heat generation by decay has fallen, a fraction of the heat energy transferred to the cooling air is recirculated to the air upstream of the canisters. Recirculation of heat energy is effected by recirculation of a fraction of the hot air from downstream of the canisters. (author)

  11. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    temperatures than liquefaction. Last years have brought the interest in hydrogen storage in porous carbon materials, caused by the design and accessibility of new materials, such as fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers. In particular the tubular carbon structures are perspective highly adsorbing materials, for their surface adsorption (on the internal and external surface of the nano-tubes), and for the effect of capillary condensation. Data presented in Table 1 show that the amount of hydrogen adsorbed on these new materials depends of their modification and on the type of carbon precursor. In this work the concept of hydrogen storage by adsorption was analyzed. The discussion is based on measurements of hydrogen adsorption on commercial active carbon in the temperature range 77 - 298 K at pressures up to 4 MPa. The amount of gas that can be stored in an adsorption system depends on the adsorbent characteristics and the operating conditions. Adsorption method was compared with another one taking into account both technical and economical aspects. The results show that the adsorption technique could provide a viable method for hydrogen storage

  12. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    higher temperatures than liquefaction [3]. Last years have brought the interest in hydrogen storage in porous carbon materials, caused by the design and accessibility of new materials, such as fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers. In particular the tubular carbon structures are perspective highly adsorbing materials, for their surface adsorption (on the internal and external surface of the nano-tubes), and for the effect of capillary condensation [4]. Data presented in Table 1 show that the amount of hydrogen adsorbed on these new materials depends of their modification and on the type of carbon precursor [5]. In this work the concept of hydrogen storage by adsorption was analyzed. The discussion is based on measurements of hydrogen adsorption on commercial active carbon in the temperature range 77 - 298 K at pressures up to 4 MPa. The amount of gas that can be stored in an adsorption system depends on the adsorbent characteristics and the operating conditions. Adsorption method was compared with another one taking into account both technical and economical aspects. The results show that the adsorption technique could provide a viable method for hydrogen storage. [1]G. D. Berry, A. D. Pastemak, G. D. Rambach, J. R. Smith, N. Schock, Energy. 21, 289, 1996; [2]L. Czepirski, Przem. Chem. 70, 129, 1991 (in Polish); [3]B. Buczek, L. Czepirski, Inz. Chem. Proc., 24, 545, 2003; [4]U. Huczko, Przem. Chem. 81, 19, 2002 (in Polish); [5]U. Buenger, W. Zittel, Appl. Phys. A 72, 147, 2001. (authors)

  13. Diffusion processes in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, P.

    1992-01-01

    Diffusion phenomena have played an important role for the materials scientist in improving products in a variety of fields. An ever widening number of diffusion limited processes have found their way into development, fabrication and irradiation of nuclear materials in controlling grain growth, recrystallization, sintering, creep, etc. This volume gives a comprehensive overview on the various diffusion processes involved in nuclear materials, whether they are operative in fissionable or fissile nuclear fuels or in the prospective fuels or clads under passive or reactor operating conditions. Unless this information is well understood, it is not possible to develop or fabricate these fuels to withstand the vagaries of temperature, its gradient or changes in stoichiometry, role of defects and impurities in controlling diffusion processes in nuclear proper evaluation. On radiation, under reactor operating conditions, nuclear fuels undergo fission gas release resulting in precipitation into bubbles, or their venting, or radiation induced re-solution, the effects of this irradiation are also examined in depth. The work will be of value to all those interested in getting clearer insight into different mechanisms of diffusion, latest techniques of studying diffusion phenomena, effect of some the constraints such as impurities (chemical doping or fission product build up), and temperature and stoichiometry changes. (author). reds., figs., tabs

  14. Storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel in dry for Mexican nuclear facilities; Instalaciones de almacenamiento de combustible nuclear gastado en seco para instalaciones nucleares mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron V, J. A.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Sanchez J, J., E-mail: juan.salmeron@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this article the relevant aspects of the spent fuel storage and the questions that should be taken in consideration for the possible future facilities of this type in the country are approached. A brief description is proposed about the characteristics of the storage systems in dry, the incorporate regulations to the present Nuclear Regulator Standard, the planning process of an installation, besides the approaches considered once resolved the use of these systems; as the modifications to the system, the authorization periods for the storage, the type of materials to store and the consequent environmental impact to their installation. At the present time the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) considers the possible generation of two authorization types for these facilities: Specific, directed to establish a new nuclear installation with the authorization of receiving, to transfer and to possess spent fuel and other materials for their storage; and General, focused to those holders that have an operation license of a reactor that allows them the storage of the nuclear fuel and other materials that they possess. Both authorizations should be valued according to the necessities that are presented. In general, this installation type represents a viable solution for the administration of the spent fuel and other materials that require of a temporary solution previous to its final disposal. Its use in the nuclear industry has been increased in the last years demonstrating to be appropriate and feasible without having a significant impact to the health, public safety and the environment. Mexico has two main nuclear facilities, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the facilities of the TRIGA Reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) that will require in a future to use this type of disposition installation of the spent fuel and generated wastes. (Author)

  15. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-01-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  16. Nuclear Material (Offences) Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this Act is to enable the United Kingdom to ratify the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material which opened for signature at Vienne and New York on 3 March 1980. The Act extends throughout the United Kingdom. (NEA) [fr

  17. Responsible stewardship of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to tap the massive energy potential of nuclear fission was first developed as a weapon to end a terrible world war. Nuclear fission is also a virtually inexhaustible energy resource, and is the only energy supply in certain areas in Russia, Kazakhstan and elsewhere. The potential link between civilian and military applications has been and continues to be a source of concern. With the end of the Cold War, this issue has taken a dramatic turn. The U.S. and Russia have agreed to reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles by as much as two-thirds. This will make some 100 tonnes of separated plutonium and 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium available, in a form that is obviously directly usable for weapons. The total world inventory of plutonium is now around 1000 tonnes and is increasing at 60-70 tonnes per year. There is even more highly enriched uranium. Fortunately the correct answer to what to do with excess weapons material is also the most attractive. It should be used and reused as fuel for fast reactors. Material in use (particularly nuclear material) is very easy to monitor and control, and is quite unattractive for diversion. Active management of fissile materials not only makes a major contribution to economic stability and well-being, but also simplifies accountability, inspection and other safeguards processes; provides a revenue stream to pay for the necessary safeguards; and, most importantly, limits the prospective world inventory of plutonium to only that which is used and useful

  18. Microencapsulation of salts for enhanced thermochemical storage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Jong, A.J. de; Eversdijk, J.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Oversloot, H.P.; Ingenhut, B.L.J.; Cremers, R.K.H.; Papen-Botterhuis, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical storage is a new and emerging long-term thermal storage for residential use (cooling, heating & domestic hot water generation), offering high thermal storage density without the need for thermal insulation during storage (Fig. 1). However, existing materials for thermochemical storage

  19. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Strategies and technologies for nuclear materials stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.; Hanson, E.M.

    1997-10-01

    A strategy for future nuclear materials management and utilization from proliferation and long-term waste perspectives is described. It is aimed at providing flexible and robust responses to foreseeable nuclear energy scenarios. The strategy also provides for a smooth transition, in terms of technology development and facility implementation, to possible future use of breeder reactor technology. The strategy incorporates features that include minimization of stocks of separated plutonium; creation of a network of secure interim, retrievable storage facilities; and development and implementation of a system of Integrated Actinide Conversion Systems (IACS) aimed at near and far-term management of plutonium and other actinides. Technologies applicable to such IACS concepts are discussed as well as a high-level approach for implementation.

  2. Strategies and technologies for nuclear materials stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.; Hanson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for future nuclear materials management and utilization from proliferation and long-term waste perspectives is described. It is aimed at providing flexible and robust responses to foreseeable nuclear energy scenarios. The strategy also provides for a smooth transition, in terms of technology development and facility implementation, to possible future use of breeder reactor technology. The strategy incorporates features that include minimization of stocks of separated plutonium; creation of a network of secure interim, retrievable storage facilities; and development and implementation of a system of Integrated Actinide Conversion Systems (IACS) aimed at near and far-term management of plutonium and other actinides. Technologies applicable to such IACS concepts are discussed as well as a high-level approach for implementation

  3. Nuclear materials facility safety initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Nelson, P.; Roundhill, M.; Jardine, L.J.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.; Khromov, V.V.; Kruchkov, E.; Bolyatko, V.; Kazanskij, Yu.; Vorobeva, I.; Lash, T.R.; Newton, D.; Harris, B.

    2000-01-01

    Safety in any facility in the nuclear fuel cycle is a fundamental goal. However, it is recognized that, for example, should an accident occur in either the U.S. or Russia, the results could seriously delay joint activities to store and disposition weapons fissile materials in both countries. To address this, plans are underway jointly to develop a nuclear materials facility safety initiative. The focus of the initiative would be to share expertise which would lead in improvements in safety and safe practices in the nuclear fuel cycle.The program has two components. The first is a lab-to-lab initiative. The second involves university-to-university collaboration.The lab-to-lab and university-to-university programs will contribute to increased safety in facilities dealing with nuclear materials and related processes. These programs will support important bilateral initiatives, develop the next generation of scientists and engineers which will deal with these challenges, and foster the development of a safety culture

  4. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

  5. The use of modern databases in managing nuclear material inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The need for a useful nuclear materials database to assist in the management of nuclear materials within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex is becoming significantly more important as the mission of the DOE Complex changes and both international safeguards and storage issues become drivers in determining how these materials are managed. A well designed nuclear material inventory database can provide the Nuclear Materials Manager with an essential cost effective tool for timely analysis and reporting of inventories. This paper discusses the use of databases as a management tool to meet increasing requirements for accurate and timely information on nuclear material inventories and related information. From the end user perspective, this paper discusses the rationale, philosophy, and technical requirements for an integrated database to meet the needs for a variety of users such as those working in the areas of Safeguards, Materials Control and Accountability (MC ampersand A), Nuclear Materials Management, Waste Management, materials processing, packaging and inspection, and interim/long term storage

  6. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  7. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs

  8. Developments in data storage materials perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Chong Tow

    2011-01-01

    "The book covers the recent developments in the field of materials for advancing recording technology by experts worldwide. Chapters that provide sufficient information on the fundamentals will be also included, so that the book can be followed by graduate students or a beginner in the field of magnetic recording. The book also would have a few chapters related to optical data storage. In addition to helping a graduate student to quickly grasp the subject, the book also will serve as a useful reference material for the advanced researcher. The field of materials science related to data storage applications (especially hard disk drives) is rapidly growing. Several innovations take place every year in order to keep the growth trend in the capacity of the hard disk drives. Moreover, magnetic recording is very complicated that it is quite difficult for new engineers and graduate students in the field of materials science or electrical engineering to grasp the subject with a good understanding. There are no compet...

  9. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  10. Spent fuel storage at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Field, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has developed a strategy for the storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel and is now in the process of licensing and manufacturing a Transportable Storage System (TSS). Staff has also engaged in impact limiter testing, non-fuel bearing component reinsertion, storage and disposal of GTCC waste, and site specific upgrades in support of spent fuel dry storage

  11. Computational Search for Improved Ammonia Storage Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Vegge, Tejs

    , bromide or iodide, and mixtures thereof. In total the search space consists of thousands of combinations, which makes a GA ideal, to reduce the number of necessary calculations. We are screening for a one step release from either a hexa or octa ammine, and we have found promising candidates, which......Metal halide ammines, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, can reversibly store ammonia, with high volumetric hydrogen storage capacities. The storage in the halide ammines is very safe, and the salts are therefore highly relevant as a carbon-free energy carrier in future transportation infrastructure....... In this project we are searching for improved mixed materials with optimal desorption temperatures and kinetics, optimally releasing all ammonia in one step. We apply Density Functional Theory, DFT, calculations on mixed compounds selected by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), relying on biological principles of natural...

  12. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  13. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC and A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships

  14. Special nuclear material simulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  15. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The second panel on the Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials was organized for two purposes: first, to advise the Seibersdorf Laboratory of the Agency on its future programme, and second, to review the results of the Second International Comparison of routine analysis of trace impurities in uranium and also the action taken as a result of the recommendations of the first panel in 1962. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Reducing nuclear danger through intergovernmental technical exchanges on nuclear materials safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Peddicord, K.L.; Witmer, F.E.; Krumpe, P.F.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The United States and Russia are dismantling nuclear weapons and generating hundreds of tons of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium fissile nuclear materials that require disposition. The U.S. Department of Energy and Russian Minatom organizations.are planning and implementing safe, secure storage and disposition operations for these materials in numerous facilities. This provides a new opportunity for technical exchanges between Russian and Western scientists that can establish an improved and sustained common safety culture for handling these materials. An initiative that develops and uses personal relationships and joint projects among Russian and Western participants involved in fissile nuclear materials safety management contributes to improving nuclear materials nonproliferation and to making a safer world. Technical exchanges and workshops are being used to systematically identify opportunities in the nuclear fissile materials facilities to improve and ensure the safety of workers, the public, and the environment

  17. Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES systems provide several alternatives for efficient energy use and conservation. Phase change materials (PCMs for TES are materials supplying thermal regulation at particular phase change temperatures by absorbing and emitting the heat of the medium. TES in general and PCMs in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 30 years, but although the information is quantitatively enormous, it is also spread widely in the literature, and difficult to find. PCMs absorb energy during the heating process as phase change takes place and release energy to the environment in the phase change range during a reverse cooling process. PCMs possesses the ability of latent thermal energy change their state with a certain temperature. PCMs for TES are generally solid-liquid phase change materials and therefore they need encapsulation. TES systems using PCMs as a storage medium offers advantages such as high TES capacity, small unit size and isothermal behaviour during charging and discharging when compared to the sensible TES.

  18. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  19. Nuclear reactors: physics and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, G

    2005-07-01

    In the form of a tutorial addressed to non-specialists, the article provides an introduction to nuclear reactor technology and more specifically to Light Water Reactors (LWR); it also shows where materials and chemistry problems are encountered in reactor technology. The basics of reactor physics are reviewed, as well as the various strategies in reactor design and the corresponding choices of materials (fuel, coolant, structural materials, etc.). A brief description of the various types of commercial power reactors follows. The design of LWRs is discussed in greater detail; the properties of light water as coolant and moderator are put in perspective. The physicochemical and metallurgical properties of the materials impose thermal limits that determine the performance and the maximum power a reactor can deliver. (author)

  20. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J.P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness

  1. Control of nuclear material specified equipment and specified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The goal and application field of NE 2.02 regulatory guide of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), are described. This regulatory guide is about nuclear material management, specified equipment and specified material. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Ultra-High Density Spectral Storage Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasan, Zameer U

    2002-01-01

    .... Being atomic scale storage, spectral storage has the potential of providing orders of magnitude denser memories than present day memories that depend on the hulk properties of the storage medium...

  3. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  4. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  5. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is revised on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance for the Law, to enforce such provisions. This is the complete revision of the regulation of the same name in 1957. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaged in works, radioactive wastes, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, fluctuation of stocks, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. For the applications for the permission of the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials, the location of an enterprise, the construction of buildings and the construction of and the equipments for facilities of chemical processing, forming, coating, assembling, storage of nuclear fuel materials, disposal of radioactive wastes and radiation control must be written. Records shall be made and maintained for the periods specified on the inspection of processing facilities, nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, operation, maintainance, accidents of processing facilities and weather. Limit to entrance into the control area, measures for exposure radiation dose, patrol and inspection, operation of processing facilities, transport of materials, disposal of radioactive wastes, safety regulations are provided for. Reports to be filed by the persons engaging in the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  6. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulations are established on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the usage of nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law, to enforce such provisions. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaging in works, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. In the applications for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials, the expected period and quantity of usage of each kind of such materials and the other party and the method of selling, lending and returning spent fuel or the process of disposal of such fuel must be written. Explanations concerning the technical ability required for the usage of nuclear fuel materials shall be attached to the applications. Applications shall be filed for the inspection of facilities for use, in which the name and the address of the applicant, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment, the range of the facilities for use, the maximum quantity of nuclear fuel materials to be used or stocked, and the date, the place and the kind of the expected inspection are written. Prescriptions cover the records to be held, safety regulations, the technical standards for usage, the disposal, transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials and the reports to be filed. (Okada, K.)

  7. Research of radioactive waste storage cask/canister materials, spent nuclear fuels and various radioactive waste forms and development of their assessment methods. Final report for Stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, D.; Balek, V.; Červinka, R.; Večerník, P.; Člupek, M.; Kouřil, M.; Novák, P.; Stoulil, J.; Silber, R.

    2013-08-01

    The main topics treated are: Research and development of methodologies for canister/cask material degradation assessment; Laboratory research of selected materials of canister/cask with radioactive waste; and Research and assessment of canister/cask materials in natural granite rocks. Two additional documents are appended: Corrosion rate determination for samples in compacted bentonite in anaerobic conditions (methodology), and Roll test for corrosion test in an occluded solution at the interface between a radioactive waste disposal canister and the bentonite cover. (P.A.)

  8. Protection and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.; Winter, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the French regulation on nuclear materials possession, the first liability is the one of operators who have to know at any time the quantity, quality and localization of any nuclear material in their possession. This requires an organization of the follow up and of the inventory of these materials together with an efficient protection against theft or sabotage. The French organization foresees a control of the implementation of this regulation at nuclear facilities and during the transport of nuclear materials by the minister of industry with the sustain of the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN). This article presents this organization: 1 - protection against malevolence; 2 - national protection and control of nuclear materials: goals, administrative organization, legal and regulatory content (authorization, control, sanctions), nuclear materials protection inside facilities (physical protection, follow up and inventory, security studies), protection of nuclear material transports (physical protection, follow up), control of nuclear materials (inspection at facilities, control of nuclear material measurements, inspection of nuclear materials during transport); 3 - international commitments of France: non-proliferation treaty, EURATOM regulation, international convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials, enforcement in France. (J.S.)

