WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear mass prediction

  1. Predictive power of nuclear-mass models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Litvinov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten different theoretical models are tested for their predictive power in the description of nuclear masses. Two sets of experimental masses are used for the test: the older set of 2003 and the newer one of 2011. The predictive power is studied in two regions of nuclei: the global region (Z, N ≥ 8 and the heavy-nuclei region (Z ≥ 82, N ≥ 126. No clear correlation is found between the predictive power of a model and the accuracy of its description of the masses.

  2. Nuclear mass predictions based on Bayesian neural network approach with pairing and shell effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. M.; Liang, H. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Bayesian neural network (BNN) approach is employed to improve the nuclear mass predictions of various models. It is found that the noise error in the likelihood function plays an important role in the predictive performance of the BNN approach. By including a distribution for the noise error, an appropriate value can be found automatically in the sampling process, which optimizes the nuclear mass predictions. Furthermore, two quantities related to nuclear pairing and shell effects are added to the input layer in addition to the proton and mass numbers. As a result, the theoretical accuracies are significantly improved not only for nuclear masses but also for single-nucleon separation energies. Due to the inclusion of the shell effect, in the unknown region, the BNN approach predicts a similar shell-correction structure to that in the known region, e.g., the predictions of underestimation of nuclear mass around the magic numbers in the relativistic mean-field model. This manifests that better predictive performance can be achieved if more physical features are included in the BNN approach.

  3. A simple method for improving predictions of nuclear masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masami; Tsuchiya, Susumu; Tachibana, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    The formula for atomic masses which exactly conforms to all nuclides does not exist in reality and cannot be anticipated for the time being hereafter. At present the masses of many nuclides are known experimentally with good accuracy, but the values of whichever mass formulas are more or less different from those experimental values except small number of accidental coincidence. Under such situation, for forecasting the mass of an unknown nuclide, how is it cleverly done ? Generally speaking, to take the value itself of a mass formula seems not the best means. It may be better to take the difference of the values of a mass formula and experiment for the nuclide close to that to be forecast in consideration and to correct the forecast value of the mass formula. In this report, the simple method for this correction is proposed. The formula which connects between two extreme cases, the difference between a true mass and the value of a mass formula is the sum of proton part and neutron part, and the difference distributes randomly around zero, was proposed. The procedure for its concrete application is explained. This method can be applied to other physical quantities than mass, for example the half life of beta decay. (K.I.)

  4. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on r-process abundance predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumpower M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid neutron capture or ‘r-process’ nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on r-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms errors of current mass models are large so that current r-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in r-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below 100 keV will allow for more robust r-process predictions.

  5. Simple, empirical approach to predict neutron capture cross sections from nuclear masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, A.; Casten, R. F.; Cakirli, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Background: Neutron capture cross sections are essential to understanding the astrophysical s and r processes, the modeling of nuclear reactor design and performance, and for a wide variety of nuclear forensics applications. Often, cross sections are needed for nuclei where experimental measurements are difficult. Enormous effort, over many decades, has gone into attempting to develop sophisticated statistical reaction models to predict these cross sections. Such work has met with some success but is often unable to reproduce measured cross sections to better than 40 % , and has limited predictive power, with predictions from different models rapidly differing by an order of magnitude a few nucleons from the last measurement. Purpose: To develop a new approach to predicting neutron capture cross sections over broad ranges of nuclei that accounts for their values where known and which has reliable predictive power with small uncertainties for many nuclei where they are unknown. Methods: Experimental neutron capture cross sections were compared to empirical mass observables in regions of similar structure. Results: We present an extremely simple method, based solely on empirical mass observables, that correlates neutron capture cross sections in the critical energy range from a few keV to a couple hundred keV. We show that regional cross sections are compactly correlated in medium and heavy mass nuclei with the two-neutron separation energy. These correlations are easily amenable to predict unknown cross sections, often converting the usual extrapolations to more reliable interpolations. It almost always reproduces existing data to within 25 % and estimated uncertainties are below about 40 % up to 10 nucleons beyond known data. Conclusions: Neutron capture cross sections display a surprisingly strong connection to the two-neutron separation energy, a nuclear structure property. The simple, empirical correlations uncovered provide model-independent predictions of

  6. Perspectives on nuclear mass formulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, 06520-8120 Connecticut (United States); Frank, A.; Hirsch, J. G.; Lopez V, J. C.; Mendoza T, J.; Morales, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Van I, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Pittel, S. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 Delaware (United States); Velazquez, V. [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    We discuss different nuclear mass tables (experimental and calculated) in the context of the Garvey-Kelson relations and show how these relations can provide a very useful tool to test and improve the consistency of the models. (Author)

  7. Nuclear criticality predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of lots of efforts, a large portion of the tedious and redundant research and processing of critical experiment data has been eliminated. The necessary step in criticality safety analyses of validating computer codes with benchmark critical data is greatly streamlined, and valuable criticality safety experimental data is preserved. Criticality safety personnel in 31 different countries are now using the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'. Much has been accomplished by the work of the ICSBEP. However, evaluation and documentation represents only one element of a successful Nuclear Criticality Safety Predictability Program and this element only exists as a separate entity, because this work was not completed in conjunction with the experimentation process. I believe; however, that the work of the ICSBEP has also served to unify the other elements of nuclear criticality predictability. All elements are interrelated, but for a time it seemed that communications between these elements was not adequate. The ICSBEP has highlighted gaps in data, has retrieved lost data, has helped to identify errors in cross section processing codes, and has helped bring the international criticality safety community together in a common cause as true friends and colleagues. It has been a privilege to associate with those who work so diligently to make the project a success. (J.P.N.)

  8. The 1986-87 atomic mass predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, P. E.

    1987-12-01

    A project to perform a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions has recently been concluded and will be published shortly in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. The project evolved from an ongoing comparison between available mass predictions and reports of newly measured masses of isotopes throughout the mass surface. These comparisons have highlighted a variety of features in current mass models which are responsible for predictions that diverge from masses determined experimentally. The need for a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions was therefore apparent and the project was organized and began at the last mass conference (AMCO-VII). Project participants included: Pape and Anthony; Dussel, Caurier and Zuker; Möller and Nix; Möller, Myers, Swiatecki and Treiner; Comay, Kelson, and Zidon; Satpathy and Nayak; Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada; Spanier and Johansson; Jänecke and Masson; and Wapstra, Audi and Hoekstra. An overview of the new atomic mass predictions may be obtained by written request.

  9. Can we predict nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The author aims at improving nuclear proliferation prediction capacities, i.e. the capacities to identify countries susceptible to acquire nuclear weapons, to interpret sensitive activities, and to assess nuclear program modalities. He first proposes a retrospective assessment of counter-proliferation actions since 1945. Then, based on academic studies, he analyzes what causes and motivates proliferation, with notably the possibility of existence of a chain phenomenon (mechanisms driving from one program to another). He makes recommendations for a global approach to proliferation prediction, and proposes proliferation indices and indicators

  10. The Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov nuclear-mass model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium); Hilaire, S.; Girod, M.; Peru, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2016-07-15

    We present the Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model which reproduces nuclear masses with an accuracy comparable with the best mass formulas. In contrast to the Skyrme-HFB nuclear-mass models, an explicit and self-consistent account of all the quadrupole correlation energies is included within the 5D collective Hamiltonian approach. The final rms deviation with respect to the 2353 measured masses is 789 keV in the 2012 atomic mass evaluation. In addition, the D1M Gogny force is shown to predict nuclear and neutron matter properties in agreement with microscopic calculations based on realistic two- and three-body forces. The D1M properties and its predictions of various observables are compared with those of D1S and D1N. (orig.)

  11. Validating neural-network refinements of nuclear mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, R.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nuclear astrophysics centers on the role of nuclear physics in the cosmos. In particular, nuclear masses at the limits of stability are critical in the development of stellar structure and the origin of the elements. Purpose: We aim to test and validate the predictions of recently refined nuclear mass models against the newly published AME2016 compilation. Methods: The basic paradigm underlining the recently refined nuclear mass models is based on existing state-of-the-art models that are subsequently refined through the training of an artificial neural network. Bayesian inference is used to determine the parameters of the neural network so that statistical uncertainties are provided for all model predictions. Results: We observe a significant improvement in the Bayesian neural network (BNN) predictions relative to the corresponding "bare" models when compared to the nearly 50 new masses reported in the AME2016 compilation. Further, AME2016 estimates for the handful of impactful isotopes in the determination of r -process abundances are found to be in fairly good agreement with our theoretical predictions. Indeed, the BNN-improved Duflo-Zuker model predicts a root-mean-square deviation relative to experiment of σrms≃400 keV. Conclusions: Given the excellent performance of the BNN refinement in confronting the recently published AME2016 compilation, we are confident of its critical role in our quest for mass models of the highest quality. Moreover, as uncertainty quantification is at the core of the BNN approach, the improved mass models are in a unique position to identify those nuclei that will have the strongest impact in resolving some of the outstanding questions in nuclear astrophysics.

  12. Shell formation and nuclear masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuker, A. P. [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)]. e-mail: Andres.Zuker@IReS.in2p3.fr

    2008-12-15

    We describe the basic mechanisms responsible for nuclear bulk properties and shell formation incorporated in the Duflo Zuker models. The emphasis is put on explaining why functionals of the occupancies can be so efficient in accounting for data with minimal computational effort. (Author)

  13. Infinite nuclear matter model and mass formulae for nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.

    2016-01-01

    The matter composed of the nucleus is a quantum-mechanical interacting many-fermionic system. However, the shell and classical liquid drop have been taken as the two main features of nuclear dynamics, which have guided the evolution of nuclear physics. These two features can be considered as the macroscopic manifestation of the microscopic dynamics of the nucleons at fundamental level. Various mass formulae have been developed based on either of these features over the years, resulting in many ambiguities and uncertainties posing many challenges in this field. Keeping this in view, Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model has been developed during last couple of decades with a many-body theoretical foundation employing the celebrated Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, quite appropriate for the interacting quantum-mechanical nuclear system. A mass formula called INM mass formula based on this model yields rms deviation of 342 keV being the lowest in literature. Some of the highlights of its result includes its determination of INM density in agreement with the electron scattering data leading to the resolution of the long standing 'r 0 -paradox' it predicts new magic numbers giving rise to new island of stability in the drip-line regions. This is the manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect over comes the repulsive component of nucleon-nucleon force resulting in the broadening of the stability peninsula. Shell quenching in N= 82,and N= 126 shells, and several islands of inversion have been predicted. The model determines the empirical value of the nuclear compression modulus, using high precission 4500 data comprising nuclear masses, neutron and proton separation energies. The talk will give a critical review of the field of mass formula and our understanding of nuclear dynamics as a whole

  14. Mass spectrometry in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Takuji

    1985-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely used and playing a very important role in the field of nuclear science and technology. A major reason for this is that not only the types of element but also its isotopes have to be identified and measured in this field. Thus, some applications of this analytical method are reviewed and discussed in this article. Its application to analytical chemistry is described in the second section following an introductory section, which includes subsections for isotropic dilution mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and isotopic correlation technique. The isotopic ratio measurement for hydrogen, uranium and plutonium as well as nuclear material control and safeguards are also reviewed in this section. In the third section, mass spectrometry is discussed in relation to nuclear reactors, with subsections on natural uranium reactor and neutron flux observation. Some techniques for measuring the burnup fraction, including the heavy isotopic ratio method and fission product monitoring, are also described. In the fourth section, application of mass spectrometry to measurement of nuclear constants, such as ratio of effective cross-sectional area for 235 U, half-life and fission yield is reviewed. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Empirical information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy from an extended nuclear mass formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4(A of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4(ρ0 at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4(A via the double difference of the “experimental” symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4(ρ0=20.0±4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4(ρ0 is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.

  16. Mass-spectrometric measurements for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The need of an on-site inspection device to provide isotopic ratio measurements led to the development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer mounted in a van. This mobile laboratory has the ability, through the use of the resin bead technique, to acquire, prepare, and analyze samples of interest to nuclear safeguards. Precision of the measurements is about 1 to 2%

  17. Atomic mass prediction from the mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1982-08-01

    The mass-excess prediction of about 8000 nuclides was calculated from two types of the atomic mass formulas with empirical shell terms of Uno and Yamada. The theoretical errors to accompany the calculated mass excess are also presented. These errors have been obtained by a new statistical method. The mass-excess prediction includes the term of the gross feature of a nuclear mass surface, the shell terms and a small correction term for odd-odd nuclei. Two functional forms for the shell terms were used. The first is the constant form, and the sencond is the linear form. In determining the values of shell parameters, only the data of even-even and odd-A nuclei were used. A new statistical method was applied, in which the error inherent to the mass formula was taken account. The obtained shell parameters and the values of mass excess are shown in tables. (Kato, T.)

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Y-90 (Yttrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Y-90 (Yttrium, atomic number Z = 39, mass number A = 90).

  19. Nuclear mass formula with the shell energies obtained by a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koura, H.; Tachibana, T.; Yamada, M.; Uno, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear shapes and masses are estimated by a new method. The main feature of this method lies in estimating shell energies of deformed nuclei from spherical shell energies by mixing them with appropriate weights. The spherical shell energies are calculated from single-particle potentials, and, till now, two mass formulas have been constructed from two different sets of potential parameters. The standard deviation of the calculated masses from all the experimental masses of the 1995 Mass Evaluation is about 760 keV. Contrary to the mass formula by Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada in the 1987-1988 Atomic Mass Predictions, the present formulas can give nuclear shapes and predict on super-heavy elements

  20. Predictive Trip Detection for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Drew J.; Jiang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of a Kalman filter (KF) to predict, within the shutdown system (SDS) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), whether safety parameter measurements have reached a trip set-point. In addition, least squares (LS) estimation compensates for prediction error due to system-model mismatch. The motivation behind predictive shutdown is to reduce the amount of time between the occurrence of a fault or failure and the time of trip detection, referred to as time-to-trip. These reductions in time-to-trip can ultimately lead to increases in safety and productivity margins. The proposed predictive SDS differs from conventional SDSs in that it compares point-predictions of the measurements, rather than sensor measurements, against trip set-points. The predictive SDS is validated through simulation and experiments for the steam generator water level safety parameter. Performance of the proposed predictive SDS is compared against benchmark conventional SDS with respect to time-to-trip. In addition, this paper analyzes: prediction uncertainty, as well as; the conditions under which it is possible to achieve reduced time-to-trip. Simulation results demonstrate that on average the predictive SDS reduces time-to-trip by an amount of time equal to the length of the prediction horizon and that the distribution of times-to-trip is approximately Gaussian. Experimental results reveal that a reduced time-to-trip can be achieved in a real-world system with unknown system-model mismatch and that the predictive SDS can be implemented with a scan time of under 100ms. Thus, this paper is a proof of concept for KF/LS-based predictive trip detection.

  1. $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastao Krein, Anthony Thomas, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-02-01

    The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating $D$ and $D^*$ meson loop contributions to the $J/\\Psi$ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift arising from the modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from $-16$~MeV to $-24$~MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of $J/\\Psi$ to a nucleus are investigated.

  2. Impact of Precision Mass Measurements on Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Dilling, Jens; Litvinov, Yuri A

    2013-01-01

    Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of neutron and proton number, N and Z, respectively. The data obtained through mass measurements provide details of the nuclear interaction and thus apply to a variety of physics topics. Some of the most crucial questions to be addressed by mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides are, on the one hand, nuclear forces and structure, describing phenomena such as the so-called neutron-halos or the evolution of magic numbers when moving towards the borders of nuclear existence. On the other hand, the understanding of the processes of element formation in the Universe poses a challenge and requires an accurate knowledge of nuclear astrophysics. Here, precision atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis processes are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations.

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cf-252 (Californium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cf-252 (Californium, atomic number Z = 98, mass number A = 252).

  4. In-medium effective chiral lagrangians and the pion mass in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirzba, A.

    1995-01-01

    We argue that the effective pion mass in nuclear matter obtained from chiral effective lagrangians is unique and does not depend on off-mass-shell extensions of the pion fields as e.g. the PCAC choice. The effective pion mass in isospin symmetric nuclear matter is predicted to increase slightly with increasing nuclear density, whereas the effective time-like pion decay constant and the magnitude of the density-dependent quark condensate decrease appreciably. The in-medium Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation as well as other in-medium identities are studied in addition. Finally, several constraints on effective lagrangians for the description of the pion propagation in isospin symmetric, isotropic and homogeneous nuclear matter are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Determination of incompressibility and saturation properties of nuclear matter from nuclear masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.

    1996-01-01

    The binding energy, saturation density and compression modulus of infinite nuclear matter are fundamental constants of nature. We have determined these values from nuclear masses through our mass formula based on infinite nuclear matter (INM) model, developed over a number of years. Recently we have improved this model in which important terms Eke exchange coulomb, proton form factor, charge asymmetry and pairing cancel exactly, giving rise to a clean and reliable determination of saturation properties of INM from nuclear masses. Starting with two body effective interaction we first show at a microscopic level using the results of Hartree-Fock and energy density formalism study that INM and not Bethe-Weizsaecker model is the appropriate one for extraction of such properties. The saturation properties are obtained using 1371 masses of 1993 mass table in this improved INM model. The density thus obtained agrees with that of electron scattering data and the Hartree-Fock calculations, and for the first time, using nuclear mass formula, the radius constant r 0 = 1.138 fm and energy a ν = -16.11 MeV corresponding to infinite nuclear matter are consistently obtained from the same source. Thus the so-called longstanding r 0 -anomaly is satisfactorily resolved with. We are able to extract convincingly the nuclear matter incompressibility K ∞ to be 288 ± 28 MeV using the same source of nuclear masses as input. Thus all the three important properties are consistently obtained from a single source. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  7. Mass media and nuclear energy - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The presentation covers the following areas: the wide spectrum of media outlets that the IAEA seeks to serve and their differing needs; the resources available to the IAEA for that purpose; the way in which IAEA endeavours to disseminate authoritative, reliable nuclear-related information to media; the exceptional role the IAEA may be called on to play in emergency situations

  8. Systematics of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hisashi [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The phenomenological models of the nuclear mass and level density are close related to each other, the nuclear ground and excited state properties are described by using the parameter systematics on the mass and level density formulas. The main aim of this work is to provide in an analytical framework the improved energy dependent shell, pairing and deformation corrections generalized to the collective enhancement factors, which offer a systematic prescription over a great number of nuclear reaction cross sections. The new formulas are shown to be in close agreement with not only the empirical nuclear mass data but the measured slow neutron resonance spacings, and experimental systematics observed in the excitation energy dependent properties. (author)

  9. Hartree-Fock calculations of nuclear masses

    CERN Document Server

    Quentin, P

    1976-01-01

    Hartree-Fock calculations pertaining to the determination of nuclear binding energies throughout the whole chart of nuclides are reviewed. Such an approach is compared with other methods. Main techniques in use are shortly presented. Advantages and drawbacks of these calculations are also discussed with a special emphasis on the extrapolation towards nuclei far from the stability valley. Finally, a discussion of some selected results from light to superheavy nuclei, is given.

  10. Hartree-Fock calculations of nuclear masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, P.

    1976-01-01

    Hartree-Fock calculations pertaining to the determination of nuclear binding energies throughout the whole chart of nuclides are reviewed. Such an approach is compared with other methods. Main techniques in use are shortly presented. Advantages and drawbacks of these calculations are also discussed with a special emphasis on the extrapolation towards nuclei far from the stability valley. Finally, a discussion of some selected results from light to superheavy nuclei, is given [fr

  11. Facing the challenge of nuclear mass tort processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    A great majority of states do not issue any specific legislation on nuclear mass tort litigations. They apparently build on general traditional practice as most probably already tried and tested in other areas. Some states defer the decision on the way to deal with mass tort claims to the time of the nuclear incident. They insert into their nuclear liability laws respective 'reminders' that contain an invitation or a demand to the legislator to take appropriate steps if and when necessary. Finally, there are a number of states that enacted elaborate regimes on how to react to, and organise, compensation of mass damages after a catastrophic nuclear incident. Among those states are in particular major nuclear states like Canada, India, Japan and the US. They developed compensation schemes where claims for compensation of nuclear damage shall be dealt with by fora that are not regular courts. In some of those states, the fora are exclusively competent without a right to appeal their decisions, while in other states the fora act in parallel or in complement to courts. So the international scenario appears to be somewhat confusing. Of course, sovereign states are free to organise claims processing, including nuclear mass claims processing, as they deem fit. The discretion of states is, however, limited by obligations under public international law. With regard to the victims of nuclear incidents, states are particularly bound by obligations under the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other relevant instruments they may be a party to. National nuclear mass claim processing has in particular to comply with the obligation to guarantee 'a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal'. With regard to possible international obligations vis-a-vis other states, it has to be taken into account that major nuclear incidents, as a rule, have transboundary detrimental effects. There is always a potential impact on territories

  12. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  13. Strong nuclear enhancement in intermediate mass Drell-Yan production

    CERN Document Server

    Jian Wei Qiu

    2002-01-01

    We calculate nuclear effect in Drell-Yan massive lepton-pair production in terms of parton multiple scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We present the nuclear modification to inclusive Drell-Yan cross sections d sigma /dQ/sup 2/ in terms of multiparton correlation functions. By extracting the size of the correlation functions from measured Drell-Yan transverse momentum broadening in nuclear media, we determine the nuclear modification at O( alpha /sub s//Q/sup 2/). We find that the nuclear modification strongly enhances the inclusive Drell-Yan cross section in the intermediate mass region (IMR): 1.5

  14. Recoil mass spectrometers in low-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    By the ion-optical standards of modern spectrometers in nuclear physics the recoil mass spectrometer is a rather inelegant device. Satisfactory correction of the dominant second-order aberrations have expanded the useful mass range and solid angle of the new spectrometers but not without real loss of mass-resolving power. The new spectrometers will involve compromises between resolution and efficiency. Despite their ion-optical inelegance, existing recoil mass spectrometers have opened important new approaches in low-energy nuclear physics, and the new spectrometers promise similar developments. The authors considered a very limited sample of the potential applications of these instruments. Many new applications will follow the development of the new, higher efficiency spectrometers

  15. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, T.; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...

  16. Effects of meson mass decrease on superfluiding in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Faculty of Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuzaki, M.

    1999-08-01

    {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing in nuclear matter is investigated by taking the hadron mass decrease into account via the 'In-Medium Bonn potential' which was recently proposed by Rapp et al. The resulting gap is significantly reduced in comparison with the one obtained with the original Bonn-B potential and we ascertain that the meson mass decrease is mainly responsible for this reduction. (author)

  17. Role of mass spectrometry in nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Sivaraman, N.

    2016-01-01

    The present talk will focus on the role of mass spectrometry in NFS in general; besides that, the various chromatographic methods developed towards separation of actinides and lanthanide fission products and characterization of dissolver solutions of nuclear reactor fuels using TIMS and some applications of using ICP-MS as well

  18. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  19. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  20. Equidistant structure and effective nucleon mass in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1981-11-01

    The effective nucleon mass of the Equidistant Multi-Layer Structure (EMULS) is discussed self-consistently. In the density region where the Fermi gas state in nuclear matter is unstable against the density fluctuation, the EMULS gives lower binding energy. It is, however, shown that such a structure with an ordinary nucleon mass collapses due to too strong attraction. We point out that such a collapse can be avoided by taking account of an effective nucleon mass affected by the localization of nucleons. (author)

  1. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic–microscopic mass formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas–Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic–microscopic mass formulas: Lublin–Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD formula and Weizsäcker–Skyrme (WS* formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞=230±11 MeV and 235±11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L=41.6±7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5±9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron–proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  2. An improved nuclear mass formula with a unified prescription for the shell and pairing corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haifei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, Jianmin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, Nana [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Royer, G. [Laboratoire Subatech, UMR: IN2P3/CNRS-Université-Ecole des Mines, 44 Nantes (France); Li, Junqing [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hongfei, E-mail: zhanghongfei@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-09-15

    An improved macroscopic–microscopic nuclear mass formula is presented in which shell and pairing effects are simultaneously evaluated by a procedure similar to Strutinsky method. The coefficients of the macroscopic–microscopic mass formula have been adjusted on 2267 experimental atomic masses extracted from the atomic mass evaluation of 2012 (AME2012). Same as in the Weizsäcker–Skyrme (WS) model, the influence of the nuclear deformation on the macroscopic energy as well as the mirror nuclei constraint is taken into account, and for the sake of the consistency of the model parameters between the macroscopic and the microscopic parts we approximate the isospin-dependent component of the macroscopic energy to the depth of the Woods–Saxon potential. As a result, the root-mean square (rms) deviation with respect to 2267 measured nuclear masses is 0.493 MeV. Then, based on the fitted formula we predict the remaining 988 nuclei from the AME2012 for which the masses are still unknown or not well-known, and calculate the α-decay energies of seven chains in the superheavy nuclei region with Z=117 and 118.

  3. Nuclear chromodynamics: Novel nuclear phenomena predicted by QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Ji, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding

  4. Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morones-Ibarra, J.R.; Maciel, Mónica Menchaca; Padilla, Felipe Robledo; Santos-Guevara, Ayax

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of σ-meson in nuclear matter is studied in the Walecka model, by assuming that sigma couples to a pair of nucleon-antinucleon states to particle-hole states. The in-medium effect of σ-ω mixing is also studied. For completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions was also considered. It is found that the σ-meson mass decreases with respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the σ-ω mixing effect on the mass shift is relatively small. (author)

  5. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is to obtain a unified description of nuclear shell, pairing and deformation effects for both ground state masses and level densities, and to find a new set of parameter systematics for both the mass and the level density formulas on the basis of a model for new single-particle state densities. In this model, an analytical expression is adopted for the anisotropic harmonic oscillator spectra, but the shell-pairing correlation are introduced in a new way. (author)

  6. Thomas-Fermi approach to nuclear mass formula. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.K.; Arcoragi, J.P.; Pearson, J.M.; Tondeur, F.

    1986-01-01

    With a view to having a more secure basis for the nuclear mass formula than is provided by the drop(let) model, we make a preliminary study of the possibilities offered by the Skyrme-ETF method. Two ways of incorporating shell effects are considered: the ''Strutinsky-integral'' method of Chu et al., and the ''expectation-value'' method of Brack et al. Each of these methods is compared with the HF method in an attempt to see how reliably they extrapolate from the known region of the nuclear chart out to the neutron-drip line. The Strutinsky-integral method is shown to perform particularly well, and to offer a promising approach to a more reliable mass formula. (orig.)

  7. Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter. J R MORONES-IBARRA1, MÓNICA MENCHACA MACIEL1,∗. ,. AYAX SANTOS-GUEVARA2 and FELIPE ROBLEDO PADILLA1. 1Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL,. Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los ...

  8. A quadrupole mass spectrometer system for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor for nuclear safeguards-related surveillance of a pilot-scale gas centrifuge plant is described. This monitor utilises a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the isotopic composition of UF 6 in the feed and product gas streams. Details of the design and construction are given, and several difficulties are identified and discussed. Finally, the performance of this system is illustrated with typical results

  9. Sensitivity of the r-process to nuclear masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, S.; Bentley, I.; Paul, N.; Aprahamian, A.; Surman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is thought to be responsible for the creation of more than half of all elements beyond iron. The scientific challenges to understanding the origin of the heavy elements beyond iron lie in both the uncertainties associated with astrophysical conditions that are needed to allow an r-process to occur and a vast lack of knowledge about the properties of nuclei far from stability. There is great global competition to access and measure the most exotic nuclei that existing facilities can reach, while simultaneously building new, more powerful accelerators to make even more exotic nuclei. This work is an attempt to determine the most crucial nuclear masses to measure using an r-process simulation code and several mass models (FRDM, Duflo-Zuker, and HFB-21). The most important nuclear masses to measure are determined by the changes in the resulting r-process abundances. Nuclei around the closed shells near N = 50, 82, and 126 have the largest impact on r-process abundances irrespective of the mass models used. (orig.)

  10. Constraints on the nuclear equation of state from nuclear masses and radii in a Thomas-Fermi meta-modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Raduta, Ad. R.; Margueron, J.

    2017-12-01

    The question of correlations among empirical equation of state (EoS) parameters constrained by nuclear observables is addressed in a Thomas-Fermi meta-modeling approach. A recently proposed meta-modeling for the nuclear EoS in nuclear matter is augmented with a single finite size term to produce a minimal unified EoS functional able to describe the smooth part of the nuclear ground state properties. This meta-model can reproduce the predictions of a large variety of models, and interpolate continuously between them. An analytical approximation to the full Thomas-Fermi integrals is further proposed giving a fully analytical meta-model for nuclear masses. The parameter space is sampled and filtered through the constraint of nuclear mass reproduction with Bayesian statistical tools. We show that this simple analytical meta-modeling has a predictive power on masses, radii, and skins comparable to full Hartree-Fock or extended Thomas-Fermi calculations with realistic energy functionals. The covariance analysis on the posterior distribution shows that no physical correlation is present between the different EoS parameters. Concerning nuclear observables, a strong correlation between the slope of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin is observed, in agreement with previous studies.

  11. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal to determine compliance with specifications.

  12. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  13. A predictive maintenance approach for improved nuclear plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.; Pandya, M.B.; Kini, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    Predictive maintenance programme as against preventive maintenance programme aims at diagnosing, inspecting, monitoring, and objective condition-checking of equipment. It helps in forecasting failures, and scheduling the optimal frequencies for overhauls, replacements, lubrication etc. It also helps in establishing work load, manpower, resource planning and inventory control. Various stages of predictive maintenance programme for a nuclear power plant are outlined. A partial list of instruments for predictive maintenance is given. (M.G.B.)

  14. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, T.; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...... this analysis is that the most important properties of NESs are accessibility and flexibility allowing relevant proteins to interact with the signal. Furthermore, we show that not only the known hydrophobic residues are important in defining a nuclear export signals. We employ both neural networks and hidden...... of the subcellular location of proteins. This regulation has an impact on transcription and other nuclear processes, which are fundamental to the viability of the cell. NESs are studied in relation to cancer, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and other important aspects of molecular biology. Our conclusion from...

  15. New discovery: Quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize [1] phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔ M = n 1 /n 2 x 0.0076294 (in MeV/c 2 ), n i =1,2,3,... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research fields can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006

  16. Predictive geology in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.

    1980-07-01

    The present situation at a specific site in the Baltic Shield is viewed in the light of its geologic history. Prediction, at a given level of confidence and from a limited number of drillholes, of the minimum average spacing of conductive zones in subsurface rocks of low hydraulic conductivity is based on a combination of the binomial and Poisson distribution, regarding the holes as a profile sampling and assuming a cubic pattern of fractures. The data provide an empirical basis for linking the nature and frequency of past geologic events to their local effects. Special attenetion is given to the preservation of tectonic blocks of large rock-volumes with very low hydraulic conductivity throughout the present cratonic stage, during which intermittent movement took place in marked fault-zones bordering the Shield, and three different orogenies affected the surrounding regions. Rock-mechanical, stochastic and deterministic approaches are utilized to predict future effects from this basis. (Author)

  17. Predictive geology in nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.

    1982-01-01

    The present situation at a specific site on the Baltic Shield is viewed in the light of its geologic history. Prediction, at a given level of confidence and from a limited number of drillholes of the minimum average spacing of conductive zones in subsurface rocks of low-hydraulic conductivity, is based on a combination of the binomial and Poisson distributions, regarding the holes as a profile sampling and assuming a cubic pattern of fractures. The data provide an empirical basis for linking the nature and frequency of past geologic events to their local effects. Special attention is given to the preservation of tectonic blocks of large rock volumes with low-hydraulic conductivity throughout the present cratonic stage, whereas intermittent movement can be traced in marked fault zones bordering the Shield and three different orogenies affected the surrounding regions. Rock mechanical, stochastic, and deterministic approaches are utilized to predict future effects from this basis. (author)

  18. Prediction of future dispute concerning nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This investigation is the third research on the public acceptance of nuclear power generation by the National Congress on Social Economics. In this study, how the energy dispute including that concerning nuclear power generation will develop in 1980s and 1990s, how the form of dispute and the point of controversy will change, were predicted. Though the maintenance of the concord of groups strongly regulates the behavior of people, recently they have become to exercise individual rights frequently. The transition to the society of dispute is the natural result of the modernization of society and the increase of richness. The proper prediction of social problems and the planning and execution of proper countermeasures are very important. The background, objective, basic viewpoint, range and procedure of this investigation, the change of social dispute, the history of the dispute concerning nuclear power generation, the basic viewpoint in the prediction of the dispute concerning nuclear power generation, the social situation in 1980s, the prediction and avoidance of the dispute in view of social and energy situations, and the fundamental strategy for seeking a clue to the solution in 1980s and 1990s are described. The establishment of neutral mediation organs and the flexible technologies of nuclear reactors are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  19. Investigation of an orbital mass - the role of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, R. V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:A 35 year old male presented, suffering from night sweats, occipital and frontal headaches, blurred vision, nausea and a decrease in appetite. He underwent a CT and MRI scan, which identified a 2.2cm lesion in the left orbit in an intra-conal position. This was suspected to be a cavernous haemangioma, although other tumours, such as Schwannoma could not be ruled out. A nuclear medicine labelled red blood cell study was performed which included initial dynamic images and early statics and 120min delayed images. SPECT/CT was also performed at the later time. The characteristic blood pool mismatch of low early and high delayed concentration of red blood cells confirmed suspicions of a cavernous haemangioma, which, although comprised mainly of blood vessels, has slow flow. Hence there is considerable delay before maximum activity is reached. The lesion was surgically removed. Histology reports confirmed the nuclear medicine results. Nuclear Medicine has the potential to play a significant role in the preoperative diagnosis of an orbital mass.