  9. Mechanical degradation temperature of waste storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, M.C.; Meyer, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Heat loading analysis of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) waste storage configurations show the containers may exceed 90 degrees C without any radioactive decay heat contribution. Contamination containment is primarily controlled in TRU waste packaging by using multiple bag layers of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Since literature values indicate that these thermoplastic materials can begin mechanical degradation at 66 degrees C, there was concern that the containment layers could be breached by heating. To better define the mechanical degradation temperature limits for the materials, a series of heating tests were conducted over a fifteen and thirty minute time interval. Samples of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bag, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) container, PVC bag and sealing tape were heated in a convection oven to temperatures ranging from 90 to 185 degrees C. The following temperature limits are recommended for each of the tested materials: (1) low-density polyethylene -- 110 degrees C; (2) polyvinyl chloride -- 130 degrees C; (3) high-density polyethylene -- 140 degrees C; (4) sealing tape -- 140 degrees C. Testing with LDPE and PVC at temperatures ranging from 110 to 130 degrees C for 60 and 120 minutes also showed no observable differences between the samples exposed at 15 and 30 minute intervals. Although these observed temperature limits differ from the literature values, the trend of HDPE having a higher temperature than LDPE is consistent with the reference literature. Experimental observations indicate that the HDPE softens at elevated temperatures, but will retain its shape upon cooling. In SWDF storage practices, this might indicate some distortion of the waste container, but catastrophic failure of the liner due to elevated temperatures (<185 degrees C) is not anticipated

  10. Chapter No.5. Nuclear materials and physical protection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) is based on requirements resulting from the Safeguards Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the IAEA. UJD performs this activity according to the 'Atomic Act' and relevant decree. The purpose of the SSAC is also to prevent unauthorised use of nuclear materials, to detect loses of nuclear materials and provide information that could lead to the recovery of missing material. The main part of nuclear materials under jurisdiction of the Slovak Republic is located at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and at interim storage in Jaslovske Bohunice. Even though that there are located more then 99% of nuclear materials in these nuclear facilities, there are not any significant problems with their accountancy and control due to very simply identification of accountancy units - fuel assemblies, and due to stability of legal subjects responsible for operation and for keeping of information continuity, which is necessary for fulfilling requirements of the Agreement. The nuclear material located outside nuclear facilities is a special category. There are 81 such subjects of different types and orientations on the territory of the Slovak Republic. These subjects use mainly depleted uranium as a shielding and small quantity of natural uranium, low enrichment uranium and thorium for experimental purposes and education. Frequent changes of these subjects, their transformations into the other subjects, extinction and very high fluctuation of employees causes loss of information about nuclear materials and creates problems with fulfilling requirements resulting from the Agreement. In 2001, the UJD carried out 51 inspections of nuclear materials, of which 31 inspections were performed at nuclear installations in co-operation with the IAEA inspectors. No discrepancies concerning the management of nuclear materials were found out during inspections and safeguards goals in year 2001 were

  11. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  12. Perspective on transporting nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the material flow to be expected up to the year 2000 to and from the various steps in the nuclear cycle. These include the reactors, reprocessing plants, enrichment plants, U mills, U conversion plants, and fuel fabrication plants. A somewhat more-detailed discussion is given of the safety engineering that goes into the design of containers and packages and the selection of the mode of transportation. The relationship of shipping to siting and transportation accidents is considered briefly

  13. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.M.; Bennett, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems

  14. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  15. Identifying suitable piercement salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.; e.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes

  16. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  17. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, L.S.; Rzyski, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  18. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  19. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  20. Dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuels and vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the work of GEC Energy Systems Ltd. over the years in the dry storage of irradiated fuel. The dry-storage module (designated as Cell 4) for irradiated magnox fuel recently constructed at Wylfa nuclear power station is described. Development work on the long-term dry storage of irradiated oxide fuels is reported. Four different methods of storage are compared. These are the pond, vault, cask and caisson stores. It is concluded that there are important advantages with the passive air-cooled ESL dry stove. (U.K.)

  1. Preparation and certification of reference materials for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    CETAMA (Commission for the Establishment of Analytical Methods) of the Cea group is producing and certifying uranium and plutonium reference materials to meet the requirements of analytical laboratories in the nuclear industry. Reference materials are required at all stages in the fuel cycle: from extraction of uranium, purification, conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication until reprocessing of spent fuel, management and storage of waste. 3 tabs

  2. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  3. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sump, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties

  4. Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent nuclear fuel. It covers all types of storage facilities and all types of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and research reactors. It takes into consideration the longer storage periods that have become necessary owing to delays in the development of disposal facilities and the decrease in reprocessing activities. It also considers developments associated with nuclear fuel, such as higher enrichment, mixed oxide fuels and higher burnup. The Safety Guide is not intended to cover the storage of spent fuel if this is part of the operation of a nuclear power plant or spent fuel reprocessing facility. Guidance is provided on all stages for spent fuel storage facilities, from planning through siting and design to operation and decommissioning, and in particular retrieval of spent fuel. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. Management system; 5. Safety case and safety assessment; 6. General safety considerations for storage of spent fuel. Appendix I: Specific safety considerations for wet or dry storage of spent fuel; Appendix II: Conditions for specific types of fuel and additional considerations; Annex: I: Short term and long term storage; Annex II: Operational and safety considerations for wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Annex III: Examples of sections of operating procedures for a spent fuel storage facility; Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex VI: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex VII: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  5. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y 2 O 3 ) with 6 LiF (95% 6 Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  6. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  7. Proliferation resistance assessment of various methods of spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollar, Lenka

    Many countries are planning to build or already are building new nuclear power plants to match their growing energy needs. Since all nuclear power plants handle nuclear materials that could potentially be converted and used for nuclear weapons, they each present a nuclear proliferation risk. Spent nuclear fuel presents the largest build-up of nuclear material at a power plant. This is a proliferation risk because spent fuel contains plutonium that can be chemically separated and used for a nuclear weapon. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards spent fuel in all non-nuclear weapons states that are party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Various safeguards methods are in use at nuclear power plants and research is underway to develop safeguards methods for spent fuel in centralized storage or underground storage and disposal. Each method of spent fuel storage presents different proliferation risks due to the nature of the storage method and the safeguards techniques that are utilized. Previous proliferation resistance and proliferation risk assessments have mainly compared nuclear material through the whole fuel cycle and not specifically focused on spent fuel storage. This project evaluates the proliferation resistance of the three main types of spent fuel storage: spent fuel pool, dry cask storage, and geological repository. The proliferation resistance assessment methodology that is used in this project is adopted from previous work and altered to be applicable to spent fuel storage. The assessment methodology utilizes various intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant attributes for each spent fuel storage type. These attributes are used to calculate a total proliferation resistant (PR) value. The maximum PR value is 1.00 and a greater number means that the facility is more proliferation resistant. Current data for spent fuel storage in the United States and around the world was collected. The PR values obtained from this data are 0.49 for

  8. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, the regulations have all been revised on the fabrication business of nuclear fuel materials. The revised regulations are given : application for permission of the fabrication business, application for permission of the alteration, application for approval of the design and the construction methods, application for approval of the alteration, application for the facilities inspection, facilities inspection, recordings, entry limitations etc. for controlled areas, measures concerning exposure radiation doses etc., operation of the fabrication facilities, transport within the site of the business, storage, disposal within the site of the business, security regulations, designation etc. of the licensed engineer of nuclear fuels, collection of reports, etc. (Mori, K.)

  9. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  10. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  11. Glass ceramic approaches for energy storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Calvin Goodwin, III

    Glass ceramics are an advanced material class that exhibit excellent potential for energy storage applications. Unique properties can be obtained through the controlled crystallization that is used to form these glassy and crystalline composite materials from an amorphous bulk. By exploiting this synthesis route, materials can be optimized to offer the best balance between the crystalline ceramic phase, and the amorphous glass phase. The topic of this dissertation focuses on the structure-property relationships for glass ceramic systems for energy storage applications. Specifically, a lithium aluminum titanium phosphate system, and a barium sodium niobate system were explored for battery and capacitor applications, respectively. Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP) is a lithium ion conductor which has shown potential for use in current and future battery technology. In its glass ceramic form the material has a conductivity of approximately 10-4 S/cm, which makes it an excellent conductor compared to other solid state lithium ion conductors. This conductivity is still lower than ionic liquids and polymers with currently used as electrolytes with conductivity higher than 10-3 S/cm. In exploring synthesis routes, it was found that microwave hybrid heating offered improve conductivity, as opposed to conventional crystallization methods. The role of microstructure and the crystallization kinetics on the overall have been investigated. It was shown that commonly used Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation could not accurately describe the kinetics of LATP's nucleation and growth. An empirical Sestak-Berggren model was used in combination with differential scanning calorimetry data to model the kinetics of LATP. Glass ceramic systems based on a NaBa2Nb5O 15 (BNN) crystalline have shown potential as dielectrics in high energy density capacitors. Here microwave hybrid heating and conventional heating were used to crystallize BNN glass ceramics in the range of 750°C - 1000°C, and the results

  12. Standard test for nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.D.; Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The function of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is to provide the standardized materials data base and supporting documentation to help ensure safe disposal of nuclear waste. The methods and data are being published in a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook DOE/TIC 11400. (DG)

  13. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  14. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  15. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  16. Thermal energy storage based on cementitious materials: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadim Ndiaye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy storage is now essential to enhance the energy performance of buildings and to reduce their environmental impact. Many heat storage materials can be used in the building sector in order to avoid the phase shift between solar radiation and thermal energy demand. However, the use of storage material in the building sector is hampered by problems of investment cost, space requirements, mechanical performance, material stability, and high storage temperature. Cementitious material is increasingly being used as a heat storage material thanks to its low price, mechanical performance and low storage temperature (generally lower than 100 °C. In addition, cementitious materials for heat storage have the prominent advantage of being easy to incorporate into the building landscape as self-supporting structures or even supporting structures (walls, floor, etc.. Concrete solutions for thermal energy storage are usually based on sensible heat transfer and thermal inertia. Phase Change Materials (PCM incorporated in concrete wall have been widely investigated in the aim of improving building energy performance. Cementitious material with high ettringite content stores heat by a combination of physical (adsorption and chemical (chemical reaction processes usable in both the short (daily, weekly and long (seasonal term. Ettringite materials have the advantage of high energy storage density at low temperature (around 60 °C. The encouraging experimental results in the literature on heat storage using cementitious materials suggest that they could be attractive in a number of applications. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of the available thermal energy storage systems using cementitious materials for use in various applications.

  17. Protection arrangements of nuclear materials and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The physical protection measures aim at prrotecting the nuclear materials in use, during transport or when stored against diversion or theft. These measures should include urgent and comprehensive steps to find the place in which the lost or stolen nuclear materials are located and then retrieving them. The protection measures aim also at protecting the nuclear facilities against sabotage and mitigating the radiation effects resulting from or reducing thes effects as much as possible. The protection measures play an important role in supporting the objectives of nuclear non-proliferation and protection of the environment. The state shall have the responsibility of establishing and enforcing a comprehensive system for the protectionb of the environment. The state shall have the reponsibility of establishing and enforcing a comprehensive system for the protection of nuclear materials andnuclear facilities within its territory. The present study invloves the protection arrangements of nuclear materials and facilities, in two chapters. the first deals with the protection measures of nuclear materials, explaining the necessary measures to be undertaken inside the state as well as the international coolperation for protecting the nuclear materials. Chapter two involves a study on the protection of the nuclear facilities, explaning the systes for protecting the nuclear facilities inside the state and the international cooperation for protecting the nuclear facilities

  18. Recent Advances on Porous Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-04-17

    The climate change and energy crisis promote the rapid development of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Of many intriguing physicochemical properties such as excellent chemical stability, high electronic conductivity and large specific surface area, porous carbon materials have always been considering as a promising candidate for electrochemical energy storage. Up to date, a wide variety of porous carbon materials upon molecular design, pore control and compositional tailoring have been proposed for energy-storage applications. This focus review summaries recent advances in the synthesis of various porous carbon materials from the view of energy storage, especially in the past three years. Their applications in representative electrochemical energy storage devices like lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have been discussed in this review, looking forward to offering some inspirations and guidelines for the exploitation of advanced carbon-based energy-storage materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  20. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  1. Concrete encapsulation for spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1981-01-01

    Concrete systems, mixtures and methods for encapsulating and storing spent nuclear fuel. Fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies is completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete having incorporated therein metallic fibers to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. The metallic fibers and the polymers can be distributed in a single concrete layer, or separate contiguous layers can be utilized for the conductivity and impermeability characteristics

  2. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  3. Spent nuclear fuel storage pool thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Storage methods and requirements for spent nuclear fuel at U.S. commercial light water reactors are reviewed in Section 1. Methods of increasing current at-reactor storage capabilities are also outlined. In Section 2 the development of analytical methods for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel pools is chronicled, leading up to a discussion of the GFLOW code which is described in Section 3. In Section 4 the verification of GFLOW by comparisons of the code's predictions to experimental data taken inside the fuel storage pool at the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant is presented. The predictions of GFLOW using 72, 224, and 1584 node models of the storage pool are compared to each other and to the experimental data. An example of thermal licensing analysis for Maine Yankee using the GFLOW code is given in Section 5. The GFLOW licensing analysis is compared to previous licensing analysis performed by Yankee Atomic using the RELAP-4 computer code

  4. Base isolation for nuclear power and nuclear material facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidinger, J.M.; Kircher, C.A.; Vaidya, N.; Constantinou, M.; Kelly, J.M.; Seidensticker, R.; Tajirian, F.F.; Ovadia, D.

    1989-01-01

    This report serves to document the status of the practice for the use of base isolation systems in the design and construction of nuclear power and nuclear material facilities. The report first describes past and current (1989) applications of base isolation in nuclear facilities. The report then provides a brief discussion of non-nuclear applications. Finally, the report summarizes the status of known base-isolation codes and standards

  5. Thermal Energy Storage in Phase Change Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Graphs of the exnerimental results follow: tney are groupea in the tree categories: tube cross flow, ricked bed, and tube parallel flow. A. Tube Cross... Riordan , Michael, "Thermal Storage: A Rtsic Guile to the Ptate of the Art", Solar Age, Aril, 1978, P. 10. 5. Telkes, Maria, "Thermal Lner y Storage in

  6. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ''Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building'', dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995

  7. Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

  8. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ``Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building``, dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995.

  9. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  10. Development of nuclear material accountancy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Naonori; Kashima, Sadamitsu; Akiba, Mitsunori

    1992-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to various inquiries can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. (author)

  11. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  12. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  13. Nuclear materials management and safeguards system (NMMSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, P.W.; Jacobsen, S.E.; Matthews, W.B. III; Pedigo, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) which is sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The system serves national security and program management interests, and international interests in the programs for the peaceful application of nuclear energy and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Within the scope of the NMMSS are found all nuclear materials applied and controlled under United States law and related international agreements, including U.S. nuclear materials production programs and U.S. private nuclear industrial activities. In addition, its national and international scope enables it to provide services to other organizations such as the Arms Control and Disarmamanent Agency, the Department of State, and the U.S. Congress

  14. Survey of experience with dry storage of spent nuclear fuel and update of wet storage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Spent fuel storage is an important part of spent fuel management. At present about 45,000 t of spent water reactor fuel have been discharged worldwide. Only a small fraction of this fuel (approximately 7%) has been reprocessed. The amount of spent fuel arisings will increase significantly in the next 15 years. Estimates indicate that up to the year 2000 about 200,000 t HM of spent fuel could be accumulated. In view of the large quantities of spent fuel discharged from nuclear power plants and future expected discharges, many countries are involved in the construction of facilities for the storage of spent fuel and in the development of effective methods for spent fuel surveillance and monitoring to ensure that reliable and safe operation of storage facilities is achievable until the time when the final disposal of spent fuel or high level wastes is feasible. The first demonstrations of final disposal are not expected before the years 2000-2020. This is why the long term storage of spent fuel and HLW is a vital problem for all countries with nuclear power programmes. The present survey contains data on dry storage and recent information on wet storage, transportation, rod consolidation, etc. The main aim is to provide spent fuel management policy making organizations, designers, scientists and spent fuel storage facility operators with the latest information on spent fuel storage technology under dry and wet conditions and on innovations in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments.

  16. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments

  17. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  18. Refinishing contamination floors in Spent Nuclear Fuels storage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.F.; Moore, F.W.

    1997-01-01

    The floors of the K Basins at the Hanford Site are refinished to make decontamination easier if spills occur as the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being unloaded from the basins for shipment to dry storage. Without removing the contaminated existing coating, the basin floors are to be coated with an epoxy coating material selected on the basis of the results of field tests of several paint products. The floor refinishing activities must be reviewed by a management review board to ensure that work can be performed in a controlled manner. Major documents prepared for management board review include a report on maintaining radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, a waste management plan, and reports on hazard classification and unreviewed safety questions. To protect personnel working in the radiation zone, Operational Health Physics prescribed the required minimum protective methods and devices in the radiological work permit. Also, industrial hygiene safety must be analyzed to establish respirator requirements for persons working in the basins. The procedure and requirements for the refinishing work are detailed in a work package approved by all safety engineers. After the refinishing work is completed, waste materials generated from the refinishing work must be disposed of according to the waste management plan

  19. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  20. Concepts of IAEA nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes nuclear material accounting from the standpoint of IAEA Safeguards and how this accounting is applied by the Agency. The basic concepts of nuclear material accounting are defined and the way these apply to States with INFCIRC/153-type safeguards agreements is presented. (author)

  1. A future vision of nuclear material information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, N.; Wimple, C.

    1999-01-01

    To address the current and future needs for nuclear materials management and safeguards information, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory envisions an integrated nuclear information system that will support several functions. The vision is to link distributed information systems via a common communications infrastructure designed to address the information interdependencies between two major elements: Domestic, with information about specific nuclear materials and their properties, and International, with information pertaining to foreign nuclear materials, facility design and operations. The communication infrastructure will enable data consistency, validation and reconciliation, as well as provide a common access point and user interface for a broad range of nuclear materials information. Information may be transmitted to, from, and within the system by a variety of linkage mechanisms, including the Internet. Strict access control will be employed as well as data encryption and user authentication to provide the necessary information assurance. The system can provide a mechanism not only for data storage and retrieval, but will eventually provide the analytical tools necessary to support the U.S. government's nuclear materials management needs and non-proliferation policy goals

  2. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  3. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  4. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  5. Nuclear materials issues and concerns. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2001-01-01

    This volume of the book covers a wide range of vital issues and concerns related to nuclear materials such as nuclear research and development, disarmament and arms control, illegal nuclear traffic and its associated aspects, disposal of radioactive waste/fissile materials, decommissioning and management of surplus nuclear equipment and materials, etc. A special attention to Indian and Pakistan nuclear tests has also been given. The articles included in this book are selected from the (1) International Conference on Military Conversion and Science Utilisation/Disposal of the Excess Fissile Weapons Materials: Scientific, Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects, 18-20 March 1996; (2) International Forum on Illegal Nuclear Traffic: Risks, Safeguards and Countermeasures, 12-13 June 1997; (3) International Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats, 27-28 June 1997; and (4) Forum of the UNESCO International School of Science for Peace on Nuclear Disarmament, Safe Disposal of Nuclear Material for new weapons Developments ? Where are the National Laboratories Going ?, 2-4 July 1998 organised by the UNESCO Venice Office and others. The articles have been written by the experts in nuclear issues and concerns

  6. Nuclear materials issues and concerns. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2001-01-01

    This second volume of the book also covers the wide range of vital issues and concerns related to nuclear materials such as nuclear research and development, disarmament and arms control, illegal nuclear traffic and its associated aspects, disposal of radio-active waste/fissile materials, decommissioning and management of surplus nuclear equipment and materials, etc. A special attention to Indian and Pakistan nuclear tests has also been given. The articles included in this book are selected from the (1) International Conference on Military Conversion and Science Utilisation/Disposal of the Excess Fissile Weapons Materials: Scientific, Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects, 18-20 March 1996; (2) International Forum on Illegal Nuclear Traffic: Risks, Safeguards and Countermeasures, 12-13 June 1997; (3) International Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats, 27-28 June 1997; and (4) Forum of the UNESCO International School of Science for Peace on Nuclear Disarmament, Safe Disposal of Nuclear Material for new weapons Developments ? Where are the National Laboratories Going ?, 2-4 July 1998 organised by the UNESCO Venice Office and others. The articles have been written by the experts in nuclear issues and concerns

  7. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  8. A new material for hydrogen storage; ScAl0.8Mg0.2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sahlberg, M.; Beran, Přemysl; Nielsen, T.K.; Cerenius, Y.; Kadas, K.; Punkkinen, M.P.J.; Vitos, L.; Eriksson, O.; Jensen, T.R.; Andersson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 11 (2009), s. 3113-3117 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : scandium intermetallics * hydrides * hydrogen storage materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.340, year: 2009

  9. Subsurface storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.M.; Szulinski, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Company has developed the concept of storing spent fuel in dry caissons. Cooling is passive; safety and safeguard features appear promising. The capacity of a caisson to dissipate heat depends on site-specific soil characteristics and on the diameter of the caisson. It is estimated that approx. 2 kW can be dissipated in the length of one fuel element. Fuel elements can be stacked with little effect on temperature. A spacing of approx. 7.5 m (25 ft) between caissons appears rasonable. Business planning indicates a cost of approx. 0.2 mill/kWh for a 15-yr storage period. 12 figures, 4 tables

  10. The atmospheric corrosion: an important technical-economic and nuclear safety factor during storage in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Diaz, J.; Gomez, J.; Galeano, N.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the results of the research performed to determine the atmospheric corrosion in the region of Juragua nuclear power plant and to offer some practical recommendations to increase the efficiency during the storage of materials, considering technical-economic and nuclear safety aspects

  11. Comparative study on storage and disposal of liquid waste in nuclear medicine diagnostic; Estudio comparativo sobre almacenamiento y eliminacion de residuos liquidos para diagnostico en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Sanchez Garcia, M.; Santamarina Vazquez, F.; Soto Bua, M.; Montoya Pastor, A.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Suueiro, J.; Otero Martinez, C.; Lobato Busto, R.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper presents a comparative study on the total activity of material discharge to public sewers and the activity concentration in the final point of discharge, for a typical installation of Nuclear Medicine, in the case of having no deposit or storage of liquid radioactive waste from diagnostic techniques, based on actual data from the Nuclear Medicine Department of our hospital.

  12. Physical protection of nuclear materials in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: East Asia region could be divided into two sub-regions taking into account the situations of nuclear energy development. The states and region in North-East Asia have nuclear power plants, and nuclear fuel cycles are either fully developed or partly developed. The states in South-East Asia have neither any nuclear power station nor fuel cycle facility. Nuclear facilities in this sub-region limit the facilities for research or isotope production purposes. Such differences affect the necessity and implementation of physical protection measures to nuclear materials and facilities. Intensity of implementation of physical protection system against unauthorized removal of nuclear materials should be vigorous where highly sensitive materials are stored or used. Japan has the highest quantity of such materials in its territory. China, Korea and Taiwan, China have nuclear power stations, therefore they have plutonium in their territory, though plutonium in those states is in the spent nuclear fuel, i.e. indirect use material. All three states are parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), and observe the IAEA guidelines on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (INFCIRC/225). Though South-East Asian states do not have any nuclear power stations, most states ratified the CPPNM. Seldom states require protective measures necessary to protect category I material defined in the IAEA guidelines. More comprehensive protective measures against sabotage are specified for nuclear power plants than the other types of nuclear facilities in the recent IAEA guidelines (INFCIRC/225/Rev.4). North-East Asian states, therefore, require more specified protective measures against sabotage to the nuclear facilities, although one should not neglect risks associated with sabotage to the research reactors and other research institutes. Taking into account the recent tendency of international nuclear community to strengthen physical protection

  13. Assembly for transport and storage of radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns the self-control of coolant deficiencies on the transport of spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors. It guarantees that drying out of the fuel elements is prevented in case of a change of volume of the fluid contained in storage tanks and accumulators and serving as coolant and shielding medium. (TK) [de

  14. The physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    A Technical Committee on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material met in April-May 1989 to advise on the need to update the recommendations contained in document INFCIRC/225/Rev.1 and on any changes considered to be necessary. The Technical Committee indicated a number of such changes, reflecting mainly: the international consensus established in respect of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; the experience gained since 1977; and a wish to give equal treatment to protection against the theft of nuclear material and protection against the sabotage of nuclear facilities. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. 1 tab

  15. Enhanced safety in the storage of fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.E.; Alvares, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ''plastic-like'' supporting material impregnated with a neutron-absorbing agent that is suitable for ''lining'' the inner surfaces of fissile-material storage containers was fabricated. The material consists, by weight, of 50% food-grade borax, 25% coal tar, and 25% epoxy resin. It costs much less than commercially available materials, can absorb enough neutrons to isolate units of fissile material, and possesses such structural qualities as flexibility and machinability. Properties and performance of the material are discussed

  16. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  17. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage

    OpenAIRE

    David Perraudin; Selmar Binder; Ehsan Rezai; Alberto Ortona; Sophia Haussener

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. Th...

  18. Risk analysis for nuclear spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina, Dumitru; Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Glodeanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the first capacity of the Intermediate Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DICA) was commissioned at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (Cernavoda NPP). The facility is a dry system type facility; its designed lifetime is for a minimum of 50 years and capacity for two nuclear power units' lifetime. The storage structures are monolith reinforced concrete modules offering a very good isolation of the spent fuel from the environment. The spent fuel is confined by a system of double barriers that prevents radioactive emissions and ensures protection of the population and environment. The security functions of the facility are operational through passive means. In Romania, the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, is the authority that licenses the nuclear activities. CNCAN issued the commissioning and operating licenses for DICA following a complex process. The Final Nuclear Safety Report represents basic documentation for licensing and one of its main chapters presents the risk analysis results. The risk analysis performed for DICA covers normal operational regimes and accident cases considered as design basis events (DBE). The results of risk analysis for Cernavoda NNP DICA demonstrates that risks for the population and environment are much lower than the authorization limits established by CNCAN and in agreement with values for proven safe spent fuel storage technologies from European Union and worldwide. (authors)

  19. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  20. Computational Search for Improved Ammonia Storage Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Vegge, Tejs

    selection. The GA is evolving from an initial (random) population and selecting those with highest fitness, a function based on e.g. stability, release temperature, storage capacity and the price of the elements. The search space includes all alkaline earth, 3d and 4d metals in combination with chloride...

  1. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Comprehensive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This report serves as a comprehensive overview of the Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel work performed for the Material Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies campaign under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes a signature based on the source and fissile material distribution found within a population of used fuel assemblies combined with the neutron absorbers found within cask design that is unique to a specific cask with its specific arrangement of fuel. The paper describes all the steps used in producing and analyzing this signature from the beginning to the project end.

  2. ELMIA Energy and Future 88. Conference E5. Nuclear power phaseout and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conference comprised lectures on the following subjects: - How to maintain availability, quality and safety during the phaseout period to the year 2010. - Demolition of nuclear power plants. - Storage of nuclear waste. - Estimate of risks in a long perspective. - Financing of the phaseout. Separate abstracts were prepared for four sections of this report. (O.S.)

  3. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country's nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  4. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  5. Nuclear material safeguards and security system analysis based on measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ign Djoko Irianto

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear material safeguards and security are the important aspect in the nuclear facility management due to the nuclear material could be terrorisms object. The two aspect of nuclear material security are nuclear material safeguards system and physical protection system. The most important in safeguards system is how to report the existence of nuclear material and the quantity of nuclear material. To perform the safeguards system the data of nuclear material are needed. The data of quality and quantity of nuclear material could be found by destructive analysis (DA) technique and non destructive analysis (NDA) technique. The DA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material that forming in powder, the NDA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material in spent fuel. In BATAN, the technique of measurement of nuclear material weight is more dominant than the other technique to be used in nuclear material safeguards and security systems. (author)

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The shut down of United States (U.S.) nuclear-weapons production activities in the early 1990s left large quantities of nuclear materials throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex in forms not intended for long-term storage. In May 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which called for the stabilization and disposition of 'thousands of containers of plutonium-bearing liquids and solids' in the DOE complex, including LANL in the nuclear-weapons-manufacturing pipeline when manufacturing ended. This resulted in the development of the 3013 standard with container requirements for long term storage (up to 50 years). A follow on was the Criteria For Interim Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials, Charles B. Curtis, in 1996 to address storage other than the 3013 standard for shorter time frames. In January 2000, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2000-1, which stated the need for LANL to repackage 'about one ton of plutonium metal and oxide,' declared excess to Defense Program (DP) needs. The DNFSB recommended that LANL 'stabilize and seal within welded containers with an inert atmosphere the plutonium oxides ... which are not yet in states conforming to the long-term storage envisaged by DOE-STD-3013,' and that they '... enclose existing and newly-generated legacy plutonium metal in sealed containers with an inert atmosphere,' and 'remediate and/or safely store the various residues.' Recommendation 2000-1, while adding to the number of items needing remediation, also reiterated the need to address remaining items from 1994-1 in a timely fashion. Since timetables slipped, the DNFSB recommended that the Complex 'prioritize and schedule tasks according to the consideration of risks.' In March 2005, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2005-1. This recommendation addresses the need for a consistent set of criteria across the DOE complex for the interim storage of

  7. Advanced insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9.01, "Long Term Cryogenic Propellant...

  8. Recent advances in energy storage materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles nine comprehensive contributions from the principle of Li-ion batteries, cathode and anode electrode materials to future energy storage systems such as solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries and high capacity redox flow battery.

  9. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc responds to the NASA solicitation Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9-01, "Long Term Cryogenic...

  10. New glass material oxidation and dissolution system facility: Direct conversion of surplus fissile materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other material to high-level-waste glass. Storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials programmatic environmental impact statement data report: Predecisional draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Elam, K.R.; Reich, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, countries have excess plutonium and other materials from the reductions in inventories of nuclear weapons. It has been recommended that these surplus fissile materials (SFMs) be processed so that they are no more accessible than plutonium in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This SNF standard, if adopted worldwide, would prevent rapid recovery of SFMs for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. This report provides for the PEIS the necessary input data on a new method for the disposition of SFMs: the simultaneous conversion of SFMs, SNF, and other highly radioactive materials into high-level-waste (HLW) glass. The SFMs include plutonium, neptunium, americium, and 233 U. The primary SFM is plutonium. The preferred SNF is degraded SNF, which may require processing before it can be accepted by a geological repository for disposal. The primary form of this SNF is Hanford-N SNF with preirradiation uranium enrichments between 0.95 and 1.08%. The final product is a plutonium, low-enriched-uranium, HLW, borosilicate glass for disposition in a geological repository. The proposed conversion process is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), which is a new process. The initial analysis of the GMODS process indicates that a MODS facility for this application would be similar in size and environmental impact to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site. Because of this, the detailed information available on DWPF was used as the basis for much of the GMODS input into the SFMs PEIS

  11. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design...

  12. National practices in physical protection of nuclear materials. Regulatory basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltsov, V.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Federal law 'On The Use Of Atomic Energy' containing the section on physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities was issued in 1995 in Russian Federation. This document became the first federal level document regulating the general requirements to physical protection (PP). The federal PP rules developed on the base of this law by Minatom of Russia and other federal bodies of the Russian Federation were put in force by the government of Russia in 1997. The requirements of the convention on physical protection of nuclear materials (INFCIRC 274) and the modern IAEA recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.4) are taken into account in the PP rules. Besides, while developing the PP rules the other countries' experience in this sphere has been studied and taken into account. The PP rules are action-obligatory for all juridical persons dealing with nuclear activity and also for those who are coordinating and monitoring this activity. Nuclear activity without physical protection ensured in accordance with PP rules requirements is prohibited. The requirements of PP Rules are stronger than the IAEA recommendations. The PP rules are establishing: physical protection objectives; federal executive bodies and organizations functions an implementation of physical protection; categorization of nuclear materials; requirements for nuclear materials physical protection as during use and storage as during transportation; main goals of state supervision and ministry level control for physical protection; notification order about the facts of unauthorized actions regarding nuclear materials and facilities. Besides the above mentioned documents, there were put in force president decrees, federal laws and regulations in the field of: counteraction to nuclear terrorism; interactions in physical protection systems; military and ministerial on-site guard activities; information protection. By the initiative of Minatom of Russia the corrections were put into the

  13. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy's Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item's exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer's requirements

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the

  15. Understanding and Managing Aging of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Facility Components in Wet Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Storage of nuclear fuel after it has been discharged from reactors has become the leading spent fuel management option. Many storage facilities are being required to operate longer than originally anticipated. Aging is a term that has emerged to focus attention on the consequences of extended operation on systems, structures, and components that comprise the storage facilities. The key to mitigation of age-related degradation in storage facilities is to implement effective strategies to understand and manage aging of the facility materials. A systematic approach to preclude serious effects of age-related degradation is addressed in this paper, directed principally to smaller facilities (test and research reactors). The first need is to assess the materials that comprise the facility and the environments that they are subject to. Access to historical data on facility design, fabrication, and operation can facilitate assessment of expected materials performance. Methods to assess the current condition of facility materials are summarized in the paper. Each facility needs an aging management plan to define the scope of the management program, involving identification of the materials that need specific actions to manage age-related degradation. For each material identified, one or more aging management programs are developed and become part of the plan Several national and international organizations have invested in development of comprehensive and systematic approaches to aging management. A method developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is recommended as a concise template to organize measures to effectively manage age-related degradation of storage facility materials, including the scope of inspection, surveillance, and maintenance that is needed to assure successful operation of the facility over its required life. Important to effective aging management is a staff that is alert for evidence of materials degradation and committed to carry out the aging

  16. Phase change materials in non-volatile storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ielmini, Daniele; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    After revolutionizing the technology of optical data storage, phase change materials are being adopted in non-volatile semiconductor memories. Their success in electronic storage is mostly due to the unique properties of the amorphous state where carrier transport phenomena and thermally-induced phase change cooperate to enable high-speed, low-voltage operation and stable data retention possible within the same material. This paper reviews the key physical properties that make this phase so s...

  17. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J.

    2012-01-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  18. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor G, A.; Fernandes M, S.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  19. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  20. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  1. Automated accounting systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.

    1994-01-01

    History of the development of nuclear materials accounting systems in USA and their purposes are considered. Many present accounting systems are based on mainframe computers with multiple terminal access. Problems of future improvement accounting systems are discussed

  2. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  3. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [fr

  4. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  5. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  6. Structural materials for innovative nuclear systems (SMINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Structural materials research is a field of growing relevance in the nuclear sector, especially for the different innovative reactor systems being developed within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), for critical and subcritical transmutation systems, and of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) the Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) was organised in collaboration with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The objectives of the workshop were to exchange information on structural materials research issues and to discuss ongoing programmes, both experimental and in the field of advanced modelling. These proceedings include the papers and the poster session materials presented at the workshop, representing the international state of the art in this domain. (author)

  7. Support for a storage rack for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, H.; Heinz, G.; Krainer, F.; Swelim, H.; Eisner, J.

    1983-01-01

    For support of a storage rack with a rectangular cross-section for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies elbows to be used as centering elements may be fastened to the metal licencing of a storage pit by means of rectangular side pieces, which are arranged at the corners of the fuel pit in such manner that rectangular feet positioned there will be enclosed at the outside of the fuel pit. For adjustment of a given clearance the elbows may be provided with fitting pieces. They also may have supporting plates serving as bases for the feet. The invention may be of advantage especially for storing fuel assemblies from light water reactors. (orig./PW)

  8. Perry Nuclear Plant's Plans for on-site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratchen, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Because of current radwaste disposal legislation and the eventual denial of access to the Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty burial sites, it was imperative for the Perry nuclear power plant to develop alternative means for handling its generated radioactive waste. The previous radwaste facilities at Perry were developed for processing, packaging, short-term storage, and shipment for burial. In order to meet the changing needs, new facilities have been constructed to handle the processing, packaging, and 5-yr interim storage of both dry active waste (DAW) and dewatered or solidified resin, filter media, etc

  9. POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN BUILDUP IN HANFORD SEALED AIR FILLED NUCLEAR STORAGE VESSELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEY BE

    2008-01-01

    This calculation is performed in accordance with HNF-PRO-8259, PHMC Calculation Preparation and Issue and addresses the question as to whether a flammable mixture of hydrogen gas can accumulate in a Hanford sealed nuclear storage vessel where the only source of hydrogen is the moisture in the air that initially filled the vessel Of specific concern is nuclear fuel inside IDENT 69-Gs, placed in Core Component Containers (CCCs) located inside Interim Storage Vaults (ISVs) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) The CCCs are to be removed from the ISVs and placed inside a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) for transport and interim storage. The repackaging procedures mandated that no plastics were permitted, all labels and tape were to be removed and the pins to be clean and inspected Loading of the fuel into the CCC/ISV package was permitted only if it was not raining or snowing. This was to preclude the introduction of any water The purpose was to minimize the presence of any hydrogenous material inside the storage vessels. The scope of NFPA 69, 'Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems', precludes its applicability for this case. The reactor fuel pins are helium bonded. The non-fuel pins, such as the pellet stacks, are also helium bonded. The fuel pellets were sintered at temperatures that preclude any residual hydrogenous material. Hydrogen gas can be formed from neutron and gamma radiolysis of water vapor. The radiolysis reaction is quite complex involving several intermediate radicals, and competing recombination reactions. Hydrogen gas can also be formed through corrosion. This analysis takes a simplistic approach and assumes that all water vapor present in the storage vessel is decomposed into hydrogen gas. Although the analysis is needed to specifically address HUFP storage of nuclear fuel, it is equally applicable to any sealed fuel storage vessel under the assumptions listed

  10. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of hydrogen storage systems utilising solid state H storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: mlototskyy@uwc.ac.za [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Yartys, V.A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of H stores with various solid H storage materials was done. • Volumetric and gravimetric H storage densities and energy consumption were evaluated. • Effects of H storage containment and heat exchanger were estimated. • Pressure–temperature conditions of H storage strongly affect the overall performance. • Material’s packing density influences safety of operation and efficiency of H stores. - Abstract: Evaluation of the performances of hydrogen storage systems accommodating solid H storage materials should include characteristics on their reversible hydrogen storage capacity, operating pressures and temperatures, packing densities, and heat effects of hydrogen uptake and release. We have conducted a performance evaluation of the systems accumulating 5 kg of hydrogen in a containment of cylindrical geometry filled with a solid H storage material including such hydrides and reactive hydride composites as AlH{sub 3}, MgH{sub 2}, “low-temperature” (inter)metallic hydrides, NaAlH{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}, LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2}, and MOFs. The analysis yielded gravimetric and volumetric H storage capacities, and energy efficiencies of hydrogen stores. We conclude that the weight efficiency of hydrogen stores, apart from the gravimetric H storage capacity of the material, is greatly affected by its packing density, and by the pressure–temperature conditions which determine type and dimensions of the containment. The materials with low heat effects of H exchange, operating close to the ambient conditions, should be targeted in the course of the development of new hydrogen stores as offering the best energy efficiency of their operation.