  20. Phenomenological nuclear level densities using the KTUY05 nuclear mass formula for applications off-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Chiba, Satoshi; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A new parametrization for the phenomenological nuclear level density taking account of the shell and pairing energies of the recent nuclear mass formula of Koura, Tachibana, Uno, and Yamada (KTUY05) is proposed. Such a level density formula is often required to calculate nuclear reaction cross sections for nuclei off-stability, especially for fission systems and astrophysical applications. With the phenomenological level density formula of Gilbert-Cameron with the energy dependent level density parameter of Ignatyuk, a smooth dependence of the asymptotic level density parameter a * on the mass number is obtained. At low energies, systematics for the constant temperature model are also derived by connecting the Fermi gas level density and the discrete level information available for more than 1,000 nuclei. Some comparisons with the discrete level data and the microscopic model are made to validate our approach, and it is concluded that the parametrization obtained can be used for nuclear reaction calculations on stable or unstable nuclei within a reasonable uncertainty. (author)

  1. Mass and charge distributions in chlorine-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Projectile-like fragments were detected and characterized in terms of A, Z, and energy for the reactions 37 Cl on 40 Ca and 209 Bi at E/A = 7.3 MeV, and 35 Cl, on 209 Bi at E/A = 15 MeV, at angles close to the grazing angle. Mass and charge distributions were generated in the N-Z plane as a function of energy loss, and have been parameterized in terms of their centroids, variances, and coefficients of correlation. Due to experimental problems, the mass resolution corresponding to the 31 Cl on 209 Bi reaction was very poor. This prompted the study and application of a deconvolution technique for peak enhancement. The drifts of the charge and mass centroids for the system 37 Cl on 40 Ca are consistent with a process of mass and charge equilibration mediated by nucleon exchange between the two partners, followed by evaporation. The asymmetric systems show a strong drift towards larger asymmetry, with the production of neutron-rich nuclei. It was concluded that this is indicative of a net transfer of protons from the light to the heavy partner, and a net flow of neutrons in the opposite direction. The variances for all systems increase with energy loss, as it would be expected from a nucleon exchange mechanism; however, the variances for the reaction 37 Cl on 40 Ca are higher than those expected from that mechanism. The coefficients of correlation indicate that the transfer of nucleons between projectile and target is correlated. The results were compared to the predictions of two current models based on a stochastic nucleon exchange mechanism. In general, the comparisons between experimental and predicted variances support this mechanism; however, the need for more realistic driving forces in the model calculations is indicated by the disagreement between predicted and experimental centroids

  2. Predicting weak lensing statistics from halo mass reconstructions - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Spencer [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    As dark matter does not absorb or emit light, its distribution in the universe must be inferred through indirect effects such as the gravitational lensing of distant galaxies. While most sources are only weakly lensed, the systematic alignment of background galaxies around a foreground lens can constrain the mass of the lens which is largely in the form of dark matter. In this paper, I have implemented a framework to reconstruct all of the mass along lines of sight using a best-case dark matter halo model in which the halo mass is known. This framework is then used to make predictions of the weak lensing of 3,240 generated source galaxies through a 324 arcmin² field of the Millennium Simulation. The lensed source ellipticities are characterized by the ellipticity-ellipticity and galaxy-mass correlation functions and compared to the same statistic for the intrinsic and ray-traced ellipticities. In the ellipticity-ellipticity correlation function, I and that the framework systematically under predicts the shear power by an average factor of 2.2 and fails to capture correlation from dark matter structure at scales larger than 1 arcminute. The model predicted galaxy-mass correlation function is in agreement with the ray-traced statistic from scales 0.2 to 0.7 arcminutes, but systematically underpredicts shear power at scales larger than 0.7 arcminutes by an average factor of 1.2. Optimization of the framework code has reduced the mean CPU time per lensing prediction by 70% to 24 ± 5 ms. Physical and computational shortcomings of the framework are discussed, as well as potential improvements for upcoming work.

  3. Nuclear technology: katulong sa pag-unlad ng masa [support for the progress of the masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The topics discussed during the convention is the usefulness of nuclear science and technology in national development and to promote the beneficial uses of nuclear science and technology to support for the progress of the masses

  4. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry with 15 UD pelletron at the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 15 UD Pelletron machine is widely used to carry on investigations in a variety of disciplines like nuclear physics, materials science, radiobiology etc. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry studies with 15 UD pelletron machine at Nuclear Science Centre are elaborated

  5. A Simple Correlation for Neutron Capture Rates from Nuclear Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-30

    Recent studies of neutron capture performed at LANL have revealed a previously unrecognized connection between nuclear masses and the average neutron capture cross section. A team of three scientists from Los Alamos (P-27), Yale Univ., and Istanbul Univ. (Turkey) recently discovered this connection and have published their results as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review C. Neutron capture is a reaction in which a free neutron is absorbed by the nucleus, keeping the element unchanged, but changing isotopes. This reaction is typically exothermic. As a result, the reaction can proceed even when many other reaction channels are closed. In an astrophysical environment, this means that neutron capture is the primary mechanism by which all of the elements with atomic number greater than nickel are produced is neutron capture.

  6. Electrical predictive maintenance at Trillo I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L. R.; Fernandez de la Mata, R.; Cano Gonzalez, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical predictive maintenance plan is currently being put into effect at Trillo I Nuclear Power Plant which is initially being applied to three types of equipment: motors, transformers and motor-driven valves. This paper describes the different phases considered in the implementation of the Predictive Maintenance Plan: study of existing techniques for such equipment (tangoδ, spectral analysis of stator current, chromatographic analysis of gases, spectral analysis of the axial stray magnetic flux, etc), study of the special characteristics of the electrical equipment at Trillo NPP, analysis of applicable techniques (characteristic parameters, alert-alarm values, experience with such techniques, etc), analysis of machine history records, study of the optimum preventive-predictive case, study of applicable frequencies and definition of the computerised predictive maintenance management tool. With the exception of the computerised predictive maintenance management applications which are presently being implemented, all the activities described above have been carried out on the three types of equipment mentioned. (Author)

  7. Predictive Pati-Salam theory of fermion masses and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; Kovalenko, Sergey; Valle, José W. F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a Pati-Salam extension of the standard model incorporating a flavor symmetry based on the Δ (27) group. The theory realizes a realistic Froggatt-Nielsen picture of quark mixing and a predictive pattern of neutrino oscillations. We find that, for normal neutrino mass ordering, the atmospheric angle must lie in the higher octant, CP must be violated in oscillations, and there is a lower bound for the 0ν ββ decay rate. For the case of inverted mass ordering, we find that the lower atmospheric octant is preferred, and that CP can be conserved in oscillations. Neutrino masses arise from a low-scale seesaw mechanism, whose messengers can be produced by a Z' portal at the LHC.

  8. Mass distribution and multiple fragmentation events in high energy cluster-cluster collisions: evidence for a predicted phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Louc, S.; Martin, J.; Senn, G.; Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    Fragment size distributions including multiple fragmentation events have been measured for high energy H 25 + cluster ions (60 keV/amu) colliding with a neutral C 60 target. In contrast to earlier collision experiments with a helium target the present studies do not show a U-shaped fragment mass distribution, but a single power-law falloff with increasing fragment mass. This behaviour is similar to what is known for the intermediate regime in nuclear collision physics and thus confirms a recently predicted scaling from nuclear to molecular collisions

  9. Heat capacity prediction of complex molecules by mass connectivity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutchoukali O.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat capacity prediction and estimation methods of solid organic compounds in terms of temperature are limited, particularly concerning complex molecules with functional groups such as active principles and intermediaries used in pharmaceutical field. Recently a correlation between heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp, temperature and a new concept named mass connectivity index (MCI, for ionic liquids, was published [1-3]. In this predictive method, heat capacity can be calculated at different temperatures, if standard heat capacity at 298.15 K is known. The effect of molecular structure on heat capacity is accounted for in this model by the mass connectivity index, a molecular descriptor, which differentiates between compounds. The Valderrama generalized correlation admits, in addition, two universal coefficients, which are obtained from experimental data regression. In the present work, a similar approach is used to predict solid state heat capacity of organics and pharmaceutical products. In order to find model parameters, a database was grouped comprising (104 different compounds and a set of more than 5,791 experimental values of solid state Cps obtained from literature. These collected data were used in multiple linear regression to find model parameters. It was found that the values of predicted heat capacities of compounds non-included in the database were good; they are quite close to the ones presented in the literature. Moreover, this method is simple to use, since only molecular structure of the component and its solid state heat capacity at 298.15 K should be known.

  10. On the global and local nuclear stopping in mass asymmetric nuclear collisions using density-dependent symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amandeep, K.; Suneel, K.

    2017-09-01

    The present theoretical calculations have been performed within the framework of IQMD model to study a particular set of mass symmetric and asymmetric reactions (keeping total mass fixed) over a wide range of incident energies and colliding geometries. It has been observed that global as well as local nuclear stopping is influenced by the mass asymmetry of the reaction strongly. Influence of density-dependent symmetry energy has been observed in local nuclear stopping. Global stopping decreases with the increase in colliding geometry. Effect of colliding geometry on nuclear stopping is more at higher energies.

  11. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Nuclear Science Laboratory: Applications to Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, P.; Bauder, W.; Bowers, M.; Lu, W.; Ostdiek, K.; Robertson, D.

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) program at the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame is focused on measurements related to galactic radioactivity and to nucleosynthesis of main stellar burning as well as the production of so called Short-Lived Radionuclides (SLRs) in the Early Solar System (ESS). The research program is based around the 11MV FN tandem accelerator and the use of the gas-filled magnet technique for isobar separation. Using a technique that evolved from radiocarbon dating, this paper presents a number of research programs that rely on the use of an 11MV tandem accelerator at the center of the AMS program.

  12. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  13. Using neural networks for prediction of nuclear parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Filho, Leonidas; Souto, Kelling Cabral, E-mail: leonidasmilenium@hotmail.com, E-mail: kcsouto@bol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Machado, Marcelo Dornellas, E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (GCN.T/ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Dating from 1943, the earliest work on artificial neural networks (ANN), when Warren Mc Cullock and Walter Pitts developed a study on the behavior of the biological neuron, with the goal of creating a mathematical model. Some other work was done until after the 80 witnessed an explosion of interest in ANNs, mainly due to advances in technology, especially microelectronics. Because ANNs are able to solve many problems such as approximation, classification, categorization, prediction and others, they have numerous applications in various areas, including nuclear. Nodal method is adopted as a tool for analyzing core parameters such as boron concentration and pin power peaks for pressurized water reactors. However, this method is extremely slow when it is necessary to perform various core evaluations, for example core reloading optimization. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper a model of Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network type backpropagation will be trained to predict these values. The main objective of this work is the development of Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network capable to predict, in very short time, with good accuracy, two important parameters used in the core reloading problem - Boron Concentration and Power Peaking Factor. For the training of the neural networks are provided loading patterns and nuclear data used in cycle 19 of Angra 1 nuclear power plant. Three models of networks are constructed using the same input data and providing the following outputs: 1- Boron Concentration and Power Peaking Factor, 2 - Boron Concentration and 3 - Power Peaking Factor. (author)

  14. Method for predicting peptide detection in mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Lars [West Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA; Petritis, Konstantinos [Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method of predicting whether a peptide present in a biological sample will be detected by analysis with a mass spectrometer. The method uses at least one mass spectrometer to perform repeated analysis of a sample containing peptides from proteins with known amino acids. The method then generates a data set of peptides identified as contained within the sample by the repeated analysis. The method then calculates the probability that a specific peptide in the data set was detected in the repeated analysis. The method then creates a plurality of vectors, where each vector has a plurality of dimensions, and each dimension represents a property of one or more of the amino acids present in each peptide and adjacent peptides in the data set. Using these vectors, the method then generates an algorithm from the plurality of vectors and the calculated probabilities that specific peptides in the data set were detected in the repeated analysis. The algorithm is thus capable of calculating the probability that a hypothetical peptide represented as a vector will be detected by a mass spectrometry based proteomic platform, given that the peptide is present in a sample introduced into a mass spectrometer.

  15. Higgs mass predictions of public NMSSM spectrum generators

    CERN Document Server

    Staub, Florian; Ellwanger, Ulrich; Grober, Ramona; Muhlleitner, Margarete; Slavich, Pietro; Voigt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The publicly available spectrum generators for the NMSSM often lead to different predictions for the mass of the standard model-like Higgs boson even if using the same renormalization scheme and two-loop accuracy. Depending on the parameter point, the differences can exceed 5 GeV, and even reach 8 GeV for moderate superparticle masses of up to 2 TeV. It is shown here that these differences can be traced back to the calculation of the running standard model parameters entering all calculations, to the approximations used in the two-loop corrections included in the different codes, and to different choices for the renormalization conditions and scales. In particular, the importance of the calculation of the top Yukawa coupling is pointed out.

  16. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel, mass balances, conversion ratio, doubling time, and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1976-11-01

    Information on the performance aspects of nuclear power plants is presented concerning conversion ratio, criticality, primitive economic analysis, stable breeder-converter industry, doubling time, breeder industry economic benefit, defining nuclear fuel, recommendations, and uncertainty

  18. Mass-balance model for predicting nitrate in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Michael H.; Donohue, John J.; Rapacz, Michael V.

    1990-01-01

    A mass-balance accounting model can be used to guide the management of septic systems and fertilizers to control the degradation of ground-water quality in zones of an aquifer that contribute water to public-supply wells. The nitrate concentration of the mixture in the well can be predicted for steady-state conditions by calculating the concentration that results from the total weight of nitrogen and total volume of water entering the zone of contribution to the well. These calculations will allow water-quality managers to predict the nitrate concentrations that would be produced by different types and levels of development, and to plan development accordingly. Computations for different development schemes provide a technical basis for planners and managers to compare water-quality effects and to select alternatives that limit nitrate concentration in wells.

  19. Risky module prediction for nuclear I and C software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2012-01-01

    As software based digital I and C (Instrumentation and Control) systems are used more prevalently in nuclear plants, enhancement of software dependability has become an important issue in the area of nuclear I and C systems. Critical attributes of software dependability are safety and reliability. These attributes are tightly related to software failures caused by faults. Software testing and V and V (Verification and Validation) activities are hence important for enhancing software dependability. If the risky modules of safety-critical software can be predicted, it will be possible to focus on testing and V and V activities more efficiently and effectively. It should also make it possible to better allocate resources for regulation activities. We propose a prediction technique to estimate risky software modules by adopting machine learning models based on software complexity metrics. An empirical study with various machine learning algorithms was executed for comparing the prediction performance. Experimental results show SVMs (Support Vector Machines) perform as well or better than the other methods.

  20. The mass media and nuclear energy in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the US media in informing the public about benefits of nuclear industry is discussed. Usually the media in USA is biased against nuclear energy and works on the side of anti-nuclear groups. The tendency of reporters to mistrust government and industry experts, and to trust 'environmental groups' poses a particular problem for the US nuclear industry. One of the challenges of nuclear industry is to convince the media that anti-nuclear groups are not acting in the public interest, but in self-interest too. The scientists who communicate with the media must help reporters to understand technology, but to do that, they must understand reporter's needs. Those include a quick response to requests for information, spokespersons who speak clearly and understandably, in human terms, and candor and honesty in all of the information they provide. (I.P.)

  1. Recent status of the studies of nuclear masses and {beta}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masami [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The recent status of the above studies was explained, especially, nuclear masses were described from the aspect of probability theory and that of {beta}-decay suggested that the first forbidden transition was hindered between the ground states. We have to study various systematics in order to know the mass surface, Way-Yamada-Matumoto type systematics is better to check the experimental nuclear masses. The gross theory is very useful to understand the general aspect of {beta}-decay. The understanding method of mass surface, systematic check of mass and hindrance of the first forbidden transition at rank 1 were explained. (S.Y.)

  2. Nuclear reaction rate uncertainties and astrophysical modeling: Carbon yields from low-mass giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, Falk; Austin, Sam M.; Lattanzio, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations that demonstrate the influence of three key nuclear reaction rates on the evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars have been carried out. We study the case of a star with an initial mass of 2 M · and a metallicity of Z=0.01, somewhat less than the solar metallicity. The dredge-up of nuclear processed material from the interior of the star and the yield predictions for carbon are sensitive to the rate of the 14 N(p,γ) 15 O and triple-α reactions. These reactions dominate the H- and He-burning shells of stars in this late evolutionary phase. Published uncertainty estimates for each of these two rates propagated through stellar evolution calculations cause uncertainties in carbon enrichment and yield predictions of about a factor of 2. The other important He-burning reaction, 12 C(α,γ) 16 O, although associated with the largest uncertainty in our study, does not have a significant influence on the abundance evolution compared with other modeling uncertainties. This finding remains valid when the entire evolution from the main sequence to the tip of the asymptotic giant branch is considered. We discuss the experimental sources of the rate uncertainties addressed here and give some outlooks for future work

  3. Extending and refining the nuclear mass surface with ISOLTRAP and MISTRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunney, D.; Bollen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Through the nuclear binding energy, the atomic mass gives us important information about nuclear structure. Viewing the ensemble of mass data over the nuclear chart, we can examine the hills and valleys that form this surface and make hypotheses about the effects of certain nuclear configurations. To unveil these effects, mass measurements of very high precision ( -6 ) are required. Two experiments at ISOLDE pursue this effort of nuclear cartography: the tandem Penning trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP and the radiofrequency transmission spectrometer MISTRAL. Between them, the masses of almost 150 nuclides have been measured from stable isotopes to those with half-lives as short as 30 ms. Both experiments rely on good optical properties of a low energy ion beam and are thus well suited to the ISOLDE facility

  4. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry. (JMT)

  5. Prediction of dry ice mass for firefighting robot actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, M. T.; Khan, Md R.; Shafie, A. A.; Salami, MJE; Mohamad Nor, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The limitation in the performance of electric actuated firefighting robots in high-temperature fire environment has led to research on the alternative propulsion system for the mobility of firefighting robots in such environment. Capitalizing on the limitations of these electric actuators we suggested a gas-actuated propulsion system in our earlier study. The propulsion system is made up of a pneumatic motor as the actuator (for the robot) and carbon dioxide gas (self-generated from dry ice) as the power source. To satisfy the consumption requirement (9cfm) of the motor for efficient actuation of the robot in the fire environment, the volume of carbon dioxide gas, as well as the corresponding mass of the dry ice that will produce the required volume for powering and actuation of the robot, must be determined. This article, therefore, presents the computational analysis to predict the volumetric requirement and the dry ice mass sufficient to power a carbon dioxide gas propelled autonomous firefighting robot in a high-temperature environment. The governing equation of the sublimation of dry ice to carbon dioxide is established. An operating time of 2105.53s and operating pressure ranges from 137.9kPa to 482.65kPa were achieved following the consumption rate of the motor. Thus, 8.85m3 is computed as the volume requirement of the CAFFR while the corresponding dry ice mass for the CAFFR actuation ranges from 21.67kg to 75.83kg depending on the operating pressure.

  6. Blind intercomparison of nuclear models for predicting charged particle emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K.; Cierjacks, S.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation data are important for dosimetry, radiation-damage and production of long-lived activities. For fusion energy applications, it is required to develop 'low-activation materials' from the viewpoints of safety, maintenance and waste disposal. Existing evaluated activation cross-section libraries are to a large extent based on nuclear-model calculations. The former Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee, NEANDC, (presently replaced by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee) organized the working group on activation cross sections. The first meeting of the group was held in 1989, and it was then agreed that a blind intercomparison of nuclear-model calculations should be undertaken in order to test the predictive power of the theoretical calculations. As a first stage the working group selected the reactions 60g Co(n,p) 60 Fe and 60m Co(n,p) 60 Fe, for which no experimental data were available, in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The preliminary results compiled at the NEA Data Bank were sent to each participant and a meeting was held during the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology in Julich 1991 to discuss the results. Following the outcome of the discussion in Julich, it was decided to extend this intercomparison. In the second-stage calculation, the same optical-model parameters were employed for neutrons, protons and α-particles, i.e., V = 50 MeV, W = 10 MeV, r = 1.25 fm and a = 0.6 fm with the Woods-Saxon volume-type form factors. No spin-orbit interaction was considered. Concerning the level density, the Fermi gas model with a = A/8 MeV -1 was assumed without pairing corrections. Moreover, gamma-ray competition was neglected to simplify the calculation. This report describes the final results of the blind comparison. Section 2 deals with a survey of the received contributions. The final results are graphically presented in section 3. 67 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  7. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  8. Investigation of the proton-neutron interaction by high-precision nuclear mass measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    Savreux, R P; Akkus, B

    2007-01-01

    We propose to measure the atomic masses of a series of short-lived nuclides, including $^{70}$Ni, $^{122-130}$Cd, $^{134}$Sn, $^{138,140}$Xe, $^{207-210}$Hg, and $^{223-225}$Rn, that contribute to the investigation of the proton-neutron interaction and its role in nuclear structure. The high-precision mass measurements are planned for the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP that reaches the required precision of 10 keV in the nuclear mass determination.

  9. The mass media and nuclear energy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses some problems of mass media of the United States connected with covering issues of nuclear power development, and makes some recommendations to improve the situation in this field

  10. Multiple nucleon transfer in damped nuclear collisions. [Lectures, mass charge, and linear and angular momentum transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J.

    1979-07-01

    This lecture discusses a theory for the transport of mass, charge, linear, and angular momentum and energy in damped nuclear collisions, as induced by multiple transfer of individual nucleons. 11 references.

  11. High temperature mass spectrometry study on fast-neutrons-nuclear-reactor irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.; Pesme, O.; Fouilleul, R.; Laforet, J.J.; Semet, D.; Pattoret, A.

    1985-09-01

    A special high-temperature mass spectrometer was built at DEC Pu-Far Nuclear Center in order to determine the thermodynamic properties of irradiated nuclear fuels, and to observe the release of gaseous species during a high rate of increase of temperature. The device built at CEN-FAR is described, and results obtained from the first experiments are briefly presented

  12. Erratum to: Nuclear triaxiality in the A ∼ 160–170 mass region: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Nuclear triaxiality in the A ∼ 160–170 mass region: the story so far. S MUKHOPADHYAY1,∗ and W C MA2. 1Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Department of Physics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA. ∗. Corresponding ...

  13. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J.; Ambers, Scott D.

    2011-01-14

    The Next Generation Safeguard Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S Department of Energy is supporting a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies and to detect the diversion of pins with non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. The following 14 NDA techniques are being studied: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer, Neutron Multiplicity, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Total Neutron (Gross Neutron), X-Ray Fluorescence, {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Gamma, Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, Passive Prompt Gamma, Self-integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry, and Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis. Understanding and maturity of the techniques vary greatly, ranging from decades old, well-understood methods to new approaches. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that had not previously been studied for SNF assay or similar applications. Since NRF generates isotope-specific signals, the promise and appeal of the technique lies in its potential to directly measure the amount of a specific isotope in an SNF assay target. The objectives of this study were to design and model suitable NRF measurement methods, to quantify capabilities and corresponding instrumentation requirements, and to evaluate prospects and the potential of NRF for SNF assay. The main challenge of the technique is to achieve the sensitivity and precision, i.e., to accumulate sufficient counting statistics, required for quantifying the mass of Pu isotopes in SNF assemblies. Systematic errors, considered a lesser problem for a direct measurement and only briefly discussed in this report, need to be evaluated for specific instrument designs in the future. Also, since the technical capability of using NRF to measure Pu in SNF has not been established, this report does not directly address issues such as cost, size

  14. Higgs and superparticle mass predictions from the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Serce, Hasan; Sinha, Kuver

    2018-03-01

    Predictions for the scale of SUSY breaking from the string landscape go back at least a decade to the work of Denef and Douglas on the statistics of flux vacua. The assumption that an assortment of SUSY breaking F and D terms are present in the hidden sector, and their values are uniformly distributed in the landscape of D = 4, N = 1 effective supergravity models, leads to the expectation that the landscape pulls towards large values of soft terms favored by a power law behavior P( m soft) ˜ m soft n . On the other hand, similar to Weinberg's prediction of the cosmological constant, one can assume an anthropic selection of weak scales not too far from the measured value characterized by m W,Z,h ˜ 100 GeV. Working within a fertile patch of gravity-mediated low energy effective theories where the superpotential μ term is ≪ m 3/2, as occurs in models such as radiative breaking of Peccei-Quinn symmetry, this biases statistical distributions on the landscape by a cutoff on the parameter ΔEW, which measures fine-tuning in the m Z - μ mass relation. The combined effect of statistical and anthropic pulls turns out to favor low energy phenomenology that is more or less agnostic to UV physics. While a uniform selection n = 0 of soft terms produces too low a value for m h , taking n = 1 and 2 produce most probabilistically m h ˜ 125 GeV for negative trilinear terms. For n ≥ 1, there is a pull towards split generations with {m}_{\\tilde{q},\\tilde{ℓ}}(1,2)˜ 10-30 TeV whilst {m}_{{\\tilde{t}}_1}˜ 1-2 TeV . The most probable gluino mass comes in at ˜ 3 - 4 TeV — apparently beyond the reach of HL-LHC (although the required quasi-degenerate higgsinos should still be within reach). We comment on consequences for SUSY collider and dark matter searches.

  15. Analyzing mass perceptions of nuclear politics: Puzzling over trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Pratt, D.A.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The juxtaposition of public values, trust, and beliefs is at the core of policy-making in democratic political systems, and an accurate understanding of nuclear politics requires that researchers untangle and carefully think about the web of psychological and social influences that shape citizens' preferences. In this paper, we offer some tentative answers about several pieces of the trust open-quotes puzzleclose quotes. First, we reconsider what is meant by open-quotes trustclose quotes and how it is to be measured. We then use telephone survey data to explore the relationship between trust and citizens' nuclear policy preferences. The data lend support to the conclusion that trust is more mutable than previous research has shown, and besides the traditional measure of competence includes aspects of believability and fiduciary competence. The data further indicate that it is a mistake to think in terms of a single open-quotes publicclose quotes when exploring the link between trust and nuclear policies. A number of dissimilar open-quotes publicsclose quotes based on shared open-quotes worldviewsclose quotes or political cultures are apparent in the data analyzed here. These open-quotes publicsclose quotes appear to think about trust differently from one another and rely on different dimensions of trust when determining nuclear policy preferences. Policy-makers must recognize the different open-quotes publicsclose quotes coexisting within the U.S. nuclear policy arena, and the relative import that these publics place on different dimensions of trust

  16. Predictive nuclear chromatin characteristics of melanoma and dysplastic nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM is among the diagnostic challenges pathologists encounter on a routine basis. Melanoma may arise in patients with preexisting dysplastic nevi (DN and it is still the cause of 1.7% of all cancer-related deaths. Melanomas often have overlapping histological features with DN, especially those with severe dysplasia. Nucleotyping for identifying nuclear textural features can analyze nuclear DNA structure and organization. The aim of this study is to differentiate MM and DN using these methodologies. Methods: Dermatopathology slides diagnosed as MM and DN were retrieved. The glass slides were scanned using an Aperio ScanScopeXT at ×40 (0.25 μ/pixel. Whole slide images (WSI were annotated for nuclei selection. Nuclear features to distinguish between MM and DN based on chromatin distributions were extracted from the WSI. The morphological characteristics for each nucleus were quantified with the optimal transport-based linear embedding in the continuous domain. Label predictions for individual cell nucleus are achieved through a modified version of linear discriminant analysis, coupled with the k-nearest neighbor classifier. Label for an unknown patient was set by the voting strategy with its pertaining cell nuclei. Results: Nucleotyping of 139 patient cases of melanoma (n = 67 and DN (n = 72 showed that our method had superior classification accuracy of 81.29%. This is a 6.4% gain in differentiating MM and DN, compared with numerical feature-based method. The distribution differences in nuclei morphology between MM and DN can be visualized with biological interpretation. Conclusions: Nucleotyping using quantitative and qualitative analyses may provide enough information for differentiating MM from DN using pixel image data. Our method to segment cell nuclei may offer a practical and inexpensive solution in aiding in the accurate diagnosis of melanoma.

  17. Predictive Nuclear Chromatin Characteristics of Melanoma and Dysplastic Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Liu, Chi; Rohde, Gustavo K; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM) is among the diagnostic challenges pathologists encounter on a routine basis. Melanoma may arise in patients with preexisting dysplastic nevi (DN) and it is still the cause of 1.7% of all cancer-related deaths. Melanomas often have overlapping histological features with DN, especially those with severe dysplasia. Nucleotyping for identifying nuclear textural features can analyze nuclear DNA structure and organization. The aim of this study is to differentiate MM and DN using these methodologies. Dermatopathology slides diagnosed as MM and DN were retrieved. The glass slides were scanned using an Aperio ScanScopeXT at ×40 (0.25 μ/pixel). Whole slide images (WSI) were annotated for nuclei selection. Nuclear features to distinguish between MM and DN based on chromatin distributions were extracted from the WSI. The morphological characteristics for each nucleus were quantified with the optimal transport-based linear embedding in the continuous domain. Label predictions for individual cell nucleus are achieved through a modified version of linear discriminant analysis, coupled with the k-nearest neighbor classifier. Label for an unknown patient was set by the voting strategy with its pertaining cell nuclei. Nucleotyping of 139 patient cases of melanoma ( n = 67) and DN ( n = 72) showed that our method had superior classification accuracy of 81.29%. This is a 6.4% gain in differentiating MM and DN, compared with numerical feature-based method. The distribution differences in nuclei morphology between MM and DN can be visualized with biological interpretation. Nucleotyping using quantitative and qualitative analyses may provide enough information for differentiating MM from DN using pixel image data. Our method to segment cell nuclei may offer a practical and inexpensive solution in aiding in the accurate diagnosis of melanoma.

  18. Nuclear power debate - scientists, mass media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A poll among the members of the American Men and Women of Science has shown that the majority of scientists are for nuclear energy. The controversial results of polls in the general public are believed to be due to the distortion effects of the press and media. The biased information role of the communication media might be the result of the prejudiced publicity behavior of antinuclear scientists. A more significant role, however, has been played by the science journalists whose scepticism toward nuclear power is reflected in the public opinion. There seems to be a lack in the communication chain connecting the layman public with the science community. (R.P.)

  19. Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The propagation of -meson in nuclear matter is studied in the Walecka model, by assuming that the sigma couples to a pair of nucleon–antinucleon states and to particle–hole states. The in-medium effect of - mixing is also studied. For completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions was also considered.

  20. Centre-of-mass motion and microscopic nuclear effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.; Starkand, Y.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated, within the framework of large-matrix diagonalization methods, that spurious centre-of-mass effects can introduce uncertainties of the order of hundreds of keV into calculations of effective interactions. (author)

  1. Nucleon-mass difference in chiral perturbation theory and nuclear forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friar, JL; van Kolck, U; Rentmeester, MCM; Timmermans, RGE

    2004-01-01

    A method is developed for treating the effect of the neutron-proton mass difference in isospin-violating nuclear forces. Previous treatments utilized an awkward subtraction scheme to generate these forces. A field redefinition is used to remove that mass difference from the free Lagrangian (and

  2. Brighter future predicted at nuclear meetings in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the future of nuclear power in the United States and the rest of the world. It is a summary of a meeting of the American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society in Chicago. Some topics discussed include advanced reactor design, public relations, and nuclear safety

  3. Very fast isotopic and mass balance calculations used for strategic planing of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguet, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the prevalence in France of nuclear generated electricity, the french utility, EDF focuses much research on fuel cycle strategy. In this context, analysis of scenarios combining problems related to planning and economics, but also reactor physics, necessitate a relatively thorough understanding of fuel response to irradiation. The main purpose of the fuel strategy program codes is to predict mass balance modifications with time for the main actinides involved in the cycle, including the minor actinides associated with the current back end fuel cycle key issues. Considering the large number of calculations performed by a strategy code in an iterative process covering a range of about a hundred years, it was important to develop basic computation modules for both the ''reactor'' and ''fabrication'' items. These had to be high speed routines, but on an accuracy level compatible with the strategy code efficiency. At the end of 1992, the EDF Research and Development Division (EDF/DER) developed a very simple, extremely fast method of calculating transuranian isotope masses. This approach, which resulted in the STRAPONTIN software, considerably increased the scope of the EDF/DER fuel strategy code TIRELIRE without undue impairment of machine time requirements for a scenario. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  4. Probabilistic approaches to life prediction of nuclear plant structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, B.; Pitner, P.; Procaccia, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing interest at EDF in developing and applying probabilistic methods for a variety of purposes. In the field of structural integrity and reliability they are used to evaluate the effect of deterioration due to aging mechanisms, mainly on major passive structural components such as steam generators, pressure vessels and piping in nuclear plants. Because there can be numerous uncertainties involved in a assessment of the performance of these structural components, probabilistic methods. The benefits of a probabilistic approach are the clear treatment of uncertainly and the possibility to perform sensitivity studies from which it is possible to identify and quantify the effect of key factors and mitigative actions. They thus provide information to support effective decisions to optimize In-Service Inspection planning and maintenance strategies and for realistic lifetime prediction or reassessment. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and illustrate the methods available at EDF for probabilistic component life prediction. This includes a presentation of software tools in classical, Bayesian and structural reliability, and an application on two case studies (steam generator tube bundle, reactor pressure vessel). (authors)

  5. Prediction of long-term behaviour for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; King, F.; Sunder, S.

    1996-09-01

    The modelling procedures developed for the long-term prediction of the corrosion of used fuel and of titanium and copper nuclear waste containers are described. The corrosion behaviour of these materials changes with time as the conditions within the conceptual disposal vault evolve from an early warm, oxidizing phase to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. For the two candidate container materials, this evolution of conditions means that the containers will be initially susceptible to localized corrosion but that in the long-term, corrosion should be more general in nature. The propagation of the pitting of Cu and of the crevice corrosion of Ti alloys is modelled using statistical models. General corrosion processes are modelled deterministically. For the fuel, deterministic electrochemical models have been developed to predict the long-term dissolution rate of U0 2 . The corrosion behaviour of materials in the disposal vault can be influenced by reengineering the vault environment. For instance, increasing the areal loading of containers will produce higher vault temperatures resulting in more extensive drying of the porous backfill materials. The initiation of crevice corrosion on Ti may then be delayed, leading to longer container lifetimes. For copper containers, minimizing the amount Of O 2 initially trapped in the pores of the backfill, or adding reducing agents to consume this O 2 faster, will limit the extent of corrosion, permitting a reduction of the container wall thickness necessary for containment. (author). 55 refs., 19 figs

  6. Probabilistic approaches to life prediction of nuclear plant structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, B.; Pitner, P.; Procaccia, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing interest at EDF in developing and applying probabilistic methods for a variety of purposes. In the field of structural integrity and reliability they are used to evaluate the effect of deterioration due to aging mechanisms, mainly on major passive structural components such as steam generators, pressure vessels and piping in nuclear plants. Because there can be numerous uncertainties involved in an assessment of the performance of these structural components, probabilistic methods provide an attractive alternative or supplement to more conventional deterministic methods. The benefits of a probabilistic approach are the clear treatment of uncertainty and the possibility to perform sensitivity studies from which it is possible to identify and quantify the effect of key factors and mitigative actions. They thus provide information to support effective decisions to optimize In-Service Inspection planning and maintenance strategies and for realistic lifetime prediction or reassessment. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and illustrate the methods available at EDF for probabilistic component life prediction. This includes a presentation of software tools in classical, Bayesian and structural reliability, and an application on two case studies (steam generator tube bundle, reactor pressure vessel)

  7. Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions: case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Dose prediction method RAPS after surface nuclear explosion has been developed by using the empirical dose function of USA nuclear test. This method which provides us external total dose, dose rate at any distant, at any time for any yield of nuclear explosion, is useful for radiation protection in case of nuclear events such as terrorism and nuclear war. The validity of RAPS has been confirmed by application to historical surface nuclear test explosions. The first test case study which was done for the first test explosion of the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on August 29th 1949, shows a good agreement with luminescence dosimetry on a brick. This dose prediction method was applied nuclear tests in Lop Nur. The results indicate dangerous nuclear radiation influences including fatal risk in the wide Uygur area. (author)

  8. Predictive power of theoretical modelling of the nuclear mean field: examples of improving predictive capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, I.; Dudek, J.

    2018-03-01

    We examine the effects of the parametric correlations on the predictive capacities of the theoretical modelling keeping in mind the nuclear structure applications. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the method of establishing the presence and determining the form of parametric correlations within a model as well as an algorithm of elimination by substitution (see text) of parametric correlations. We examine the effects of the elimination of the parametric correlations on the stabilisation of the model predictions further and further away from the fitting zone. It follows that the choice of the physics case and the selection of the associated model are of secondary importance in this case. Under these circumstances we give priority to the relative simplicity of the underlying mathematical algorithm, provided the model is realistic. Following such criteria, we focus specifically on an important but relatively simple case of doubly magic spherical nuclei. To profit from the algorithmic simplicity we chose working with the phenomenological spherically symmetric Woods–Saxon mean-field. We employ two variants of the underlying Hamiltonian, the traditional one involving both the central and the spin orbit potential in the Woods–Saxon form and the more advanced version with the self-consistent density-dependent spin–orbit interaction. We compare the effects of eliminating of various types of correlations and discuss the improvement of the quality of predictions (‘predictive power’) under realistic parameter adjustment conditions.

  9. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wei; Doster, J. Michael; Mayo, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators

  10. Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhshiev U.T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The neutron-proton mass difference in (isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The proposed effective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium influence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking effect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it markedly decreases in neutron matter. Furthermore, the possible interplay between the effective nucleon mass in finite nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is discussed. In particular, we find that a correct description of the properties of mirror nuclei leads to a stringent restriction of possible modifications of the nucleon’s effective mass in nuclei.

  11. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-01-01

    spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer...

  12. The kinetic energy operator for distance-dependent effective nuclear masses: Derivation for a triatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoma, Mykhaylo; Jaquet, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    The kinetic energy operator for triatomic molecules with coordinate or distance-dependent nuclear masses has been derived. By combination of the chain rule method and the analysis of infinitesimal variations of molecular coordinates, a simple and general technique for the construction of the kinetic energy operator has been proposed. The asymptotic properties of the Hamiltonian have been investigated with respect to the ratio of the electron and proton mass. We have demonstrated that an ad hoc introduction of distance (and direction) dependent nuclear masses in Cartesian coordinates preserves the total rotational invariance of the problem. With the help of Wigner rotation functions, an effective Hamiltonian for nuclear motion can be derived. In the derivation, we have focused on the effective trinuclear Hamiltonian. All necessary matrix elements are given in closed analytical form. Preliminary results for the influence of non-adiabaticity on vibrational band origins are presented for H3+.

  13. The kinetic energy operator for distance-dependent effective nuclear masses: Derivation for a triatomic molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoma, Mykhaylo; Jaquet, Ralph

    2017-09-21

    The kinetic energy operator for triatomic molecules with coordinate or distance-dependent nuclear masses has been derived. By combination of the chain rule method and the analysis of infinitesimal variations of molecular coordinates, a simple and general technique for the construction of the kinetic energy operator has been proposed. The asymptotic properties of the Hamiltonian have been investigated with respect to the ratio of the electron and proton mass. We have demonstrated that an ad hoc introduction of distance (and direction) dependent nuclear masses in Cartesian coordinates preserves the total rotational invariance of the problem. With the help of Wigner rotation functions, an effective Hamiltonian for nuclear motion can be derived. In the derivation, we have focused on the effective trinuclear Hamiltonian. All necessary matrix elements are given in closed analytical form. Preliminary results for the influence of non-adiabaticity on vibrational band origins are presented for H 3 + .

  14. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-09

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  15. Onsets of nuclear deformation from measurements with the Isoltrap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimi, S.

    2010-10-01

    Mass measurements provide important information concerning nuclear structure. This work presents results from the pioneering Penning trap spectrometer Isoltrap at CERN-Isolde. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich manganese ( 58 - 66 Mn) and krypton isotopes ( 96, 97 Kr) are presented, of which the 66 Mn and 96, 97 Kr masses are measured for the first time. In particular, the mass of 97 Kr was measured using the preparation trap and required the definition of a new fit function. In the case of the manganese isotopes, the N=40 shell closure is addressed. The two-neutron-separation energies calculated from the new masses show no shell closure at N=40 but give an estimation of the proton-neutron interaction (around 0.5 MeV) responsible for the increase of collectivity and nuclear deformation in this mass region. The new krypton masses show behavior in sharp contrast with heavier neighbors where sudden and intense deformation is present, interpreted as the establishment of a nuclear quantum shape/phase transition critical-point boundary. The new masses confirm findings from nuclear mean-square charge-radius measurements up to N=60 but are at variance with conclusions from recent gamma-ray spectroscopy. Another part of this work was the design of new decay spectroscopy system behind the Isoltrap mass spectrometer. The beam purity achievable with Isoltrap will allow decay studies with γ and β detection coupled to a tape-station. This system has been mounted and commissioned with the radioactive beam 80 Rb. (author)

  16. Role of nuclear reactions on stellar evolution of intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, H.; Jones, S.; Fischer, T.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of intermediate-mass stars (8 - 12 solar masses) represents one of the most challenging subjects in nuclear astrophysics. Their final fate is highly uncertain and strongly model dependent. They can become white dwarfs, they can undergo electron-capture or core-collapse supernovae or they might even proceed towards explosive oxygen burning and a subsequent thermonuclear explosion. We believe that an accurate description of nuclear reactions is crucial for the determination of the pre-supernova structure of these stars. We argue that due to the possible development of an oxygen-deflagration, a hydrodynamic description has to be used. We implement a nuclear reaction network with ∼200 nuclear species into the implicit hydrodynamic code AGILE. The reaction network considers all relevant nuclear electron captures and beta-decays. For selected relevant nuclear species, we include a set of updated reaction rates, for which we discuss the role for the evolution of the stellar core, at the example of selected stellar models. We find that the final fate of these intermediate-mass stars depends sensitively on the density threshold for weak processes that deleptonize the core.

  17. Rock mass characterization for storage of nuclear waste in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Nelson, P.; Doe, T.; Thorpe, R.; Paulsson, B.; Gale, J.; Forster, C.

    1979-02-01

    The rock mass characterization in granite adjacent to an iron mine at Stripa, Sweden is being carried out by four different methods. The mechanical characterization includes monitoring the responses to thermal loading of jointed rock in situ, and mechanical tests on cores from 25 mm to 1 m in diameter. Geological characterization includes detailed surface mapping, subsurface mapping, and core mapping. Geophysical characterization uses a variety of borehole techniques, with emphasis on sonic methods. The hydrologic characterization is done through injection tests, pump tests, water pressure measurements, and controlled inflow tests to tunnels. Since the data are not yet complete, only tentative conclusions can be drawn regarding the best combinations of techniques for rock-mass characterization. Mapping studies are useful in defining continuity and fracture-system geometry. They do not give aperture, a factor significant in terms of both water flow and the displacements due to heating. Of the geophysical techniques, sonic methods appear most effective in fracture definition; other methods, gamma and neutron particularly, give data on radionuclide and water content and need further analysis with geologic and hydrologic data to determine their significance. Hydrologic work yields primarily aperture data, which with fracture geometry can be used to calculate directional permeabilities. Pressure measurements may provide one means of assessing fracture continuity. Finally, laboratory tests on large cores suggest considerable refinement in testing techniques may be needed before stress-aperture data can be extrapolated from laboratory to field

  18. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  19. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration

  20. Isotopic abundance measurements on solid nuclear-type samples by glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, M; Rasmussen, G; Koch, L

    1996-07-01

    A double-focusing Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometer (GDMS) installed in a glovebox for nuclear sample screening has been employed for isotopic measurements. Isotopic compositions of zirconium, silicon, lithium, boron, uranium and plutonium which are elements of nuclear concern have been determined. Interferences arising from the matrix sample and the discharge gas (Ar) for each of these elements are discussed. The GDMS results are compared with those from Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). For boron and lithium at microg/g-ng/g levels, the two methods gave results in good agreement. In samples containing uranium the isotopic composition obtained by GDMS was in agreement with those from TIMS independently of the enrichment. Attempts for the determination of plutonium isotopic composition were also made. In this case, due to the interferences of uranium at mass 238 and americium at mass 241, the GDMS raw data are complementary with those values obtained from physical non-destructive techniques.

  1. Ablation and deceleration of mass-driver launched projectiles for space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Bowen, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The energy cost of launching a projectile containing nuclear waste is two orders of magnitude lower with a mass driver than with a typical rocket system. A mass driver scheme will be feasible, however, only if ablation and deceleration are within certain tolerable limits. It is shown that if a hemisphere-cylinder-shaped projectile protected thermally with a graphite nose is launched vertically to attain a velocity of 17 km/sec at an altitude of 40 km, the mass loss from ablation during atmospheric flight will be less than 0.1 ton, provided the radius of the projectile is under 20 cm and the projectile's mass is of the order of 1 ton. The velocity loss from drag will vary from 0.4 to 30 km/sec, depending on the mass and radius of the projectile, the smaller velocity loss corresponding to large mass and small radius. Ablation is always within a tolerable range for schemes using a mass driver launcher to dispose of nuclear wastes outside the solar system. Deceleration can also be held in the tolerable range if the mass and diameter of the projectile are properly chosen.

  2. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 1985-1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1985-1986-1987 years: 1 - Teams presentation; 2 - Abstracts: On the borderline of spectroscopy; Atomic spectroscopy and low-energy low-spin nuclear structure; high-energy high-spin nuclear structure; Theories and models; Nuclear astrophysics; Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; Solid State Physics; Study of charged particles irradiation effects in astrophysics, geophysics and material sciences; Technical developments for the RF mass spectrometer and for Obelix; Technical developments for ion beams; Technical developments in electronics and their applications; CNSM's Computer Department; Developments in cryogenics; 3 - Staff and publications

  3. Predicting the Liquid Phase Mass Transfer Resistance of Structured Packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olujic, Z.; Seibert, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Published correlations for estimating the liquid phase mass transfer coefficients of structured packings are compared using experimental evidence on the efficiency of Montz-Pak B1–250MN and B1–500MN structured packings as measured in total reflux distillation tests using the

  4. Prediction on corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system based on optimized grey theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Jiang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, the pre- diction error from the grey theory is greater, so a new method, optimized grey theory was presented in the paper. A comparison among predicted results from present and other methods was carried out, and it is seem that optimized grey theory is correct and effective for the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, and it provides a fundamental basis for the maintenance of pipe in nuclear power system. (authors)

  5. Prediction of Mass Flow Rate in Supersonic Natural Gas Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass flow rate of natural gas through the supersonic separator was numerically calculated by various cubic equations of state. The numerical results show that the compressibility factor and specific heat ratio for ideal gas law diverge remarkably from real gas models at a high inlet pressure. Simultaneously, the deviation of mass flow calculated by the ideal and real gas models reaches over 10 %. The difference increases with the lower of the inlet temperature regardless of the inlet pressure. A higher back pressure results in an earlier location of the shock wave. The pressure ratio of 0.72 is the first threshold to get the separator work normally. The second threshold is 0.95, in which case the whole flow is subsonic and cannot reach the choked state. The shock position moves upstream with the real gas model compared to the ideal gas law in the cyclonic separation section.

  6. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro...... for this discrepancy may reveal insights into the complex relationship of genetic determinants of body weight in the etiology of breast cancer....

  7. Consequences of the center-of-mass correction in nuclear mean-field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Rutz, K.; Reinhard, P.G.; Maruhn, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of the scheme for the correction for spurious center-of-mass motion on the fit of effective interactions for self-consistent nuclear mean-field calculations. We find that interactions with very simple center-of-mass correction have significantly larger surface coefficients than interactions for which the center-of-mass correction was calculated for the actual many-body state during the fit. The reason for that is that the effective interaction has to counteract the wrong trends with nucleon number of all simplified schemes for center-of-mass correction which puts a wrong trend with mass number into the effective interaction itself. The effect becomes clearly visible when looking at the deformation energy of largely deformed systems, e.g. superdeformed states or fission barriers of heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  8. Iran Goes Nuclear: Predictive Responses to a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    enhance their own defense by improving their conventional weapons capabilities or acquiring their own nuclear arsenals; bandwagoning : in which Iran‘s...suspicion, distrust, and hegemonic rivalry. Mitch Reiss in describing the Gulf Cooperation Council‘s bandwagoning , provides the best reflection...East. Case in point, in February 2006, Egypt made it clear that it opposed Iran‘s nuclear program by voting to transfer the Iranian crisis from the

  9. Nuclear grade and necrosis predict prognosis in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lauren E; Karrison, Theodore; Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Gallan, Alexander J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Alchami, Fouad S; Attanoos, Richard; Brcic, Luka; Butnor, Kelly J; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kadota, Kyuichi; Klampatsa, Astero; Stang, Nolween Le; Lindenmann, Joerg; Litzky, Leslie A; Marchevsky, Alberto; Medeiros, Filomena; Montero, M Angeles; Moore, David A; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L; Sauter, Jennifer L; Sharma, Anupama; Sheaff, Michael; Travis, William D; Vigneswaran, Wickii T; Vrugt, Bart; Walts, Ann E; Tjota, Melissa Y; Krausz, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N

    2018-04-01

    A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently. The presence or absence of necrosis and predominant growth pattern were also evaluated. Two additional scoring systems were evaluated, one combining nuclear grade and necrosis and the other mitotic count and necrosis. Median overall survival was the primary endpoint. A total of 776 cases were identified including 301 (39%) nuclear grade I tumors, 354 (45%) grade II tumors and 121 (16%) grade III tumors. The overall survival was 16 months, and correlated independently with age (P=0.006), sex (0.015), necrosis (0.030), mitotic count (0.001), nuclear atypia (0.009), nuclear grade (<0.0001), and mitosis and necrosis score (<0.0001). The addition of necrosis to nuclear grade further stratified overall survival, allowing classification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma into four distinct prognostic groups: nuclear grade I tumors without necrosis (29 months), nuclear grade I tumors with necrosis and grade II tumors without necrosis (16 months), nuclear grade II tumors with necrosis (10 months) and nuclear grade III tumors (8 months). The mitosis-necrosis score stratified patients by survival, but not as well as the combination of necrosis and nuclear grade. This study confirms that nuclear grade predicts survival in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma, identifies necrosis as factor that further stratifies overall survival, and validates the grading system across multiple

  10. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  11. IGFBP-3 nuclear localization predicts human prostate cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligson, David B; Yu, Hong; Tze, Sheila; Said, Jonathan; Pantuck, Allan J; Cohen, Pinchas; Lee, Kuk-Wha

    2013-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a pro-apoptotic, anti-metastasic, and anti-angiogenic protein. Low serum IGFBP-3 has been associated with risk of more aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). We investigated the impact of nuclear and cytoplasmic IGFBP-3 protein expression levels in PCa by examining their in situ expression across a wide spectrum of primary tumors by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays. Immunohistochemistry was performed on PCa microarrays constructed from 226 hormone naïve patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear IGFBP-3 expressions were scored in a semi-quantitative fashion using an integrated measure of intensity and positivity. The distribution of IGFBP-3 protein expression was examined across the spectrum of epithelial tissues, and its association with standard clinicopathological covariates and tumor recurrence was examined. There was a broad range of IGFBP-3 staining across all histologies examined. Tumor had higher IGFBP-3 cytoplasmic and nuclear staining than benign histologies. For IGFBP-3 nuclear staining, PCa was significantly different than benign prostatic hyperplasia, normal prostate, and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. As both a continuous and dichotomized variable, higher nuclear IGFBP-3 expression had statistically significant associations with PCa recurrence. The cytoplasmic staining had no significance in any patient subgroup. In patients with low-grade cancer, IGFBP-3 nuclear positivity was a better predictor of recurrence than baseline PSA, tumor margin status, TNM tumor stage, or presence of capsular invasion. High nuclear IGFBP-3 is amongst the strongest predictors of cancer recurrence in patients with low-grade prostate cancers and may therefore play an important role in risk stratification.

  12. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2002-2004 years: 1 - Foreword; 2 - Nuclear structure; 3 - EFIX: study of exotic nuclei-induced fission; 4 - Nuclear Astrophysics; 5 - Atomic mass; 6 - Solid state astrophysics; 7 - Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; 8 - Solid State Physics; 9 - Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; 10 - Activities of general interest; 11 - SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling); 12 - Computer Department; 13 - Electronics Group; 14 - Mechanics Department; 15 - Health and safety; 16 - Permanent training; 17 - Seminars; 18 - PhDs; 19 - Staff

  13. Predictive model for radiatively induced neutrino masses and mixings with dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Michael; No, Jose M; Rivera, Maximiliano A

    2013-05-24

    A minimal extension of the standard model to naturally generate small neutrino masses and provide a dark matter candidate is proposed. The dark matter particle is part of a new scalar doublet field that plays a crucial role in radiatively generating neutrino masses. The symmetry that stabilizes the dark matter also suppresses neutrino masses to appear first at three-loop level. Without the need of right-handed neutrinos or other very heavy new fields, this offers an attractive explanation of the hierarchy between the electroweak and neutrino mass scales. The model has distinct verifiable predictions for the neutrino masses, flavor mixing angles, colliders, and dark matter signals.

  14. Importance of banked tissues in the management of mass nuclear casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Bhatnagar, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear detonations are the most devastating of the weapons of mass destruction. There will be large number of casualties on detonation of nuclear weapon. Biological tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Radiation technology is used to sterilize the tissues to make them safe for clinical use. This paper highlights the importance of such banked tissues in the management of the casualties. (author)

  15. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10–100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  16. Remarks on ''Neutrino masses and mixing angles in a predictive theory of fermion masses''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoura, L.; Silva, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the extension of the Dimopoulos-Hall-Raby model of the fermion mass matrices to the neutrino sector, there is an entry in the up-quark and neutrino Dirac mass matrices which can be assumed to arise from the Yukawa coupling of a 120, instead of a 10 or a 126, of SO(10). Although this assumption leads to an extra undetermined complex parameter in the model, the resulting lepton mixing matrix exhibits the remarkable feature that the ν τ does not mix with the other two neutrinos. Making a reasonable assumption about the extra parameter, we are able to fit the large-mixing-angle MSW solution of the solar-neutrino problem, and we obtain m ντ ∼10 eV, the right mass range to close the Universe. Other possibilities for explaining the solar-neutrino deficit are also discussed

  17. Comprehensive and critical review of the predictive properties of the various mass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustein, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Since the publication of the 1975 Mass Predictions approximately 300 new atomic masses have been reported. These data come from a variety of experimental studies using diverse techniques and they span a mass range from the lightest isotopes to the very heaviest. It is instructive to compare these data with the 1975 predictions and several others (Moeller and Nix, Monahan, Serduke, Uno and Yamada which appeared latter. Extensive numerical and graphical analyses have been performed to examine the quality of the mass predictions from the various models and to identify features in these models that require correction. In general, there is only rough correlation between the ability of a particular model to reproduce the measured mass surface which had been used to refine its adjustable parameters and that model's ability to predict correctly the new masses. For some models distinct systematic features appear when the new mass data are plotted as functions of relevant physical variables. Global intercomparisons of all the models are made first, followed by several examples of types of analysis performed with individual mass models

  18. Prediction of renal mass aggressiveness using clinical and radiographic features: a global, multicentre prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golan, Shay; Eggener, Scott; Subotic, Svetozar; Barret, Eric; Cormio, Luigi; Naito, Seiji; Tefekli, Ahmet; Pilar Laguna Pes, M.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the ability of preoperative clinical characteristics to predict histological features of renal masses (RMs). Data from consecutive patients with clinical stage I RMs treated surgically between 2010 and 2011 in the Clinical Research Office of Endourology Society (CROES) Renal Mass Registry

  19. Atomic mass measurements and nuclear spectroscopy at TRISTAN and nuclidic mass measurements at LAMPF: Progress report for the period February 1, 1985-August 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.S.

    1987-09-01

    The Clark University research program is concerned with experimental determination of the nuclear structure of isotopes far from the line of β stability and their masses. This work is accomplished, primarily, by use of the TRISTAN on-line mass separator located at the High Flux Beam Reactor, Brookhaven National Laboratory, where investigations of short-lived fission products have been actively pursued since 1980. In 1985 mass measurements of light isotopes produced by fragmentation reactions on heavy targets were initiated using the TOFI (Time-of-flight Isochronous) Spectrometer at the LAMPF accelerator, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Together, the two facilities are capable of providing complementary information, potentially of great value in understanding the sum total effect of all nuclear interactions in a given nucleus, which gives rise to the property known as the mass. The thrust of the spectroscopic studies at TRISTAN has been to develop a database for neutron-rich, far-from-stability nuclides in order to provide a new testing ground for nuclear models. In particular, we have been active in pursuing microscopic and phenomenological understanding of nuclear structure in regions of shape transition near shell and subshell closures. Recent efforts have been concentrated on exploiting some very new ideas based on the pervasive influence of the proton-neutron interaction that offer the possibility of achieving a unified interpretation of nuclear structure and its evolution, of the interrelationships of different nuclear shapes and modes of excitation, and of the nuclear mass

  20. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERRON,KERRY G.; JENKINS-SMITH,HANK C.; HUGHES,SCOTT D.

    2000-06-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community.

  1. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry G.; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Hughes, Scott D.

    2000-01-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community

  2. Comparisons of experimental beta-ray spectra important to decay heat predictions with ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1990-03-01

    Graphical comparisons of recently obtained experimental beta-ray spectra with predicted beta-ray spectra based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File are exhibited for 77 fission products having masses 79--99 and 130--146 and lifetimes between 0.17 and 23650 sec. The comparisons range from very poor to excellent. For beta decay of 47 nuclides, estimates are made of ground-state transition intensities. For 14 cases the value in ENSDF gives results in very good agreement with the experimental data. 12 refs., 77 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Comparisons of experimental beta-ray spectra important to decay heat predictions with ENSDF [Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File] evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1990-03-01

    Graphical comparisons of recently obtained experimental beta-ray spectra with predicted beta-ray spectra based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File are exhibited for 77 fission products having masses 79--99 and 130--146 and lifetimes between 0.17 and 23650 sec. The comparisons range from very poor to excellent. For beta decay of 47 nuclides, estimates are made of ground-state transition intensities. For 14 cases the value in ENSDF gives results in very good agreement with the experimental data. 12 refs., 77 figs., 1 tab

  4. Density of saturated nuclear matter at large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.; Datta, Ishaun

    2014-06-01

    We exhibit the existence of stable, saturated nuclear matter in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits of QCD. In this limit, baryons (with the same spin flavor structure) interact at leading order in Nc via a repulsive interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle and at subleading order in 1/Nc via the exchange of glueballs. Assuming that the lightest glueball is a scalar, which implies that the subleading baryon interaction is attractive, we find that nuclear matter saturates since the subleading attractive interaction is longer ranged than the leading order repulsive one. We find that the saturated matter is in the form of a crystal with either a face-centered-cubic or a hexagonal-close-packed symmetry with baryon densities of O ({α˜smq[glueball mass and scalar-glueball-baryon coupling in the extreme large Nc limit or heavy quark limit (or both), which we define precisely in this work.

  5. PREDICTING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS USING MACHINE LEARNING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobra, M. G.; Ilonidis, S. [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Usually, solar active regions that produce large flares will also produce a CME, but this is not always true. Despite advances in numerical modeling, it is still unclear which circumstances will produce a CME. Therefore, it is worthwhile to empirically determine which features distinguish flares associated with CMEs from flares that are not. At this time, no extensive study has used physically meaningful features of active regions to distinguish between these two populations. As such, we attempt to do so by using features derived from (1) photospheric vector magnetic field data taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory ’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument and (2) X-ray flux data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite’s X-ray Flux instrument. We build a catalog of active regions that either produced both a flare and a CME (the positive class) or simply a flare (the negative class). We then use machine-learning algorithms to (1) determine which features distinguish these two populations, and (2) forecast whether an active region that produces an M- or X-class flare will also produce a CME. We compute the True Skill Statistic, a forecast verification metric, and find that it is a relatively high value of ∼0.8 ± 0.2. We conclude that a combination of six parameters, which are all intensive in nature, will capture most of the relevant information contained in the photospheric magnetic field.

  6. Predicting Coronal Mass Ejections Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M. G.; Ilonidis, S.

    2016-04-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Usually, solar active regions that produce large flares will also produce a CME, but this is not always true. Despite advances in numerical modeling, it is still unclear which circumstances will produce a CME. Therefore, it is worthwhile to empirically determine which features distinguish flares associated with CMEs from flares that are not. At this time, no extensive study has used physically meaningful features of active regions to distinguish between these two populations. As such, we attempt to do so by using features derived from (1) photospheric vector magnetic field data taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument and (2) X-ray flux data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite’s X-ray Flux instrument. We build a catalog of active regions that either produced both a flare and a CME (the positive class) or simply a flare (the negative class). We then use machine-learning algorithms to (1) determine which features distinguish these two populations, and (2) forecast whether an active region that produces an M- or X-class flare will also produce a CME. We compute the True Skill Statistic, a forecast verification metric, and find that it is a relatively high value of ∼0.8 ± 0.2. We conclude that a combination of six parameters, which are all intensive in nature, will capture most of the relevant information contained in the photospheric magnetic field.

  7. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Muncrief, T

    2000-01-01

    The antigenic specificity of an unusual antinuclear antibody pattern in three patient sera was identified after separating HeLa-cell nuclear extracts by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and localizing the antigens by immunoblotting with patient serum. Protein spots were excised from the 2......-separation methods and mass-spectrometric peptide mapping in combination with database searches are powerful tools in the identification of novel autoantigen specificities....

  8. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    These analytical procedures are designed to show whether a given material meets the purchaser's specifications as to plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. The following procedures are described in detail: plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); free acid by titration in an oxalate solution; free acid by iodate precipitation-potentiometric titration method; uranium by Arsenazo I spectrophotometric method; thorium by thorin spectrophotometric method; iron by 1,10-phenanthroline spectrophotometric method; chloride by thiocyanate spectrophotometric method; fluoride by distillation-spectrophotometric method; sulfate by barium sulfate turbidimetric method; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; americium-241 by extraction and gamma counting; americium-241 by gamma counting; gamma-emitting fission products, uranium, and thorium by gamma-ray spectroscopy; rare earths by copper spark spectrochemical method; tungsten, niobium (columbium), and tantalum by spectrochemical method; simple preparation by spectrographic analysis for general impurities

  9. Fuzzy model predictive control algorithm applied in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuheir, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design a predictive controller based on a fuzzy model. The Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model with an Adaptive B-splines neuro-fuzzy implementation is used and incorporated as a predictor in a predictive controller. An optimization approach with a simplified gradient technique is used to calculate predictions of the future control actions. In this approach, adaptation of the fuzzy model using dynamic process information is carried out to build the predictive controller. The easy description of the fuzzy model and the easy computation of the gradient sector during the optimization procedure are the main advantages of the computation algorithm. The algorithm is applied to the control of a U-tube steam generation unit (UTSG) used for electricity generation. (author)

  10. A data base approach for prediction of deforestation-induced mass wasting events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A major topic of concern in timber management is determining the impact of clear-cutting on slope stability. Deforestation treatments on steep mountain slopes have often resulted in a high frequency of major mass wasting events. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a potentially useful tool for predicting the location of mass wasting sites. With a raster-based GIS, digitally encoded maps of slide hazard parameters can be overlayed and modeled to produce new maps depicting high probability slide areas. The present investigation has the objective to examine the raster-based information system as a tool for predicting the location of the clear-cut mountain slopes which are most likely to experience shallow soil debris avalanches. A literature overview is conducted, taking into account vegetation, roads, precipitation, soil type, slope-angle and aspect, and models predicting mass soil movements. Attention is given to a data base approach and aspects of slide prediction.