  11. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  12. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Guide of accounting codification for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As material accounting is an essential component for the protection and control of nuclear materials present in installations, this guide is a reference publication for this purpose. It first presents the slip of declaration of operation of nuclear materials (BDOM) and its structure, and the codification of material descriptors. The various accounting operations and their associated sheets are then described: shipment and receipt operations, stock variation operations (internal transfer, batch modification, inventory difference, differences between shipper and recipient), corrective operations. The next parts address waste management, national accounting statements, update documents, and digital file specifications

  14. Overview of nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grella, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of transportation as it relates to one specific type of material, low specific activity (LSA) material. It is the predominant type of material that fits into the low-level waste category. An attempt is made to discuss how LSA is regulated, setting forth the requirements. First the general scheme of regulations are reviewed. In addition future changes in the regulations which will affect transportation of LSA materials and, which quite likely, will have an impact on R and D needs in this area are presented

  15. Nuclear material control in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions.

  16. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  17. Considerations for sampling nuclear materials for SNM accounting measurements. Special nuclear material accountability report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Upson, U.L.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents principles and guidelines for sampling nuclear materials to measure chemical and isotopic content of the material. Development of sampling plans and procedures that maintain the random and systematic errors of sampling within acceptable limits for SNM(Special Nuclear Materials) accounting purposes are emphasized

  18. Public perception on nuclear energy and radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Fleming, Peter M.; Soares, Wellington A.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The final destination of the waste generated in a nuclear power plant remains a big challenge. The question is not only the radiation emitted by the sources, in some cases for many years, but also the public acceptance of this theme. In many countries where a nuclear waste storage facility has to be built, the local population of the chosen site did not accept it at first, and the whole process had to restart including this variable. In the past, the population opinion was considered not relevant but several international experiences showed that in fact it can not be forgotten. Statistical data show that a significant fraction of the population of the world has many concerns about nuclear energy and its potential impacts. Although many experts state that it has environmental advantages, such as the absence of greenhouse gases emissions, the subject is still the target of never ending discussions. But it is a concrete fact that the sector is growing in many countries. The objective of this article is to summarize several experiences in many countries associated with nuclear energy, mainly those ones that involve nuclear storage facilities, and its acceptance by the public. This task can help CNEN in the studies associated with the RMBN project - Repository for Radioactive Waste with Low and Medium Levels of Radiation. (author)

  19. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  20. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  1. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the ''non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  4. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... material control and accounting performance requirements for special nuclear material at nuclear power... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0109] Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants...

  5. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  6. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, 1986--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, A.T.; Lorenz, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    This bibliography contains information on the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) that was added to the DOE Energy Data Base from January 1986 through December 1987. It is a supplement to the first bibliography, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, 1977--1985 (DOE/TIC-3406), and includes all information in the preceding two updates, DOE/TIC-3406(Add.1) and DOE/TIC-3406(Add.2). The bibliography is categorized by principal NNWSI Project participant organizations. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's bibliography list and are listed in chronological order. The following indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, Report Number, Order Number Correlation, and Key Word in Context

  7. Material degradation - a nuclear utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of nuclear plant materials has been responsible for major costs and unit outage time. As such, nuclear utilities are important end users of the information produced by R and D on material degradation. This plenary describes the significance of material degradation for the nuclear utilities, and how utilities use information about material degradation in their short, medium and long term planning activities. Utilities invest in R and D programs to assist them in their business objective of operating safely, reliably and cost competitively. Material degradation impacts all three of these business drivers. Utilities make decisions on life cycle planning, unit refurbishment and 'new build' projects on the basis of their understanding of the behaviour of a variety of materials in a broad range of environments. The R and D being carried out today will determine the future business success of the nuclear utilities. The R and D program needs to be broadly based to include a range of materials, environments and time-frames, particularly any new materials proposed for use in new units. The R and D community needs to help the utility managers make choices that will result in an optimized materials R and D program

  8. Spent nuclear fuel storage: Legal, technical and political considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, E.L. Jr.; Buren, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In 1982, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), assigning responsibility to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the development and implementation of a comprehensive national nuclear waste management program. The NWPA makes clear that the generators and owners of commercially-generated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) have the primary responsibility to provide for, and pay the costs of, the interim storage of such SNF until it is accepted by the DOE under the provisions of the NWPA. The shift in responsibility was expected to begin in 1998, the date specified in the NWPA and the DOE's contracts with the utilities, at which time the NWPA anticipated commencement of operations of a geologic repository and/or a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Unfortunately, despite a mid-course correction to the NWPA mandated by Congress in 1987 in an effort to streamline and accelerate the program, DOE is way behind schedule. DOE's last published program schedule indicates the commencement of repository operations in 2010, a date many feel is overly optimistic. In repeated statements during the early 1990s, DOE sought to reassure utility companies and their regulatory commissions that it could still commence SNF acceptance in 1998 for storage at an MRS if such a facility were sited through a voluntary process by the end of 1992. That date has now come and gone. Although DOE is still nominally seeking a voluntary MRS host jurisdiction, the prospects for MRS operation by 1998 are dim. Putting aside for the moment the question of DOE's ability to bring the repository on line, the immediate problem facing domestic utilities is the need to augment their onsite SNF storage capacity. In addition to providing a brief overview of the Federal independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) licensing process, the author provides some insight of what the real issues are in ISFSI licensing

  9. Storage and processing system for fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubowskij, B.G.; Bogatyrew, W.K.; Wladykow, G.M.; Swiridenko, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the construction of a radiation protection wall by which the reflection of neutrons in a container arranged in the vicinity of the wall is reduced. The radiation protection wall has a coating of neutron-retarding material on top of which there is a layer of neutron absorbing material, the former having a surface structured with regular projections and recesses spaced at 1/8 to 3 neutron ranges. The recesses may be filled with porous material or take up neutron radiation detectors. Other construction features are described. (UWI) [de

  10. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Baumann, H.; Jex, H.; Rauch, F.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh divisional conference of the Nuclear Physics Division held at Darmstadt, Germany, from 23rd through 26th of September, 1980. The scope of this conference was defined as follows: i) to inform solid state physicists and materials scientists about the application of nuclear physics methods; ii) to show to nuclear physicists open questions and problems in solid state physics and materials science to which their methods can be applied. According to the intentions of the conference, the various nuclear physics methods utilized in solid state physics and materials science and especially new developments were reviewed by invited speakers. Detailed aspects of the methods and typical examples extending over a wide range of applications were presented as contributions in poster sessions. The Proceedings contain all the invited papers and about 90% of the contributed papers. (orig./RW)

  11. Unsteady heat exchange at the dry spent nuclear fuel storage

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Alyokhina; Andrii Kostikov

    2017-01-01

    Unsteady thermal processes in storage containers with spent nuclear fuel were modeled. The daily fluctuations of outer ambient temperatures were taken into account. The modeling approach, which is based on the solving of conjugate and inverse heat transfer problems, was verified by comparison of measured and calculated temperatures in outer channels. The time delays in the reaching of maximal temperatures for each spent fuel assembly were calculated. Results of numerical investigations show t...

  12. Evaluation of Terminated Nuclear Material Licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.M.; Zeighami, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-year project that reviewed material licenses that had been terminated during the period from inception of licensing until approximately late-1994. The material licenses covered in the review project were Part 30, byproduct material licenses; Part 40, source material licenses; and Part 70, special nuclear material licenses. This report describes the methodology developed for the project, summarizes the findings of the license file inventory process, and describes the findings of the reviews or evaluations of the license files. The evaluation identified nuclear material use sites that need review of the licensing material or more direct follow-up of some type. The review process also identified licenses authorized to possess sealed sources for which there was incomplete or missing documentation of the fate of the sources

  13. Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1991-01-01

    The book contains contributed papers from various authors on the following subjects: Safeguards systems and implementation, Measurement techniques: general, Measurement techniques: destructive analysis, Measurement techniques: non-destructive assay, Containment and surveillance, Spent fuel strategies, Material accounting and data evaluation

  14. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Millicent A [Elmhurst, IL; Laible, Philip D [Villa Park, IL

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  15. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are entirely revised under the law for the regulations of nuclear materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the fabricating business in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area; employee and radioactive waste. The application for permission of the fabricating business shall include: location of processing facilities; structure of building structure and equipment of chemical processing facilities; molding facilities; structure and equipment of covering and assembling facilities, storage facilities of nuclear fuel materials and disposal facilities of radioactive waste, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods in each works and place of enterprise on inspection of processing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of processing facilities and weather. Specified measures shall be taken in controlled area and inspected surrounding area to restrict entrance. Measures shall be made not to exceed permissible exposure dose for employees defined by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency. Inspection and check up of processing facilities shall be carried on by employees more than once a day. Operation of processing facilities, transportation in the works and enterprise, storage, disposal, safety securing, report and measures in dangerous situations, etc. are in detail prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  16. Nuclear materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korycanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 1.5 million tons of uranium ore, 8000 tons of uranium concentrate, 1000 tons of UF 6 , 340 spent fuel containers, and 30 000 m 3 of nuclear wastes are transported annually by trucks, trains and ships in France. Annual costs of this transportation amount to 500-600 million FRF, and about 200 employees are engaged in this activity. Transportation of spent fuel to the La Hague and Marcoule fuel reprocessing plants, and the transport of plutonium are dealt with in detail. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  17. Container materials in environments of corroded spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F. H.

    1996-07-01

    Efforts to remove corroded uranium metal fuel from the K Basins wet storage to long-term dry storage are underway. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) is used to load spent nuclear fuel for vacuum drying, staging, and hot conditioning; it will be used for interim dry storage until final disposition options are developed. Drying and conditioning of the corroded fuel will minimize the possibility of gas pressurization and runaway oxidation. During all phases of operations the MCO is subjected to radiation, temperature and pressure excursions, hydrogen, potential pyrophoric hazard, and corrosive environments. Material selection for the MCO applications is clearly vital for safe and efficient long-term interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) such as 304L SS or 316L SS appear to be suitable for the MCO. Of the two, Type 304L SS is recommended because it possesses good resistance to chemical corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and radiation-induced corrosive species. In addition, the material has adequate strength and ductility to withstand pressure and impact loading so that the containment boundary of the container is maintained under accident conditions without releasing radioactive materials.

  18. SRS K-area material storage. Expanding capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  19. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Material handling and... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical handling equipment is used, sufficient safe clearances shall be allowed for aisles, at loading docks...

  1. 30 CFR 77.208 - Storage of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and liquid gas cylinders shall be secured in a safe manner. (e) Valves on compressed gas cylinders shall be protected by covers when being transported or stored, and by a safe location when the cylinders... Installations § 77.208 Storage of materials. (a) Materials shall be stored and stacked in a manner which...

  2. Aluminium hydride: a reversible material for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L; Fewox, Christopher S; Stowe, Ashley C; Gray, Joshua R; Harter, Andrew G

    2009-07-07

    Aluminium hydride has been synthesized electrochemically, providing a synthetic route which closes a reversible cycle for regeneration of the material and bypasses expensive thermodynamic costs which have precluded AlH(3) from being considered as a H(2) storage material.

  3. Enhanced safety in the storage of fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.E.; Alvares, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    An inexpensive boron-loaded liner of epoxy resin for fissile-material storage containers was developed that can be easily fabricated of readily available, low-cost materials. Computer calculations indicate reactivity will be reduced substantially if this neutron-absorbing liner is added to containers in a typical storage array. These calculations compare favorably with neutron-attenuation experiments with thermal and fission neutron spectra, and tests at the Fire Test Facility indicate the epoxy resin will survive extreme environmental and accident conditions. The fire-resistant and insulating properties of the epoxy-resin liner further augment its ability to protect fissile materials. Boron-loaded epoxy resin is adaptable to many tasks but is particularly useful for providing enhanced criticality safety in the packaging and storage of fissile materials

  4. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-01-01

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0trademark. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority

  5. Nuclear waste: Is there a need for federal interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Congress created the Monitored Retrievable Storage Review Commission to provide a report on the need for a Federal monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) as part of the Nation's nuclear waste management system. The Commission concludes that the MRS as presently described in the law, which links the capacity and schedule of operation of the MRS to a permanent geologic repository, cannot be justified. The Commission finds, however, that while no single factor would favor an MRS over the No-MRS option, cumulatively the advantages of an MRS would justify the building of an MRS if: there were no linkages between the MRS and the repository; the MRS could be constructed at an early date; and the opening of the repository were delayed considerably beyond its presently scheduled date of operation. The Commission therefore recommends that the Congress take the following actions: Authorize construction of a Federal Emergency Storage facility with a capacity limit of 2,000 metric tons of uranium; Authorize construction of a User-Funded Interim Storage facility with a capacity limit of 5,000 metric tons of uranium; Reconsider the subject of interim storage by the year 2000

  6. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  7. Software development for managing nuclear material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, the nuclear material control is one of the most important activities. The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), when inspecting routinely, regards the data provided as a major safety factor. Having a control system of nuclear material that allows the amount and location of the various items to be inspected, at any time, is a key factor today. The objective of this work was to enhance the existing system using a more friendly platform of development, through the VisualBasic programming language (Microsoft Corporation), to facilitate the operation team of the reactor IEA-R1 Reactor tasks, providing data that enable a better and prompter control of the IEA-R1 nuclear material. These data have allowed the development of papers presented at national and international conferences and the development of master's dissertations and doctorate theses. The software object of this study was designed to meet the requirements of the CNEN and the IAEA safeguard rules, but its functions may be expanded in accordance with future needs. The program developed can be used in other reactors to be built in the country, since it is very practical and allows an effective control of the nuclear material in the facilities. (author)

  8. A single-component liquid-phase hydrogen storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Campbell, Patrick G; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2011-12-07

    The current state-of-the-art for hydrogen storage is compressed H(2) at 700 bar. The development of a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material has the potential to take advantage of the existing liquid-based distribution infrastructure. We describe a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material that is a liquid under ambient conditions (i.e., at 20 °C and 1 atm pressure), air- and moisture-stable, and recyclable; releases H(2) controllably and cleanly at temperatures below or at the proton exchange membrane fuel cell waste-heat temperature of 80 °C; utilizes catalysts that are cheap and abundant for H(2) desorption; features reasonable gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity; and does not undergo a phase change upon H(2) desorption. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.

    1998-01-01

    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  10. Uncontrolled transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassermann, U.

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of international transport of plutonium, uranium oxides, uranium hexafluoride, enriched uranium and irradiated fuel for reprocessing. Referring to the sinking of the 'Mont Louis', it is stated that the International Maritime Organization has been asked by the National Union of Seamen and 'Greenpeace' to bar shipment of radioactive material until stricter international safety regulations are introduced. (U.K.)

  11. Chimera of new nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The current and future needs in materials for light water reactors and liquid metal fast breeder reactors are reviewed. Information and discussions are included on boiling water reactors, pressurized water reactors, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, corrosion of piping systems and steam generators, ferritic steels, stainless steels, Inconel 600, pressure vessels, and radiation damage. (U.S.)

  12. Mass spectrometry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the 235 U/ 238 U ratio in product-quality material have improved from uncertainties of 0.1 percent (rel) to 0.2 percent since the Manhattan Project. The hardware and procedural changes responsible for these measurement improvements are traced and discussed

  13. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse Schreiber

    2008-01-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America's nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in 'green' technology

  14. Nanostructured polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Yu, Luping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of hydrogen storage adsorbent, nanostructured porous organic polymers (POPs), through collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. POPs have excellent thermal stability and tolerance to gas contaminants such as moisture. They also have low skeleton density and high intrinsic porosity via covalent bonds, capable of maintaining specific surface area (SSA) during high pressure pelletizing for better volumetric density. Furthermore, they can be produced at a commercial scale with the existing industrial infrastructure. The team’s approach focused on improving hydrogen uptake capacity and the heat of adsorption by enhancing SSA, porosity control, and framework-adsorbate interactions through rational design and synthesis at the molecular level. The design principles aim at improving the following attributes of the polymers: (a) high SSA to provide sufficient interface with H2; (b) narrow pore diameter to enhance van der Waals interactions in the confined space; and (c) “metallic” features, either through π- conjugation or metal doping, to promote electronic orbital interactions with hydrogen.

  15. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Mattila, A.; Ramebaeck, H.; Aage, H.K.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  16. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Mattila, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ramebaeck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  17. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.; Ensslin, N.; Smith, H. Jr.; Kreiner, S.

    1991-03-01

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  18. Experiment of hydrogen embrittlement of tritium storage vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hai Yong; Lee, Kun Jai; Chung, H.; Paek, S.