  11. Predictive geology: with emphasis on nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marsily, G.; Merriam, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews book which primarily discusses applications of earth science to the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Points out that very little is said regarding practical experience with, or the epistemological foundation of, prediction in the earth and geotechnical sciences. Suggests that an in-depth examination of the difficulties of retrodiction in the earth sciences might have provided the philosophical overview missing in a volume whose title stresses predictive geology

  12. Predicting mass loading as a function of pressure difference across prefilter/HEPA filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Klassen, J.F.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for predicting the mass loading and pressure drop effects on a prefilter/ HEPA filter system. The methodology relies on the use of empirical equations for the specific resistance of the aerosol loaded filter as a function of the particle diameter. These correlations relate the pressure difference across a filter to the mass loading on the filter and accounts for aerosol particle density effects. These predictions are necessary for the efficient design of new filtration systems and for risk assessment studies of existing filter systems. This work specifically addresses the prefilter/HEPA filter Airborne Activity Confinement Systems (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. In order to determine the mass loading on the system, it is necessary to establish the efficiency characteristics for the prefilter, the mass loading characteristics of the prefilter measured as a function of pressure difference across the prefilter, and the mass loading characteristics of the HEPA filter as a function of pressure difference across the filter. Furthermore, the efficiency and mass loading characteristics need to be determined as a function of the aerosol particle diameter. A review of the literature revealed that no previous work had been performed to characterize the prefilter material of interest. In order to complete the foundation of information necessary to predict total mass loadings on prefilter/HEPA filter systems, it was necessary to determine the prefilter efficiency and mass loading characteristics. The measured prefilter characteristics combined with the previously determined HEPA filter characteristics allowed the resulting pressure difference across both filters to be predicted as a function of total particle mass for a given particle distribution. These predictions compare favorably to experimental measurements (±25%)

  13. Advertising campaigns on the necessity of nuclear energy through mass-media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwano, Sadaji

    1998-01-01

    provide the public with materials and elements to think and decide with as information. In the background of those circumstances, the attitudes of PA activities toward the public-has changed recently to draw public attention to the wide range of issues from current severe energy conditions in Japan to global environmental problems connecting to the role and the position of nuclear power among overall national energy policies in Japan and let have urgent feelings among the public. Followings are the examples that we are taking up in promotion of advertising campaigns through mass media, including inter- net and other information tools. (1) To show concrete measures to be taken to meet national long- term energy supply/demand outlook for the year to 2030 that encourage energy- saving efforts, increased use of new energy sources and further development of nuclear power generation. (2) In this December, the 3rd Conference of the Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will be held at Kyoto, Japan. At this very moment that national attentions are increasingly concentrating toward the energy and environment issues, we will intend to hold advertising campaigns widely through mass media to heighten public awareness on the necessity of nuclear power promotion, as well as conservation and energy efficiency measures, introduction of alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind etc. in connection with the necessity of tackling the environmental problems, especially global warming phenomenon due to the greenhouse gas emissions. At this occasion, taking up some topics of specifically rapid energy demand which will obviously continue well into the next century and will very likely cause impending energy situations in Asian countries, expectations of serious environmental problems particularly in those of Asian countries, and among that appealing the role of nuclear energy as a clean energy source

  14. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1995-1997 years: 1 - Nuclear structure: structure of first well states, superdeformation, high-spin state populations of stable or neutron-rich nuclei, high-k isomers physics, theoretical works, technical developments; 2 - Nuclear astrophysics; 3 - Basic symmetries; 4 - Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; 5 - Solid State Astrophysics; 6 - Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; 7 - Solid State Physics; 8 - SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling); 9 - Computer Department; 10 - Electronics Group; 11 - Mechanics Department; 12 - Permanent training; 13 - Health and safety; 14 - Seminars and communications; 15 - Dissertations; 16 - Publications; 17 - Staff

  15. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1992-1994 years: 1 - Nuclear structure; 2 - Nuclear astrophysics; 3 - Basic symmetries; 4 - Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; 5 - Solid State Astrophysics; 6 - Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; 7 - Solid State Physics; 8 - SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling); 9 - Computer Department; 10 - Electronics Group; 11 - Mechanics Department; 12 - Permanent training; 13 - Health and safety; 14 - Seminars; 15 - Dissertations; 16 - Publications; 17 - Staff

  16. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2001-2002 years: 1 - Foreword; 2 - Research topics: Nuclear structure; EFIX: study of exotic nuclei-induced fission; Nuclear Astrophysics; Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; Solid State Astrophysics; Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; Solid State Physics; SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling); Digest science; 3 - Publications; 4 - Dissertations; 5 - Seminars; 6 - Technical services: Computer Department; Electronics Group; Mechanics Department; Permanent training; Health and safety; 7 - Staff

  17. STRAPS v1.0: evaluating a methodology for predicting electron impact ionisation mass spectra for the aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. While there are fundamental models now available that can simulate the tens of thousands of reactions thought to take place, validation against experiments is highly challenging. Techniques capable of identifying individual molecules such as chromatography are generally only capable of quantifying a subset of the material present, making it unsuitable for a carbon budget analysis. Integrative analytical methods such as the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS are capable of quantifying all mass, but because of their inability to isolate individual molecules, comparisons have been limited to simple data products such as total organic mass and the O : C ratio. More detailed comparisons could be made if more of the mass spectral information could be used, but because a discrete inversion of AMS data is not possible, this activity requires a system of predicting mass spectra based on molecular composition. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated. Supervised Training Regression for the Arbitrary Prediction of Spectra (STRAPS is not built from first principles. A methodology is constructed whereby the presence of specific mass-to-charge ratio (m∕z channels is fitted as a function of molecular structure before the relative peak height for each channel is similarly fitted using a range of regression methods. The widely used AMS mass spectral database is used as a basis for this, using unit mass resolution spectra of laboratory standards. Key to the fitting process is choice of structural information, or molecular fingerprint. Our approach relies on using supervised methods to automatically optimise the relationship between spectral characteristics and these molecular

  18. STRAPS v1.0: evaluating a methodology for predicting electron impact ionisation mass spectra for the aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David O.; Allan, James; Rami Alfarra, M.; Aumont, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. While there are fundamental models now available that can simulate the tens of thousands of reactions thought to take place, validation against experiments is highly challenging. Techniques capable of identifying individual molecules such as chromatography are generally only capable of quantifying a subset of the material present, making it unsuitable for a carbon budget analysis. Integrative analytical methods such as the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) are capable of quantifying all mass, but because of their inability to isolate individual molecules, comparisons have been limited to simple data products such as total organic mass and the O : C ratio. More detailed comparisons could be made if more of the mass spectral information could be used, but because a discrete inversion of AMS data is not possible, this activity requires a system of predicting mass spectra based on molecular composition. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI) mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated. Supervised Training Regression for the Arbitrary Prediction of Spectra (STRAPS) is not built from first principles. A methodology is constructed whereby the presence of specific mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) channels is fitted as a function of molecular structure before the relative peak height for each channel is similarly fitted using a range of regression methods. The widely used AMS mass spectral database is used as a basis for this, using unit mass resolution spectra of laboratory standards. Key to the fitting process is choice of structural information, or molecular fingerprint. Our approach relies on using supervised methods to automatically optimise the relationship between spectral characteristics and these molecular fingerprints. Therefore

  19. Improving nuclear power plant reliability through predictive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geilhausen, R.; Kunze, U.

    1996-01-01

    Maintenance strategies can be assigned to one of three categories: failure maintenance, periodic maintenance or condition-oriented maintenance. The optimum maintenance scheme can be selected on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis but the safety of life and limb or the political climate for NPP can hardly expressed in numbers. The implementation of preventive maintenance needs two preconditions: high-performance instrumentation in the form of stationary and mobile monitoring systems for the determination of the condition of the nuclear power plant components and provision of a tool that can handle both the organization of the work and the evaluation of the results obtained. (authors)

  20. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the immiscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the open-quotes alkaliclose quotes corner of the NBS submixture

  1. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the ''alkali'' corner of the NBS submixture

  2. Low mass dilepton production at the SPS probing hot and dense nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez de los Heros, C; Baur, R; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Drees, A; Jacob, C; Faschingbauer, U; Fisher, P H; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Günzel, T F; Hess, F; Irmscher, D; Lenkeit, B C; Olsen, L H; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Schön, A; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sampietro, M; Shimansky, S S; Shor, A; Specht, H J; Steiner, V; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1996-01-01

    CERES and HELIOS-3 have detected a significant enhancement of low--mass dileptons in nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon with respect to the expected ``conventional'' sources. The onset of the excess, starting at a mass of $\\sim2m_{\\pi}$, and the possibility of a quadratic dependence on the event multiplicity suggest the opening of the $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\rightarrow e^+e^-(\\mu^+\\mu^-)$ annihilation channel. This would be the first observation of thermal radiation from dense hadronic matter. Possible interpretations of these results are presented, including the reduction of the $\\rho$ mass due to partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the dense fireball formed in the collision.

  3. Structure of nuclei with masses 76 and 82 and nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Yanase, K.; Higashiyama, K.; Teruya, E.; Taguchi, D.

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear shell-model calculations are carried out for isobaric nuclei with masses 76 and 82. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transition rates are compared with the experimental data. Using the wavefunctions thus obtained, nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay are estimated. In order to investigate the model dependence on the nuclear matrix elements, pair-truncated shell-model calculations are also performed. By comparing the results with those in other models, the nuclear matrix elements are found to be sensitive to the ground-state correlations. In particular, nuclear matrix elements have strong correlations with pairing gaps.

  4. The possibility of prediction of the lifetime of metallic nuclear fuel elements in a radiation field of thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livne, Z.; Ramon, P.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the possible causes of failure of irradiated nuclear fuel cartridges, in order to determine the parameters which govern the lifetime of the fuel and a way to predict it. Measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated uranium metal and cladding, can serve as a basis for failure prediction. Testing irradiated fuel elements by bending till fracture enables to evaluate the integral character of the fuel element, along the cross-section, taking into account the difference in brittleness of several zones. It is likely that the bending test, which indicates the behaviour of a stress-strain function, is a faster and more reliable way to determine the mechanical properties of irradiated nuclear fuel. Since the stresses applied to the cladding during irradiation are locally hydrostatic, its postirradiation blow-up provide information on strength and elasticity variations of the irradiated cladding material. (B.G.)

  5. Tools and techniques for ageing predictions in nuclear reactors through condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    To operate the nuclear reactors beyond their design predicted life is gaining importance because of huge replacement and decommissioning costs. But experience shows that nuclear plant safety and reliability may decline in the later years of plant life due to ageing degradation. Ageing of nuclear plant components, structures and systems, if unmitigated reduces their safety margins provided in the design and thus increases risks to public health and safety. These safety margins must be monitored throughout plant service life including any extended life. Condition monitoring of nuclear reactor components/equipment and systems can be done to study the effect of ageing, status of safety margins and effect of corrective and mitigating actions taken. The tools and techniques of condition monitoring are also important in failure trending, predictive maintenance, evaluation of scheduled maintenance, in mitigation of ageing, life extension and reliability studies. (author). 1 fig., 1 annexure

  6. Computational Efficient Upscaling Methodology for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Nuclear Waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated different upscaling methods to predict thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form, a heterogeneous material system. The efficiency and accuracy of these methods were compared. Thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form is an important property specific to scientific researchers, in waste form Integrated performance and safety code (IPSC). The effective thermal conductivity obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. How the heat generated during storage is directly related to thermal conductivity, which in turn determining the mechanical deformation behavior, corrosion resistance and aging performance. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling models were developed and implemented. Due to the absence of experimental data, prediction results from finite element method (FEM) were used as reference to determine the accuracy of different upscaling models. Micrographs from different loading of nuclear waste were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (Taylor and Sachs model) are better than self consistent model, statistical upscaling method and FEM. Balancing the computation resource and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a computational efficient method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste form.

  7. Meteorological requirements and operational fallout prediction techniques for Plowshare nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.F.

    1969-01-01

    Meteorological support requirements for Plowshare nuclear detonations are shown to depend on a number of factors. The importance of adequate support to the effective planning and safe conduct of a nuclear detonation is described. An example of the influence of atmospheric conditions on radioactive cloud development and local transport and fallout of radioactive debris is presented. Prediction of the future state of atmospheric wind structure, required for fallout predictions depends on an adequate definition of its initial state and its rate of change. This definition, in turn, is shown to depend on an upper wind-sounding network of appropriate station density. An operational technique currently used for nuclear cratering fallout predictions is described and shown to produce results of useful accuracy. (author)

  8. Scientometric mapping of mass spectrometry research in nuclear science and technology: a global perspective. IT-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Vijai Kumar

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Mass Spectrometry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005, a total of 10913 papers were published in various domains: Chemistry, Materials and Earth Sciences (5286) (48.44%), Physical Sciences (2367) (21.69%), Engineering and Technology (1434) (13.14), Life and Environmental Sciences (1212) (11.11), other aspects of Nuclear and Non Nuclear Energy (492) (4.51%) and Isotopes, Isotope and Radiation Applications (122) (1.12%). There were only three papers published in 1970. The highest number of papers (816) were published in 2004. The average number of publications published per year was 303.13. United States topped the list with 2247 publications followed by Germany with 1333 publications, Japan with 820 publications, France with 525 publications, and India with 460 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 81.83 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: S.K. Aggarwal, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 113 publications, W. Kutschera, University of Vienna, Austria with 85 publications, and H.C. Jain, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 70 publications. The highly productive institutions were: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India) with 233 publications, Argonne National Laboratory (USA) with 150 publications, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) with 146 publications, University of California (USA) with 118 publications, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) with 104 publications and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan) with 91 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research

  9. Predictive autoimmunity using autoantibodies: screening for anti-nuclear antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dolores; Gilburd, Boris; Cabrera-Marante, Óscar; Martínez-Flores, Jose A; Serrano, Manuel; Naranjo, Laura; Pleguezuelo, Daniel; Morillas, Luis; Shovman, Ora; Paz-Artal, Estela; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Serrano, Antonio

    2017-06-17

    Early detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in asymptomatic subjects is useful to predict autoimmune diseases years before diagnosis. ANA have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cells, which is considered the gold standard technique. Multiplex technology (BioPlex ANA Screen) has been introduced for ANA evaluation in recent years. Nevertheless, concordance between BioPlex and IIF is low and there is no harmonization between both methods for detection of autoantibodies. This study has aimed to clarify the clinical significance of autoantibodies detected by BioPlex ANA Screen in subjects with undiagnosed clinical suspicion of autoimmune disease and to determine the predictive value of autoantibodies detected by BioPlex ANA Screen. A 3-year follow-up study was performed of 411 subjects without a clear diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in whom autoantibodies were detected by BioPlex ANA Screen that were negative by IIF on HEp-2 cells. At 3 years of follow-up, 312 (76%) subjects were positive for autoantibodies by IIF and 99 subjects continued to be negative. A diagnosis of autoimmune disease was found in most of the subjects (87%). BioPlex ANA Screen has greater sensitivity than IIF on HEp-2 cells for autoantibodies detection. Early detection of these antibodies by BioPlex can predict possible development of autoimmune diseases.

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers can predict periodontal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, L H; Darby, I B; Veith, P D; Locke, A G; Reynolds, E C

    2013-06-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid has been suggested as a possible source of biomarkers for periodontal disease progression. This paper describes a technique for the analysis of gingival crevicular fluid from individual sites using mass spectrometry. It explores the novel use of mass spectrometry to examine the relationship between the relative amounts of proteins and peptides in gingival crevicular fluid and their relationship with clinical indices and periodontal attachment loss in periodontal maintenance patients. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the mass spectrometric analysis of gingival crevicular fluid may allow for the site-specific prediction of periodontal disease progression. Forty-one periodontal maintenance subjects were followed over 12 mo, with clinical measurements taken at baseline and every 3 mo thereafter. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from subjects at each visit and was analysed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Samples were classified based upon pocket depth, modified gingival index (MGI), plaque index and attachment loss, and were analysed within these groups. A genetic algorithm was used to create a model based on pattern analysis to predict sites undergoing attachment loss. Three hundred and eighty-five gingival crevicular fluid samples were analysed. Twenty-five sites under observation in 14 patients exhibited attachment loss of > 2 mm over the 12-mo period. The clinical indices pocket depth, MGI, plaque levels and bleeding on probing served as poor discriminators of gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra. Models generated from the gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra could predict attachment loss at a site with a high specificity (97% recognition capability and 67% cross-validation). Gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra could be used to predict sites with attachment loss. The use of algorithm-generated models based on gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra may

  11. Nonlinear Fuzzy Model Predictive Control for a PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable power and temperature control in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant is necessary to guarantee high efficiency and plant safety. Since the nuclear plants are quite nonlinear, the paper presents nonlinear fuzzy model predictive control (MPC, by incorporating the realistic constraints, to realize the plant optimization. T-S fuzzy modeling on nuclear power plant is utilized to approximate the nonlinear plant, based on which the nonlinear MPC controller is devised via parallel distributed compensation (PDC scheme in order to solve the nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Improved performance compared to the traditional PID controller for a TMI-type PWR is obtained in the simulation.

  12. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  13. Investigation of the transport of air masses to Germany from nuclear facility sites east of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Spoden, E.

    2000-05-01

    The accident in the Chernobyl-4 reactor demonstrated that even far distant reactor sites may cause some danger to the German territory, so that emergency preparedness measures are required. The geographic position of a site has an important influence on the transport of air masses starting at the site. The geographic positions of sources determine the potential danger to Germany that may result from an accident, and consequently the required emergency preparedness plans. For sites of nuclear power plants and spent fuel reprocessing facilities east of Germany (Nuclear Facilities East), the transport ways of air masses were calculated daily by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) for the period from November 1995 to October 1999. Those data were used to derive estimates of the frequency of transport to Germany, the time distribution for the cases of air masses reaching Germany, and the corresponding time of travelling. Until 31 October 1999, trajectories (transport ways) were calculated by the DWD for 1444 days, and were submitted for analysis to the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). The fraction of days for which trajectories with travelling times below seven days are reaching Germany decreases from 46 % for Dukovany (at a distance of 200 km) through to 17 % for Chernobyl (at a distance of 1000 km), 11 % for Kola (at a distance of 2000 km), and 1.3 % for Chelyabinsk (at a distance of 2900 km). (orig) [de

  14. Determination of curium-242 by α spectrometry and mass spectrometry in spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, F.; Aubert, M.; Degros, J.P.; Duda, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Curium-242 is a particularly important isotope in spent nuclear fuels due to its contribution to the residual power and also of its radioactive decrease chain. The determination of its content is therefore essential to improve the knowledge of the nuclear data. According to the nature and the cooling time of the spent fuel, the 242 Cm content can be lower than the detection limit of the classically used mass spectrometric techniques. To overcome this limitation, alpha spectrometry can be advantageously used for this radionuclide of short period (T = 162.9 days). From dilute solutions of MOX fuels of short time of cooling and for which the content of 242 Cm is about a few tens of pg, the development of different successive chemical separations permitted to get sufficiently pure curium fractions to perform curium isotopic analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry but also the determination of the 242 Cm/ 244 Cm ratio by alpha spectrometry. The agreement on the ratios determined by the two techniques has allowed to spread the measure by alpha spectrometry to a UOX fuel of content in 242 Cm even lower. The association of the 242 Cm/ 244 Cm ratio measurement with the 244 Cm/ 238 U ratio obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry and isotope dilution, with a 248 Cm/ 233 U spike, permits to know the content in curium-242 in relation to uranium-238 which is used as a reference in the fuel. (author)

  15. Study on integrated approach of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling System based on GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijuan; Huang Shunxiang; Wang Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The issue of nuclear safety becomes the attention focus of international society after the nuclear accident happened in Fukushima. Aiming at the requirements of the prevention and controlling of Nuclear Accident establishment of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning and optimized Controlling System (NAPWS) is a imperative project that our country and army are desiderating, which includes multiple fields of subject as nuclear physics, atmospheric science, security science, computer science and geographical information technology, etc. Multiplatform, multi-system and multi-mode are integrated effectively based on GIS, accordingly the Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling technology System of Nuclear Accident Hazard is established. (authors)

  16. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  17. Predicting the behaviour of neptunium during nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neptunium ions are subjected to changes in oxidation state in most of the extraction cycles of reprocessing. These reactions are often sufficiently fast to be significant but too slow to reach equilibrium within the residence time in a given contactor. The situation is further complicated by different extraction behaviours of the neptunium oxidation states into the reprocessing solvent. How experimental and theoretical analyses can be used to predict the route followed by neptunium in reprocessing, which is of practical importance in plant and waste management, is discussed. (author)

  18. Trip time prediction in mass transit companies. A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    João M. Moreira; Alípio Jorge; Jorge Freire de Sousa; Carlos Soares

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how trip time prediction can be useful foroperational optimization in mass transit companies and which machine learningtechniques can be used to improve results. Firstly, we analyze which departmentsneed trip time prediction and when. Secondly, we review related work and thirdlywe present the analysis of trip time over a particular path. We proceed by presentingexperimental results conducted on real data with the forecasting techniques wefound most adequate, and concl...

  19. The Skyrme model predictions for the ${\\bf 27}_{J=3/2}$ mass spectrum and the ${\\bf 27}_{3/2}$-$\\bar{\\bf 10}$ mass splittings

    CERN Document Server

    Duplancic, G; Trampetic, J

    2004-01-01

    The ${\\bf 27}_{J=3/2}$-plet mass spectrum and the ${\\bf 27}_{3/2}$-$\\bar{\\bf 10}$ mass splittings are computed in the framework of the minimal SU(3)$_f$ extended Skyrme model. As functions of the Skyrme charge $e$ and the SU(3)$_f$ symmetry breaking parameters the predictions are presented in tabular form. The predicted mass splitting ${\\bf 27}_{3/2}$-$\\bar{\\bf 10}$ is the smallest among all SU(3)$_f$ baryonic multiplets.

  20. Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass and Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass for Predicting the Prostate Volume of Korean Men With Biopsy-Proven Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tae Yong; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Moon, Du Geon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It has been reported that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with prostate volume. Recently, some studies have reported that PSA mass (PSA adjusted for plasma volume) is more accurate than PSA at predicting prostate volume. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of PSA and the related parameters of PSA mass, free PSA (fPSA), and fPSA mass in predicting prostate volume. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 658 patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2006 t...

  1. Onsets of nuclear deformation from measurements with the Isoltrap mass spectrometer; Apparitions de deformation nucleaire a partir de mesures avec le spectrometre de masse isoltrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimi, S.

    2010-10-15

    Mass measurements provide important information concerning nuclear structure. This work presents results from the pioneering Penning trap spectrometer Isoltrap at CERN-Isolde. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich manganese ({sup 58}-{sup 66}Mn) and krypton isotopes ({sup 96,} {sup 97}Kr) are presented, of which the {sup 66}Mn and {sup 96,} {sup 97}Kr masses are measured for the first time. In particular, the mass of {sup 97}Kr was measured using the preparation trap and required the definition of a new fit function. In the case of the manganese isotopes, the N=40 shell closure is addressed. The two-neutron-separation energies calculated from the new masses show no shell closure at N=40 but give an estimation of the proton-neutron interaction (around 0.5 MeV) responsible for the increase of collectivity and nuclear deformation in this mass region. The new krypton masses show behavior in sharp contrast with heavier neighbors where sudden and intense deformation is present, interpreted as the establishment of a nuclear quantum shape/phase transition critical-point boundary. The new masses confirm findings from nuclear mean-square charge-radius measurements up to N=60 but are at variance with conclusions from recent gamma-ray spectroscopy. Another part of this work was the design of new decay spectroscopy system behind the Isoltrap mass spectrometer. The beam purity achievable with Isoltrap will allow decay studies with {gamma} and {beta} detection coupled to a tape-station. This system has been mounted and commissioned with the radioactive beam {sup 80}Rb. (author)

  2. Nuclear quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S.; Li, Z. P.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape-phase transitions in odd-mass Eu isotopes are explored starting from excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a core-quasiparticle coupling Hamiltonian based on energy density functionals. As functions of the physical control parameter—the number of nucleons—theoretical low-energy spectra, two-neutron separation energies, charge isotope shifts, spectroscopic quadrupole moments, and E 2 reduced transition matrix elements accurately reproduce available data and exhibit more-pronounced discontinuities at neutron number N =90 compared with the adjacent even-even Sm and Gd isotopes. The enhancement of the first-order quantum phase transition in odd-mass systems can be attributed to a shape polarization effect of the unpaired proton which, at the critical neutron number, starts predominantly coupling to Gd core nuclei that are characterized by larger quadrupole deformation and weaker proton pairing correlations compared with the corresponding Sm isotopes.

  3. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  4. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  5. Imposed visual feedback delay of an action changes mass perception based on the sensory prediction error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eHonda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While performing an action, the timing of when the sensory feedback is given can be used to establish the causal link between the action and its consequence. It has been shown that delaying the visual feedback while carrying an object makes people feel the mass of the object to be greater, suggesting that the feedback timing can also impact the perceived quality of an external object. In this study, we investigated the origin of the feedback timing information that influences the mass perception of the external object.Participants made a straight reaching movement while holding a manipulandum. The movement of the manipulandum was presented as a cursor movement on a monitor. In Experiment 1, various delays were imposed between the actual trajectory and the cursor movement. The participants’ perceived mass of the manipulandum significantly increased as the delay increased to 400 ms, but this gain did not reach significance when the delay was 800 ms. This suggests the existence of a temporal tuning mechanism for incorporating the visual feedback into the perception of mass. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the increased mass perception during the visual delay was due to the prediction error of the visual consequence of an action or to the actual delay of the feedback itself. After the participants adapted to the feedback delay, the perceived mass of the object became lighter than before, indicating that updating the temporal prediction model for the visual consequence diminishes the overestimation of the object’s mass. We propose that the misattribution of the visual delay into mass perception is induced by the sensorimotor prediction error, possibly when the amount of delay (error is within the range that can reasonably include the consequence of an action.

  6. Development of equipment reliability process using predictive technologies at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuji; Sakuragi, Futoshi; Hamada, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    Development of equipment reliability(ER) process, specifically for predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies integrated condition based maintenance (CBM) process, at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station is introduced in this paper. Integration of predictive maintenance technologies such as vibration, oil analysis and thermo monitoring is more than important to establish strong maintenance strategies and to direct a specific technical development. In addition, a practical example of CBM is also presented to support the advantage of the idea. (author)

  7. Predicting muscle mass from anthropometry using magnetic resonance imaging as reference: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Leslie, Wilma; Govan, Lindsay; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-02-01

    Identification and management of sarcopenia are limited by lack of reliable simple approaches to assess muscle mass. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate simple methods to quantify muscle mass/volume of adults. Using Cochrane Review methodology, Medline (1946-2012), Embase (1974-2012), Web of Science (1898-2012), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (to 08/2012) were searched for publications that included prediction equations (from anthropometric measurements) to estimate muscle mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults. Of 257 papers identified from primary search terms, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 10) assessed only regional/limb muscle mass/volume. Many studies (n = 9) assessed limb circumference adjusted for skinfold thickness, which limits their practical applications. Only two included validation in separate subject-samples, and two reported relationships between whole-body MRI-measured muscle mass and anthropometry beyond linear correlations. In conclusion, one simple prediction equation shows promise, but it has not been validated in a separate population with different investigators. Furthermore, it did not incorporate widely available trunk/limb girths, which have offered valuable prediction of body composition in other studies. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Accuracy of body mass index in predicting pre-eclampsia: bivariate meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, J. S.; Leeflang, M. M. G.; de Haan, E. E. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Khan, K. S.; ter Riet, G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) (pre-pregnancy or at booking) in predicting pre-eclampsia and to explore its potential for clinical application. DESIGN: Systematic review and bivariate meta-analysis. SETTING: Medline, Embase, Cochrane

  9. Analysis of heat and mass transport processes near an emplaced nuclear waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1990-01-01

    A review has been performed of the models and experimental plans for evaluation of the spent fuel canister environment in a nuclear repository, e.g., the planned Yucca Mountain facilities. Special emphasis was placed on the relevance of the models and experiments to the 100 to 10,000 year prediction. The question was addressed whether one could justify testing in materials other than Yucca Mountain rock and obtain results in a relatively short time which would be relevant to the long time in Yucca Mountain. The paper discusses steam evolution in calculations and experiments, fracture models, possible measurements of relative permeability, and long time scale effects. 5 figs. (MB)

  10. {sup 129}I level in seawater near a nuclear power plant determined by accelerator mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Chaohui, E-mail: hechaohui@mail.xjtu.edu.c [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an JiaoTong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Hou Xiaolin [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Zhao Yaolin; Wang Zhiwen; Li Huaibin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an JiaoTong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Chen Ning; Liu Qi; Zhang Luyuan [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Luo Maoyi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an JiaoTong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Liang Wangguo [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an JiaoTong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); Fan Yukun; Zhao Xiaolei [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075 (China); Xi' an AMS center, No. 99 Yanxiang Road, Yanta Zone, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)

    2011-03-11

    {sup 129}I concentration in the seawater samples near a nuclear power plant was determined in the Xi'an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) Center. Isotope dilution method was used via addition of excessive amount of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in the sample before separation, and iodine in the seawater was separated by solvent extraction, and the back extracted iodine in iodide form was precipitated as AgI, which was used as AMS target for {sup 129}I measurement. {sup 125}I tracer was added to monitor the recovery of iodine in the whole separation process. {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios in the prepared target were determined by AMS. The concentration of {sup 127}I in seawater samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I atomic ratios in the seawater range from 8.29x10{sup -11} to 9.45x10{sup -10}, approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in seaweed collected in the pre-nuclear era, but fall in the environmental level of global fallout.

  11. Diffusive mass transport in agglomerated glassy fallout from a near-surface nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, David G.; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Marks, Naomi E.; Knight, Kim B.; Isselhardt, Brett H.; Matzel, Jennifer E.

    2018-02-01

    Aerodynamically-shaped glassy fallout is formed when vapor phase constituents from the nuclear device are incorporated into molten carriers (i.e. fallout precursor materials derived from soil or other near-field environmental debris). The effects of speciation and diffusive transport of condensing constituents are not well defined in models of fallout formation. Previously we reported observations of diffuse micrometer scale layers enriched in Na, Fe, Ca, and 235U, and depleted in Al and Ti, at the interfaces of agglomerated fallout objects. Here, we derive the timescales of uranium mass transport in such fallout as it cools from 2500 K to 1500 K by applying a 1-dimensional planar diffusion model to the observed 235U/30Si variation at the interfaces. By modeling the thermal transport between the fireball and the carrier materials, the time of mass transport is calculated to be <0.6 s, <1 s, <2 s, and <3.5 s for fireball yields of 0.1 kt, 1 kt, 10 kt, and 100 kt respectively. Based on the calculated times of mass transport, a maximum temperature of deposition of uranium onto the carrier material of ∼2200 K is inferred (1σ uncertainty of ∼200 K). We also determine that the occurrence of micrometer scale layers of material enriched in relatively volatile Na-species as well as more refractory Ca-species provides evidence for an oxygen-rich fireball based on the vapor pressure of the two species under oxidizing conditions. These results represent the first application of diffusion-based modeling to derive material transport, thermal environments, and oxidation-speciation in near-surface nuclear detonation environments.

  12. The effect of virtual mass on the prediction of critical flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Lahey, R.T.; Drew, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    By observing the results in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 we can see that virtual mass effects are important in predicting critical flow. However, as seen in Fig. 7a, in which all three flows are predicted to be critical (Δ=0), it is difficult to distinguish one set of conditions from the other by just considering the pressure profile. Clearly more detailed data, such as the throat void fraction, is needed for discrimination between these calculations. Moreover, since the calculated critical flows have been found to be sensitive to initial mass flux, and void fraction, careful measurements of those parameters are needed before accurate virtual mass parameters can be determined from these data. It can be concluded that the existing Moby Dick data is inadequate to allow one to deduce accurate values of the virtual mass parameters C/sub VM/ and λ. Nevertheless, more careful experiments of this type are uniquely suited for the determination of these important parameters. It appears that the use of a nine equation model, such as that discussed herein, coupled with more detailed accurate critical flow data is an effective means of determining the parameters in interfacial momentum transfer models, such as virtual mass effects, which are only important during strong spatial accelerations. Indeed, there are few other methods available which can be used for such determinations

  13. Breast biopsy prediction using a case-based reasoning classifier for masses versus calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Wolak, Anna O.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    2002-05-01

    We investigated how the subdivision of breast biopsy cases into masses and calcifications influences breast cancer prediction for a case-based reasoning (CBR) classifier system. Mammographers' BI-RADS (TM) descriptions of mammographic lesions were used as input to predict breast biopsy outcome. The CBR classifier compared the case to be examined to a reference collection of cases and identified similar cases. The decision variable for each case was formed as the ratio of malignant similar cases to all similar cases. The reference data collection consisted of 1433 biopsy-proven mammography cases, and was divided into 3 categories: mass cases, calcification cases, and other. Performance was evaluated using ROC analysis and Round Robin sampling, and variance was estimated using a bootstrap analysis. The best ROC area for masses was 0.92+/- 0.01. At 98% sensitivity, about 209 (51%) patients with benign mass lesions might have been spared biopsy, while missing 5 (2%) malignancies. The best ROC area for calcifications was only 0.64+/- 0.02. At 98% sensitivity, 50 (12%) benign calcification cases could have been spared, while missing 5 (2%) malignancies. The CBR system performed substantially better on the masses than on the calcifications.

  14. Prediction and validation of pool fire development in enclosures by means of CFD Models for risk assessment of nuclear power plants (Poolfire) - Report year 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hees, P.; Wahlqvist, J.; Kong, D.; Hostikka, S.; Sikanen, T.; Husted, B.; Magnusson, T.; Joerud, F.