    2000-01-01

    The tritium storage is one of the most important problems for the safety of tritium removal facility. In current, many researches for tritium immobilization have been carried out. The research for tritium storage could be divided into two parts, one is for the metal getter of tritium and another is for the integrity of tritium storage vessel. Especially, the integrity of tritium storage vessel is up to the tritium embrittlement of vessel material, for tritium vessel is mostly made of metal material. In this work, the evaluation of the tritium embrittlement for the tritium storage vessel material is performed with the equipment that is made for high temperature and high vacuum. However, tritium is the radioactivity material, so hydrogen is used for this work. In this work, three metals were chosen for the vessel candidate material, carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS) 304 and 316L. The experiment was carried out for the several conditions of temperature and pressure. The property change of metal was investigated through the tensile test. Austenitic stainless steel has a high resistance for the hydrogen embrittlement from the result. But the obvious gap between SUS 304 and SUS 316L is not revealed, because the experiment condition may be not sufficient to show the difference between SUS 304 and SUS 316L

  19. Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Norway: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter; Larsen, Erlend

    2014-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the JEEP I and JEEP II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there are some 16 tonnes of SNF, all of which is currently stored on-site, in either wet or dry storage facilities. The greater part of the SNF, 12 tonnes, consists of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO 2 ). Such fuel presents significant challenges with respect to long-term storage and disposal. Current policy is that existing spent fuel will, as far as possible considering its suitability for later direct disposal, be stored until final disposal is possible. Several committees have advised the Government of Norway on, among others, policy issues, storage methods and localisation of a storage facility. Both experts and stakeholders have participated in these committees. This paper presents an overview of the spent fuel in Norway and a description of current storage arrangements. The prospects for long-term storage are then described, including a summary of recommendations made to government, the reactions of various stakeholders to these recommendations, the current status, and the proposed next steps. A recommended policy is to construct a new storage facility for the fuel to be stored for a period of at least 50 years. In the meantime a national final disposal facility should be constructed and taken into operation. It has been recommended that the aluminium-clad fuel be reprocessed in an overseas commercial facility to produce a stable waste form for storage and disposal. This recommendation is controversial, and a decision has not yet been taken on whether to pursue this option. An analysis of available storage concepts for the more modern fuel types resulted in the recommendation to use dual-purpose casks. In addition, it was recommended to construct a future storage facility in a rock hall instead of a free

  20. New materials options for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Garner, F.A.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gelles, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new materials for nuclear reactor systems is continuing to produce options for improved reactor designs. Materials with reduced environment-induced crack growth is a key materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry while the development of low activation ferritic, austenitic and vanadium alloys has been an active area for materials development for fusion reactor structural applications. Development of advanced materials such as metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites for reactor systems have received a limited amount of attention. (author)

  1. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Gazso, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  2. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Nuclear technology applications in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Junchen; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear technology to material science has led to a new cross subject, nuclear material science (also named nuclear solid physics) which covers material analysis, material modification and new material synthesis. This paper reviews the development of nuclear technical applications in material science and the basic physics involved

  3. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, T.; Mazon R, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  4. Radiation damage studies of nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum utilization of fuel in nuclear reactors is one of the important aspects for operating them economically. The main hindrance to achieve this higher burnups of nuclear fuel for the nuclear reactors is the possibility of the failure of the metallic core components during their operation. Thus, the study of the cause of the possibility of failure of these metallic structural materials of nuclear reactors during full power operation due to radiation damage, suffered inside the reactor core, is an important field of studies bearing the basic to industrial scientific views.The variation of the microstructure of the metallic core components of the nuclear reactors due to radiation damage causes enormous variation in the structure and mechanical properties. A firm understanding of this variation of the mechanical properties with the variation of microstructure will serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. In our centre we have irradiated structural materials of Indian nuclear reactors by charged particles from accelerator to generate radiation damage and studied the some aspects of the variation of microstructure by X-ray diffraction studies. Results achieved in this regards, will be presented. (author)

  5. Treatment and storage of contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Pomarola, J.

    1959-01-01

    The ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes sets an important problem which has been partly solved. France has temporarily adopted the following method: 1) Volume reduction, 2) Fixation of the activity in non leakable solids standing all temporarily or ultimate kinds of storing. According to those two basic principles the authors have presented: - a decontamination plant allowing maximum recovery of materials, - the plans of an installation devised for carrying out radioactive waste volume reduction and conditioning. Both of them are being built at Saclay. (author) [fr

  6. Container for storage of environmental incompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggenthaler, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    The container consists of a cuboid chamber, closed to five sides, just as the cover made of concrete. Iron mountings for use with lifting gears are coupled with the armouring of the container. The cover is made in such a way that mountings are hidden by the recesses at its borders. Therefore it is possible to stick these boxes. Concrete employed for is enriched with sealing materials of synthetics, the box is painted too. Sensors on the outside ensure telemetering of closeness of the boxes. (J.K.) [de

  7. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  8. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  9. Dry storage of spent nuclear fuel: present principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Christoskov, I.; Boyadjiev, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel are presented in accordance to the author's understanding. The are: 1) Storage in the air at a low temperature (below 200 o C) or in a inert atmosphere (nitrogen, helium) at a temperature up to 300-400 o C; 2) Passive cooling by air; 3) Multiple barriers to the propagation of fission products and trans-uraniums: fuel palette, fuel pin cladding, a containment or a canister, a single or a double cover of the container; 4) Control of the condition of the atmosphere within the double cover - pressure monitoring, helium concentration monitoring (if the atmosphere in the container is of helium or contains traces of helium). Based on publications, observations and discussion during the recent years, several principles are propose for discussion. It is proposed: 4) Stored fuel must be regarded as defective; 5) Active control of the integrity of the protective barriers of of the composition of the storage atmosphere - principle of the 'control barrier' or the 'control atmosphere'; 6) Introduction of the procedure of 'check up of the condition of SNF' by visual control or sampling of the storage atmosphere for the technologies which do not provide for monitoring the integrity of barriers or of the storage atmosphere. Principle 4 is being gradually accepted in modern technologies. Principle 5 is observed in the double-purpose containers and in some of MVDS technologies. A common feature of the technologies of horizontal and vertical canister storage in concrete modules is the absence of control of the integrity of barriers or of the composition of the atmosphere. To these technologies, if they are not revised, principle 6 applies

  10. Performance analysis of nuclear materials accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the level of performance of nuclear materials accounting systems in terms of the four performance measures, total amount of loss, loss-detection time, loss-detection probability, and false-alarm probability, are presented. These techniques are especially useful for analyzing the expected performance of near-real-time (dynamic) accounting systems. A conservative estimate of system performance is provided by the CUSUM (cumulative summation of materials balances) test. Graphical displays, called performance surfaces, are developed as convenient tools for representing systems performance, and examples from a recent safeguards study of a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant are given. 6 refs

  11. Education and training in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, S.; Marco, M.

    2014-01-01

    CIEMAT participates in the European project Matisse (Materials Innovations for a Safe and Sustainable nuclear in Europe) belonging to FP7, whose main objective is to promote the link between the respective national research programs through networking and integration of activities for innovation in materials for advanced nuclear systems, sharing among partners best practices and implementation of training tools and efficient communication. The draft four years, from 2013 to 2017, includes aspects such as the interaction between infrastructure, R and D programs and postgraduate education and training. (Author)

  12. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for the Detection of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism and the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material threaten the security of all States. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The possibility that nuclear and other radioactive material may be used for terrorist acts cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material, and to establish capabilities for detection and response to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. Through its nuclear security programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This approach recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material; national response plans; and contingency measures. Within its nuclear security programme, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking; and to detect and respond to nuclear security events. This is an Implementing Guide on nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The objective of the publication is to provide guidance to Member States for the

  13. Basic Considerations for Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Revisited CFD Thermal Analysis on the Concrete Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Soo [ACT Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Younwon; Song, Sub Lee [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeun Min [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The integrity of storage facility and also of the spent nuclear fuel itself is considered very important. Storage casks can be located in a designated area on a site or in a designated storage building. A number of different designs for dry storage have been developed and used in different countries. Dry storage system was classified into two categories by IAEA. One is container including cask and silo, the other one is vault. However, there is various way of categorization for dry storage system. Dry silo and cask are usually classified separately, so the dry storage system can be classified into three different types. Furthermore, dry cask storage can be categorized into two types based on the type of the materials, concrete cask and metal cask. In this paper, the design characteristics of dry storage cask are introduced and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based thermal analysis for concrete cask is revisited. Basic principles for dry storage cask design were described. Based on that, thermal analysis of concrete dry cask was introduced from the study of H. M. Kim et al. From the CFD calculation, the temperature of concrete wall was maintained under the safety criteria. From this fundamental analysis, further investigations are expected. For example, thermal analysis on the metal cask, thermal analysis on horizontally laid spent nuclear fuel assemblies for transportation concerns, and investigations on better performance of natural air circulation in dry cask can be promising candidates.

  14. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  15. Prevention of nuclear fuel cladding materials corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.R.; Yang, J.C.; Lee, I.C.; Kang, H.D.; Cho, S.W.; Whang, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    The only way which could be performed by the operator of nuclear power plant to minimizing the degradation of nuclear fuel cladding material is to control the water quality of primary coolant as specified standard conditions which dose not attack the cladding material. If the water quality of reactor coolant does not meet far from the specification, the failure will occure not only cladding material itself but construction material of primary system which contact with the coolant. The corrosion product of system material are circulate through the whole primary system with the coolant and activated by the neutron near the reactor core. The activated corrosion products and fission products which released from fuel rod to the coolant, so called crud, will repeate deposition and redeposition continuously on the fuel rod and construction material surface. As a result we should consider heat transfer problem. In this study following activities were performed; 1. The crud sample was taken from the spent fuel rod surface of Kori unit one and analized for radioactive element and non radioactive chemical species. 2. The failure mode of nuclear fuel cladding material was estimated by the investigation of releasing type of fission products from the fuel rod to the reactor coolant using the iodine isotopes concentration of reactor coolants. 3. A study was carried out on the sipping test results of spent fuel and a discussion was made on the water quality control records through the past three cycle operation period of Kori unit one plant. (Author)

  16. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  17. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Justin L.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dufek, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  18. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dufek, Eric J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  19. Salt creep design consideration for underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.; Wu, C.L.; Antonas, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the creep consideration in the design of nuclear waste storage facilities in salt, describes the non-linear analysis method for evaluating the design adequacy, and presents computational results for the current storage design. The application of rock mechanics instrumentation to assure the appropriateness of the design is discussed. It also describes the design evolution of such a facility, starting from the conceptual design, through the preliminary design, to the detailed design stage. The empirical design method, laboratory tests and numerical analyses, and the underground in situ tests have been incorporated in the design process to assure the stability of the underground openings, retrievability of waste during the operation phase and encapsulation of waste after decommissioning

  20. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  1. Legal aspects of transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, Mans.

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention are briefly discussed and other conventions in the field of civil liability for nuclear damage are mentioned: the Vienna Convention, the Nuclear Ships Convention and the 1971 Convention relating to civil liability in the field of maritime carriage of nuclear material. Legislation on civil liability in the Nordic countries, which is based on the Paris Convention and the Supplementary Convention is discussed, notably the principle of channelling of liability and exceptions from that principle due to rules of liability in older transport conventions and certain problems due to the limited geographical scope of the Paris Convention and the Supplementary Convention. Insurance problems arising in connection with transport of nuclear materials are surveyed and an outline is given of the administrative provisions concerning transport (based on the IAEA transport regulations) which govern transport of radioactive materials by different means: road, rail, sea and air. Finally, the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is discussed. (NEA) [fr

  2. Interatomic potentials for materials of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Julian R.; Monti, Ana M.; Pasianot, Roberto C.; Simonelli, G.

    2007-01-01

    Procedures to develop embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials are described, with foreseeable applications in nuclear materials. Their reliability is shown by evaluating relevant properties. The studied materials are Nb, Zr and U. The first two were then used to develop an inter species potential for the Zr-Nb binary system. In this sense, the Fe-Cu system was also studied starting from Fe and Cu potentials extracted from the literature. (author) [es

  3. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  4. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  5. 78 FR 56775 - Waste Confidence-Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Waste Confidence--Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 [NRC-2012-0246] RIN 3150-AJ20 Waste Confidence--Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear... radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste disposal. DATES: Submit comments on the...

  6. Material development for India's nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of nuclear grade zirconium, caustic fusion process was chosen for treating the mineral. The fused mass ..... The heat-treatment for the quenched and aged condition is carried out almost at the last stage after which ..... manufactured pressure tube material should be sufficiently greater than 28 mm to leave sufficient margin for ...

  7. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, L G

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  8. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  10. Structural Health Monitoring of Nuclear Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingyu

    2018-04-10

    Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. To ensure that nuclear power remains clean energy, monitoring has been identified by DOE as a high priority cross-cutting need, necessary to determine and predict the degradation state of the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) important to safety (ITS). Therefore, nondestructive structural condition monitoring becomes a need to be installed on existing or to be integrated into future storage system to quantify the state of health or to guarantee the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their extended life span. In this project, the lead university and the collaborating national laboratory teamed to develop a nuclear structural health monitoring (n-SHM) system based on in-situ piezoelectric sensing technologies that can monitor structural degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures. We also aimed to identify and quantify possible influences of nuclear spent fuel environment (temperature and radiation) to the piezoelectric sensor system and come up with adequate solutions and guidelines therefore. We have therefore developed analytical model for piezoelectric based n-SHM methods, with considerations of temperature and irradiation influence on the model of sensing and algorithms in acoustic emission (AE), guided ultrasonic waves (GUW), and electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS). On the other side, experimentally the temperature and irradiation influence on the piezoelectric sensors and sensing capabilities were investigated. Both short-term and long-term irradiation investigation with our collaborating national laboratory were performed. Moreover, we developed multi-modal sensing, validated in laboratory setup, and conducted the testing on the We performed multi-modal sensing development, verification and validation tests on very complex structures

  11. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... special nuclear material, byproduct material, or source material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act is... material is used in the production, testing, utilization, or assembly of nuclear weapons or components of...

  12. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal insulation is one of the most important components of a thermal energy storage system. In this paper the thermal properties of selected potential local materials which can be used for high temperature insulation are presented. Thermal properties of seven different samples were measured. Samples consisted of: ...

  13. A proposal of materials for the storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a literature study concerning the chemical stability of ceramics as well as of different experiencies of persons working with ceramics in Sweden a proposal of candidate materials for the storage of radioactive wastes is presented. Advantages and disadvantages in connection with the use of different ceramics have been tabulated. (E.R.)

  14. 2D Materials with Nanoconfined Fluids for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyn, Veronica [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Inst.

    2017-10-11

    In the quest to develop energy storage with both high power and high energy densities, and while maintaining high volumetric capacity, recent results show that a variety of 2D and layered materials exhibit rapid kinetics of ion transport by the incorporation of nanoconfined fluids.

  15. Effect of Storage Materials on Viability and Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    /ja. Effect of Storage Materials on Viability and Proximate Composition of Garcinia kola. Heckel. *1OLAYINKA ... amount of crude fat (4.18%), crude fibre (2.88%) and crude protein (2.09%) as well as negligible amount of ash content. (0.78%).

  16. Management and ultimate storage of wastes from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The annotation on R and D prorgam 86 parts I-II have been brought together in the present report part I, together with some general viewpoints, and been classified according to subject. Part II of the present report comprises viewpoints of 'Research Program 1987-1992' and part III of 'Alternative methods of ultimate storage'. Swedish and French viewpoints are presented in Swedish, the remaining foreign material in English. The comments are grouped in subject catergories. (O.S.)

  17. Development of a state radioactive materials storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper outlines the site selection and facility development processes of the state of Wisconsin for a radioactive materials facility. The facility was developed for the temporary storage of wastes from abandoned sites. Due to negative public reaction, the military site selected for the facility was removed from consideration. The primary lesson learned during the 3-year campaign was that any project involving radioactive materials is a potential political issue

  18. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  19. Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan [Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-10-09

    This project addresses the need for improved non-destructive assay techniques for quantifying the actinide composition of spent nuclear fuel and for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle. High-energy delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy following neutron irradiation is a potential technique for directly assaying spent fuel assemblies and achieving the safeguards goal of quantifying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification.

  20. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  1. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  2. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de

    1987-12-01

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  3. Synthesis and Thermodynamic Studies of Physisorptive Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadie, Nicholas

    Physical adsorption of hydrogen or other chemical fuels on the surface of carbonaceous materials offers a promising avenue for energy storage applications. The addition of a well-chosen sorbent material to a compressed gas tank increases the volumetric energy density of the system while still permitting fast refueling, simplicity of design, complete reversibility, high cyclability, and low overall cost of materials. While physical adsorption is most effective at temperatures below ambient, effective storage technologies are possible at room temperature and modestly high pressure. A volumetric Sieverts apparatus was designed, constructed, and commissioned to accurately measure adsorption uptake at high pressures and an appropriate thermodynamic treatment of the experimental data is presented. In Chapter 1, the problem of energy storage is introduced in the context of hydrogen as an ideal alternative fuel for future mobile vehicle applications, and with methane in mind as a near-term solution. The theory of physical adsorption that is relevant to this work is covered in Chapter 2. In-depth studies of two classes of materials are presented in the final chapters. Chapter 3 presents a study of the dissociative "hydrogen spillover" effect in the context of its viability as a practical hydrogen storage solution at room temperature. Chapters 4-5 deal with zeolite-templated carbon, an extremely high surface-area material which shows promise for hydrogen and methane storage applications. Studies of hydrogen adsorption at high pressure (Chapter 4) and anomalous thermodynamic properties of methane adsorption (Chapter 5) on ZTCs are presented. The concluding chapter discusses the impact of and possible future directions for this work.

  4. The changing role of nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear materials accounting and accounting systems at what have been DOE Production sites are evolving into management decision support tools. As the sites are moving into the mode of making decisions on how to disposition complex and varied nuclear material holdings, the need for complete and many times different information has never been greater. The artificial boundaries that have historically been established between what belongs in the classic material control and accountability (MC and A) records versus what goes into the financial, radiological control, waste, or decommissioning and decontamination records are being challenged. In addition, the tools historically used to put material into different categories such as scrap codes, composition codes, etc. have been found to be inadequate for the information needs of today. In order to be cost effective and even, more importantly to effectively manage -our inventories, the new information systems the authors design have to have the flexibility to serve many needs. In addition, those tasked with the responsibility of managing the inventories must also expand beyond the same artificial boundaries. This paper addresses some of the things occurring at the Savannah River Site to support the changing role of nuclear materials accounting

  5. Induced-Fission Imaging of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents initial results from development of the induced-fission imaging technique, which can be used for the purpose of measuring or verifying the distribution of fissionable material in an unopened container. The technique is based on stimulating fissions in nuclear material with 14 MeV neutrons from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (D-T) generator and counting the subsequent induced fast fission neutrons with an array of fast organic scintillation detectors. For each source neutron incident on the container, the neutron creation time and initial trajectory are known from detection of the associated alpha particle of the d + t → α + n reaction. Many induced fissions will lie along (or near) the interrogating neutron path, allowing an image of the spatial distribution of prompt induced fissions, and thereby fissionable material, to be constructed. A variety of induced-fission imaging measurements have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a portable, low-dose D-T generator, including single-view radiographic measurements and three-dimensional tomographic measurements. Results from these measurements will be presented along with the neutron transmission images that have been performed simultaneously. This new capability may have applications to a number of areas in which there may be a need to confirm the presence or configuration of nuclear materials, such as nuclear material control and accountability, quality assurance, treaty confirmation, or homeland security applications.

  6. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  7. Nuclear decontamination of personnel and material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, R. [Alfred Kaercher Gmbh and Co., Winnenden (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear decontamination of personnel and material has to be carried out immediately after any contaminating incident. A safe decontamination will only be successful when a suitable decontamination system and effective decontamination agent are used. The aim hereby is, that personnel will not suffer from any acute somatic or late somatic effect and that material can be re-used again without any protective devices. Test results have shown, that personnel decontamination is more effective today due to new technologies. Also material decontamination, nowadays carried out with hot foam and high pressure units improves the deradiation result.

  8. ALD coating of nuclear fuel actinides materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Yun, Di; Billone, Mike

    2017-09-05

    The invention provides a method of forming a nuclear fuel pellet of a uranium containing fuel alternative to UO.sub.2, with the steps of obtaining a fuel form in a powdered state; coating the fuel form in a powdered state with at least one layer of a material; and sintering the powdered fuel form into a fuel pellet. Also provided is a sintered nuclear fuel pellet of a uranium containing fuel alternative to UO.sub.2, wherein the pellet is made from particles of fuel, wherein the particles of fuel are particles of a uranium containing moiety, and wherein the fuel particles are coated with at least one layer between about 1 nm to about 4 nm thick of a material using atomic layer deposition, and wherein the at least one layer of the material substantially surrounds each interfacial grain barrier after the powdered fuel form has been sintered.