    2013-05-01

    Fires in nuclear power plants can be an important hazard for the overall safety of the facility. One of the typical fire sources is a pool fire. It is therefore important to have good knowledge on the fire behaviour of pool fire and be able to predict the heat release rate by prediction of the mass loss rate. This project envisages developing a pyrolysis model to be used in CFD models. In this report the activities for second year are reported, which is an overview of the experiments conducted, further development and validation of models and cases study to be selected in year 3. (Author)

  15. Prediction and validation of pool fire development in enclosures by means of CFD Models for risk assessment of nuclear power plants (Poolfire) - Report year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hees, P.; Wahlqvist, J.; Kong, D. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Hostikka, S.; Sikanen, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Husted, B. [Haugesund Univ. College, Stord (Norway); Magnusson, T. [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Joerud, F. [European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    Fires in nuclear power plants can be an important hazard for the overall safety of the facility. One of the typical fire sources is a pool fire. It is therefore important to have good knowledge on the fire behaviour of pool fire and be able to predict the heat release rate by prediction of the mass loss rate. This project envisages developing a pyrolysis model to be used in CFD models. In this report the activities for second year are reported, which is an overview of the experiments conducted, further development and validation of models and cases study to be selected in year 3. (Author)

  16. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 2007-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2007-2009 years: Nuclear Astrophysics; Solid State Astrophysics; Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; Solid State Physics and cryogenic detectors; Solid State Physics, Condensed Matter and Irradiation; Structure of the Atomic Nucleus; Teaching and training activities; Spreading scientific culture; Administrative services; Electronics Group; Computer Department; Mechanics Department; RESET Service (Radiation-Environment-Safety- Maintenance-Work); SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling)

  17. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2010-2012 years: Nuclear Astrophysics; Solid State Astrophysics; Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; Solid State Physics Group; Condensed Matter and Irradiation: from fundamental to functional; Structure of the Atomic Nucleus; Teaching activities; Spreading scientific culture; Administrative services; Electronics Group; Computer Department; Mechanics Department; RESET Service (Radiation-Environment-Safety- Maintenance-Work); SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling)

  18. Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

  19. Prediction of peptide drift time in ion mobility mass spectrometry from sequence-based features

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Bing

    2013-05-09

    Background: Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS), an analytical technique which combines the features of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS), can rapidly separates ions on a millisecond time-scale. IMMS becomes a powerful tool to analyzing complex mixtures, especially for the analysis of peptides in proteomics. The high-throughput nature of this technique provides a challenge for the identification of peptides in complex biological samples. As an important parameter, peptide drift time can be used for enhancing downstream data analysis in IMMS-based proteomics.Results: In this paper, a model is presented based on least square support vectors regression (LS-SVR) method to predict peptide ion drift time in IMMS from the sequence-based features of peptide. Four descriptors were extracted from peptide sequence to represent peptide ions by a 34-component vector. The parameters of LS-SVR were selected by a grid searching strategy, and a 10-fold cross-validation approach was employed for the model training and testing. Our proposed method was tested on three datasets with different charge states. The high prediction performance achieve demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the prediction model.Conclusions: Our proposed LS-SVR model can predict peptide drift time from sequence information in relative high prediction accuracy by a test on a dataset of 595 peptides. This work can enhance the confidence of protein identification by combining with current protein searching techniques. 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)

  1. Simulation research on multivariable fuzzy model predictive control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jie

    2012-01-01

    To improve the dynamic control capabilities of the nuclear power plant, the algorithm of the multivariable nonlinear predictive control based on the fuzzy model was applied in the main parameters control of the nuclear power plant, including control structure and the design of controller in the base of expounding the math model of the turbine and the once-through steam generator. The simulation results show that the respond of the change of the gas turbine speed and the steam pressure under the algorithm of multivariable fuzzy model predictive control is faster than that under the PID control algorithm, and the output value of the gas turbine speed and the steam pressure under the PID control algorithm is 3%-5% more than that under the algorithm of multi-variable fuzzy model predictive control. So it shows that the algorithm of multi-variable fuzzy model predictive control can control the output of the main parameters of the nuclear power plant well and get better control effect. (author)

  2. The French nuclear sector. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sectoral and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document comprises two reports. A first one, published and updated three times a year, and a second one which is a yearly publication. The first one, based on an analysis of market perspectives and of actor strategies, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the nuclear sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent data regarding the activities of more than 100 firms belonging to the sector (notably in terms of electric power production, of turnover for firms specialised in nuclear maintenance or in the fuel cycle). It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The annual report proposes a general presentation of the sector (determining factors of the activity, operated nuclear plants in the world, nuclear power production in the world, uranium production and consumption in the world, maintenance and improvement expenses on nuclear plants, electric power consumption and shares in power generation by different sources in France), an analysis of the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators, financial performance of actors in the maintenance of nuclear plants), an overview of important issues for the profession (growth issue despite the maturity of the French market, implications of intensification of foreign competition, of higher safety requirements, and of a decrease of nuclear energy profitability), and an analysis of the sector economic structure (turnovers, personnel, position of France among world exporters, equipment export structure, key figures for nuclear maintenance). The last part proposes presentations of 20 French actors and data and information sheets for 10

  3. MALDI mass spectrometry based molecular phenotyping of CNS glial cells for prediction in mammalian brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanrieder, Jørg; Wicher, Grzegorz; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and straightforward methodology for direct characterization of rodent CNS glial cells using MALDI-MS-based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS). This molecular phenotyping approach enables monitoring of cell growth stages, (stem) cell differentiation, as well as probing cellular responses towards different...... tracers for prediction of oligodendroglial and astroglial localization in brain tissue. The different cell type specific protein distributions in tissue were validated using immunohistochemistry. ICMS of intact neuroglia is a simple and straightforward approach for characterization and discrimination...

  4. Estimation of the Waste Mass from a Pyro-Process of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Pyro-Process is now developing to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a nuclear power plant. In this situation, it is strongly required for the estimation of expected masses and their physical properties of the wastes. In this report, the amount of wastes and their physical properties are presupposed through some assumptions in regard to 10MTHM of Oxide Fuel with 4.5wt% U-235, 45,000 MWD/MTU, and 5yrs cooling. The produced wastes can be divided into three categories such as metal, CWF(Ceramic Waste Form), and VWF(Vitrified Waste Form). The 42 nuclrides in a spent nuclear fuel are distributed into the waste categories on the their physical and thermodynamic properties when they exist in metal, oxide, or chloride forms. The treated atomic groups are Uranium, TRU, Noble metal, Rare earth, Alkali metal, Halogens, and others. The mass of each waste is estimated by the distribution results. The off-gas waste is included into a CWF. The heat generations by the wastes in this Pyro-Process are calculated using a ORIGEN-ARP program. It is possible to estimate the amounts of wastes and their heat generation rates in this Pyro-Process analysis. These information are very helpful to design a waste container and its quantity also can be determined. The number of container and its heat generation rate will be key factor for the construction of interim storage facilities including a underground disposal site.

  5. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  6. Disasters and mass casualties: II. explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Christopher T; Briggs, Susan M; Ciraulo, David L; Frykberg, Eric R; Hammond, Jeffrey S; Hirshberg, Asher; Lhowe, David W; O'Neill, Patricia A; Mead, Joann

    2007-08-01

    Terrorists' use of explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents constitutes the potential for catastrophic events. Understanding the unique aspects of these agents can help in preparing for such disasters with the intent of mitigating injury and loss of life. Explosive agents continue to be the most common weapons of terrorists and the most prevalent cause of injuries and fatalities. Knowledge of blast pathomechanics and patterns of injury allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents, their attendant clinical symptoms, and recommended management strategies is an important prerequisite for optimal preparation and response to these less frequently used agents of mass casualty. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the principles of management of catastrophic events. Stress is less an issue when one is adequately prepared. Decontamination is essential both to manage victims and prevent further spread of toxic agents to first responders and medical personnel. It is important to assess the risk of potential threats, thereby allowing disaster planning and preparation to be proportional and aligned with the actual casualty event.

  7. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  8. Bayesian inference in mass flow simulations - from back calculation to prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Andreas; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Hellweger, Valentin; Huber, Andreas; Mergili, Martin; Pudasaini, Shiva; Fellin, Wolfgang; Oberguggenberger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Mass flow simulations are an integral part of hazard assessment. Determining the hazard potential requires a multidisciplinary approach, including different scientific fields such as geomorphology, meteorology, physics, civil engineering and mathematics. An important task in snow avalanche simulation is to predict process intensities (runout, flow velocity and depth, ...). The application of probabilistic methods allows one to develop a comprehensive simulation concept, ranging from back to forward calculation and finally to prediction of mass flow events. In this context optimized parameter sets for the used simulation model or intensities of the modeled mass flow process (e.g. runout distances) are represented by probability distributions. Existing deterministic flow models, in particular with respect to snow avalanche dynamics, contain several parameters (e.g. friction). Some of these parameters are more conceptual than physical and their direct measurement in the field is hardly possible. Hence, parameters have to be optimized by matching simulation results to field observations. This inverse problem can be solved by a Bayesian approach (Markov chain Monte Carlo). The optimization process yields parameter distributions, that can be utilized for probabilistic reconstruction and prediction of avalanche events. Arising challenges include the limited amount of observations, correlations appearing in model parameters or observed avalanche characteristics (e.g. velocity and runout) and the accurate handling of ensemble simulations, always taking into account the related uncertainties. Here we present an operational Bayesian simulation framework with r.avaflow, the open source GIS simulation model for granular avalanches and debris flows.

  9. Improved prediction for the mass of the W boson in the NMSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, O.; Zeune, L.

    2015-10-01

    Electroweak precision observables, being highly sensitive to loop contributions of new physics, provide a powerful tool to test the theory and to discriminate between different models of the underlying physics. In that context, the W boson mass, M W , plays a crucial role. The accuracy of the M W measurement has been significantly improved over the last years, and further improvement of the experimental accuracy is expected from future LHC measurements. In order to fully exploit the precise experimental determination, an accurate theoretical prediction for M W in the Standard Model (SM) and extensions of it is of central importance. We present the currently most accurate prediction for the W boson mass in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM), including the full one-loop result and all available higher-order corrections of SM and SUSY type. The evaluation of M W is performed in a flexible framework, which facilitates the extension to other models beyond the SM. We show numerical results for the W boson mass in the NMSSM, focussing on phenomenologically interesting scenarios, in which the Higgs signal can be interpreted as the lightest or second lightest CP-even Higgs boson of the NMSSM. We find that, for both Higgs signal interpretations, the NMSSM M W prediction is well compatible with the measurement. We study the SUSY contributions to M W in detail and investigate in particular the genuine NMSSM effects from the Higgs and neutralino sectors.

  10. Improved predictions of nuclear reaction rates for astrophysics applications with the TALYS reaction code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates for astrophysics applications are traditionally determined on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach reaction codes, like MOST. These codes use simplified schemes to calculate the capture reaction cross section on a given target nucleus, not only in its ground state but also on the different thermally populated states of the stellar plasma at a given temperature. Such schemes include a number of approximations that have never been tested, such as an approximate width fluctuation correction, the neglect of delayed particle emission during the electromagnetic decay cascade or the absence of the pre-equilibrium contribution at increasing incident energies. New developments have been brought to the reaction code TALYS to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates of astrophysics relevance. These new developments give us the possibility to calculate with an improved accuracy the reaction cross sections and the corresponding astrophysics rates. The TALYS predictions for the thermonuclear rates of astrophysics relevance are presented and compared with those obtained with the MOST code on the basis of the same nuclear ingredients for nuclear structure properties, optical model potential, nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength. It is shown that, in particular, the pre-equilibrium process significantly influences the astrophysics rates of exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The reciprocity theorem traditionally used in astrophysics to determine photo-rates is also shown no to be valid for exotic nuclei. The predictions obtained with different nuclear inputs are also analyzed to provide an estimate of the theoretical uncertainties still affecting the reaction rate prediction far away from the experimentally known regions. (authors)

  11. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Ball, B.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; Leo, R. De; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Diefenthaler, M.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Guzey, V.; Haan, S.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Haarlem, Y. Van; Hulse, C. Van; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; sHERMES Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross-section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and the deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found.

  12. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found. (orig.)

  13. Modelling and prediction of radionuclide migration from shallow, subgrade nuclear waste facilities in arid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Ward, A.; Geldenhuis, S.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, prodigious efforts and significant advances have been made in methods of prediction of the migration rate of dissolved species in aqueous systems. Despite such work, there remain formidable obstacles in prediction of solute transport in the unsaturated zone over the long time periods necessarily related to the radionuclide bearing wastes. The objective of this paper is to consider the methods, issues and problems with the use of predictive solute transport models for radionuclide migration from nuclear waste disposal in arid environments, if and when engineering containment of the waste fails. Having considered the ability for long term solute prediction for a number of geological environments, the advantages of a disposal environment in which the solute transport process is diffusion controlled will be described

  14. Application of neural networks to signal prediction in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Joo Kim; Soon Heung Chang; Byung Ho Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility study of an artificial neural network for signal prediction. The purpose of signal prediction is to estimate the value of undetected next time step signal. As the prediction method, based on the idea of auto regression, a few previous signals are inputs to the artificial neural network and the signal value of next time step is estimated with the outputs of the network. The artificial neural network can be applied to the nonlinear system and answers in short time. The training algorithm is a modified backpropagation model, which can effectively reduce the training time. The target signal of the simulation is the steam generator water level, which is one of the important parameters in nuclear power plants. The simulation result shows that the predicted value follows the real trend well

  15. Toward Predictive Theories of Nuclear Reactions Across the Isotopic Chart: Web Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blackmon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elster, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Launey, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scielzo, N. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-12

    Recent years have seen exciting new developments and progress in nuclear structure theory, reaction theory, and experimental techniques, that allow us to move towards a description of exotic systems and environments, setting the stage for new discoveries. The purpose of the 5-week program was to bring together physicists from the low-energy nuclear structure and reaction communities to identify avenues for achieving reliable and predictive descriptions of reactions involving nuclei across the isotopic chart. The 4-day embedded workshop focused on connecting theory developments to experimental advances and data needs for astrophysics and other applications. Nuclear theory must address phenomena from laboratory experiments to stellar environments, from stable nuclei to weakly-bound and exotic isotopes. Expanding the reach of theory to these regimes requires a comprehensive understanding of the reaction mechanisms involved as well as detailed knowledge of nuclear structure. A recurring theme throughout the program was the desire to produce reliable predictions rooted in either ab initio or microscopic approaches. At the same time it was recognized that some applications involving heavy nuclei away from stability, e.g. those involving fi ssion fragments, may need to rely on simple parameterizations of incomplete data for the foreseeable future. The goal here, however, is to subsequently improve and refine the descriptions, moving to phenomenological, then microscopic approaches. There was overarching consensus that future work should also focus on reliable estimates of errors in theoretical descriptions.

  16. Improved predictions of nuclear reaction rates with the TALYS reaction code for astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J

    2008-01-01

    Context. Nuclear reaction rates of astrophysical applications are traditionally determined on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach reaction codes. These codes adopt a number of approximations that have never been tested, such as a simplified width fluctuation correction, the neglect of delayed or multiple-particle emission during the electromagnetic decay cascade, or the absence of the pre-equilibrium contribution at increasing incident energies. Aims. The reaction code TALYS has been recently updated to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates that are of astrophysical relevance. These new developments enable the reaction rates to be calculated with increased accuracy and reliability and the approximations of previous codes to be investigated. Methods. The TALYS predictions for the thermonuclear rates of relevance to astrophysics are detailed and compared with those derived by widely-used codes for the same nuclear ingredients. Results. It is shown that TALYS predictions may differ significantly from those of previous codes, in particular for nuclei for which no or little nuclear data is available. The pre-equilibrium process is shown to influence the astrophysics rates of exotic neutron-rich nuclei significantly. For the first time, the Maxwellian- averaged (n, 2n) reaction rate is calculated for all nuclei and its competition with the radiative capture rate is discussed. Conclusions. The TALYS code provides a new tool to estimate all nuclear reaction rates of relevance to astrophysics with improved accuracy and reliability. (authors)

  17. Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Sylvain; Mathieu, Lucie; Daigneault, Réal; Faure, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes an artificial neural networks-based method for predicting the unaltered (precursor) chemical compositions of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock. The method aims at predicting precursor's major components contents (SiO2, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O). The prediction is based on ratios of elements generally immobile during alteration processes; i.e. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, Y, Nb, Th, and Cr, which are provided as inputs to the neural networks. Multi-layer perceptron neural networks were trained on a large dataset of least-altered volcanic rock samples that document a wide range of volcanic rock types, tectonic settings and ages. The precursors thus predicted are then used to perform mass balance calculations. Various statistics were calculated to validate the predictions of precursors' major components, which indicate that, overall, the predictions are precise and accurate. For example, rank-based correlation coefficients were calculated to compare predicted and analysed values from a least-altered test dataset that had not been used to train the networks. Coefficients over 0.87 were obtained for all components, except for Na2O (0.77), indicating that predictions for alkali might be less performant. Also, predictions are performant for most volcanic rock compositions, except for ultra-K rocks. The proposed method provides an easy and rapid solution to the often difficult task of determining appropriate volcanic precursor compositions to rocks modified by hydrothermal alteration. It is intended for large volcanic rock databases and is most useful, for example, to mineral exploration performed in complex or poorly known volcanic settings. The method is implemented as a simple C++ console program.

  18. Development of prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Taishi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Kawano, Hiroshi; Gando, Yuko; Kawakami, Ryoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-29

    This study aimed to develop and cross-validate prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and to examine the relationship between sarcopenia defined by the prediction equations and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or osteoporosis in Japanese men and women. Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, who were randomly allocated to the following two groups: the development group (D group; 257 men, 913 women) and the cross-validation group (V group; 119 men, 112 women). To develop prediction equations, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on data obtained from the D group, using ASM measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a dependent variable and five easily obtainable measures (age, height, weight, waist circumference, and handgrip strength) as independent variables. When the prediction equations for ASM estimation were applied to the V group, a significant correlation was found between DXA-measured ASM and predicted ASM in both men and women (R 2  = 0.81 and R 2  = 0.72). Our prediction equations had higher R 2 values compared to previously developed equations (R 2  = 0.75-0.59 and R 2  = 0.69-0.40) in both men and women. Moreover, sarcopenia defined by predicted ASM was related to risk factors for osteoporosis and CVD, as well as sarcopenia defined by DXA-measured ASM. In this study, novel prediction equations were developed and cross-validated in Japanese men and women. Our analyses validated the clinical significance of these prediction equations and showed that previously reported equations were not applicable in a Japanese population.

  19. Aquatic Exposure Predictions of Insecticide Field Concentrations Using a Multimedia Mass-Balance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knäbel, Anja; Scheringer, Martin; Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Highly complex process-driven mechanistic fate and transport models and multimedia mass balance models can be used for the exposure prediction of pesticides in different environmental compartments. Generally, both types of models differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Process-driven mechanistic fate models are very complex, and calculations are time-intensive. This type of model is currently used within the European regulatory pesticide registration (FOCUS). Multimedia mass-balance models require fewer input parameters to calculate concentration ranges and the partitioning between different environmental media. In this study, we used the fugacity-based small-region model (SRM) to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for 466 cases of insecticide field concentrations measured in European surface waters. We were able to show that the PECs of the multimedia model are more protective in comparison to FOCUS. In addition, our results show that the multimedia model results have a higher predictive power to simulate varying field concentrations at a higher level of field relevance. The adaptation of the model scenario to actual field conditions suggests that the performance of the SRM increases when worst-case conditions are replaced by real field data. Therefore, this study shows that a less complex modeling approach than that used in the regulatory risk assessment exhibits a higher level of protectiveness and predictiveness and that there is a need to develop and evaluate new ecologically relevant scenarios in the context of pesticide exposure modeling.

  20. Calculational prediction of fuel burn-up for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuoc Lan; Do Quang Binh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the method of expanding operators and functions in the neutron diffusion equations as chains of time variable is used for calculation of fuel burn-up of the Dalat nuclear reactors. A computer code, named BURREF, programmed in language Fortran-77 running on IBM PC-AT, has been developed based on this method to predict the fuel burn-up of the Dalat reactor. Some results will be presented here. (author)

  1. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (81(217)Tl, Bismuth (83(217)Bi), Astatine (85(217)At), Francium (87(217)Fr), Actinium (89(217)Ac) and Protactinium (91(217)Pa) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for (221)Fr-, (221)Ac- and (221)Pa-α-decays.

  2. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  3. Extreme nuclear shapes examined via giant dipole resonance lineshapes in hot light-mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Dey, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T.; Banerjee, S. R.; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Gupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of α clustering on nuclear reaction dynamics is investigated using the giant dipole resonance (GDR) lineshape studies in the reactions 20 Ne (E lab =145,160 MeV) + 12 C and 20 Ne (E lab =160 MeV) + 27 Al, populating 32 S and 47 V, respectively. The GDR lineshapes from the two systems are remarkably different from each other. Whereas, the non-α-like 47 V undergoes Jacobi shape transition and matches exceptionally well with the theoretical GDR lineshape estimated under the framework rotating liquid drop model (RLDM) and thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM) signifying shape equilibration, for the α cluster 32 S an extended prolate kind of shape is observed. This unusual deformation, seen directly via γ decay for the first time, is predicted to be due to the formation of orbiting dinuclear configuration or molecular structure of 16 O + 16 O in the 32 S superdeformed band.

  4. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  5. Low mass dielectrons radiated off cold nuclear matter measured with HADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer HADES [1] is installed at the Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It investigates dielectron emission and strangeness production in the 1-3 AGeV regime. A recent experiment series focusses on medium-modifications of light vector mesons in cold nuclear matter. In two runs, p+p and p+Nb reactions were investigated at 3.5 GeV beam energy; about 9·109 events have been registered. In contrast to other experiments the high acceptance of the HADES allows for a detailed analysis of electron pairs with low momenta relative to nuclear matter, where modifications of the spectral functions of vector mesons are predicted to be most prominent. Comparing these low momentum electron pairs to the reference measurement in the elementary p+p reaction, we find in fact a strong modification of the spectral distribution in the whole vector meson region.

  6. Thermal, chemical, and mass transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear wastes: Experimental and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter the authors discuss the current status of heat and mass transport studies in the marine red clay sediments that are being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium and review analytical and experimental studies. Calculations based on numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment-canister interface temperatures of 200 0 to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5kW initial power from waste buried 30 m in the sediment in a canister that is 3 m long and 0.3 m in diameter. The resulting fluid displacement due to convections is found to be small, less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment-seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form should be designed to resist a hot, relatively acidic oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m/sup 3/ is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions should significantly affect the properties of the far field only if thermodiffusional process (Soret effect) prove to be significant. If thermodiffusional effects are important, however, near-field chemistry will differ considerably from that predicted from results of constant temperature sediment-seawater interaction experiments

  7. The on-line charge breeding program at TRIUMF's Ion Trap For Atomic and Nuclear Science for precision mass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M C; Bale, J C; Chowdhury, U; Eberhardt, B; Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Jang, F; Lennarz, A; Luichtl, M; Ma, T; Robertson, D; Simon, V V; Andreoiu, C; Brodeur, M; Brunner, T; Chaudhuri, A; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; Delheij, P; Frekers, D; Grossheim, A; Gwinner, G; Kwiatkowski, A A; Lapierre, A; Mané, E; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Schultz, B E; Dilling, J

    2012-02-01

    TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN) constitutes the only high precision mass measurement setup coupled to a rare isotope facility capable of increasing the charge state of short-lived nuclides prior to the actual mass determination in a Penning trap. Recent developments around TITAN's charge breeder, the electron beam ion trap, form the basis for several successful experiments on radioactive isotopes with half-lives as low as 65 ms and in charge states as high as 22+.

  8. Development of Models to Predict the Redox State of Nuclear Waste Containment Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinet, O.; Guirat, R.; Advocat, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Departement de Traitement et de Conditionnement des Dechets, Marcoule, BP 71171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Phalippou, J. [Universite de Montpellier II, Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Vitrification is one of the recommended immobilization routes for nuclear waste, and is currently implemented at industrial scale in several countries, notably for high-level waste. To optimize nuclear waste vitrification, research is conducted to specify suitable glass formulations and develop more effective processes. This research is based not only on experiments at laboratory or technological scale, but also on computer models. Vitrified nuclear waste often contains several multi-valent species whose oxidation state can impact the properties of the melt and of the final glass; these include iron, cerium, ruthenium, manganese, chromium and nickel. Cea is therefore also developing models to predict the final glass redox state. Given the raw materials and production conditions, the model predicts the oxygen fugacity at equilibrium in the melt. It can also estimate the ratios between the oxidation states of the multi-valent species contained in the molten glass. The oxidizing or reductive nature of the atmosphere above the glass melt is also taken into account. Unlike the models used in the conventional glass industry based on empirical methods with a limited range of application, the models proposed are based on the thermodynamic properties of the redox species contained in the waste vitrification feed stream. The thermodynamic data on which the model is based concern the relationship between the glass redox state and the oxygen fugacity in the molten glass. The model predictions were compared with oxygen fugacity measurements for some fifty glasses. The experiments carried out at laboratory and industrial scale with a cold crucible melter. The oxygen fugacity of the glass samples was measured by electrochemical methods and compared with the predicted value. The differences between the predicted and measured oxygen fugacity values were generally less than 0.5 Log unit. (authors)

  9. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    HH Heegaard, Niels; R Larsen, Martin; Muncrief, Terri; Wiik , Allan; Roepstorff, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The classification of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is important for diagnosis and prognosis and for understanding the molecular pathology of autoimmune disease. Many of the proteins that associate with RNA in the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes of the spliceosome have been found to react with some types of ANA [1], including proteins of the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) complex that associate with newly transcribed pre-mRNA. Autoantibodies to the A2, B1, and B2 proteins of hnRNP found in some patients may be markers of several overlap syndromes [2]. However, ANAs with specificity for these proteins as well as for the D protein also appear to occur in many distinct connective-tissue diseases, although epitope specificities may differ [3]. ANAs with specificity for the C component of hnRNP (consisting of the C1 and C2 proteins) have to our knowledge so far been described in only one case [4]. We here describe the approach taken to unambiguously identify the C1/C2 proteins as ANA targets in the sera of some patients. Aims: To determine the fine specificity of sera containing an unusual speckled ANA-staining pattern using a combination of 2D gel electrophoresis and MS. Methods: Patient sera were screened for ANAs by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on HEp-2 cells (cultured carcinoma cells). Sera with an unusual, very regular, speckled ANA pattern were tested for reactivity with components of nuclear extracts of HeLa cells that were separated by one-dimensional (1D) or 2D gel electrophoresis or by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). IgG reactivity was assessed by immunoblotting. Reactive protein spots from 2D separations were excised from the gels and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin for subsequent peptide mapping, partial peptide sequencing, and protein identification by MS and tandem MS on a hybrid electrospray ionization/quadrupole/time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer [5,6,7]. Results: We observed

  10. Allometric scaling of population variance with mean body size is predicted from Taylor's law and density-mass allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Xu, Meng; Schuster, William S F

    2012-09-25

    Two widely tested empirical patterns in ecology are combined here to predict how the variation of population density relates to the average body size of organisms. Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the variance of the population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean population density. Density-mass allometry (DMA) asserts that the mean population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean individual body mass. Combined, DMA and TL predict that the variance of the population density is a power-law function of mean individual body mass. We call this relationship "variance-mass allometry" (VMA). We confirmed the theoretically predicted power-law form and the theoretically predicted parameters of VMA, using detailed data on individual oak trees (Quercus spp.) of Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, New York. These results connect the variability of population density to the mean body mass of individuals.

  11. Predicting fat-free mass index and sarcopenia in assisted-living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Taylor M; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2014-01-01

    Age-related muscle loss, termed sarcopenia, has been linked to functional deficits and an increased risk of falling. Such risk is of alarming concern due to the high disability and mortality rates associated with falling in older adults. Our laboratory recently developed a prediction model for fat-free mass index (FFMI) and, subsequently, sarcopenia within a community-dwelling older adult population using functional measures that are easily accessible to clinicians. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine how our prediction model performed in an older and less mobile assisted-living population, and if performance of the model was poor; (2) to improve and modify our previous prediction model using data acquired from this unique population. Forty assisted-living older adults (10 males) aged 86.1 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Each completed four questionnaires to examine their mental and physical health status and anxiety levels related to falling. Anthropometric, balance, strength, and gait tests were conducted. Fat-free mass values, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, were normalized by height to obtain FFMI. Using an algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, FFMI along with grip strength and gait speed were used to identify sarcopenic individuals. FFMI was significantly correlated with sex, body mass index (BMI), circumference measures, handgrip strength, gait velocity, and measures of gait variability. The percentage of the variable variation explained by our previous model was reduced for a population of assisted-living older adults (R(2) of 0.6744 compared to the reported R(2) of 0.9272 for community-dwelling older adults; McIntosh et al. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 2013). The prediction equation that accounted for the greatest variability of FFMI for the assisted living group included the independent variables of forearm circumference, BMI, handgrip strength, and variability of the double

  12. Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

    2010-07-15

    The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions.

  13. Optimisation of the link volume for weakest link failure prediction in NBG-18 nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Michael P.; Groenwold, Albert A.; Blaine, Deborah C.; Becker, Thorsten H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process for approximating the optimal size of a link volume required for weakest link failure calculation in nuclear graphite, with NBG-18 used as an example. As part of the failure methodology, the link volume is defined in terms of two grouping criteria. The first criterion is a factor of the maximum grain size and the second criterion is a function of an equivalent stress limit. A methodology for approximating these grouping criteria is presented. The failure methodology employs finite element analysis (FEA) in order to predict the failure load, at 50% probability of failure. The average experimental failure load, as determined for 26 test geometries, is used to evaluate the accuracy of the weakest link failure calculations. The influence of the two grouping criteria on the failure load prediction is evaluated by defining an error in prediction across all test cases. Mathematical optimisation is used to find the minimum error across a range of test case failure predictions. This minimum error is shown to deliver the most accurate failure prediction across a whole range of components, although some test cases in the range predict conservative failure load. The mathematical optimisation objective function is penalised to account for non-conservative prediction of the failure load for any test case. The optimisation is repeated and a link volume found for conservative failure prediction. The failure prediction for each test case is evaluated, in detail, for the proposed link volumes. Based on the analysis, link design volumes for NBG-18 are recommended for either accurate or conservative failure prediction

  14. Nuclear mass formula with a neutron skin degree of freedom and finite-range model for the surface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Myers, W.D.

    1984-03-01

    We study the possibility of extending the model used by Moeller and Nix in 1980 to calculate nuclear masses and fission barriers for nuclei throughout the periodic system, to describe compressibility effects and the existence of a neutron skin. 9 references

  15. Design of a compact thermal ionization mass spectrometer for isotopic ratio measurement of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.K.; Yadav, V.K.; Ravisankar, E.; Nataraju, V.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    High precision isotope ratio analysis of materials of interest in nuclear and geological applications is carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) technique. One of the important mandates of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been developing these instruments and several TIMS instruments have been developed and deployed at user sites covering a wide range material of interest relevant to various stages of the nuclear power cycle. The instrument designs for above applications are based on two geometries of magnetic sector ie., 15 cm sector radius and 30 cm sector radius with resolutions as 200 and 400 respectively. There has been a conscious effort to improve the the sensitivity and precision of these models by modifying the designs of the sub-systems. In the recent past, a new ion optical element viz., variable dispersion zoom optics (VDZO) was introduced in the collector system of the standard model with 30cm radius magnet, to increase the dispersion of the ion beams which enabled to fix the locations of the Faraday cups (upto 6 nos.) instead of the conventional movable ones. After establishing the usefulness of VDZO, an attempt is being made to design and develop a 20 cm magnet based TIMS which will have a much smaller foot print compared to the standard 30 cm model and also covers the usual range of elements (viz. Li - U). The ion optical design was optimized using computer simulations with SIMION 7.0 software and subsequently the mechanical design was carried out using Autocad computer software. Some of the details of this new design are presented in this abstract

  16. Computerized heat balance models to predict performance of operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, C.L.; Carter, J.C.; Schaefer, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of computerized heat balance models has greatly enhanced the decision making ability of TVA's Division of Nuclear Power. These models are utilized to predict the effects of various operating modes and to analyze changes in plant performance resulting from turbine cycle equipment modifications with greater speed and accuracy than was possible before. Computer models have been successfully used to optimize plant output by predicting the effects of abnormal condenser circulating water conditions. They were utilized to predict the degradation in performance resulting from installation of a baffle plate assembly to replace damaged low-pressure blading, thereby providing timely information allowing an optimal economic judgement as to when to replace the blading. Future use will be for routine performance test analysis. This paper presents the benefits of utility use of computerized heat balance models

  17. Statistical prediction of the numbers of degraded tubes in nuclear power plant steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.; Klisiewicz, J.W.; Craig, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion of nuclear power plant steam generator (SG) tubes often necessitates plugging/sleeving, causing decreased SG thermal performance and possible SG replacement. Statistical methods have been developed to predict probabilistically the numbers of tubes degraded due to secondary side pitting, wastage, and intergranular attack/stress-corrosion cracking. Inspection data from two Combustion Engineering (C-E) plants have been converted into statistics representing defect formation and growth. Computer simulation programs have been generated to predict the numbers of tubes to be plugged/sleeved during future outages. The probabilistic predictions for both plants successfully have bounded subsequent observations. While so far applied only to C-E SGs for the three degradation phenomena, the statistical methodology is adaptable to other SG types and phenomena

  18. Using micro saint to predict performance in a nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, M.T.; Laughery, K.R.; Persenky, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires a technical basis for regulatory actions. In the area of human factors, one possible technical basis is human performance modeling technology including task network modeling. This study assessed the feasibility and validity of task network modeling to predict the performance of control room crews. Task network models were built that matched the experimental conditions of a study on computerized procedures that was conducted at North Carolina State University. The data from the open-quotes paper proceduresclose quotes conditions were used to calibrate the task network models. Then, the models were manipulated to reflect expected changes when computerized procedures were used. These models' predictions were then compared to the experimental data from the open-quotes computerized conditionsclose quotes of the North Carolina State University study. Analyses indicated that the models predicted some subsets of the data well, but not all. Implications for the use of task network modeling are discussed

  19. Cluster abundance in chameleon f ( R ) gravity I: toward an accurate halo mass function prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataneo, Matteo; Rapetti, David [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombriser, Lucas [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: matteoc@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: drapetti@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    We refine the mass and environment dependent spherical collapse model of chameleon f ( R ) gravity by calibrating a phenomenological correction inspired by the parameterized post-Friedmann framework against high-resolution N -body simulations. We employ our method to predict the corresponding modified halo mass function, and provide fitting formulas to calculate the enhancement of the f ( R ) halo abundance with respect to that of General Relativity (GR) within a precision of ∼< 5% from the results obtained in the simulations. Similar accuracy can be achieved for the full f ( R ) mass function on the condition that the modeling of the reference GR abundance of halos is accurate at the percent level. We use our fits to forecast constraints on the additional scalar degree of freedom of the theory, finding that upper bounds competitive with current Solar System tests are within reach of cluster number count analyses from ongoing and upcoming surveys at much larger scales. Importantly, the flexibility of our method allows also for this to be applied to other scalar-tensor theories characterized by a mass and environment dependent spherical collapse.