  9. Device for sealing and shielding a nuclear fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Gengo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a shield device for opening and closing a great opening in a relay-storage-tank within a hot cell for temporarily storing a nuclear fuel, in which the device is simplified in construction and which can perform the opening and closing operation in simple, positive and quick manner. Structure: A biological shield is positioned upwardly of an opening of a nuclear fuel storage tank to render an actuator inoperative. A sealing plate, which is pivotally supported by a plurality of support rod devices from the biological shield for parallel movement with respect to the biological shield, comes in contact with a resilient seal disposed along the entire peripheral edge of the opening to form an air-tight seal therebetween. In order to release the opening, the actuator is first actuated and the end of the sealing plate is horizontally pressed by a piston rod thereof. Then, the sealing plate is moved along the line depicted by the end of the support rod in the support rod devices and as a consequence, the plate is moved away from the resilient seal in the peripheral edge of the opening. When a driving device is actuated to travel the plate along the aforesaid line while maintaining the condition as described, the biological device moves along the guide. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Materials for Energy Conversion: Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The main objective of this collaborative research project was to identify a formulation and develop a catalyst for electro-oxidation of ethanol. Ethanol is one of the most mass-produced biofuels, and such catalysts will enable the development of Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell technology and through it, will interconnect fuel cells with biofuels. Several catalysts for direct electrochemical oxidation of ethanol have been selected on the principles of rational desig from the knowledge build in studying aqueous oxidation of ethanol. The program involved fundamental study of ethanol oxidation in liquid media, and particularly in alakine solutions. The lessons learned from the heterogeneous catalysis of ethanol thermal oxidation have been applied to the design of an electrocatalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells. The successful chemical compositions are based on PdZn and NiZn allows. The studies reveled the role of the transition metal oxide phase as a co-catalyst and the role of the active support material. To complete the set of materials for ethanol fuel cell, this program also invested n the development of ctalysts for oxygen reduction that are selective against alcohol oxidation. Non-platinum ctalysts based on pyrolyzed macrocycles or similar composites have been studied. This program included also the development of stuctured supports as an integral part of the catalyst development. A new family of materials has been designed based on mesoporous silica templating with synthetic carbon resulting in hierarchicaly porous structure. Structure-to-property relationship of catalysis and catalysts has been the center of this program. This have been engaged in both surface and bulk level and pursued with the tools avialble at the academic institutions and at LANSCE at LANL. The structural studies have been built in interaction with a computational effort on the basis of DFT approach to materials structure and reactivity.

  11. Gamma radiation scanning of nuclear waste storage tile holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Yue, S.; Sur, B.; Johnston, J.; Gaudet, M.; Wright, M.; Burton, N.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear waste management facilities at Chalk River Laboratories use below-ground 'tile holes' to store solid waste from various activities such as medical radioisotope production. A silicon PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type semiconductor) diode based gamma radiation scanning system has been developed and used to profile the gamma radiation fields along the depth of waste storage tile holes by deploying the sensor into verification tubes adjacent to the tile holes themselves. The radiation field measurements were consistent with expected radiation fields in the tile holes based on administrative knowledge of the radioactive contents and their corresponding decay rates. Such measurements allow non-invasive verification of tile hole contents and provide input to the assessment of radiological risk associated with removal of the waste. Using this detector system, radioactive waste that has decayed to very low levels may be identified based on the radiation profile. This information will support planning for possible transfer of this waste to a licensed waste storage facility designed for low level waste, thus freeing storage space for possible tile hole re-use for more highly radioactive waste. (author)

  12. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material control and accounting (MC&A) system that will achieve the following performance objectives: (1... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  13. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs

  14. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  15. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J. H.; Mizia, R. E.; Jex, R.; Nelson, L.; Garcia, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination

  16. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  17. Strengthened implementation of physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, H.-W.; Lee, J.-U.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Since the 9.11 terror, strengthening physical protection has been an accelerated trend internationally. IAEA has been requesting that member states implement a strengthened physical protection of nuclear facilities on the basis of threat assessments. In order to cope with this demand, the Korean government promulgated the 'Law for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency Preparedness (LPPRE)' as a substantial countermeasure against possible threats. Pursuant to LPPRE, which entered into force on February 16, 2004, nuclear enterprisers are obliged to implement an effective physical protection of nuclear materials, get approval for its physical protection system, and be constantly inspected on. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) approved physical protection regulations of 24 domestic facilities operated by 14 enterprisers. National Nuclear management and Control Agency (NNCA) is entrusted with physical protection related duty and has been conducting physical protection inspection on nuclear materials in use, storage and transport. In addition, NNCA has established the methodology of threat assessment that entails organizing the threat assessment working group to develop a design basis threat (DBT). Korea is putting its best efforts to construct the threat assessment system and strengthen domestic physical protection regime in cooperation with competent authorities. (author)

  18. Effects of packaging materials on storage quality of peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoji; Xing, Shengping; Xiong, Huiwei; Min, Hua; Zhu, Xuejing; He, Jialin; Mu, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain optimum packaging materials for peanut kernels, the effects of four types of packaging materials on peanut storage quality (coat color, acid value, germination rate, relative damage, and prevention of aflatoxin contamination) were examined. The results showed that packaging materials had a major influence on peanut storage quality indexes. The color of the peanut seed coat packaged in the polyester/aluminum/polyamide/polyethylene (PET/AL/PA/PE) composite film bag did not change significantly during the storage period. Color deterioration was slower with polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) packaging materials than with polyethylene (PE) film bags and was slower in PE bags than in the woven bags. The use of PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags maintained peanut quality and freshness for more than one year and both package types resulted in better germination rates. There were significant differences between the four types of packaging materials in terms of controlling insect pests. The peanuts packaged in the highly permeable woven bags suffered serious invasion from insect pests, while both PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags effectively prevented insect infection. Peanuts stored in PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags were also better at preventing and controlling aflatoxin contamination. PMID:29518085

  19. Retrieval system of nuclear data for transmutation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Utsumi, Misako; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A database storing the data on nuclear reaction was built to calculate for simulating transmutation behaviours of materials /1/-/3/. In order to retrieve and maintain the database, the user interface for the data retrieval was developed where special knowledge on handling of the database or the machine structure is not required for end-user. It is indicated that using the database, the possibility of He formation and radioactivity in a material can be easily retrieved though the evaluation is qualitatively. (author)

  20. Risk assessment in long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.; Guttmann, J.; Mohseni, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents probabilistic risk-informed approaches that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is planning to consider in preparing regulatory bases for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for up to 300 years. Due to uncertainties associated with long-term SNF storage, the NRC is considering a probabilistic risk-informed approach as well as a deterministic design-based approach. The uncertainties considered here are primarily associated with materials aging of the canister and SNF in the cask system during long-term storage of SNF. This paper discusses some potential risk contributors involved in long-term SNF storage. Methods of performance evaluation are presented that assess the various types of risks involved. They include deterministic evaluation, probabilistic evaluation, and consequence assessment under normal conditions and the conditions of accidents and natural hazards. Some potentially important technical issues resulting from the consideration of a probabilistic risk-informed evaluation of the cask system performance are discussed for the canister and SNF integrity. These issues are also discussed in comparison with the deterministic approach for comparison purposes, as appropriate. Probabilistic risk-informed methods can provide insights that deterministic methods may not capture. Two specific examples include stress corrosion cracking of the canister and hydrogen-induced cladding failure. These examples are discussed in more detail, in terms of their effects on radionuclide release and nuclear subcriticality associated with the failure. The plan to consider the probabilistic risk-informed approaches is anticipated to provide helpful regulatory insights for long-term storage of SNF that provide reasonable assurance for public health and safety. (authors)

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The

  2. Materials for generation-IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV. Six systems have been selected for Generation IV consideration: gas-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, molten salt-cooled reactor, sodium-cooled fast reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and very high temperature reactor. The structural materials need to resist much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive environment, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. For this reason, the first consideration in the development of Generation-IV concepts is selection and deployment of materials that operate successfully in the aggressive operating environments expected in the Gen-IV concepts. This paper summarizes the Gen-IV operating environments and describes the various candidate materials under consideration for use in different structural applications. (author)

  3. Review of spent nuclear fuel dry storage demonstration programs in US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Dae Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Demonstration programs for spent nuclear fuel dry storage have been carried out to produce important and confirmatory data to support safety of dry storage systems and integrity of spent nuclear fuel stored in dry condition. The US initiated the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel and has strict and explicit regulatory stipulations on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage. The US has carried out several notable demonstration programs for the initiation and license extension of dry storage. At the very early stage of dry storage, the demonstration programs were focused on proof of the safety of dry storage systems and a demonstration project called the dry cask storage characterization project was performed for the license extension of low burn-up fuel dry storage. Currently, a demonstration program for the license extension of high burn-up fuel dry storage is under way and is expected to continue for at least 10 years. Korea has not yet begun the dry storage of PWR fuel and the US programs can be a good reference and can provide lessons to safely begin and operate dry storage in Korea. In this paper, past and current demonstration programs of the US are analyzed and several recommendations are provided for demonstration programs for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in Korea.

  4. Study of a brazilian cask and its installation for PWR spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from the nuclear reactor after the depletion on efficiency in generating energy. After the withdrawal from the reactor core, the SNF is temporarily stored in pools at the same site of the reactor. At this time, the generated heat and the short and medium lived radioactive elements decay to levels that allow removing SNF from the pool and sending it to temporary dry storage. In that phase, the fuel needs to be safely and efficiently stored, and then, it can be retrieved in a future, or can be disposed as radioactive waste. The amount of spent fuel increases annually and, in the next years, will still increase more, because of the construction of new nuclear plants. Today, the number of new facilities back up to levels of the 1970's, since it is greater than the amount of decommissioning in old installations. As no final decision on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is foreseen in the near future in Brazil, either to recover the SNF or to consider it as radioactive waste, this material has to be isolated in some type of storage model existing around the world. In the present study it is shown that dry SNF storage is the best option. A national cask model for SNF as well these casks storage installation are proposed. It is a multidisciplinary study in which the engineering conceptual task was developed and may be applied to national SNF removed from the Brazilian power reactors, to be safely stored for a long time until the Brazilian authorities will decide about the site for final disposal. (author)

  5. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  6. Geological storage of nuclear wastes: Insights following the Fukushima crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, Adrián H.; Matsuzaki, Tomose; Aoki, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    The geological storage of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) has been in the agenda of Japan for several years. Nevertheless, all the research can become meaningless without understanding the public feelings about the disposal. The events at Fukushima in 2011 altered the perception towards nuclear-waste storage in the country. This work investigates the attitude of young Japanese towards the construction of a repository following the Fukushima crisis, and examines how public perception changed after the event. A survey among 545 university students from different regions of Japan addressed three main variables: dread, trust and acceptance. The results suggest that the economy of the country is still the most concerning issue, but there was a dramatic increase of attention towards everything n uclear . Radiation leakage and food contamination are major concerns as well. The distrust towards the government deepened after Fukushima, although more than half of the respondents would accept the repository. In a clear phenomenon of NIMBY (not in my back yard), the acceptance drops to less than 20% if the repository is to be installed near the respondents' residency. Financial incentives would increase the acceptability of the siting, although only a substantial compensation might minimise the NIMBY in potential host communities. - Highlights: • Major factors influencing the attitude towards nuclear waste disposal were examined. • The opinion of the Japanese youth before and after the Fukushima events was compared. • Unemployment and earthquakes are now at the upper end of the thought of dread. • The government and scientists are highly distrusted by the Japanese youth. • People might still accept the repository though the NIMBY phenomenon remains high

  7. Effects of temperature on concrete cask in a dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiqing; Wu Ruixian; Zheng Yukuan

    2011-01-01

    In the dry storage of spent nuclear fuels,concrete cask serves both as a shielding and a structural containment. The concrete in the storage facility is expected to endure the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel during its service life. Thus, effects of the sustaining high temperature on concrete material need be evaluated for safety of the dry storage facility. In this paper, we report an experimental program aimed at investigating possible high temperature effects on properties of concrete, with emphasis on the mechanical stability, porosity,and crack-resisting ability of concrete mixes prepared using various amounts of Portland cement, fly ash, and blast furnace slag. The experimental results obtained from concrete specimens exposed to a temperature of 94 degree C for 90 days indicate that: (1) compressive strength of the concrete remains practically unchanged; (2) the ultrasonic pulse velocity, and dynamic modulus of elasticity of the concrete decrease in early stage of the high-temperature exposure,and gradually become stable with continuing exposure; (3) shrinkage of concrete mixes exhibits an increase in early stage of the exposure and does not decrease further with time; (4) concrete mixes containing pozzolanic materials,including fly ash and blast furnace slag, show better temperature-resisting characteristics than those using only Portland cement. (authors)

  8. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica-Alina Oltean

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  9. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  10. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  11. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  12. Spent nuclear fuel storage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning spent nuclear fuel storage technologies, facilities, sites, and assessment. References review wet and dry storage, spent fuel casks and pools, underground storage, monitored and retrievable storage systems, and aluminum-clad spent fuels. Environmental impact, siting criteria, regulations, and risk assessment are also discussed. Computer codes and models for storage safety are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop fundamental understanding and predictive models of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels, as well as an understanding of the effects of these radiation-induced solid-state changes on dissolution kinetics (i.e., radionuclide release). The research performed during the duration of this project has addressed many of the scientific issues identified in the reports of two DOE panels [1,2], particularly those related to radiation effects on the structure of glasses and ceramics. The research approach taken by this project integrated experimental studies and computer simulations to develop comprehensive fundamental understanding and capabilities for predictive modeling of radiation effects and dissolution kinetics in both glasses and ceramics designed for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste (HLW), plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, other actinides, and other highly radioactive waste streams. Such fundamental understanding is necessary in the development of predictive models because all experimental irradiation studies on nuclear waste materials are ''accelerated tests'' that add a great deal of uncertainty to predicted behavior because the damage rates are orders of magnitude higher than the actual damage rates expected in nuclear waste materials. Degradation and dissolution processes will change with damage rate and temperature. Only a fundamental understanding of the kinetics of all the physical and chemical processes induced or affected by radiation will lead to truly predictive models of long-term behavior and performance for nuclear waste materials. Predictive models of performance of nuclear waste materials must be scientifically based and address both radiation effects on structure (i.e., solid-state effects) and the effects of these solid-state structural changes on dissolution kinetics. The ultimate goal of this

  14. The physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Technical Committee met 21-25 June 1993 to consider changes to INFCIRC/225/Rev.2. The revised document, INFCIRC/225/Rev.3, reflects the Technical Committee recommendations for changes to the text as well as other modifications determined necessary to advance the consistency of the Categorization Table in INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 with the categorization table contained in The Convention of the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and to reflect additional improvements presented by the experts. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  15. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  16. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Linehan, Sue [Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lipiecki, Frank [Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Christopher, Aardahl L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-05-12

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen storage targets.

  17. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  18. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  19. Energy storage crystalline gel materials for 3D printing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuchen; Miyazaki, Takuya; Gong, Jin; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-04-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are considered one of the most reliable latent heat storage and thermoregulation materials. In this paper, a vinyl monomer is used to provide energy storage capacity and synthesize gel with phase change property. The side chain of copolymer form crystal microcell to storage/release energy through phase change. The crosslinking structure of the copolymer can protect the crystalline micro-area maintaining the phase change stable in service and improving the mechanical strength. By selecting different monomers and adjusting their ratios, we design the chemical structure and the crystallinity of gels, which in further affect their properties, such as strength, flexibility, thermal absorb/release transition temperature, transparency and the water content. Using the light-induced polymerization 3D printing techniques, we synthesize the energy storage gel and shape it on a 3D printer at the same time. By optimizing the 3D printing conditions, including layer thickness, curing time and light source, etc., the 3D printing objects are obtained.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  1. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  2. Contributions to radiochemical and nuclear materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.

    1982-01-01

    Series of talks given during a seminar of the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in april 1981 in honor of R. LINDNER on the occasion of his 60th birth day. The topics include general aspects of research practice and science prognosis, retrospective essays about the discovery of nuclear fission by O. HAHN as well as surveys of actual research activities concerning a radiochemistry and the use of radioactivity in material science

  3. Nuclear data needs for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Gabor L.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear data for material analysis using neutron-based methods are examined. Besides a critical review of the available data, emphasis is given to emerging application areas and new experimental techniques. Neutron scattering and reaction data, as well as decay data for delayed and prompt gamma activation analysis are all discussed in detail. Conclusions are formed concerning the need of new measurement, calculation, evaluation and dissemination activities. (author)

  4. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  5. Materials qualification for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braconi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The supply of materials to be used in the fabrication of components submitted to pressure destined to Atucha II nuclear power plant must fulfill the quality assurance requirements in accordance with the international standards. With the aim of promoting the national participation in CNA II, ENACE had the need to adapt these requirements to the national industry conditions and to the availability of official entities' qualification and inspection. As a uniform and normalized assessment for the qualification of materials did not exist in the country, ENACE had to develop a materials suppliers qualification system. This paper presents a suppliers qualification procedure, its application limits and the alternative procedures for the acceptance of individual stock and for the stock materials purchase. (Author)

  6. The research on the material management system in nuclear power plant construction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuegeng; Huang Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    According to the module construction speciality of nuclear power plant, this article analyzes the relationship between the actual amount of the material transported to the construction site and the planed needs of the material, and points out the zero inventory management target in the nuclear power plant construction site. Based on this, the article put forward a nuclear power plant material management system which is based on the 'pull' information driver. This system is composed by material coding sub-system, procurement and site material integrated management sub-system and project control sub-system, and is driven by the material demand from construction site to realize the JIT purchasing. This structure of the system can reduce the gap between the actual amount of the material transported to the site and the planed needs of the material and achieve the target of reducing storage at construction site. (authors)

  7. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  8. Optimization of a Dry, Mixed Nuclear Fuel Storage Array for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranko, Benjamin T.

    A dry storage array of used nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory contains a mixture of more than twenty different research and test reactor fuel types in up to 636 fuel storage canisters. New analysis demonstrates that the current arrangement of the different fuel-type canisters does not minimize the system neutron multiplication factor (keff), and that the entire facility storage capacity cannot be utilized without exceeding the subcritical limit (ksafe) for ensuring nuclear criticality safety. This work determines a more optimal arrangement of the stored fuels with a goal to minimize the system keff, but with a minimum of potential fuel canister relocation movements. The solution to this multiple-objective optimization problem will allow for both an improvement in the facility utilization while also offering an enhancement in the safety margin. The solution method applies stochastic approximation and a Tabu search metaheuristic to an empirical model developed from supporting MCNP calculations. The results establish an optimal relocation of between four to sixty canisters, which will allow the current thirty-one empty canisters to be used for storage while reducing the array keff by up to 0.018 +/- 0.003 relative to the current arrangement.