  20. Prediction, Detection, and Validation of Isotope Clusters in Mass Spectrometry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Treutler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry is a key analytical platform for metabolomics. The precise quantification and identification of small molecules is a prerequisite for elucidating the metabolism and the detection, validation, and evaluation of isotope clusters in LC-MS data is important for this task. Here, we present an approach for the improved detection of isotope clusters using chemical prior knowledge and the validation of detected isotope clusters depending on the substance mass using database statistics. We find remarkable improvements regarding the number of detected isotope clusters and are able to predict the correct molecular formula in the top three ranks in 92 % of the cases. We make our methodology freely available as part of the Bioconductor packages xcms version 1.50.0 and CAMERA version 1.30.0.

  1. Third-generation effects on fermion mass predictions in supersymmetric grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naculich, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Relations among fermion masses and mixing angles at the scale of grand unification are modified at lower energies by renormalization group running induced by gauge and Yukawa couplings. In supersymmetric theories, the b quark and τ lepton Yukawa couplings, as well as the t quark coupling, may cause significant running if tanβ, the ratio of Higgs field expectation values, is large. We present approximate analytic expressions for the scaling factors for fermion masses and CKM matrix elements induced by all three third generation Yukawa couplings. We then determine how running caused by the third generation of fermions affects the predictions arising from three possible forms for the Yukawa coupling matrices at the GUT scale: the Georgi-Jarlskog, Giudice, and Fritzsch textures

  2. Implementing GIS in real estate price prediction and mass valuation: the case study of Nicosia District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiorkas, Charalambos; Dimopoulos, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    When the European Commission, International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank arrived in Cyprus to assist for a sustainable solution on the crisis on the banking sector, one of the first things they ordered was a New General Valuation (a mass appraisal that would revalue all properties in Cyprus as on 1st of January 2013), that it would be used for taxation purposes. The above indicates the importance of property mass appraising tools. This task was successfully conducted by the Department of Lands and Surveys. Authors aim to move a step further and implement the use of GIS and GWR techniques to improve the results of the New General Valuation. On a sample of comparative evidences for flats in Nicosia District, GIS was used to measure the impact of spatial attributes on real estate prices and to construct a prediction model in terms of spatially estimating apartment values. In addition to the structural property characteristics, some spatial attributes (landmarks) were also analysed to assess their contribution on the prices of the apartments, including the Central Business District (CBD), schools and universities, as well as the major city roads and the restricted zone that divides the country into two parts; the occupied by Turkish area and the Greek area. The values of the spatial attributes, or locational characteristics, were determined by employing GIS, considering an established model of multicriteria analysis. The price prediction model was analysed using the OLS method and calibrated based on the GWR method. The results of the statistic process indicate an accuracy of 81.34%, showing better performance than the mass valuation system applied by the Department of Land and Surveys in Cyprus with accuracy of 66.76%. This approach suggests that GIS systems are fundamentally important in mass valuation procedures in order to identify the spatial pattern of the attributes, provided that the database is comprised by a sufficient number of comparable

  3. Conceptual Software Reliability Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to predict the potential reliability of software to be used in a digital system instrumentation and control system. The reliability prediction is to make use of existing measures of software reliability such as those described in IEEE Std 982 and 982.2. This prediction must be of sufficient accuracy to provide a value for uncertainty that could be used in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the purposes of the project, reliability was defined to be the probability that the digital system will successfully perform its intended safety function (for the distribution of conditions under which it is expected to respond) upon demand with no unintended functions that might affect system safety. The ultimate objective is to use the identified measures to develop a method for predicting the potential quantitative reliability of a digital system. The reliability prediction models proposed in this report are conceptual in nature. That is, possible prediction techniques are proposed and trial models are built, but in order to become a useful tool for predicting reliability, the models must be tested, modified according to the results, and validated. Using methods outlined by this project, models could be constructed to develop reliability estimates for elements of software systems. This would require careful review and refinement of the models, development of model parameters from actual experience data or expert elicitation, and careful validation. By combining these reliability estimates (generated from the validated models for the constituent parts) in structural software models, the reliability of the software system could then be predicted. Modeling digital system reliability will also require that methods be developed for combining reliability estimates for hardware and software. System structural models must also be developed in order to predict system reliability based upon the reliability

  4. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

    1976-12-01

    A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

  5. Methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance and ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Akansha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis encompasses methodological developments in both nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The NMR section explores the effects of scalar relaxation on a coupled nucleus to measure fast exchange rates. In order to quantify these rates accurately, a precise knowledge of the chemical shifts of the labile protons and of the scalar couplings is normally required. We applied the method to histidine where no such information was available a priori, neither about the proton chemical shifts nor about the one-bond scalar coupling constants J( 1 H 15 N), since the protons were invisible due to fast exchange. We have measured the exchange rates of the protons of the imidazole ring and of amino protons in histidine by indirect detection via 15 N. Not only the exchange rate constants, but also the elusive chemical shifts of the protons and the coupling constants could be determined. For the mass spectrometry section, the ion isolation project was initiated to study the effect of phase change of radiofrequency pulses. Excitation of ions in the ICR cell is a linear process, so that the pulse voltage required for ejecting ions must be inversely proportional to the pulse duration. A continuous sweep pulse propels the ion to a higher radius, whereas a phase reversal causes the ion to come to the centre. This represents the principle of 'notch ejection', wherein the ion for which the phase is reversed is retained in the ICR cell, while the remaining ions are ejected. The manuscript also contains a theoretical chapter, wherein the ion trajectories are plotted by solving the Lorentzian equation for the three-pulse scheme used for two-dimensional ICR. Through our simulations we mapped the ion trajectories for different pulse durations and for different phase relations. (author)

  6. Nuclear data for improved LEU-LWR reactivity predictions - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Lubitz, C.R.; Weinman, J.P.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Kahler, A.C.; Huria, H.C.; Chao, Y.A.; Courcelle, A.; Santamarina, A.; Sublet, J.C.; Jimenez, M.J.; Romain, P.; Morillon, B.; Trkov, A.; ); Hogenbirk, A.; Marck, S. van der; Dean, C.; Moxon, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with the goal of assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries, specifically the Russian BROND and Chinese CENDL projects, is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Subgroup 22 was conceived to investigate a systematic reactivity under-prediction of thermal LEU-LWR (low-enriched uranium, light water reactor). This k eff discrepancy (∼ -500 pcm) was demonstrated with accurate Monte Carlo transport codes and the latest nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0) available in 2002. This report presents the trends given by the analysis of relevant integral experiments as well as the evaluation work, mainly focused on 238 U nuclear data. New evaluations of the 238 U thermal capture cross-section, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters and inelastic scattering data were performed and provide a credible solution to the problem. Reduced capture in the resolved resonances and a softer secondary inelastic scattering spectrum contributed about equally to the increased reactivity of the new data set. The newer inelastic data are mainly the result of improved theoretical models and more accurate

  7. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  8. Application of an estimation model to predict future transients at US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    A model developed by R.A. Fisher was applied to a set of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) summarizing transient initiating events at US commercial nuclear power plants. The empirical Bayes model was examined to study the feasibility of estimating the number of categories of transients which have not yet occurred at nuclear power plants. An examination of the model's predictive ability using an existing sample of data provided support for use of the model to estimate future transients. The estimate indicates that an approximate fifteen percent increase in the number of categories of transient initiating events may be expected during the period 1983--1993, assuming a stable process of transients. Limitations of the model and other possible applications are discussed. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Identification of a probable new adrenergic agonist by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatto, Gianpiero; Culeddu, Nicola; Testa, Cecilia; Neri, Bruno; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Barbosa, Jorge; Cruz, Clara

    2007-01-01

    In animal production, it is consolidated the synthesis and the illegal use of growth promoters of new generation, able to skip routine screening and confirmatory analysis. In this work it is reported the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the mass spectrometry identification of a probable new adrenergic drug found in a feed premix. The substance was selectively purified on alpha 1 acid glycoprotein affinity columns; then its structure was first achieved by recording the 13 C NMR spectrum that gave the total number of carbons of the molecule, successively sorted by DEPT experiments into quaternary, CH, CH 2 , and CH 3 groups. However, the complete assignments of all resonances were derived from the bi-dimensional analysis and the crucial indications from the 1 H- 13 C reverse experiments. Further characterisation was performed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation both in positive and negative ion mode, matching the molecular ion and the fragmentation pattern with those of most recently described new adrenergic agonists. After the loss of a ter-butylic group, the structure shows an internal symmetry along with the presence of Chlorine clusters. The proposed formula of the compound, the 8,8'-diamino-9,9'-dichloro-1-terbutyl-1,1',4,4-tetrahydro-5H,5'H-2,2'-bi -1-benzazepine-5,5'-dione, partially resembles that of Zilpaterol for the presence of a heterocyclic ring; Further work is in progress to characterise the structure-activity relationship

  10. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Merten, J.; Ettori, S.; Postman, M.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; De Petris, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  11. The MUSIC of CLASH: Predictions on the Concentration-Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Merten, J.; Postman, M.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Donahue, M.; Ettori, S.; Umetsu, K.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Czakon, N.; De Petris, M.; Ford, H.; Giocoli, C.; Gottlöber, S.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jouvel, S.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Medezinski, E.; Melchior, P.; Mercurio, A.; Molino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Monna, A.; Moustakas, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Nonino, M.; Rhodes, J.; Rosati, P.; Sayers, J.; Seitz, S.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ~11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  12. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rasia, E. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F. [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Merten, J.; Ettori, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, M.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Balestra, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benítez, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Biviano, A. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Bradley, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); De Petris, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  13. Experimental evaluation of models for predicting Cherenkov light intensities from short-cooled nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Jansson, P.; Jacobsson Svärd, S.

    2018-02-01

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used by nuclear safeguards inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on the recording of Cherenkov light produced by the assemblies. One type of verification involves comparing the measured light intensity from an assembly with a predicted intensity, based on assembly declarations. Crucial for such analyses is the performance of the prediction model used, and recently new modelling methods have been introduced to allow for enhanced prediction capabilities by taking the irradiation history into account, and by including the cross-talk radiation from neighbouring assemblies in the predictions. In this work, the performance of three models for Cherenkov-light intensity prediction is evaluated by applying them to a set of short-cooled PWR 17x17 assemblies for which experimental DCVD measurements and operator-declared irradiation data was available; (1) a two-parameter model, based on total burnup and cooling time, previously used by the safeguards inspectors, (2) a newly introduced gamma-spectrum-based model, which incorporates cycle-wise burnup histories, and (3) the latter gamma-spectrum-based model with the addition to account for contributions from neighbouring assemblies. The results show that the two gamma-spectrum-based models provide significantly higher precision for the measured inventory compared to the two-parameter model, lowering the standard deviation between relative measured and predicted intensities from 15.2 % to 8.1 % respectively 7.8 %. The results show some systematic differences between assemblies of different designs (produced by different manufacturers) in spite of their similar PWR 17x17 geometries, and possible ways are discussed to address such differences, which may allow for even higher prediction capabilities. Still, it is concluded that the gamma-spectrum-based models enable confident verification of the fuel assembly inventory at the currently used

  14. Robust noise attenuation based on nuclear norm minimization and a trace prediction strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yatong; Zhang, Shili

    2017-12-01

    Rejecting noise in seismic data while not affecting the amplitude of useful signals is a long standing problem in seismic data processing. Seismic noise attenuation can be formulated as a nuclear norm minimization (NNM) problem. To meet the assumption that seismic data should have low nuclear norm, we first map the seismic data into a low-rank matrix based on a trace prediction strategy. We provide detailed algorithm workflow and mathematical analysis of the trace prediction method. The seismic data after trace rearrangement is demonstrated to be locally low-rank. The NNM problem is then solved via the singular value thresholding (SVT) algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated via both synthetic and field data examples. We also test the robustness of the proposed method with respect to random noise, spiky noise, and blending interference. Compared with the state-of-the-art predictive filtering method, median filtering method, singular spectrum analysis method, and curvelet thresholding method, the proposed method obtains an obviously better performance in compromising signal preservation and noise removal.

  15. Improved docking, screening and selectivity prediction for small molecule nuclear receptor modulators using conformational ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Jung; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben

    2010-05-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand dependent transcriptional factors and play a key role in reproduction, development, and homeostasis of organism. NRs are potential targets for treatment of cancer and other diseases such as inflammatory diseases, and diabetes. In this study, we present a comprehensive library of pocket conformational ensembles of thirteen human nuclear receptors (NRs), and test the ability of these ensembles to recognize their ligands in virtual screening, as well as predict their binding geometry, functional type, and relative binding affinity. 157 known NR modulators and 66 structures were used as a benchmark. Our pocket ensemble library correctly predicted the ligand binding poses in 94% of the cases. The models were also highly selective for the active ligands in virtual screening, with the areas under the ROC curves ranging from 82 to a remarkable 99%. Using the computationally determined receptor-specific binding energy offsets, we showed that the ensembles can be used for predicting selectivity profiles of NR ligands. Our results evaluate and demonstrate the advantages of using receptor ensembles for compound docking, screening, and profiling.

  16. [The nuclear matrix proteins (mol. mass 38 and 50 kDa) are transported by chromosomes in mitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasheva, M I; Chentsov, Iu S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown by immunofluorescence method that serum M68 and serum K43 from patients with autoimmune disease stain interphase nuclei and periphery of mitotic chromosomes of pig kidney cells. Western blotting reveals the polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa in serum M68, and the polypeptide with mol. mass of 38 kDa in serum K43. In the nuclear protein matrix, the antibodies to protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa stained only nucleolar periphery, while the antibodies to the protein with mol. mass of 50 kDa stained both the nucleolar periphery and all the interphase nucleus. It shows that among all components of nuclear protein matrix (lamina, internuclear network, residual nucleoli) only nucleolar periphery contains the 38 kDa protein, while the 50 kDa protein is a part of residual nucleolar periphery and takes part in nuclear protein network formation. In the interphase cells, both proteins were in situ localized in the nuclei, but one of them with mol. mass of 50 kDa was in the form of small clearly outlined granules, while the other (38 kDa) was in the form of small bright granules against the background of diffusely stained nuclei. Both proteins were also revealed as continuous ring around nucleolar periphery. During all mitotic stages, the 50 kDa protein was seen on the chromosomal periphery as a cover, and the 38 kDa protein formed separate fragments and granules around them. After nuclear and chromosome decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment, both antibodies stain interphase nuclei in diffuse manner, but in mitotic cells they stained the surface of the swollen chromosomes. The polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa maintained strong connection with chromosome periphery both in norm and under condition of decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment and at subsequent recondensation in isotonic medium. In contrast, the protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa partially lost the contact with a chromosome during recondensation appearing also in the form of granules in

  17. Non-thermal Leptogenesis and a Prediction of Inflaton Mass in a Supersymmetric SO(10) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuyama, T; Osaka, T; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Osaka, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    The gravitino problem gives a severe constraint on the thermal leptogenesis scenario. This problem leads us to consider some alternatives to it if we try to keep the gravitino mass around the weak scale $m_{3/2} \\sim 100$ GeV. We consider, in this paper, the non-thermal leptogenesis scenario in the framework of a minimal supersymmetric SO(10) model. Even if we start with the same minimal SO(10) model, we have different predictions for low-energy phenomenologies dependent on the types of seesaw mechanism. This is the case for leptogenesis: it is shown that the type-I see-saw model gives a consistent scenario for the non-thermal leptogenesis but not for type-II. The predicted inflaton mass needed to produce the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe is found to be $M_I \\sim 5 \\times 10^{11}$ GeV for the reheating temperature $T_R = 10^6$ GeV.

  18. Detectability prediction for a thermoacoustic sensor in the breazeale nuclear reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hrisko, Joshua [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garrett, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory experiments have suggested that thermoacoustic engines can be in- corporated within nuclear fuel rods. Such engines would radiate sounds that could be used to measure and acoustically-telemeter information about the op- eration of the nuclear reactor (e.g., coolant temperature or uxes of neutrons or other energetic particles) or the physical condition of the nuclear fuel itself (e.g., changes in temperature, evolved gases) that are encoded as the frequency and/or amplitude of the radiated sound [IEEE Measurement and Instrumen- tation 16(3), 18-25 (2013)]. For such acoustic information to be detectable, it is important to characterize the vibroacoustical environments within reactors. Measurements will be presented of the background noise spectra (with and with- out coolant pumps) and reverberation times within the 70,000 gallon pool that cools and shields the fuel in the 1 MW research reactor on Penn State's campus using two hydrophones, a piezoelectric projector, and an accelerometer. Sev- eral signal-processing techniques will be demonstrated to enhance the measured results. Background vibrational measurement were also taken at the 250 MW Advanced Test Reactor, located at the Idaho National Laboratory, using ac- celerometers mounted outside the reactor's pressure vessel and on plumbing will also be presented. The detectability predictions made in the thesis were validated in September 2015 using a nuclear ssion-heated thermoacoustic sensor that was placed in the core of the Breazeale Nuclear Reactor on Penn State's campus. Some features of the thermoacoustic device used in that experiment will also be revealed. [Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. The current state and issues regarding communication from the nuclear energy industry to the mass media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The mass media has the potential to effect the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. In most cases journalists contact PR staff of the nuclear energy industry (hereinafter called 'the industry') to collect information about various events of nuclear energy. The industry is always ready to distribute related information and hold a press conference timely when necessary. In terms of the organizational structure for the PR activities each electric power company organizes the PR section in-house. The PR staff provides journalists with information on a daily basis. For the purpose of grasping the mass media's awareness, the author conducted interviews with 22 journalists who had experience in reporting news on nuclear energy subjects. The result showed that the journalists recognized the necessity of nuclear energy. The interviewees suggested that a proper press launch should be needed at just the right time especially in emergency situations and a press release should be more easily understandable. This interview showed that journalists considered the media reports as reflection of citizens' opinion. Most of the journalists realize that the influence of the media coverage should not be negligible and they acknowledge commutation between the two sides is gradually improved compared to before. (author)

  20. Predictive validity of four bioelectrical impedance equations in determining percent fat mass in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Jane; Daniells, Suzie; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka; Nicholls, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance equations are frequently used by food and nutrition professionals to estimate percent fat mass in overweight and obese children. However, it is not known whether they are accurate for such children, as they have been primarily developed for children of varying body weights. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the predictive validity of four previously published prediction equations developed for the pediatric population, among a sample of overweight and obese children. Thirty overweight or obese children (mean age=7.57+/-1.28 years) underwent measurement of fat mass, percent fat mass, and fat-free mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Impedance values from the BIA were entered into the four prediction equations and Pearson correlations used to determine the significance of associations between each of the BIA prediction equations and DEXA for percent fat mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass. For percent fat mass, paired t tests were used to assess differences between the methods and the technique of Bland and Altman was used to determine bias and error. Results showed that the mean percent fat mass as determined by DEXA for this age group was 40.79%. In comparison with other BIA prediction equations, the Schaefer equation had the closest mean value of 41.98%, and was the only equation not to significantly differ from the DEXA (P=0.121). This study suggests that the Schaefer equation is the only accurate BIA prediction equation for assessing percent fat mass in this sample of overweight and obese children from primarily white backgrounds.

  1. Predictive based monitoring of nuclear plant component degradation using support vector regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Human Factors, Controls, Statistics; Alamaniotis, Miltiadis [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are large installations comprised of many active and passive assets. Degradation monitoring of all these assets is expensive (labor cost) and highly demanding task. In this paper a framework based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) for online surveillance of critical parameter degradation of NPP components is proposed. In this case, on time replacement or maintenance of components will prevent potential plant malfunctions, and reduce the overall operational cost. In the current work, we apply SVR equipped with a Gaussian kernel function to monitor components. Monitoring includes the one-step-ahead prediction of the component’s respective operational quantity using the SVR model, while the SVR model is trained using a set of previous recorded degradation histories of similar components. Predictive capability of the model is evaluated upon arrival of a sensor measurement, which is compared to the component failure threshold. A maintenance decision is based on a fuzzy inference system that utilizes three parameters: (i) prediction evaluation in the previous steps, (ii) predicted value of the current step, (iii) and difference of current predicted value with components failure thresholds. The proposed framework will be tested on turbine blade degradation data.

  2. Predictive based monitoring of nuclear plant component degradation using support vector regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are large installations comprised of many active and passive assets. Degradation monitoring of all these assets is expensive (labor cost) and highly demanding task. In this paper a framework based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) for online surveillance of critical parameter degradation of NPP components is proposed. In this case, on time replacement or maintenance of components will prevent potential plant malfunctions, and reduce the overall operational cost. In the current work, we apply SVR equipped with a Gaussian kernel function to monitor components. Monitoring includes the one-step-ahead prediction of the component's respective operational quantity using the SVR model, while the SVR model is trained using a set of previous recorded degradation histories of similar components. Predictive capability of the model is evaluated upon arrival of a sensor measurement, which is compared to the component failure threshold. A maintenance decision is based on a fuzzy inference system that utilizes three parameters: (i) prediction evaluation in the previous steps, (ii) predicted value of the current step, (iii) and difference of current predicted value with components failure thresholds. The proposed framework will be tested on turbine blade degradation data.

  3. The role of nuclear techniques in the long-term prediction of radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Duerden, P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems associated with the long-term prediction of the migration of radionuclides, and the role of natural analogues in reducing the inherent uncertainties are discussed. Particular reference is made to the evaluation of uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, as analogues of high-level radioactive waste repositories. A range of nuclear techniques has been used to identify the role of colloids, of alpha recoil and of mineralogy in transport. Specific mention is made of a method being developed which enables models of the migration of solute through fractured rock to be assessed via a combination of alpha track, fission track and PIXE/PIGME techniques

  4. Prediction of volume fractions in three-phase flows using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Salgado, Cesar; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Schirru, Roberto; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Ramos, Robson

    2009-01-01

    This work presents methodology based on nuclear technique and artificial neural network for volume fraction predictions in annular, stratified and homogeneous oil-water-gas regimes. Using principles of gamma-ray absorption and scattering together with an appropriate geometry, comprised of three detectors and a dual-energy gamma-ray source, it was possible to obtain data, which could be adequately correlated to the volume fractions of each phase by means of neural network. The MCNP-X code was used in order to provide the training data for the network.

  5. Development of a prediction tool for low bone mass based on clinical data and periapical radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licks, R; Licks, V; Ourique, F; Radke Bittencourt, H; Fontanella, V

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to develop and test a tool for low bone mass pre-screening by combining periapical radiographs with clinical risk factors. The study sample consisted of 60 post-menopausal women over 40 years of age who were referred for dental radiographs. These patients also had their bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Radiographic density measurements and 14 morphological features were obtained from each dental radiograph using digital image processing software. The clinical variables considered were age and bone mass index. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to test the predictive power of clinical and radiographic risk factors for classifying individuals. CART indicated that the most important variables for classifying patients were age, number of terminal points/periphery, periphery/trabecular area, radiographic density and bone mass index. A combination of clinical and radiographic factors can be used to identify individuals with low bone mineral density, with higher accuracy than any one of these factors taken individually.

  6. Framingham Score and LV Mass predict Events in Young Adults: CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Anderson C.; Jacobs, David R.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Gjesdal, Ola; Lewis, Cora E.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Sidney, Stephen; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Williams, O. D.; Goff, David C.; Liu, Kiang; Lima, Joao A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Framingham risk score (FRS) underestimates risk in young adults. LV mass (LVM) relates to cardiovascular disease (CVD), with unclear value in youth. In a young biracial cohort, we investigate how FRS predicts CVD over 20 years and the incremental value of LVM. We also explore the predictive ability of different cut-points for hypertrophy. Methods We assessed FRS and echocardiography-derived LVM (indexed by BSA or height2.7) from 3980 African-American and white CARDIA participants (1990-1991); and followed over 20 years for a combined endpoint: cardiovascular death; nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. We assessed the predictive ability of FRS for CVD and also calibration, discrimination, and net reclassification improvement for adding LVM to FRS. Results Mean age was 30±4 years, 46% males, and 52% white. Event incidence (n = 118) across FRS groups was, respectively, 1.3%, 5.4%, and 23.1% (p<0.001); and was 1.4%, 1.3%, 3.7%, and 5.4% (p<0.001) across quartiles of LVM (cut-points 117g, 144g, and 176g). LVM predicted CVD independently of FRS, with the best performance in normal weight participants. Adding LVM to FRS modestly increased discrimination and had a statistically significant reclassification. The 85th percentile (≥116 g/m2 for men; ≥96 g/m2 for women) showed event prediction more robust than currently recommended cut-points for hypertrophy. Conclusion In a biracial cohort of young adults, FRS and LVM are helpful independent predictors of CVD. LVM can modestly improve discrimination and reclassify participants beyond FRS. Currently recommended cut-points for hypertrophy may be too high for young adults. PMID:24507735

  7. Guide for the preparation of applications for special nuclear material licenses of less than critical mass quantities - July 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This guide describes the type of information needed to evaluate an application for a specific license for receipt, possession, use, and transfer of special nuclear material. It is intended for applicants requesting authorization to possess and use up to 2000 grams of plutonium, total, in the form of sealed plutonium-beryllium neutron sources, and any special nuclear material in quantities and forms not sufficient to form a critical mass. The latter quantities are considered to be 350 grams of contained uranium-235, 200 grams of uranium-233, 200 grams of plutonium (in any form other than plutonium-beryllium neutron sources) or any combination of them

  8. Nuclear power plant maintenance personnel reliability prediction (NPP/MPRP) effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors committed during maintenance activities are potentially a major contribution to the overall risk associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP). An NRC-sponsored program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is attempting to develop a quantitative predictive technique to evaluate the contribution of maintenance errors to the overall NPP risk. The current work includes a survey of the requirements of potential users to ascertain the need for and content of the proposed quantitative model, plus an initial job/task analysis to determine the scope and applicability of various maintenance tasks. In addition, existing human reliability prediction models are being reviewed and assessed with respect to their applicability to NPP maintenance tasks. This paper discusses the status of the program and summarizes the results to date

  9. Prediction of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Retention Times of Pesticide Residues by Chemometrics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Konoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs method is employed to predict the retention time of 300 pesticide residues in animal tissues separated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Firstly, a six-parameter QSRR model was developed by means of multiple linear regression. The six molecular descriptors that were considered to account for the effect of molecular structure on the retention time are number of nitrogen, Solvation connectivity index-chi 1, Balaban Y index, Moran autocorrelation-lag 2/weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativity, total absolute charge, and radial distribution function-6.0/unweighted. A 6-7-1 back propagation artificial neural network (ANN was used to improve the accuracy of the constructed model. The standard error values of ANN model for training, test, and validation sets are 1.559, 1.517, and 1.249, respectively, which are less than those obtained reveals by multiple linear regressions model (2.402, 1.858, and 2.036, resp.. Results obtained the reliability and good predictability of nonlinear QSRR model to predict the retention time of pesticides.

  10. Prediction of Lateral Ankle Sprains in Football Players Based on Clinical Tests and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Terada, Masafumi; Beard, Megan Q; Kosik, Kyle B; Lepley, Adam S; McCann, Ryan S; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Thomas, Abbey C

    2016-02-01

    The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is the most common injury suffered in sports, especially in football. While suggested in some studies, a predictive role of clinical tests for LAS has not been established. To determine which clinical tests, focused on potentially modifiable factors of movement patterns and body mass index (BMI), could best demonstrate risk of LAS among high school and collegiate football players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 539 high school and collegiate football players were evaluated during the preseason with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Functional Movement Screen as well as BMI. Results were compared between players who did and did not suffer an LAS during the season. Logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios were used to determine which measures predicted risk of LAS. The LAS group performed worse on the SEBT-anterior reaching direction (SEBT-ANT) and had higher BMI as compared with the noninjured group (P football players. BMI was also significantly higher in football players who sustained an LAS. Identifying clinical tools for successful LAS injury risk prediction will be a critical step toward the creation of effective prevention programs to reduce risk of sustaining an LAS during participation in football. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Predictive maintenance: A new approach in maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, F.; Ferrari, L.

    2005-01-01

    The maintenance services for a Nuclear Power Plant are in general aimed at reaching the following goals: - Increase component availability and consequently decrease intervention frequency; - Reduce unexpected costs from unexpected repairs; - Progressively decrease the time of each intervention; - Improve the spare parts supply efficiency; - Improve spare parts and consumable warehouse managing; - Decrease maintenance costs. Most of the currently used maintenance activities refer to run-to-failure or preventive approaches: - Run-to-failure or Corrective Maintenance means that work is only carried out when a component or system is faulty and unable to perform its critical function. Non critical components such as filters or components with spare may be maintained in this way; - Preventive or Scheduled Maintenance involves a regular pre-set schedule programme of maintenance work. Programme outlined by the manufacturer of the component in question based on the design life of the component and based on past experience by operation. One step further than Preventive Maintenance is represented by Predictive Maintenance. Whereas Preventive Maintenance bases its schedules on past performance data, a predictive system acquires condition data from the machine to be maintained whilst the machine is in operation. The information obtained from this analysis indicates the condition in real time, provides a diagnosis of wear and shows any trend towards critical conditions. Predictive maintenance mainly consists of the following interventions: - Lubricant analysis; - Collection / analysis of functional parameters, such as motor absorption, flow rate, pressure, temperature, noise, vibration of rotating equipment, thermal efficiency, etc; - Periodical test of lifting systems; - Other operations to acquire sensitive equipment parameters. Predictive Maintenance can reduce the accidental intervention and extend the components life, and, in the end, is increasing the global availability

  12. Identification of a probable new adrenergic agonist by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatto, Gianpiero [Department of Toxicological Chemistry, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Culeddu, Nicola [CNR Biomolecular Chemistry Institute, Sassari (Italy); Testa, Cecilia [IZS della Sardegna, Sassari (Italy); Neri, Bruno [IZS delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana, Rome (Italy); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Environment Department, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: g.brambi@iss.it; Barbosa, Jorge [LNIV, Lisbon (Portugal); Cruz, Clara [LNIV, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-03-14

    In animal production, it is consolidated the synthesis and the illegal use of growth promoters of new generation, able to skip routine screening and confirmatory analysis. In this work it is reported the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the mass spectrometry identification of a probable new adrenergic drug found in a feed premix. The substance was selectively purified on alpha 1 acid glycoprotein affinity columns; then its structure was first achieved by recording the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum that gave the total number of carbons of the molecule, successively sorted by DEPT experiments into quaternary, CH, CH{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3} groups. However, the complete assignments of all resonances were derived from the bi-dimensional analysis and the crucial indications from the {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C reverse experiments. Further characterisation was performed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation both in positive and negative ion mode, matching the molecular ion and the fragmentation pattern with those of most recently described new adrenergic agonists. After the loss of a ter-butylic group, the structure shows an internal symmetry along with the presence of Chlorine clusters. The proposed formula of the compound, the 8,8'-diamino-9,9'-dichloro-1-terbutyl-1,1',4,4-tetrahydro-5H,5'H-2,2'-bi -1-benzazepine-5,5'-dione, partially resembles that of Zilpaterol for the presence of a heterocyclic ring; Further work is in progress to characterise the structure-activity relationship.

  13. Role of cytogenetic biodosimetry in meeting the needs of a mass casualty radiological/nuclear event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, A.S.; Dainiak, N.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological/nuclear (R/N) terrorism constitutes a potential threat to all nations that can result in significant morbidity and mortality among hundreds of thousands individuals. In addition to the timing and severity of clinical signs and symptoms, individual radiation dose informs risk assessment and mitigation of radiation-associated injuries. The 'gold standard' for individual whole-body radiation dosimetry is the dicentric chromosome assay. The Cytogenetics Biodosimetry Laboratory at REAC/TS is a WHO Collaborating Centre and member of IAEA's RANET that employs DCA, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, premature chromosome condensation, and micronuclei assays to assess radiation dose. The quality of dose estimates and standard operating procedures for DCA at REAC/TS have been validated in multiple inter-comparison studies involving CBLs in Asia, Europe, North America and South America. DCA is scalable to meet the needs of a mass casualty R/N incident. The CBL at REAC/TS has made seminal contributions to augment surge capacity for DCA and develop CBLs worldwide through initiatives such as modification of 'Share Point' in 2010 to transmit images of metaphases for simultaneous telescoring; (2) development of an on-line training program for metaphase scoring; (3) proactive participation as a WCC to create ISO standards; and (4) guidance of regulatory agencies to monitor quality of results and SOPs. The precision of dose estimates by DCA can be vastly improved by using a universal calibration curve. With this view, REAC/TS has organized a collaboration with CBLs at Health Canada and Yale University to construct and validate a common calibration curve for gamma rays

  14. Ground-based remote sensing profiling and numerical weather prediction model to manage nuclear power plants meteorological surveillance in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Calpini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological surveillance of the four nuclear power plants in Switzerland is of first importance in a densely populated area such as the Swiss Plateau. The project "Centrales Nucléaires et Météorologie" CN-MET aimed at providing a new security tool based on one hand on the development of a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP model. The latter is providing essential nowcasting information in case of a radioactive release from a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. On the other hand, the model input over the Swiss Plateau is generated by a dedicated network of surface and upper air observations including remote sensing instruments (wind profilers and temperature/humidity passive microwave radiometers. This network is built upon three main sites ideally located for measuring the inflow/outflow and central conditions of the main wind field in the planetary boundary layer over the Swiss Plateau, as well as a number of surface automatic weather stations (AWS. The network data are assimilated in real-time into the fine grid NWP model using a rapid update cycle of eight runs per day (one forecast every three hours. This high resolution NWP model has replaced the former security tool based on in situ observations (in particular one meteorological mast at each of the power plants and a local dispersion model. It is used to forecast the dynamics of the atmosphere in the planetary boundary layer (typically the first 4 km above ground layer and over a time scale of 24 h. This tool provides at any time (e.g. starting at the initial time of a nuclear power plant release the best picture of the 24-h evolution of the air mass over the Swiss Plateau and furthermore generates the input data (in the form of simulated values substituting in situ observations required for the local dispersion model used at each of the nuclear power plants locations. This paper is presenting the concept and two validation studies as well as the results of an

  15. Combined prediction model for supply risk in nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry based on support vector machine and decision tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunsheng; Meng Dapeng

    2011-01-01

    The prediction index for supply risk is developed based on the factor identifying of nuclear equipment manufacturing industry. The supply risk prediction model is established with the method of support vector machine and decision tree, based on the investigation on 3 important nuclear power equipment manufacturing enterprises and 60 suppliers. Final case study demonstrates that the combination model is better than the single prediction model, and demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of this model, which provides a method to evaluate the suppliers and measure the supply risk. (authors)

  16. Modified ensemble Kalman filter for nuclear accident atmospheric dispersion: prediction improved and source estimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Su, G F; Yuan, H Y; Chen, J G; Huang, Q Y

    2014-09-15

    Atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in nuclear power plant accident management. A reliable estimation of radioactive material distribution in short range (about 50 km) is in urgent need for population sheltering and evacuation planning. However, the meteorological data and the source term which greatly influence the accuracy of the atmospheric dispersion models are usually poorly known at the early phase of the emergency. In this study, a modified ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation method in conjunction with a Lagrangian puff-model is proposed to simultaneously improve the model prediction and reconstruct the source terms for short range atmospheric dispersion using the off-site environmental monitoring data. Four main uncertainty parameters are considered: source release rate, plume rise height, wind speed and wind direction. Twin experiments show that the method effectively improves the predicted concentration distribution, and the temporal profiles of source release rate and plume rise height are also successfully reconstructed. Moreover, the time lag in the response of ensemble Kalman filter is shortened. The method proposed here can be a useful tool not only in the nuclear power plant accident emergency management but also in other similar situation where hazardous material is released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Planning volunteer responses to low-volume mass gatherings: do event characteristics predict patient workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, John; Watt, Kerrianne; Walker, Damien; Tippett, Vivienne; Enraght-Moony, Emma; Bertolo, Chris; Mildwaters, Brett; Morrison, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Workforce planning for first aid and medical coverage of mass gatherings is hampered by limited research. In particular, the characteristics and likely presentation patterns of low-volume mass gatherings of between several hundred to several thousand people are poorly described in the existing literature. This study was conducted to: 1. Describe key patient and event characteristics of medical presentations at a series of mass gatherings, including events smaller than those previously described in the literature; 2. Determine whether event type and event size affect the mean number of patients presenting for treatment per event, and specifically, whether the 1:2,000 deployment rule used by St John Ambulance Australia is appropriate; and 3. Identify factors that are predictive of injury at mass gatherings. A retrospective, observational, case-series design was used to examine all cases treated by two Divisions of St John Ambulance (Queensland) in the greater metropolitan Brisbane region over a three-year period (01 January 2002-31 December 2004). Data were obtained from routinely collected patient treatment forms completed by St John officers at the time of treatment. Event-related data (e.g., weather, event size) were obtained from event forms designed for this study. Outcome measures include: total and average number of patient presentations for each event; event type; and event size category. Descriptive analyses were conducted using chi-square tests, and mean presentations per event and event type were investigated using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables independently associated with injury presentation (compared with non-injury presentations). Over the three-year study period, St John Ambulance officers treated 705 patients over 156 separate events. The mean number of patients who presented with any medical condition at small events (less than or equal to 2,000 attendees) did not differ significantly from that of

  18. Synthesis and purification of some alkyl phenanthrenes and presentation of their infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persaud, K.

    1965-01-01

    We have carried out the synthesis of: - phenanthrene - its five monomethyl derivatives - three dimethyl derivatives - two trimethyl derivatives. We have then purified these products as well as a certain number of others obtained from various sources. We have been able to obtain in the majority of cases, a purity of 99.5 per cent or over, these figures being obtained by low voltage mass spectrometry. Finally we have recorded the infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra of these products for which an atlas has been drawn up. (author) [fr

  19. Mass media communication of emergency issues and countermeasures in a nuclear accident: Fukushima reporting in European newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H.; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. (authors)

  20. A classification tree for the prediction of benign versus malignant disease in patients with small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Ricardo A; Mason, Ross J; Kirkland, Susan; Lawen, Joseph G; Abdolell, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    To develop a classification tree for the preoperative prediction of benign versus malignant disease in patients with small renal masses. This is a retrospective study including 395 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for a renal mass classification tree to predict the risk of having a benign renal mass preoperatively was developed using recursive partitioning analysis for repeated measures outcomes. Age, sex, volume on preoperative imaging, tumor location (central/peripheral), degree of endophytic component (1%-100%), and tumor axis position were used as potential predictors to develop the model. Forty-five patients (11.4%) were found to have a benign mass postoperatively. A classification tree has been developed which can predict the risk of benign disease with an accuracy of 88.9% (95% CI: 85.3 to 91.8). The significant prognostic factors in the classification tree are tumor volume, degree of endophytic component and symptoms at diagnosis. As an example of its utilization, a renal mass with a volume of classification tree to predict the risk of benign disease in small renal masses has been developed to aid the clinician when deciding on treatment strategies for small renal masses.

  1. Failure prediction of full-size reactor components from tensile specimen data on NBG-18 nuclear graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Michael P., E-mail: makke@mweb.co.za [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd., P.O. Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Blaine, Deborah C.; Groenwold, Albert A.; Becker, Thorsten H. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Predicts failure on a full scale reactor component and compare it to experiments. • Shows the effect of volume on NBG-18 nuclear graphite failure prediction. • Provide independent verification of a previously published methodology. • Describe the influence of multiple locations of high stress on failure prediction. - Abstract: This paper concerns itself with predicting the failure of a full-size NBG-18 nuclear graphite reactor component based only on test data obtained from standard tensile test specimens. A full-size specimen structural test was developed to simulate the same failure conditions expected during a normal operation of the reactor in order to validate the failure prediction. The full-size specimen designed for this test is almost a hundred times larger than the tensile test specimen, has a completely different geometry and experiences a different loading condition to the standard tensile test specimen. Failure of the full-size component is predicted realistically, but conservatively.

  2. Predicting octane number using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and artificial neural networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-04-17

    Machine learning algorithms are attracting significant interest for predicting complex chemical phenomenon. In this work, a model to predict research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) of pure hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-ethanol blends and gasoline-ethanol blends has been developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) and molecular parameters from 1H nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. RON and MON of 128 pure hydrocarbons, 123 hydrocarbon-ethanol blends of known composition and 30 FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasoline-ethanol blends were utilized as a dataset to develop the ANN model. The effect of weight % of seven functional groups including paraffinic CH3 groups, paraffinic CH2 groups, paraffinic CH groups, olefinic -CH=CH2 groups, naphthenic CH-CH2 groups, aromatic C-CH groups and ethanolic OH groups on RON and MON was studied. The effect of branching (i.e., methyl substitution), denoted by a parameter termed as branching index (BI), and molecular weight (MW) were included as inputs along with the seven functional groups to predict RON and MON. The topology of the developed ANN models for RON (9-540-314-1) and MON (9-340-603-1) have two hidden layers and a large number of nodes, and was validated against experimentally measured RON and MON of pure hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-ethanol and gasoline-ethanol blends; a good correlation (R2=0.99) between the predicted and the experimental data was obtained. The average error of prediction for both RON and MON was found to be 1.2 which is close to the range of experimental uncertainty. This shows that the functional groups in a molecule or fuel can be used to predict its ON, and the complex relationship between them can be captured by tools like ANN.

  3. C-reactive protein concentration predicts change in body mass index during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H Lourenço

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Inflammation may constitute an underlying mechanism for increased risk of developing chronic diseases in later years, but few prospective studies have assessed the influence of low-grade inflammation on body weight gain, particularly among children in low- to middle-income settings with lower prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to investigate whether C-reactive protein (CRP, as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation, predicts changes in body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZ during childhood. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Brazilian Amazon among children aged ≤10 years in 2007, with follow-up visits in 2009 and 2012. Outcome was annual change in BAZ. As the main exposure of interest, CRP concentrations were divided into four categories, with values 5 years, children in the highest tertile of CRP 5 years.

  4. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Keith, Sally A.

    2016-05-11

    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R2 = 0.73, peak: R2 = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  5. Early changes in socioeconomic status do not predict changes in body mass in the first decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Leighann; Revenson, Tracey A

    2015-04-01

    Many studies link childhood socioeconomic status (SES) to body mass index (BMI), but few account for the impact of socioeconomic mobility throughout the lifespan. This study aims to investigate the impact of socioeconomic mobility on changes in BMI in childhood. Analyses tested whether [1] socioeconomic status influences BMI, [2] changes in socioeconomic status impact changes in BMI, and [3] timing of socioeconomic status mobility impacts BMI. Secondary data spanning birth to age 9 were analyzed. SES and BMI were investigated with gender, birth weight, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal nativity as covariates. Autoregressive structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling were used. Socioeconomic status in the first year of life predicted body mass index. Child covariates were consistently associated with body mass index. Rate of change in socioeconomic status did not predict change in body mass index. The findings suggest that early socioeconomic status may most influence body mass in later childhood.

  6. Computational refinement of post-translational modifications predicted from tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Clement; Liu, Jian; Emili, Andrew; Frey, Brendan J

    2011-03-15

    A post-translational modification (PTM) is a chemical modification of a protein that occurs naturally. Many of these modifications, such as phosphorylation, are known to play pivotal roles in the regulation of protein function. Henceforth, PTM perturbations have been linked to diverse diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes and cancer. To discover PTMs on a genome-wide scale, there is a recent surge of interest in analyzing tandem mass spectrometry data, and several unrestrictive (so-called 'blind') PTM search methods have been reported. However, these approaches are subject to noise in mass measurements and in the predicted modification site (amino acid position) within peptides, which can result in false PTM assignments. To address these issues, we devised a machine learning algorithm, PTMClust, that can be applied to the output of blind PTM search methods to improve prediction quality, by suppressing noise in the data and clustering peptides with the same underlying modification to form PTM groups. We show that our technique outperforms two standard clustering algorithms on a simulated dataset. Additionally, we show that our algorithm significantly improves sensitivity and specificity when applied to the output of three different blind PTM search engines, SIMS, InsPecT and MODmap. Additionally, PTMClust markedly outperforms another PTM refinement algorithm, PTMFinder. We demonstrate that our technique is able to reduce false PTM assignments, improve overall detection coverage and facilitate novel PTM discovery, including terminus modifications. We applied our technique to a large-scale yeast MS/MS proteome profiling dataset and found numerous known and novel PTMs. Accurately identifying modifications in protein sequences is a critical first step for PTM profiling, and thus our approach may benefit routine proteomic analysis. Our algorithm is implemented in Matlab and is freely available for academic use. The software is available online from http://genes.toronto.edu.

  7. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  8. Predicting unsaturated zone nitrogen mass balances in agricultural settings of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Puckett, Larry J.; Ma, Liwang; Green, Christopher T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Malone, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone N fate and transport were evaluated at four sites to identify the predominant pathways of N cycling: an almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] orchard and cornfield (Zea mays L.) in the lower Merced River study basin, California; and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations in study basins at Maple Creek, Nebraska, and at Morgan Creek, Maryland. We used inverse modeling with a new version of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) to estimate soil hydraulic and nitrogen transformation parameters throughout the unsaturated zone; previous versions were limited to 3-m depth and relied on manual calibration. The overall goal of the modeling was to derive unsaturated zone N mass balances for the four sites. RZWQM2 showed promise for deeper simulation profiles. Relative root mean square error (RRMSE) values for predicted and observed nitrate concentrations in lysimeters were 0.40 and 0.52 for California (6.5 m depth) and Nebraska (10 m), respectively, and index of agreement (d) values were 0.60 and 0.71 (d varies between 0 and 1, with higher values indicating better agreement). For the shallow simulation profile (1 m) in Maryland, RRMSE and d for nitrate were 0.22 and 0.86, respectively. Except for Nebraska, predictions of average nitrate concentration at the bottom of the simulation profile agreed reasonably well with measured concentrations in monitoring wells. The largest additions of N were predicted to come from inorganic fertilizer (153–195 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in California) and N fixation (99 and 131 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in Maryland and Nebraska, respectively). Predicted N losses occurred primarily through plant uptake (144–237 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and deep seepage out of the profile (56–102 kg N ha−1 yr−1). Large reservoirs of organic N (up to 17,500 kg N ha−1 m−1 at Nebraska) were predicted to reside in the unsaturated zone, which has implications for potential future transfer of nitrate to groundwater.

  9. Child body mass index, genotype and parenting in the prediction of restrictive feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, K K; Teran-Garcia, M; Donovan, S M; Fiese, B H

    2018-04-01

    Restrictive feeding is implicated in pediatric obesity, and caregivers increase controlling feeding practices on the basis of higher child weight status. However, few studies have examined how child genetic and parenting characteristics together impact restrictive feeding. We examined whether child body mass index (BMI) status predicts caregiver use of restrictive feeding and if this association is moderated by (i) caregiver strategies to manage their children's distress and (ii) child variations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val 158 Met, rs4680). Participants included 126 Caucasian children (50% girls) and their caregivers who were participating in a larger study in the USA. Caregivers reported on their feeding practices and responses to child distress when children were 2.5-3.5 years of age. Child anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Restrictive feeding was assessed again 1-1.5 years later. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples, and COMT-rs4680 was genotyped using TaqMan® methodology. Child BMI percentile predicted subsequent caregiver restrictive feeding for children who were Met/Met and who had caregivers reporting higher use of negative responses to child distress. For Val carriers, BMI percentile predicted restrictive feeding when caregivers were below the mean on these responses. Caregivers are at risk for use of restrictive feeding practices when their children are at higher BMI percentiles, and this association increases when caregivers use more ineffective stress regulation practices and their children are homozygous for the Met allele. Prevention programmes might focus on parenting behaviours that foster emotion regulation and consider variation in child responses to parenting. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Predicting success of metabolic surgery: age, body mass index, C-peptide, and duration score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Jei; Hur, Kyung Yul; Lakadawala, Muffazal; Kasama, Kazunori; Wong, Simon K H; Chen, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yi-Chih; Ser, Kong-Han

    2013-01-01

    Surgery is the most effective treatment of morbid obesity and leads to dramatic improvements in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastrointestinal metabolic surgery has been proposed as a treatment option for T2DM. However, a grading system to categorize and predict the outcome of metabolic surgery is lacking. The study setting was a tertiary referral hospital (Taoyuan City, Taoyuan County, Taiwan). We first evaluated 63 patients and identified 4 factors that predicted the success of T2DM remission after bariatric surgery in this cohort: body mass index, C-peptide level, T2DM duration, and patient age. We used these variables to construct the Diabetes Surgery Score, a multidimensional 10-point scale along which greater scores indicate a better chance of T2DM remission. We then validated the index in a prospective collected cohort of 176 patients, using remission of T2DM at 1 year after surgery as the outcome variable. A total of 48 T2DM remissions occurred among the 63 patients and 115 remissions (65.3%) in the validation cohort. Patients with T2DM remission after surgery had a greater Diabetes Surgery Score than those without (8 ± 4 versus 4 ± 4, P Surgery Score also had a greater rate of success with T2DM remission (from 33% at score 0 to 100% at score 10); A 1-point increase in the Diabetes Surgery Score translated to an absolute 6.7% in the success rate. The Diabetes Surgery Score is a simple multidimensional grading system that can predict the success of T2DM treatment using bariatric surgery among patients with inadequately controlled T2DM. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Monticello Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact Prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-11-01

    This report evaluates quantitatively the nonradiological environmental monitoring programs at Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant. The general objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of monitoring programs in the measurement of environmental impacts. Specific objectives include the following: (1) Assess the validity of environmental impact predictions made in the Environmental Statement by analysis of nonradiological monitoring data; (2) evaluate the general adequacy of environmental monitoring programs for detecting impacts and their responsiveness to Technical Specifications objectives; (3) assess the adequacy of preoperational monitoring programs in providing a sufficient data base for evaluating operational impacts; (4) identify possible impacts that were not predicted in the environmental statement and identify monitoring activities that need to be added, modified or deleted; and (5) assist in identifying environmental impacts, monitoring methods, and measurement problems that need additional research before quantitative predictions can be attempted. Preoperational as well as operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the analytical methods used to measure ecological and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data were available.

  12. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  13. Prediction of radiosensitivity of oral cancers by serial cytological assay of nuclear changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattathiri, N.V.; Nair, K.M.; Bharathykkutty, C.; Prathapan, R.; Chirayathmanjiyil, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: To identify the relationship between the radiosensitivity of oral cancers and the induction of micronucleation, nuclear budding and multinucleation (polynucleation) evaluated by serial cytology during fractionated radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients with epidermoid cancer of the oral cavity receiving radiotherapy (60 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks) were studied. Serial scrape smears were taken from the tumour before and during radiotherapy and stained by Giemsa and the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC), nuclear budded cells (NBC) and multinucleated cells (PNC) was evaluated by light microscopy. After a minimum follow-up period of 30 months the patients were classified as having resistant or sensitive tumours, depending on whether the primary tumour had recurred or not within that time. Within-group and between-group analysis on the induction of the above individual parameters and two combined parameters, the micro- or multinucleated cell (MPC) count and the abnormally nucleated cell (ANC) count, was done. The counts were expressed per 1000 uni-nucleated cells. Results: In both groups each parameter showed a statistically significant increase with dose, the increase being higher in the sensitive group. The ANC count showed the greatest increase, the mean counts before treatment and after 28.8 Gy being 24.3 and 157.8 (P<0.0005), respectively, in the sensitive group and 21.0 and 65.2 (P<0.0005), respectively, in the resistant group. After 28.8 Gy the sensitive tumours had significantly higher ANC (P=0.01), MPC (P<0.05) and PNC (P<0.05) counts. Conclusion: The study shows that serial cytological assay of nuclear changes (SCANCing) during radiotherapy is a potentially useful test to predict radiosensitivity. The fact that multinucleation showed the greatest relation with radiosensitivity suggests that injury to the cytokinetic apparatus is important in determining tumour radiosensitivity. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier

  14. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W.; Machado, Marcelo D.

    2011-01-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Nuclear Fission: from more phenomenology and adjusted parameters to more fundamental theory and increased predictive power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Jin, Shi; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth; Schunck, Nicolas; Stetcu, Ionel

    2017-11-01

    Two major recent developments in theory and computational resources created the favorable conditions for achieving a microscopic description of fission dynamics in classically allowed regions of the collective potential energy surface, almost eighty years after its discovery in 1939 by Hahn and Strassmann [1]. The first major development was in theory, the extension of the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) [2-5] to superfluid fermion systems [6]. The second development was in computing, the emergence of powerful enough supercomputers capable of solving the complex systems of equations describing the time evolution in three dimensions without any restrictions of hundreds of strongly interacting nucleons. Thus the conditions have been created to renounce phenomenological models and incomplete microscopic treatments with uncontrollable approximations and/or assumptions in the description of the complex dynamics of fission. Even though the available nuclear energy density functionals (NEDFs) are phenomenological still, their accuracy is improving steadily and the prospects of being able to perform calculations of the nuclear fission dynamics and to predict many properties of the fission fragments, otherwise not possible to extract from experiments.

  16. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  17. FIRAC - a computer code to predict fire accident effects in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    FIRAC is a medium-sized computer code designed to predict fire-induced flows, temperatures, and material transport within the ventilating systems and other airflow pathways in nuclear-related facilities. The code is designed to analyze the behavior of interconnected networks of rooms and typical ventilation system components. This code is one in a family of computer codes that is designed to provide improved methods of safety analysis for the nuclear industry. The structure of this code closely follows that of the previously developed TVENT and EVENT codes. Because a lumped-parameter formulation is used, this code is particularly suitable for calculating the effects of fires in the far field (that is, in regions removed from the fire compartment), where the fire may be represented parametrically. However, a fire compartment model to simulate conditions in the enclosure is included. This model provides transport source terms to the ventilation system that can affect its operation and in turn affect the fire. A basic material transport capability that features the effects of convection, deposition, entrainment, and filtration of material is included. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, and material transport are taken into account. In this paper the authors summarize the physical models used to describe the gas dynamics, material transport, and heat transfer processes. They also illustrate how a typical facility is modeled using the code

  18. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon

    2006-01-01

    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10 th survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering

  19. Ultra-high resolution mass separator--application to detection of nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräjärvi, K; Eronen, T; Elomaa, V-V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kettunen, H; Kolhinen, V S; Laitinen, M; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Toivonen, H; Turunen, J; Aystö, J

    2010-03-01

    A Penning trap-based purification process having a resolution of about 1 ppm is reported. In this context, we present for the first time a production method for the most complicated and crucially important nuclear weapons test signature, (133m)Xe. These pure xenon samples are required by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to standardize and calibrate the worldwide network of xenon detectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intracellular lysyl oxidase: Effect of a specific inhibitor on nuclear mass in proliferating cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Fawzy A. [Laboratory for the Study of Skeletal Disorders and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue EN926, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Torres, Marie [Laboratory for the Study of Skeletal Disorders and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue EN926, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Hao [Laboratory for the Study of Skeletal Disorders and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue EN926, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Graham, Lila, E-mail: lilagraham@cs.com [Laboratory for the Study of Skeletal Disorders and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue EN926, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    LOX, the principal enzyme involved in crosslinking of collagen, was the first of several lysyl oxidase isotypes to be characterized. Its active form was believed to be exclusively extracellular. Active LOX was later reported to be present in cell nuclei; its function there is unknown. LOX expression opposes the effect of mutationally activated Ras, which is present in about 30% of human cancers. The mechanism of LOX in countering the action of Ras is also unknown. In the present work, assessment of nuclear protein for possible effects of lysyl oxidase activity led to the discovery that proliferating cells dramatically increase their nuclear protein content when exposed to BAPN ({beta}-aminopropionitrile), a highly specific lysyl oxidase inhibitor that reportedly blocks LOX inhibition of Ras-induced oocyte maturation. In three cell types (PC12 cells, A7r5 smooth muscle cells, and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts), BAPN caused a 1.8-, 1.7-, and 2.1-fold increase in total nuclear protein per cell, respectively, affecting all major components in both nuclear matrix and chromatin fractions. Since nuclear size is correlated with proliferative status, enzyme activity restricting nuclear growth may be involved in the lysyl oxidase tumor suppressive effect. Evidence is also presented for the presence of apparent lysyl oxidase isotype(s) containing a highly conserved LOX active site sequence in the nuclei of PC12 cells, which do not manufacture extracellular lysyl oxidase substrates. Results reported here support the hypothesis that nuclear lysyl oxidase regulates nuclear growth, and thereby modulates cell proliferation.

  1. Evidence of a cumulative effect for risk factors predicting low bone mass among male adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Michelle T; Fredericson, Michael; Tenforde, Adam S; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2017-02-01

    Limited research has evaluated risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in male adolescent athletes. To evaluate predictors of low BMD (defined as BMD Z-score athletes. Male adolescent athletes completed a survey characterising sports participation, nutrition, stress fracture history, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured BMD and body composition. Independent t-tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) evaluated group differences; logistic regression evaluated low BMD risk factors. Runners (n=51) exhibited a lower body weight (p=0.02), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) (p=0.02), per cent expected weight (p=0.02) and spine BMD Z-score (p=0.002) compared with non-runners (n=18). Single risk factors of low BMD included 30 in the past year (OR=6.4, 95% CI 1.5 to 27.1). The strongest two-variable and three-variable risk factors included weekly mileage >30+ stress fracture history (OR=17.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 185.6) and weekly mileage >30+stress fracture history (OR=17.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 185.6), respectively. Risk factors were cumulative when predicting low BMD (including 30, stress fracture history and <1 serving of calcium-rich food/day): 0-1 risk factors (11.1%), 2 risk factors (42.9%), or 3-4 risk factors (80.0%), p<0.001). Male adolescent runners exhibited lower body weight, BMI and spine BMD Z-score values. The risk of low BMD displayed a graded relationship with increasing risk factors, highlighting the importance of using methods to optimise bone mass in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  3. Presence of albuminuria predicts left ventricular mass in patients with chronic systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beus, Esther; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Bots, Michiel L; Visseren, Frank L J; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) is known to predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. LVM is high in patients with advanced kidney disease. Our aim was to study the relationship between renal parameters and LVM in hypertensive subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac MRI was performed in 527 patients participating in the single-centre SMART cohort study. Participants free from previous symptomatic coronary heart disease but with a history of hypertension were recruited. Subjects were screened for cardiovascular risk factors in a standardized way. Multivariable linear regression was used to study the relationship of both estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and presence of albuminuria with left ventricular mass. Mean LVM was 121 g for men (SD 26) and 87 g for women (SD 20). Mean eGFR was 82 mL/min/1.73 m(²) (SD 19). A total of 73 patients (14%) had albuminuria. After adjusting for known determinants of LVM (height, weight, sex and age) eGFR did not relate to LVM while presence of albuminuria did (mean change in LVM per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) change in eGFR 0.79 g, 95% CI -0.33 to 1.91, P = 0.17, mean change in LVM in presence vs. absence of albuminuria 9.9 g, 95% CI 4.33 to 15.45, P = 0.001). Additional adjustment for systolic blood pressure did not change results (B for eGFR 0.54, 95% CI -0.58 to 1.66, P = 0.35, B for albuminuria 9.09, 95% CI 3.57 to 14.60, P = 0.001). In this study in hypertensive patients with high vascular risk, albuminuria was related to increased LVM and eGFR was not. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. [Predictive accuracy of body mass index in estimating body fatness measured by bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fernando; Reyes, Eliana; Rimler, Olga; Rios, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the performance of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity and as a predictor of body fatness in adult Chilean subjects. We conducted a study in 433 women (18-73 years old; BMI: 19.7 to 69.7 kg/m2) and 264 men (18-83 y.; BMI: 19.1 to 54.8 kg/m2). Bioelectrical resistance was measured by impedance method and fat mass percent (FM%) was calculated by fatness-specific equations developed by Segal et al. Obesity was defined as a BMI of at least 30 kg/m2. Increased fatness was defined by the FM% cut-off points of at least 25% for men and at least 30% for women. Sixty-four percent of women and 23.6% of men with BMI below 30 kg/m2 had FM% higher than 30% and 25%, respectively. A value of BMI of 26 kg/m2 in women and 30 kg/m2 in men had the best agreement to the cut-off points of fatness according to sensitivity vs. specificity analysis The following equations were developed to predict individual fatness: women FM% = 0.96 x BMI + 0.154 x age + 1.44 (r2 = 0.75; standard error 3.8%); men FM% = 0.99 x BMI + 0.141 x age - 9.914 (r2 = 0.66; standard error 4.4%). Differences between measured and predicted FM% presented a wide variation, with a range of +/- 2 sd of 7.5% in women and 8.8% in men. The commonly used value of BMI 330 kg/m2 as a cut-off point for obesity does not have adequate sensitivity and specificity for the screening of increased fatness subjects, specially in women. In this study BMI shows a low reliability as a predictor of individual body fatness, particularly in men and in subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2.

  5. Television viewing is not predictive of Body Mass Index in Black and Hispanic young adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney; Gooding, Holly C.; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (Black: 28.5 kg/m2, Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m2, White: 26.0kg/m2) than White females while Black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (Black: 14.7 hrs/wk, Hispanic: 10.6 hrs/wk, White: 11.2 hrs/wk) when compared to their White and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (β=0.79, p=0.003 for 8–14 v. ≤7 hrs/wk; β=1.18, p=0.01 for >14 v. ≤ 7 hrs/wk) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among White females. TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in Black or Hispanic young adult females. Among Black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss. PMID:19876003

  6. Body mass index predicts plasma aldosterone concentrations in overweight-obese primary hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gian Paolo; Belfiore, Anna; Bernini, Giampaolo; Fabris, Bruno; Caridi, Graziella; Ferri, Claudio; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Letizia, Claudio; Maccario, Mauro; Mannelli, Massimo; Palumbo, Gaetana; Patalano, Anna; Rizzoni, Damiano; Rossi, Ermanno; Pessina, Achille C; Mantero, Franco

    2008-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) shows a direct correlation with plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and urinary aldosterone excretion in normotensive individuals; whether the same applies to hypertensive patients is unknown. Our objective was to determine if BMI predicts PAC and the PAC/plasma renin activity ratio [aldosterone renin ratio (ARR)] in hypertensive patients, and if this affects the identification of primary aldosteronism (PA). This was a prospective evaluation of consecutive hypertensive patients referred nationwide to specialized hypertension centers. Sitting PAC, plasma renin activity, and the ARR, baseline and after 50 mg captopril orally with concomitant assessment of parameters, including BMI and daily sodium intake, were calculated. Complete biochemical data and a definite diagnosis were obtained in 1125 consecutive patients. Of them 999 had primary (essential) hypertension (PH) and 126 (11.2%) PA caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma in 54 (4.8%). BMI independently predicted PAC (beta = 0.153; P < 0.0001) in PH, particularly in the overweight-obese, but not in the PA group. Covariance analysis and formal comparison of the raw, and the BMI-, sex-, and sodium intake-adjusted ARR with receiver operator characteristic curves, showed no significant improvement for the discrimination of aldosterone-producing adenoma from PH patients with covariate-adjusted ARR. BMI correlated with PAC independent of age, sex, and sodium intake in PH, but not in PA patients. This association of BMI is particularly evident in overweight-obese PH patients, and suggests a pathophysiological link between visceral adiposity and aldosterone secretion. However, it does not impact on the diagnostic accuracy of the ARR for discriminating PA from PH patients.