  9. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 43518 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... alternatives for the storage, processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear... question: `` hould the US change the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste... see first-hand a shutdown reactor facility currently storing spent nuclear fuel pending final disposal...

  11. 75 FR 45608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Co-chairs of the... the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste while one or more final disposal... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department...

  12. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  13. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The draft guide describes methods that the NRC staff..., testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

  14. Nanostructured Catalytic Hybrid Materials for Energy Conversion or Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-27

    Distribution Ultimate goal: An integrated energy generation/storage system The above three elements can be achieved using carbon -based materials...8DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A – Unclassified, Unlimited Distribution Figure 2 • SEM images of Al/ carbon nanofibers containing Al nanoparticles...9DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A – Unclassified, Unlimited Distribution Figure 3 • SEM images of AlOA/PAN and carbon nanofibers containing Al nanoparticles

  15. Pseudocapacitive oxide materials for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Augustyn, Veronica; Simon, Patrice; Dunn, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Electrochemical energy storage technology is based on devices capable of exhibiting high energy density (batteries) or high power density (electrochemical capacitors). There is a growing need, for current andnear-future applications, where both high energy and high power densities are required in the same material. Pseudocapacitance, a faradaic process involving surface or near surface redox reactions, offers a means of achieving high energy density at high charge–disc...

  16. Microencapsulated Phase-Change Materials For Storage Of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes research on engineering issues related to storage and transport of heat in slurries containing phase-change materials in microscopic capsules. Specific goal of project to develop lightweight, compact, heat-management systems used safely in inhabited areas of spacecraft. Further development of obvious potential of technology expected to lead to commercialization and use in aircraft, electronic equipment, machinery, industrial processes, and other sytems in which requirements for management of heat compete with severe restrictions on weight or volume.

  17. Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J. M. (Jeremy M.); Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material

  18. Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material

  19. Lessons learned from 50 years period the storage of the spent fuel from nuclear research reactor VVR-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear research reactor VVR-S was commissioned in July 1957. This reactor is in permanent shutdown since December 1997 and will be decommissioned. The duration of the decommissioning project is 11 years. The first year of decommissioning project is 2010. The spent nuclear fuels resulting from the 40 years of operating the nuclear research reactor are stored under wet conditions. The chemical and physical water parameters monitored are: transparency, conductibility, pH, chloride content, oxygen content, temperature, dry residual content, Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Vn, Cr. Residual dry content must be maintained in requested range in order to prevent degradation and corrosion both of the clads, assemblies and linen material of the ponds. Two types of the nuclear fuel assemblies were used: LEU type -EK-10 and HEU type S-36 Russian origin. All spent nuclear fuel assemblies HEU-S-36 type were repatriated in Russian Federation in June 2009 in safety and security conditions without any problems due of the wet storage, after 25 years storage in wet conditions. The spent nuclear fuel assemblies types LEU EK-10 were stored in wet conditions more than 50 years. This paper describes the lessons learned during the 50 years management of the spent nuclear fuel resulted from the operation the research reactor VVR-S. The management was based on the maintenance of water parameters by water filtration, using at all times air HEPA filter incorporated in technological ventilation system and by monitoring the level, temperature, physical and chemical parameters of the water storage from ponds and by controlling ponds linen physical integrity. Also we have used the discs having the same compositions with materials from assemblies stored in the same ponds, in order to verify degradation and corrosion phenomena induced due to the quality of storage water. The paper will described these results obtained by metallographic, visual, XRF analysis onto discs and dry residual samples from storage

  20. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. FY 1979 project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This document presents the management and cost for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (disposal of high-level wastes at Nevada Test Site) and provides a complete description of the overall project, management structure, technical approach, and work breakdown structure. The document is organized into five major sections. Section I summarizes the history of the project and indicates a potential future course of action. FY 1979 project work is briefly described in Section II. Section III outlines the delegated responsibilities of all project management functions. A list of critical questions that guide the technical approach of the project are presented in Section IV. Section V contains subtask work plans which outline the work in detail for this fiscal year

  1. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, 1977-1985: A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.; Lorenz, J.J.

    1987-06-01

    This bibliography contains information on the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1977 through December 1985. A brief history is included to familiarize the reader with the general direction and activity highlights of the NNWSI and to give the reader some insight into the kinds of bibliographic references to be found in this document. The bibliography is categorized by principal NNWSI participant organizations. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's bibliography list. The principal participant bibliography listings are arranged in chronological order. The following indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, Report Number, Order Number Correlation, and Key Word in Context. Six-month updates to this bibliography will not have indexes. The updates will be cumulated and issued at 2-year intervals as a supplement to the original bibliography. The supplement will include all the indexes

  2. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  3. Hydrogen storage materials at INCDTIM Cluj - Napoca. Achievements and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A.R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Introducing hydrogen fuel to the transportation area poses key challenges for research on hydrogen storage materials. As one of the most promising alternative fuels for transport, hydrogen offers the long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and can be based on renewable energy sources. The Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission fosters research for safe methods for storing hydrogen, for use in fuel cells or modified combustion engines in cars and other road vehicles. Hydrogen storage materials focused, in the last 30 years, the attention of the research programs in the many countries. Due to the fast development of the fuel cell technologies, the subject is much more stringent now. For mobile applications to fuel cell powered vehicles, on-board storage materials with hydrogen absorption/desorption capacities of at least 6.5%H are needed. For an efficient storage system the goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of H 2 gas (1 kg of gas has a volume of 11 m 3 at ambient temperature and pressure). To reach the high volumetric and gravimetric density suitable for mobile applications, basically six reversible storage methods are known today according to A. Zuettel: 1) high-pressure gas cylinders, 2) liquid in cryogenic tanks, 3) physisorbed on a solid surface e.g. carbon-nanotubes 4) metal hydrides of the metals or intermetallic compounds. 5) complex hydrides of light elements such as alanates and boranates, 6) storage via chemical reactions. Recently, the storage as hydrogen hydrates at 50 bar using promoters has been reported by F. Peetom. The paper discusses the feasibility of each of these storing alternatives. The authors presents their experience and results of the work in the field of metal hydrides and application obtained since 1975. All classes of hydrogen absorbing intermetallic compounds were studied: LaNi 5 , FeTi, Ti

  4. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  5. Safeguards for nuclear material transparency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.A.; Wolford, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The US and the Russian Federation are currently engaged in negotiating or implementing several nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements. These involve placing nuclear material in specially designed containers within controlled facilities. Some of the agreements require the removal of nuclear components from stockpile weapons. These components are placed in steel containers that are then sealed and tagged. Current strategies for monitoring the agreements involve taking neutron and gamma radiation measurements of components in their containers to monitor the presence, mass, and composition of plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as well as other attributes that indicate the use of the material in a weapon. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will yield data containing information about the design of the weapon being monitored. In each case, the design data are considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. To prevent the disclosure of this information in a bilateral or trilateral inspection scenario, so-called information barriers have evolved. These barriers combine hardware, software, and procedural safeguards to contain the sensitive data within a protected volume, presenting to the inspector only the processed results needed for verification. Interlocks and volatile memory guard against disclosure in case of failure. Implementing these safeguards requires innovation in radiation measurement instruments and data security. Demonstrating their reliability requires independent testing to uncover any flaws in design. This study discusses the general problem and gives a proposed solution for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It uses historical examples to illustrate the evolution of other successful systems

  6. Dose reduction improvements in storage basins of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.

    1997-08-13

    Spent nuclear fuel in storage basins at the Hanford Site has corroded and contaminated basin water, which has leaked into the soil; the fuel also had deposited a layer of radioactive sludge on basin floors. The SNF is to be removed from the basins to protect the nearby Columbia River. Because the radiation level is high, measures have been taken to reduce the background dose rate to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) to prevent radiation doses from becoming the limiting factor for removal of the SW in the basins to long-term dry storage. All activities of the SNF Project require application of ALARA principles for the workers. On the basis of these principles dose reduction improvements have been made by first identifying radiological sources. Principal radiological sources in the basin are basin walls, basin water, recirculation piping and equipment. Dose reduction activities focus on cleaning and coating basin walls to permit raising the water level, hydrolasing piping, and placing lead plates. In addition, the transfer bay floor will be refinished to make decontamination easier and reduce worker exposures in the radiation field. The background dose rates in the basin will be estimated before each task commences and after it is completed; these dose reduction data will provide the basis for cost benefit analysis.

  7. Interim nuclear spent fuel storage facility - From complete refusal to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacena, Michal

    1998-01-01

    discuss anything. Step by step we realized a four year P.R. programme which included, for example, intensive discussions with people and their representatives in potential host regions, work with journalists, issuing information materials, organising information tps to nuclear facilities abroad sponsorship programmes, mobile exhibition and other activities. After such a long and difficult process, we feel that we are able to show others what we have done, what we have learned and what the results were. There were some good results in the end. We hit both of our main P.R. targets and maybe even a bit more: 1. We found a site, where the central storage is accepted by local representatives and where even most of them would welcome it. 2. The current Czech government changed the old decision to limit storage capacity at Dukovany NPP and recommended building two storage facilities at NPP's sites. The possibility of a central storage facility is being held in reserve. 3. Local representatives at both NPP sites are not refusing to discuss a new storage facility and are able to accept it. As usual in P.R., our work never ends. New targets have to be defined, new activities have to start: The whole site selection process has not been finished yet. Public hearings for both a central and the Dukovany NPP storage facilities will start next year. We expect to get a construction permit for the Dukovany site in three or four years. Then we intend to start the same at the Temelin site. But you probably know that never-ending P.R. story. (author)

  8. General principles of the nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing and transportation fissile materials in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vnukov, V.S.; Rjazanov, B.G.; Sviridov, V.I.; Frolov, V.V.; Zubkov, Y.N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the general principles of nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing, transportation and fissile materials storing. Measures to limit the consequences of critical accidents are discussed for the fuel processing plants and fissile materials storage. The system of scientific and technical measures on nuclear criticality safety as well as the system of control and state supervision based on the rules, limits and requirements are described. The criticality safety aspects for various stages of handling nuclear materials are considered. The paper gives descriptions of the methods and approaches for critical risk assessments for the processing facilities, plants and storages. (Author)

  9. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conatser, E.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of December 1999, over 22% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These ∼2650 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed the L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into the L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 105 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment will be explained to show

  10. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jay

    1999-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S.-origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of July 1999, over 18% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These 2400 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 86 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment will be explained to show how the empty

  11. Uranium as Raw Material for Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2006-01-01

    There is lot of information bringing our attention to the problem of limited raw material resources. Fortunately uranium for nuclear energy is very concentrated source and that is why its transport brings no problems and could be realized from anywhere. Second question is if overall resources are available for current nuclear energy development. Data documenting reasons for nowadays price growth are presenting and it is clearly shown that the most probable explanation is that there is gap in new uranium mines preparation and the lot of smaller mines were closed in the period of low uranium prices. Conclusion is that there is at least for the first half of this century even for thermal reactors enough uranium. Situation could be changed if there will massive production of liquid fuel using hydrogen, produced through nuclear heating. Public information about former military uranium resources are also included. Contemporary about one half of US nuclear power-stations is using high enriched uranium diluted with natural uranium - it is expected to continue this way up to 2012. Uranium is complicated market (Authors)

  12. Current trends in nuclear material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, Norman; Oshinowo, Franchone

    1997-01-01

    The business of radioactive material transportation has evolved considerably in the past 40 years. Current practices reflect extensive international experience in handling radioactive cargo within a mature and tested regulatory framework. Nevertheless, new developments continue to have an impact on how shipments of nuclear material are planned and carried out. Entities involved in the transport of radioactive materials must keep abreast of these developments and work together to find innovative solutions to ensure that safe, smooth transport activities may continue. Several recent trends in the regulatory environment and political atmosphere require attention. There are four key trends that we'll be examining today: 1) the reduction in the pool of available commercial carriers; 2) routing restrictions; 3) package validation issues; and 4) increasing political sensitivities. Careful planning and cooperative measures are necessary to alleviate problems in each of these areas. (author)

  13. Handling of final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In this report the various facilities incorporated in the proposed handling chain for spent fuel from the power stations to the final repository are discribed. Thus the geological conditions which are essential for a final repository is discussed as well as the buffer and canister materials and how they contribute towards a long-term isolation of the spent fuel. Furthermore one chapter deals with leaching of the deposited fuel in the event that the canister is penetrated as well as the transport mechanisms which determine the migration of the radioactive substances through the buffer material. The dispersal processes in the geosphere and the biosphere are also described together with the transfer mechanisms to the ecological systems as well as radiation doses. Finally a summary is given of the safety analysis of the proposed method for the handling and final storage of the spent fuel. (E.R.)

  14. Special nuclear material inventory sampling plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, H.; Goldman, A.

    1987-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1942, sampling inspection procedures have been common quality assurance practice. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports such sampling of special nuclear materials inventories. The DOE Order 5630.7 states, Operations Offices may develop and use statistically valid sampling plans appropriate for their site-specific needs. The benefits for nuclear facilities operations include reduced worker exposure and reduced work load. Improved procedures have been developed for obtaining statistically valid sampling plans that maximize these benefits. The double sampling concept is described and the resulting sample sizes for double sample plans are compared with other plans. An algorithm is given for finding optimal double sampling plans that assist in choosing the appropriate detection and false alarm probabilities for various sampling plans

  15. Condition of research reactor spent nuclear fuels in wet storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Maksimkin, O.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The condition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in wet storage at ten Soviet-designed research reactors has been assessed in the light of international experience in order to identify any associated safety issues. These reactors use Al-clad UO 2 -Al or U-Al alloy dispersion fuels of ≥20% enrichment that were fabricated in Russia; the reactors have been in operation since 1955-70. Although originally sent for reprocessing, much of the SNF generated over the last 25-30 years has been stored in fuel storage pools (FSPs) of variable water quality. The external condition of wet-stored SNF assemblies from the reactors surveyed varied from significant failure due to galvanic corrosion that was driven by poor water quality, through gradual pitting caused by slightly impure water, to a stable condition of no observable change in the oxidized Al alloy surface of the irradiated fuel. SNF stability in wet storage seems to depend on three factors: Al being the sole metal in the FSP (to avoid galvanic action); good water chemistry to suppress attack of the oxide layer by aggressive ions like Cl - , and gentle handling to limit physical damage to the oxide layer. If one of these factors is not satisfied, SNF degradation will take place; if more than one factor is not satisfied, failure of the Al cladding may occur. In general, however, even SNF failure in wet storage does not appear to raise significant safety concerns. A possible exception is where galvanic corrosion combined with poor water quality has caused massive fuel failure, as at the RA reactor in Belgrade. A potential safety problem was identified at reactors where unalloyed Al liners had been used in the FSPs. Unlike SNF that develops a protective oxide layer in-reactor, these Al liners were unprotected and prone to significant corrosion during an ill-defined early period of poor water quality. The risk of losing water from FSPs due to liner failure should be evaluated for all research reactors. Where the risk

  16. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Lozano-Castello, D.; Suarez-Garcia, F.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Linares-Solano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ) [1]. A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous cartons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  17. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  18. Design Of Dry Cask Storage For Serpong Multipurpose Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Sulistyani Rahayu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available DESIGN OF DRY CASK STORAGE FOR SERPONG MULTI PURPOSE REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF from Serpong Multipurpose Reactor, after 100 days storing in the reactor pond, is transferred to water pool interim storage for spent fuel (ISFSF. At present there are a remaining of 245 elements of SNF on the ISSF,198 element of which have been re-exported to the USA. The dry-cask storage allows the SNF, which has already been cooled in the ISSF, to lower its radiation exposure and heat decayat a very low level. Design of the dry cask storage for SNF has been done. Dual purpose of unventilated vertical dry cask was selected among other choices of metal cask, horizontal concrete modules, and modular vaults by taking into account of technical and economical advantages. The designed structure of cask consists of SNF rack canister, inner steel liner, concrete shielding of cask, and outer steel liner. To avoid bimetallic corrosion, the construction material for canister and inner steel liner follows the same material construction of fuel cladding, i.e. the alloy of AlMg2. The construction material of outer steel liner is copper to facilitate the heat transfer from the cask to the atmosphere. The total decay heat is transferred from SNF elements bundle to the atmosphere by a serial of heat transfer resistance for canister wall, inner steel liner, concrete shielding, and outer steel liner respectedly. The rack canister optimum capacity of 34 fuel elements was designed by geometric similarity method basedon SNF position arrangement of 7 x 6 triangular pitch array of fuel elements for prohibiting criticality by spontaneous neutron. The SNF elements are stored vertically on the rack canister.  The thickness of concrete wall shielding was calculated by trial and error to give air temperature of 30 oC and radiation dose on the wall surface of outer liner of 200 mrem/h. The SNF elements bundles originate from the existing racks of wet storage, i

  19. Evalution of NDA techniques and instruments for assay of nuclear waste at a waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeman, E.D.; Allen, E.J.; Jenkins, J.D.

    1978-05-01

    The use of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) instrumentation at a nuclear waste terminal storage facility for purposes of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) accountability is evaluated. Background information is given concerning general NDA techniques and the relative advantages and disadvantages of active and passive NDA methods are discussed. The projected characteristics and amounts of nuclear wastes that will be delivered to a waste terminal storage facility are presented. Wastes are divided into four categories: High Level Waste, Cladding Waste, Intermediate Level Waste, and Low Level Waste. Applications of NDA methods to the assay of these waste types is discussed. Several existing active and passive NDA instruments are described and, where applicable, results of assays performed on wastes in large containers (e.g., 55-gal drums) are given. It is concluded that it will be difficult to routinely achieve accuracies better than approximately 10--30% with ''simple'' NDA devices or 5--20% with more sohpisticated NDA instruments for compacted wastes. It is recommended that NDA instruments not be used for safeguards accountability at a waste storage facility. It is concluded that item accountability methods be implemented. These conclusions and recommendations are detailed in a concurrent report entitled ''Recommendations on the Safeguards Requirements Related to the Accountability of Special Nuclear Material at Waste Terminal Storage Facilities'' by J.D. Jenkins, E.J. Allen and E.D. Blakeman

  20. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  1. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  2. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse;Calculo de subcriticidad del almacen del material nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Mazon R, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  3. Chemical characterization of nuclear materials: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Amrit; Nandi, C.; Patil, A.B.; Khan, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to stringent chemical specifications like boron, cadmium, rare earths, hydrogen, oxygen to metal ratio, total gas, heavy metal content, chlorine and fluorine etc. Selection of technique is very important to evaluate the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses have to perform inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of advanced analytical techniques being developed and used in chemical characterization of nuclear materials specially fuels during their fabrication. Nuclear fuels comprise of fuels based on UO 2 , PUO 2 , ThO 2 and combination of (U+Pu)O 2 , (Th+U)O 2 , (Th+Pu)O 2 , (U+Pu)C, (U+Pu)N etc depending on the type of reactors chosen Viz. Pressurized Heavy water Reactor (PHWR), Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Fast Breeder Test Reactor and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Chemical characterization of these fuels is very important for performance of fuel in the reactor. It provides means to ascertain that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the chemical specifications for the fuel laid down by the designer. The batches of sintered/degassed pellets are subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. Chemical Quality Control of fuel is carried out at different stages of manufacture namely feed materials, sintering, vacuum degassing and fuel element welding. Advanced analytical technique based on titrimetry, spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, XRF and XRD have largely been used for this purpose. Since they have to be handled inside special enclosures, extreme care are being taken during handling. Instruments are being developed/modified for ease of handling and maintenance. The method should be fast to reduce

  4. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, Enrique J. (University of California, Davis); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D. (Whithworth University, Spokane, WA)

    2011-08-01

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  5. Carbon dioxide: A new material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Amouroux

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  6. Chemical characterization of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    India is fabricating nuclear fuels for various types of reactors, for example, (U-Pu) MOX fuel of varying Pu content for boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), prototype fast breeder reactors (PFBRs), (U-Pu) carbide fuel fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), and U-based fuels for research reactors. Nuclear fuel being the heart of the reactor, its chemical and physical characterisation is an important component of this design. Both the fuel materials and finished fuel products are to be characterised for this purpose. Quality control (both chemical and physical) provides a means to ensure that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the specifications for the fuel laid down by the fuel designer. Chemical specifications are worked out for the major and minor constituents which affect the fuel properties and hence its performance under conditions prevailing in an operating reactor. Each fuel batch has to be subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. A number of advanced process and quality control steps are required to ensure the quality of the fuels. Further more, in the case of Pu-based fuels, it is necessary to extract maximum quality data by employing different evaluation techniques which would result in minimum scrap/waste generation of valuable plutonium. The task of quality control during fabrication of nuclear fuels of various types is both challenging and difficult. The underlying philosophy is total quality control of the fuel by proper mix of process and quality control steps at various stages of fuel manufacture starting from the feed materials. It is also desirable to adapt more than one analytical technique to increase the confidence and reliability of the quality data generated. This is all the most required when certified reference materials are not available. In addition, the adaptation of non-destructive techniques in the chemical quality

  7. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  8. Fugitive binder for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallivan, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    A compound consisting of ammonium cations and carbonate, bicarbonate, or carbamate anions, or a mixture of such compounds, is useful as a binder for uranium dioxide fuel pellets for which it is desired to maintain a certain degree of porosity, uniformity of pore size, a lack of interconnections between the pores, and the shape or configuration of the base material particles in the final article after sintering. Upon heating, these binders decompose into gases and leave substantially no impurities. A process for sintering green nuclear fuel pellets using these binders is provided. (LL)

  9. Enhancing pseudocapacitive charge storage in polymer templated mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauda, Iris E; Augustyn, Veronica; Dunn, Bruce; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2013-05-21

    Growing global energy demands coupled with environmental concerns have increased the need for renewable energy sources. For intermittent renewable sources like solar and wind to become available on demand will require the use of energy storage devices. Batteries and supercapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors (ECs), represent the most widely used energy storage devices. Supercapacitors are frequently overlooked as an energy storage technology, however, despite the fact that these devices provide greater power, much faster response times, and longer cycle life than batteries. Their limitation is that the energy density of ECs is significantly lower than that of batteries, and this has limited their potential applications. This Account reviews our recent work on improving pseudocapacitive energy storage performance by tailoring the electrode architecture. We report our studies of mesoporous transition metal oxide architectures that store charge through surface or near-surface redox reactions, a phenomenon termed pseudocapacitance. The faradaic nature of pseudocapacitance leads to significant increases in energy density and thus represents an exciting future direction for ECs. We show that both the choice of material and electrode architecture is important for producing the ideal pseudocapacitor device. Here we first briefly review the current state of electrode architectures for pseudocapacitors, from slurry electrodes to carbon/metal oxide composites. We then describe the synthesis of mesoporous films made with amphiphilic diblock copolymer templating agents, specifically those optimized for pseudocapacitive charge storage. These include films synthesized from nanoparticle building blocks and films made from traditional battery materials. In the case of more traditional battery materials, we focus on using flexible architectures to minimize the strain associated with lithium intercalation, that is, the accumulation of lithium ions or atoms between the

  10. Development of thermal energy storage materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A; Sharma, Atul; Shukla, Manjari; Chen, C R

    2015-01-01

    The phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized widely for solar thermal energy storage (TES) devices. The quality of these materials to remain at a particular temperature during solid-liquid, liquid-solid phase transition can also be utilized for many biomedical applications as well and has been explored in recent past already. This study reports some novel PCMs developed by them, along with some existing PCMs, to be used for such biomedical applications. Interestingly, it was observed that the heating/cooling properties of these PCMs enhance the quality of a variety of biomedical applications with many advantages (non-electric, no risk of electric shock, easy to handle, easy to recharge thermally, long life, cheap and easily available, reusable) over existing applications. Results of the present study are quite interesting and exciting, opening a plethora of opportunities for more work on the subject, which require overlapping expertise of material scientists, biochemists and medical experts for broader social benefits.

  11. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  12. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1)

  13. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J. I. [Dept. Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  14. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  15. Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes - Romanian experience: Master - Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.; Valeca, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the Master Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan are: 1. To deliver higher education and training in the following specific domains, such as: Powders Technology and Ceramic Materials, Techniques of Structural Analysis, Composite Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Components, Metals and Metallic Alloys, Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Nuclear Materials, The Engineering of Special Nuclear Materials, 2. To train managers of the Nuclear Waste Products and Nuclear Safety, 3. To qualify in ICT Systems for Nuclear Process Guidance, 4. To qualify in Environmental Protection System at the Level of Nuclear Power Stations, 5. To train managers for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Energetic Processes, 6. To deliver higher education and training regarding the International Treatises, Conventions and Settlements in force in the field of nuclear related activities. (author)

  16. Ice XVII as a Novel Material for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo del Rosso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage is one of the most addressed issues in the green-economy field. The latest-discovered form of ice (XVII, obtained by application of an annealing treatment to a H 2 -filled ice sample in the C 0 -phase, could be inserted in the energy-storage context due to its surprising capacity of hydrogen physisorption, when exposed to even modest pressure (few mbars at temperature below 40 K, and desorption, when a thermal treatment is applied. In this work, we investigate quantitatively the adsorption properties of this simple material by means of spectroscopic and volumetric data, deriving its gravimetric and volumetric capacities as a function of the thermodynamic parameters, and calculating the usable capacity in isothermal conditions. The comparison of ice XVII with materials with a similar mechanism of hydrogen adsorption like metal-organic frameworks shows interesting performances of ice XVII in terms of hydrogen content, operating temperature and kinetics of adsorption-desorption. Any application of this material to realistic hydrogen tanks should take into account the thermodynamic limit of metastability of ice XVII, i.e., temperatures below about 130 K.

  17. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-01-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool

  18. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    According to the provisions of The Law, those stipulated as internationally controlled materials are nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, reactors and facilities, transferred from such as the U.S.A., the U.K. and Canada on the agreements of peaceful uses of atomic energy, and nuclear fuel materials accruing therefrom. (Mori, K.)

  19. Nano-Structured Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongxue

    Hydrogen is a non-polluting and efficient energy carrier. One barrier to utilizing hydrogen is a reliable storage method. NaAlH4 is the prototypical example of a complex metal hydride with high hydrogen storage capacities (˜ 5.5 wt.%) and acceptable reaction temperatures of around 100 °C when using catalyst. On decomposition of these complex hydrides, such as NaAlH4, one is left with monohydride NaH. The kinetics of diffusion in the monohydrides is important because reversibility hinges on mass transport and the formation of [AlH4]- anions that must structurally coordinate with the alkali metal cation on hydrogen absorption. The NaH/NaOH system of a variety of molar ratios was investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Nano porous carbons (NPC) materials have mesoporous structure, large surface area (> 600 m2/g), and high pore volume (> 0.5 cc/g). Several NPC materials for both hydrogen storage and battery applications were prepared and discussed. Nano-sized TiO2 is a superior material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high stability, low volume change on lithiation (˜ 3%), and high energy density. High purity (˜ 100%) anatase TiO2 nano particles with controllable particle size from 9 to 38 nm and excellent electrochemical properties (> 220 mAh/g) were synthesized using an efficient and reliable method. The synthesis, characterization and electrochemical measurements of prepared anatase TiO2 nano particles for lithium-ion battery applications were discussed. The lithium diffusion behaviors in TiO2 and SnO 2 nano particles were analyzed and compared using an extension of the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) that utilizes the open cell potential of the relaxation portion of the GITT measurement.

  20. The system of nuclear material control of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The State system for nuclear material control consists of three integral components. The efficiency of each is to guarantee the non-proliferation regime in Kazakhstan. The components are the following: accounting, export and import control and physical protection of nuclear materials. First, the implementation of the goals of accounting and control bring into force, by the organization of the system for accounting and measurement of nuclear materials to determine present quantity. Organizing the accounting for nuclear material at facilities will ensure the efficiency of accountancy and reporting information. This defines the effectiveness of the state system for the accounting for the Kazakhstan's nuclear materials. Currently, Kazakhstan's nuclear material is fully safeguarded in designated secure locations. Kazakhstan has a nuclear power plant, 4 research reactors and a fuel fabrication plant. The governmental information system for nuclear materials control consist of two level: Governmental level - KAEA collects reports from facilities and prepares the reports for International Atomic Energy Agency, keeping of supporting documents and other necessary information, a data base of export and import, a data base of nuclear material inventory. Facility level - registration and processing information from key measurement points, formation the facility's nuclear materials accounting database. All facilities have computerized systems. Currently, all facilities are safeguarded under IAEA safeguarding standards, through IAEA inspections. Annually, IAEA verifies all nuclear materials at all Kazakhstan nuclear facilities. The government reporting system discloses the existence of all nuclear material and its transfer intended for interaction through the export control system and the nuclear control accounting system. Nuclear material export is regulated by the regulations of the Nuclear Export Control Law. The standard operating procedure is the primary means for

  1. Tracking and Monitoring Nuclear Materials During Transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly M, Suzanne; Pregent, William

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed a prototype Cargo Monitoring System (CMS). The system illustrates a method to provide status on nuclear material or waste while in transit during normal and potentially, abnormal scenarios. This accomplishment is tied to a concept to provide ''seamless continuity of knowledge'' for nuclear materials, whether they are being processed, stored, or transported. The system divides the transportation-tracking problem into four domains. Each domain has a well-defined interface that allows each domain to be developed independently. This paper will describe the key technologies employed in the system. Sandia is developing a modular tag that can be affixed to cargo. The tag supports a variety of sensor types. The input can be Boolean or analog. The tag uses RF to communicate with a transportation data unit that manages and monitors the cargo. Any alarm conditions are relayed to a central hub. The hub was developed using the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) software library of transportation components, which was designed to facilitate rapid development of new systems. CTSS can develop systems that reside in the vehicle host(s) and in a centralized command center

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization of irradiated target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized nucleon targets used in high energy physics experiments usually employ the method of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to polarize the protons or deuterons in an alcohol. DNP requires the presence of paramagnetic centers, which are customarily provided by a chemical dopant. These chemically doped targets have a relatively low polarizable nucleon content and suffer from loss of polarization when subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation. If the paramagnetic centers formed when the target is irradiated can be used in the DNP process, it becomes possible to produce targets using materials which have a relatively high polarizable nucleon content, but which are not easily doped by chemical means. Furthermore, the polarization of such targets may be much more radiation resistant. Dynamic nuclear polarization in ammonia, deuterated ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, borane ammonia, butonal, ethane and lithium borohydride has been studied. These studies were conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the Yale-SLAC polarized target system. Results indicate that the use of ammonia and deuterated ammonia as polarized target materials would make significant increases in polarized target performance possible

  3. Nanostructured MnO₂ as Electrode Materials for Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Christian M; Mauger, Alain

    2017-11-17

    Manganese dioxides, inorganic materials which have been used in industry for more than a century, now find great renewal of interest for storage and conversion of energy applications. In this review article, we report the properties of MnO₂ nanomaterials with different morphologies. Techniques used for the synthesis, structural, physical properties, and electrochemical performances of periodic and aperiodic frameworks are discussed. The effect of the morphology of nanosized MnO₂ particles on their fundamental features is evidenced. Applications as electrodes in lithium batteries and supercapacitors are examined.

  4. Uranium for hydrogen storage applications : a materials science perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Tewell, Craig R.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-08-01

    Under appropriate conditions, uranium will form a hydride phase when exposed to molecular hydrogen. This makes it quite valuable for a variety of applications within the nuclear industry, particularly as a storage medium for tritium. However, some aspects of the U+H system have been characterized much less extensively than other common metal hydrides (particularly Pd+H), likely due to radiological concerns associated with handling. To assess the present understanding, we review the existing literature database for the uranium hydride system in this report and identify gaps in the existing knowledge. Four major areas are emphasized: {sup 3}He release from uranium tritides, the effects of surface contamination on H uptake, the kinetics of the hydride phase formation, and the thermal desorption properties. Our review of these areas is then used to outline potential avenues of future research.

  5. Advances in regulation and package design for transportation or storage of radioactive materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    The design of packages for the transport or storage of radioactive materials, particularly spent nuclear fuel, has been evolving in three major areas. The most significant changes have been increases n the capacity of packages. Testing has received increasing importance to supplement analysis and to verify the accuracy of the computer models to represent the more complex designs. New materials have also been proposed that are capable of serving more than one function within a package which would reduce weight and offer the possibility of simplifying package design. It is the intent of the papers presented in this volume to address the impact of these developments by presenting papers that describe testing methods, materials development programs and recent package designs. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a field that is beginning to emerge as a major field of endeavor that spans the mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering and many other disciplines. Papers included in this publication describe efforts to understand the mechanics of decontamination of surfaces that have been exposed to radioactive materials and the application of robotics to perform tasks that would be excessively hazardous for humans. Presentation of these papers within the format of the ASME has been chosen to focus attention upon the importance of designing packages in accordance with the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Coal. The papers contained herein have been subjected to a formal review process in accordance with ASME requirements

  6. High performance construction materials for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Mixed hazardous/radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities are often required to either withstand harsh service environments or in the case of disposal facilities exhibit an extremely long service life. The default construction material, Portland cement based concrete (PCC) does not always meet the challenge. For example, many radioactive waste processing facilities are constructed with PCC and then lined with stainless steel. The stainless steel liner is added to provide a surface which can be decontaminated. Installation of the stainless steel liner is both expensive and labor intensive. Similarly, hazardous waste facilities generally require concrete surfaces to be lined with a material that reduces the permeability of the concrete and provides resistance to the harsh chemical environment prevalent in such facilities. This paper is a highly condensed report of the results of a research effort designed to expand the engineering knowledge on two alternate materials which exhibit properties that would allow them to replace the stainless steel lined concrete combination. The two materials are: (1) ICOM, a composite concrete made from a proprietary blend of resins, corrosion-resistant fillers and fine aggregates, and (2) sulfur concrete (SC) made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Both materials meet or exceed the mechanical and structural properties of PCC, with the added characteristic of impermeability. The experimental results which are briefly summarized below indicate that these materials are good candidates for applications where a PCC structure has traditionally required supplemental liners due to the poor performance of the PCC alone

  7. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  8. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Corrosion and alteration of materials from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Feron, D.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Vernaz, E.; Richet, C.

    2010-01-01

    The control of the corrosion phenomenon is of prime importance for the nuclear industry. The efficiency and the safety of facilities can be affected by this phenomenon. The nuclear industry has to face corrosion for a large variety of materials submitted to various environments. Metallic corrosion operates in the hot and aqueous environment of water reactors which represent the most common reactor type in the world. Progresses made in the control of the corrosion of the different components of these reactors allow to improve their safety. Corrosion is present in the facilities of the back-end of the fuel cycle as well (corrosion in acid environment in fuel reprocessing plants, corrosion of waste containers in disposal and storage facilities, etc). The future nuclear systems will widen even more the range of materials to be studied and the situations in which they will be placed (corrosion by liquid metals or by helium impurities). Very often, corrosion looks like a patchwork of particular cases in its description. The encountered corrosion problems and their study are presented in this book according to chapters representing the main sectors of the nuclear industry and classified with respect to their phenomenology. This monograph illustrates the researches in progress and presents some results of particular importance obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction: context, stakes and goals; definition of corrosion; a complex science; corrosion in the nuclear industry; 2 - corrosion in water reactors - phenomenology, mechanisms, remedies: A - uniform corrosion: mechanisms, uniform corrosion of fuel cladding, in-situ measurement of generalized corrosion rate by electrochemical methods, uniform corrosion of nickel alloys, characterization of the passive layer and growth mechanisms, the PACTOLE code - an integrating tool, influence of water chemistry on corrosion and contamination, radiolysis impact on uniform corrosion; B - stress corrosion: stress corrosion cracking

  12. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  13. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  14. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  15. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean; M Univ., College Station, TX

    2016-01-01

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  16. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J.; Brey, R.F.; Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10 3 and 6 x 10 4 rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10 4 rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10 5 rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance

  17. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  18. Carbon-nanostructured materials for energy generation and storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Linkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and refined a chemical vapour deposition method to synthesise nanotubes using liquid petroleum gasasthe carbonsource. The nanotubes were thoroughly characterised by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy
    X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The protocol to grow nanotubes was then adapted to deposit nanotubes on the surface of different substrates, which were chosen based upon how
    the substrates could be applied in various hydrogen energyconver-sion systems. Carbon nanotubes area nanostructured material with an extremely wide range of application sinvariousenergy applications. The methods outlined demonstrate the complete
    development of carbon nanotube composite materials with direct applications in hydrogen energy generation, storage and conversion.

  19. In situ neutron diffraction studies of operating MGA thermal storage materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugo Heber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscibility Gap Alloys (MGA store energy as the latent heat of fusion of a discrete component within an engineered multicomponent microstructure. The thermal energy density is augmented by the associated sensible heat of the whole alloy. MGA microstructures are organised so that the low melting point component, acting as a Phase Change Material (PCM, is present as dispersed, non-intersecting particles within a continuous 3-dimensional solid matrix of a higher melting point component. The primary advantages of such an arrangement are the high thermal conductivity, 60–200 W/m K and high energy density (0.25–1.26 MJ/L. Long service life, low maintenance and the resulting simplified infrastructure offered by the ability of the MGA storage materials to exchange heat via conduction alone are further notable benefits. Unlike sensible heat storage materials, temperature measurement alone cannot indicate the state-of-charge of PCM storage since the temperature remains relatively constant throughout the melting or freezing transition. The work reported here addresses this issue through the use of in situ neutron diffraction to determine the relative volume fractions of solid (crystalline and liquid PCM within the MGA material as a function of varying temperature cond