  7. Mass balance of Djankuat Glacier, Central Caucasus: observations, modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Mariia, Kaminskaia; Stanislav, Kutuzov; Ivan, Lavrentiev; Polina, Morozova; Victor, Popovnin; Elena, Rybak

    2017-04-01

    Djankuat is a typical valley glacier on the northern slope of the main Caucasus chain. Its present day area is approximately 2.5 square km with the characteristic ice thickness of several tens of meters. As well as other glaciers in the region, Djankuat has been shrinking during the last several decades, its cumulative mass balance in 1968-2016 was equal to -13.6 m w.e. In general, Caucasus' glaciers lost approximately one-third of their area and half of the volume. Prediction of further deradation of glaciers in changing environment is a challenging task because rivers fed by glacier melt water provide from 40 to 70% of the total river run-off in the adjacent piedmont territories. Growing demand in fresh water is rather critical for the local economy development and for growing population, motivating elaboration of an effitient instrument for evaluation and forecasting of the glaciation in the Greater Caucasus. Unfortunately, systematic observations are sparse limiting possibilities for proper model development for the most of the glaciers. Under these circumstances, we have to rely on the models developed for the few well-studied ones, like Djankuat, which is probably one of the most explored glaciers in the world. Accumulation and ablation rates have been observed here systematically and uninterruptedly since mid 60-ies using dense stake network. Together with the mass balance components, changes in flow velocity, ice thickness and geometry were regularly evaluated. During the last several ablation seasons, direct meteorological observations were carried out using an AMS. Long series of meteorological observations at the nearest weather station allow making assessment of the glacier response to climate change in the second half of the 20th century. Abundant observation data gave us the opportunity to elaborate, calibrate and validate an efficient mathematical model of surface mass balance of a typical glacier in the region. Since many glaciers in the Caucasus

  8. Development and validation of lean body mass prediction equations for male children aged. 12 - 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Simões Pires-Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: a to develop and validate equations to estimate lean body mass of males aged 12 to 14 years old; b to validate lean body mass equations developed by other researchers. Data were collected from 93 male children aged 12-14 years. A stepwise regression technique was used to develop all prediction equations for lean body mass. Validation analysis of the proposed equations was performed using Pearson’s correlation, paired Student t test, constant error (CE and standard error estimates (SEE. Four models were developed with bioresistance variables and one model using anthropometric variables. The multiple correlation coeffi cients (Rm of the equations developed ranged from 0.905 to 0.965 and SEE from 2.413 kg to 1.847 kg. Validation analysis was undertaken using an independent sample of 22 children who were not part of the regression sample. In conclusion, the equations that were developed are valid for male children aged 12 to 14 years old. RESUMO Os objetivos deste estudo foram: a desenvolver e validar equações para estimar a massa corporal magra, específica para meninos de 12 a 14 anos de idade; b validar equações estimativas desenvolvidas por outros investigadores. Participaram do estudo 93 meninos de 12 a 14 anos. Para o desenvolvimento das equações, foi usada a técnica de regressão múltipla “passo a passo”. A análise de validação das equações propostas foi realizada através de correlação simples de Pearson, teste t pareado, erro constante (EC e erro padrão de estimativa (EPE. Foram desenvolvidos quatro modelos com variáveis de biorresistência e um com variáveis antropométricas. As correlações múltiplas (Rm variaram de 0,905 a 0,965 e EPE de 2,413 kg a 1,847 kg. A validação foi realizada em 22 meninos que não participaram da amostra de regressão. Concluindo, as equações desenvolvidas validadas para serem usadas em meninos de 12 a 14 anos, estudantes da rede pública de Campo

  9. LANDSLIDE RUNOUT DISTANCE PREDICTION BASED ON MECHANISM AND CAUSE OF SOIL OR ROCK MASS MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qarinur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide often occurs in tropical hills area, such as Indonesia. Research on landslide hazard evaluation is necessary to decrease the impact in affected and surrounding areas. Empirical-statistical methods can be used to predict landslide run out distance in an effort to avoid the danger of landslide occurrences. This study aims to determine the correlation between landslide run out distance against high, slope, and volume based on mechanisms and causes of soil or rock mass movement. Data mainly from 106 landslides in Indonesia has been analyzed to search for possible correlations and empirical correlations, there are 34 rotational slides, 54 translational slides, 8 debris flows, and 10 rock falls. Analysis begins by studying the characteristics of the data (explanatory data analysis and then analyzed by using empirical methods such as geomorphological assessment and geometrical approaches. Then the data is processed by simple linear regression and multiple linear regression method using the R software. The results obtained from the analysis of the general empirical equation form of the correlation between height (H and run out distance (L is 1.066H1.093, respectively. This results indicate the higher altitude slopes, the greater distance will happen. The results of the analysis correlation between height and run out distance for the type of mass movements for rotational is L=1.346+1.788 H, translational is L=-3.88+1.578H, debris flow is L=0.682H1.29, and rock fall is L=2.223H0.897. This result shows debris flows landslide run out distance is greater than rotational, translational and rock fall. The results of the analysis correlation between height and run out distance of the trigger due to the rain is L=1.267H1.027, and by an earthquake is L=0.574H1.38. This results show run out distance caused by an earthquake is larger than caused by rain. The correlation between the run out distance and volume (V yields empirical equation which is V=0.772L

  10. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  11. nfluence of the nuclear part of the nuclei interaction potential to the mass yields of fragments from fission of highly-excited nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence for various parameterizations of the nuclear part of the interaction potential to the mass yields of fission fragments of highly excited nuclei for the reaction α+197Au → fission was studied. It is shown that using of various nuclear potentials leads to small changes in the yields of fission fragments of the nuclei.

  12. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted....... CONCLUSION: The new equation predicts GFR with higher accuracy than other equations. Endogenous methods are, however, still not accurate enough to replace exogenous markers when GFR must be determined with high accuracy....

  13. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a s...

  14. Geothermal reservoir simulation to enhance confidence in predictions for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten; O' Sullivan, Michael J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-06-15

    Numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs is useful and necessary in understanding and evaluating reservoir structure and behavior, designing field development, and predicting performance. Models vary in complexity depending on processes considered, heterogeneity, data availability, and study objectives. They are evaluated using computer codes written and tested to study single and multiphase flow and transport under nonisothermal conditions. Many flow and heat transfer processes modeled in geothermal reservoirs are expected to occur in anthropogenic thermal (AT) systems created by geologic disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. We examine and compare geothermal systems and the AT system expected at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and their modeling. Time frames and spatial scales are similar in both systems, but increased precision is necessary for modeling the AT system, because flow through specific repository locations will affect long-term ability radionuclide retention. Geothermal modeling experience has generated a methodology, used in the AT modeling for Yucca Mountain, yielding good predictive results if sufficient reliable data are available and an experienced modeler is involved. Codes used in geothermal and AT modeling have been tested extensively and successfully on a variety of analytical and laboratory problems.

  15. iNR-Drug: Predicting the Interaction of Drugs with Nuclear Receptors in Cellular Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Nong Fan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called “iNR-Drug” was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  16. Geothermal reservoir simulation to enhance confidence in predictions for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs is useful and necessary in understanding and evaluating reservoir structure and behavior, designing field development, and predicting performance. Models vary in complexity depending on processes considered, heterogeneity, data availability, and study objectives. They are evaluated using computer codes written and tested to study single and multiphase flow and transport under nonisothermal conditions. Many flow and heat transfer processes modeled in geothermal reservoirs are expected to occur in anthropogenic thermal (AT) systems created by geologic disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. We examine and compare geothermal systems and the AT system expected at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and their modeling. Time frames and spatial scales are similar in both systems, but increased precision is necessary for modeling the AT system, because flow through specific repository locations will affect long-term ability radionuclide retention. Geothermal modeling experience has generated a methodology, used in the AT modeling for Yucca Mountain, yielding good predictive results if sufficient reliable data are available and an experienced modeler is involved. Codes used in geothermal and AT modeling have been tested extensively and successfully on a variety of analytical and laboratory problems

  17. iNR-Drug: predicting the interaction of drugs with nuclear receptors in cellular networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue-Nong; Xiao, Xuan; Min, Jian-Liang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2014-03-19

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called "iNR-Drug" was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional) vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine) algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  18. Structural characterization of a poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, Remi [Universites Aix-Marseille I, II et III - CNRS, UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Spectrometries Appliquees a la Chimie Structurale, F-13397 Marseille (France); Viel, Stephane [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, UMR 6263: Institut des Sciences Moleculaires de Marseille, Chimiometrie et Spectrometries, F-13397 Marseille (France); Hidalgo, Manuel; Allard-Breton, Beatrice [ARKEMA, Centre de Recherche Rhone Alpes, Rue Henri Moissan, F-69493 Pierre-Benite (France); Thevand, Andre [Universites Aix-Marseille I, II et III - CNRS, UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Spectrometries Appliquees a la Chimie Structurale, F-13397 Marseille (France); Charles, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.charles@univ-provence.fr [Universites Aix-Marseille I, II et III - CNRS, UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Spectrometries Appliquees a la Chimie Structurale, F-13397 Marseille (France)

    2009-11-03

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been combined to achieve the complete microstructural characterization of a poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMAA-PMMA) copolymer synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Various PMAA-PMMA species could be identified which mainly differ in terms of terminaisons. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR experiments revealed the structure of the end-groups as well as the proportion of each co-monomer in the copolymers. These end-group masses were further confirmed from m/z values of doubly charged copolymer anions detected in the single stage mass spectrum. In contrast, copolymer composition derived from MS data was not consistent with NMR results, obviously due to strong mass bias well known to occur during electrospray ionization of these polymeric species. Tandem mass spectrometry could reveal the random nature of the copolymer based on typical dissociation reactions, i.e., water elimination occurred from any two contiguous MAA units while MAA-MMA pairs gave rise to the loss of a methanol molecule. Polymer backbone cleavages were also observed to occur and gave low abundance fragment ions which allowed the structure of the initiating end-group to be confirmed.

  19. Ferritin and body mass index predict cardiac dysfunction in female adolescents with anorexia of the restrictive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docx, Martine K F; Weyler, Joost; Simons, Annik; Ramet, José; Mertens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    Decreased left ventricular mass index in anorexia nervosa is amply reported. The aim of this study is to identify non-burdensome predictors of reduced left yentricular mass/height (cLVM) in a cohort of adolescent restrictive anorexic girls. This is a retrospective study of all anorexic girls of the restrictive type referred to our tertiary eating disorder unit between September 2002 and December 2012, for somatic assessment of weig ht loss. All subjects fulfilled DMS-IV criteria, without a family history of cardiac or cardiovascular diseases. In all, 283 restrictive anorexic girls (age: 14.63 +/- 1.65 y; body mass index: 15.72 +/- 1.81 kg/m2) were included. Ferritin and body mass index were independent, statistically significant predictors of the corrected left ventricular mass (P anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type. Two factors predicted decreased cLVM in our population: ferritin and BMI.

  20. Preoperative Body Mass Index, Blood Albumin and Triglycerides Predict Survival for Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is common and its prognosis is often poor due to difficulties in early diagnosis and optimal treatment strategies. TNM staging system is useful in predicting prognosis but only possible after surgery. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate prognostic factors/markers that may predict prognosis before surgery by which helps appropriate management decisions preoperatively.A total of 320 GC patients were consecutively recruited from 2004 to 2013 and followed up for 127 months (10.6 years after surgery. These patients' were examined for body mass index (BMI and blood levels of albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to analyze long-term survival using the above potential risk markers. We first employed medians of these variables to reveal maximal potentials of the above prognostic predictors.Three major findings were obtained: (1 Preoperative BMI was positively correlated with albumin (r = 0.144, P<0.05 and triglyceride (r = 0.365, P<0.01, but negatively correlated with TNM staging (r = -0.265, P<0.05. Preoperative albumin levels were positively correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.173, P<0.05 but again, negatively correlated with TNM staging (r = -0.137, P<0.05; (2 Poor survival was observed in GC patients with lower levels of BMI (P = 0.028, albumin (P = 0.004, and triglyceride (P = 0.043, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses suggested BMI, albumin and triglyceride to have survival-predictor powers similar to TNM system; and (3 Cox multi-factorial analyses demonstrated that age (P = 0.049, BMI (P = 0.016, cell differentiation (P = 0.001, and TNM staging (P = 0.011 were independent overall survival-predictors for GC patients.Preoperative BMI, albumin, and triglyceride levels are capable of predicting survival for GC patients superior to postoperative TNM

  1. Adaptation of a glow discharge mass spectrometer in a glove-box for the analysis of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, M.; Rasmussen, G.; Hiernaut, T.; Koch, L.

    1994-01-01

    A VG9000 glow discharge mass spectrometer has been modified for the direct analysis of solid nuclear samples within a glove-box environment. Because containment is needed for the analysis of this kind of material, the glove-box encloses all parts of the instrument that come into contact with the sample, namely the ion source chamber, sample interlock and associated pumping system. External modifications eliminate outside contamination by the fitting of absolute filters on all source supplies. Internally the design of the ion source has been altered to minimize the number of operations performed inside the glove-box thereby simplifying operation and routine maintenance. These modifications retain the ion extraction and focusing properties of the instrument. The data presented show that there is no compromise in the analytical performance of the instrument when placed in the glove-box. Data representative of nuclear materials is also shown. (Author)

  2. Higgs mass prediction in the MSSM at three-loop level in a pure DR context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlander, Robert V.; Klappert, Jonas; Voigt, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    The impact of the three-loop effects of order α{sub t}α{sub s}{sup 2} on the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is studied in a pure DR context. For this purpose, we implement the results of Kant et al. (JHEP 08:104, 2010) into the C++ module Himalaya and link it to FlexibleSUSY, a Mathematica and C++ package to create spectrum generators for BSM models. The three-loop result is compared to the fixed-order two-loop calculations of the original FlexibleSUSY and of FeynHiggs, as well as to the result based on an EFT approach. Aside from the expected reduction of the renormalization scale dependence with respect to the lower-order results, we find that the three-loop contributions significantly reduce the difference from the EFT prediction in the TeV-region of the SUSY scale M{sub S}. Himalaya can be linked also to other two-loop DR codes, thus allowing for the elevation of these codes to the three-loop level. (orig.)

  3. Genetically predicted high body mass index is associated with increased gastric cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingying; Yan, Caiwang; Lu, Qun; Zhu, Meng; Yu, Fei; Wang, Cheng; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Jin, Guangfu

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked body mass index (BMI) with risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, for gastric cancer, the relationship is more controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the observed association is due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional observational studies. To investigate whether BMI is causally associated with gastric cancer risk, we applied Mendelian randomization using individual-level data from 2631 gastric cancer cases and 4373 cancer-free controls. We derived a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 37 BMI-associated genetic variants as an instrumental variable. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between genetically predicted BMI and gastric cancer risk. We observed that higher genetically determined BMI was associated with increased gastric cancer risk (per standard deviation (SD) increase in the wGRS: OR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13, P=4.94 × 10 -3 ). Compared with individuals in the bottom tertile of the BMI wGRS, those in the top tertile had 1.14-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.29) increased risk of developing gastric cancer. Sensitivity analyses using alternative causal inference measures demonstrated consistent association. Our study indicated that genetically high BMI was associated with increased gastric cancer risk, suggesting that high BMI may have a causal role in the etiology of gastric cancer.

  4. Predicting temperature drop rate of mass concrete during an initial cooling period using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Santosh; Zhou, Yihong; Zhao, Chunju; Zhou, Huawei

    2018-02-01

    Thermal cracking on concrete dams depends upon the rate at which the concrete is cooled (temperature drop rate per day) within an initial cooling period during the construction phase. Thus, in order to control the thermal cracking of such structure, temperature development due to heat of hydration of cement should be dropped at suitable rate. In this study, an attempt have been made to formulate the relation between cooling rate of mass concrete with passage of time (age of concrete) and water cooling parameters: flow rate and inlet temperature of cooling water. Data measured at summer season (April-August from 2009 to 2012) from recently constructed high concrete dam were used to derive a prediction model with the help of Genetic Programming (GP) software “Eureqa”. Coefficient of Determination (R) and Mean Square Error (MSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the model. The value of R and MSE is 0.8855 and 0.002961 respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the relative impact on the target parameter due to input parameters. Further, testing the proposed model with an independent dataset those not included during analysis, results obtained from the proposed GP model are close enough to the real field data.

  5. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  6. Predictive data-derived Bayesian statistic-transport model and simulator of sunken oil mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarria Gregory, Maria Angelica

    -processing tasks proper of a basic GIS-like software. The result is a predictive Bayesian multi-modal Gaussian model, SOSim (Sunken Oil Simulator) Version 1.0rcl, operational for use with limited, randomly-sampled, available subjective and numeric data on sunken oil concentrations and locations in relatively flat-bottomed bays. The SOSim model represents a new approach, coupling a Lagrangian modeling technique with predictive Bayesian capability for computing unconditional probabilities of mass as a function of space and time. The approach addresses the current need to rapidly deploy modeling capability without readily accessible information on ocean bottom currents. Contributions include (1) the development of the apparently first pollutant transport model for computing unconditional relative probabilities of pollutant location as a function of time based on limited available field data alone; (2) development of a numerical method of computing concentration profiles subject to curved, continuous or discontinuous boundary conditions; (3) development combinatorial algorithms to compute unconditional multimodal Gaussian probabilities not amenable to analytical or Markov-Chain Monte Carlo integration due to high dimensionality; and (4) the development of software modules, including a core module containing the developed Bayesian functions, a wrapping graphical user interface, a processing and operating interface, and the necessary programming components that lead to an open-source, stand-alone, executable computer application (SOSim -- Sunken Oil Simulator). Extensions and refinements are recommended, including the addition of capability for accepting available information on bathymetry and maybe bottom currents as Bayesian prior information, the creation of capability of modeling continuous oil releases, and the extension to tracking of suspended oil (3-D). Keywords: sunken oil, Bayesian, Gaussian, model, stochastic, emergency response, recovery, statistical model, multimodal.

  7. Predictability of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems; geological disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Diodato, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence in long-term geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires confidence in predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems. Prediction of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems is based on scientific understanding of those systems in the present - an understanding that can be tested with data from the past. Crystalline rock settings that have been geologically stable for millions of years and longer offer the potential of predictable, long-term waste isolation. Confidence in predictions of geologic isolation of radioactive waste can measured by evaluating the extent to which those predictions and their underlying analyses are consistent with multiple independent lines of evidence identified in the geologic system being analysed, as well as with evidence identified in analogs to that geologic system. The proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States, differs in significant ways from potential repository sites being considered by other nations. Nonetheless, observations of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems of Yucca Mountain and Yucca Mountain analogs present multiple independent lines of evidence that can be used in evaluating long-term predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  8. An automated delayed neutron counting system for mass determinations of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, M.T.; Kelly, D.G.; Corcoran, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting (DNC) system has been developed at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) to enhance nuclear forensics capabilities pertaining to special nuclear material analysis. The system utilises the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at RMC as a neutron source and 3 He detectors. System control and data acquisition occur through a LabVIEW platform. The time dependent count rate of the delayed neutron production has been examined for 235 U, using certified reference materials. Experimental validation according to ISO 17025 protocols suggests typical errors and precision of -3.6 and 3.1%, respectively, and a detection limit of 0.26 μg 235 U. (author)

  9. Using helium mass-spectrometer leak detector to detect the leak of vaporizer in Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoushe

    1990-09-01

    Using the helium mass-spectrometer leak detector to detect the leak of seams between the tube and face-flange and to measure the total leakage rate are introduced. Measures for improving the detective sensitivity are also discussed. The minimum detectable leakage rate for single tube welding seam was 10 -8 PaL/s and the minimum detectable leakage rate for the system was 10 -7 PaL/s. These results not only provide the reliable quality assurance for the vaporizer manufacturing of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant but also give the large pressure vessel manufacturers a good leak test method

  10. Predictions of dispersion and deposition of fallout from nuclear testing using the NOAA-HYSPLIT meteorological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Brian E; Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly where little historical fallout monitoring data are available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particle sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that, when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  11. New discovery: quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences and self-organization of atoms and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; )

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schroedinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principles which are not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔM = n 1 /n 2 ·0.0076294 (in MeV/ ), n i =1,.2,3... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research field can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste

  12. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...

  13. Interactions between MAOA Genotype and Receipt of Public Assistance: Predicting Change in Depressive Symptoms and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Hart, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Response to stress is determined in part by genetically influenced regulation of the monoamine system (MAOA). We examined the interaction of a stressor (receipt of public assistance) and a gene regulating MAOA in the prediction of change in adolescent depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI). Participants were drawn from the National…

  14. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T; Heinemeyer, S; Hollik, W; Rzehak, H; Weiglein, G

    2014-04-11

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realized in the standard model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, Mh, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for Mh in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FEYNHIGGS.

  15. Reward circuitry responsivity to food predicts future increases in body mass: moderating effects of DRD2 and DRD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Marti, Nate; Smolen, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether responsivity of reward circuitry to food predicts future increases in body mass and whether polymorphisms in DRD2 and DRD4 moderate these relations. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm investigated blood oxygen level dependent activation in response to imagined intake of palatable foods, unpalatable foods, and glasses of water shown in pictures. DNA was extracted from saliva samples using standard salting-out and solvent precipitation methods. Forty-four adolescent female high school students ranging from lean to obese. Future increases in body mass index (BMI). Weaker activation of the frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum in response to imagined intake of palatable foods, versus imagined intake of unpalatable foods or water, predicted future increases in body mass for those with the DRD2 TaqIA A1 allele or the DRD4-7R allele. Data also suggest that for those lacking these alleles, greater responsivity of these food reward regions predicted future increases in body mass. This novel prospective fMRI study indicates that responsivity of reward circuitry to food increases risk for future weight gain, but that genes that impact dopamine signaling capacity moderate the predictive effects, suggesting two qualitatively distinct pathways to unhealthy weight gain based on genetic risk. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of Nuclear Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    the natural background. Except in regions contaminated by nuclear accidents , such as Chernobyl, or by an occasional lost medical or industrial radiation...Measurements of a Fast Neutron Radiotherapy Beam, in Physics in Medicine and Biology, Volume 21, Issue 4, 1976. 24 Gary W. Phillips, David J. Nagel, and

  17. The mass media role in acceptance activities of Slovak Republic's Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, Mojmir

    1998-01-01

    Communication is the vital link between Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the public. If people do not know and understand the facts on which optimal a safety energy choice decisions should be based they cannot make informed decisions on how their own objectives can be met. The following ten commandments of communications are pointed out: be yourself; be comfortable and confident; be honest; be brief; be human; be personal; be positive and consistent; be attentive; be energetic; be committed and sincere. The important aspect is to test whether the nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic is acceptable according to mandatory rules and if its operation is regulated by the state through the independent institution - the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). The media in Slovakia has on important power. Many organizations are therefore apprehensive when dealing with the press, radio and television. Many people would simply prefer not to get panicked when the dreaded microphones and cameras do appear. UJD considers the whole area of public relations as an essential component of its activity. UJD intends to offer the public true, systematic, qualified, understandable and independent information, regarding the safety of nuclear power plants, as well as regarding the methods and results of UJD work. Generally, public information is considered a significant contribution to the creation of confidence into the regulatory work. The paper presents the UJD communication program and relations with media as well as the preparedness of public information in case of emergency

  18. Nuclear triaxiality in the A ∼ 160–170 mass region: the story so far

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... 1Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Department of Physics ... last one and a half-decades. Although wobbling motion of nuclei was experimentally ... odd i13/2 proton contributes in lowering the wobbling frequency/energy in these nuclei. As a result of this ...

  19. Development and validation of a CFD model predicting the backfill process of a nuclear waste gallery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopala, Vinay Ramohalli; Lycklama a Nijeholt, Jan-Aiso; Bakker, Paul; Haverkate, Benno

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This work presents the CFD simulation of the backfill process of Supercontainers with nuclear waste emplaced in a disposal gallery. → The cement-based material used for backfill is grout and the flow of grout is modelled as a Bingham fluid. → The model is verified against an analytical solution and validated against the flowability tests for concrete. → Comparison between backfill plexiglas experiment and simulation shows a distinct difference in the filling pattern. → The numerical model needs to be further developed to include segregation effects and thixotropic behavior of grout. - Abstract: Nuclear waste material may be stored in underground tunnels for long term storage. The example treated in this article is based on the current Belgian disposal concept for High-Level Waste (HLW), in which the nuclear waste material is packed in concrete shielded packages, called Supercontainers, which are inserted into these tunnels. After placement of the packages in the underground tunnels, the remaining voids between the packages and the tunnel lining is filled-up with a cement-based material called grout in order to encase the stored containers into the underground spacing. This encasement of the stored containers inside the tunnels is known as the backfill process. A good backfill process is necessary to stabilize the waste gallery against ground settlements. A numerical model to simulate the backfill process can help to improve and optimize the process by ensuring a homogeneous filling with no air voids and also optimization of the injection positions to achieve a homogeneous filling. The objective of the present work is to develop such a numerical code that can predict the backfill process well and validate the model against the available experiments and analytical solutions. In the present work the rheology of Grout is modelled as a Bingham fluid which is implemented in OpenFOAM - a finite volume-based open source computational fluid

  20. Mass extraction rates of radionuclides in fallout material from a 170-kt nuclear crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, E.H.

    1969-01-01

    The quantity k is defined as the fraction of a nuclide in the environment which must be ingested each day over a given time period to receive a maximum allowable dose, in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines. Values of k were computed for radionuclides produced in a single cratering detonation using current design technology. A new concept, called the 'Mass Extraction Rate,' is presented. This concept is defined as the mass of earth material from which the entire quantity of the radionuclide must be extracted and ingested each day by some natural process over a given time interval, which results in a permissible dose. Mass Extraction Rate values are tabulated. A comparison is made between the Mass Extraction Rate and the specific activity methods. (author)

  1. Direct Energy Conversion for Nuclear Propulsion at Low Specific Mass Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low specific mass (< 3  kg/kW) in-space electric power and propulsion can drastically alter the paradigm for exploration of the Solar System, changing human...

  2. The predicted luminous satellite populations around SMC- and LMC-mass galaxies - a missing satellite problem around the LMC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Frebel, Anna; Bechtol, Keith; Willman, Beth

    2017-11-01

    Recent discovery of many dwarf satellite galaxies in the direction of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) provokes questions of their origins, and what they can reveal about galaxy evolution theory. Here, we predict the satellite stellar mass function of Magellanic Cloud-mass host galaxies using abundance matching and reionization models applied to the Caterpillar simulations. Specifically focusing on the volume within 50 kpc of the LMC, we predict a mean of four to eight satellites with stellar mass M* > 104 M⊙, and three to four satellites with 80 105 M⊙ (M* > 104 M⊙) within the virial volume of each, and 1-3 (1-7) within a single 1.5° diameter field of view, making their discovery likely.

  3. Artificial neural network and response surface methodology modeling in mass transfer parameters predictions during osmotic dehydration of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prakash Maran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN and response surface methodology (RSM to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, standard error of prediction (SEP, model predictive error (MPE, chi square statistic (χ2, and coefficient of determination (R2 based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model.

  4. Prediction of Long Term Corrosion Behaviour in Nuclear Waste Systems. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Cadarache, France, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, Damien; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2003-01-01

    This 36. book of the European Federation of Corrosion series contains the proceedings of the International Workshop on 'Prediction of Long Term Corrosion Behaviour in Nuclear Waste Systems' that took place in Cadarache, France in November 2001. The EFC Working Party on Nuclear Corrosion, which sponsored this Workshop, had already considered in 1991 that the long term integrity of Radioactive Waste storage was a crucial problem in the development of nuclear energy for electricity production. At that time, it was realized that public opinion on Nuclear Energy, was concerned not only with the risk of a nuclear accidents but also with the safety of long term storage of high level nuclear wastes. The nuclear community and the public demanded that any technical barrier for preventing long term radionuclides from entering the biosphere should be effective and guaranteed for 10,000 or more. The integrity of the waste containers, particularly their resistance to possible internal and external corrosion, is the most important aspect of this requirement. For the last ten years, the importance of programmes on long term corrosion on nuclear waste canisters has become of major significance to the international community. The Cadarache Workshop included reports on these programmes from eight countries. These approached the long term corrosion tests, but also by the development of the necessary deterministic and empirical models for extrapolating the behaviour of the selected materials. The difficulties involved in developing such models of corrosion behaviour and in demonstrating their validity has been underlined many times. The Proceedings contains in all an Introduction by Professor G. Beranger and 33 papers grouped in four parts as follows: 1 - R and D corrosion programmes (5 papers); 2 - Laboratory and in situ testing (11 papers); 3 - Historical and archaeological analogues (5 papers); and 4 - Fundamental issues, models and prediction

  5. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  6. Prediction of the light CP-even Higgs-boson mass of the MSSM. Towards the ILC precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, T.; Hollik, W.; Rzehak, H.

    2014-04-01

    The signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC can be interpreted as the Higgs boson of the Standard Model as well as the light CP-even Higgs boson of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this context the measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role. This precision can be improved substantially below the level of ∝50 MeV at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). Within the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, M h , can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should match the one of the experimental measurements. The relatively high experimentally observed value of the mass of about 125.6 GeV has led to many investigations where the supersymmetric (SUSY) partners of the top quark have masses in the multi-TeV range. We review the recent improvements for the prediction for M h in the MSSM for large scalar top masses. They were obtained by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. However, substantial further improvements will be needed to reach the ILC precision. The newly obtained corrections to M h are included into the code FeynHiggs.

  7. On-line mass spectrometry measurement of fission gas release from nuclear fuel submitted to thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigues, E.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Pontillon, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The work presented in this paper has been performed in the framework of a joint research program between Aix-Marseille University and CEA Cadarache. The aim is to develop a mass spectrometer (MS) device for the MERARG facility. MERARG is devoted to the study of fission gas release measurement, from nuclear fuels submitted to annealing tests in high activity laboratory such as LECA-STAR, thanks to gamma spectrometry. The mass spectrometer will then extend the measurement capability from the γ-emitters gases to all the gases involved in the release in order to have a better understanding of the fission gas release dynamics from fuel during thermal transients. Furthermore, the mass spectrometer instrument combines the capabilities and performances of both on-line (for release kinetic) and off-line implementations (for delayed accurate analysis of capacities containing total release gas). The paper deals with two main axes: (1) the modelling of gas sampling inlet device and its performance and (2) the first MS qualification/calibration results. The inlet device samples the gas and also adapts the pressure between MERARG sweeping line at 1.2 bar and mass spectrometer chamber at high vacuum. It is a two-stage device comprising a capillary at inlet, an intermediate vacuum chamber, a molecular leak inlet and a two-stage pumping device. Pressure drops, conductance and throughputs are estimated both for mass spectrometer operation and for exhaust gas recovery. Possible gas segregation is also estimated and device modification is proposed to attain a more accurate calibration. First experimental results obtained from a standard gas bottle show that the quantitative analysis at a few ppm level can be achieved for all isotopes of Kr and Xe, as well as masses 2 and 4 u. (authors)

  8. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  9. Body Mass Index z-Scores and Weight Status Predict Conduct Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether baseline body mass index (BMI) z-scores and weight status predicted conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in 368 adolescents (15-17 years). Participants in the 10th and 11th grades completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up. Baseline BMI z-scores and weight status were derived from self-reports of height and weight. CD symptoms were assessed using a symptom checklist. Covariates included baseline demographics, depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, drug use, and a retrospective report of CD symptoms before age 15 years. A cubic association was observed between baseline BMI z-scores and follow-up CD symptoms (p = .047), such that a positive association emerged only among adolescents with BMI z-scores of greater than ∼1.5. Adolescents who were obese at baseline reported more follow-up CD symptoms than nonoverweight adolescents (p = .008). Higher baseline BMI z-scores were associated with increased odds of endorsing probable CD at follow-up (p's < .03). Obese adolescents were more likely to report the presence of probable CD at follow-up than overweight and nonoverweight adolescents (p's ≤ .01). Findings suggest that nutritional status, particularly high BMI z-scores and obese weight status, may contribute to elevated CD symptoms during adolescence, which should be dually addressed in screening and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BIODOSE: a code for predicting the dose to man from radionuclides released from underground nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, N.A.; Ng, Y.C.

    1980-03-01

    The BIODOSE computer program simulates the environmental transport of radionuclides released to surface water and predicts the resulting dosage to humans. This report describes the program and discusses its use in the evaluation of nuclear waste repositories. The methods used to estimate dose are examined critically, and the most important parameters in each stage of the calculations are identified as an aid in planning for measurements in the field. Dose predictions from releases of nuclear waste to a large northwestern river (the baseline river) are presented to point out the nuclides, compartments and pathways that contribute most to the hazard as a function of waste storage time. Predictions for five other water systems are presented to identify the most important system parameters that determine the concentrations of individual nuclides in compartments and the resultant dose. The uncertainties in the biological parameters for dose prediction are identified, and changes in current values are suggested. Various ways of reporting dose estimates for radiological safety assessments are discussed. Additional work needed to improve the dose predictions from BIODOSE and specific areas and steps to improve our capabilities to assess the environmental transport of nuclides released from nuclear waste repositories and the resultant dose to man are suggested

  11. Validation for application of the Monte Carlo simulation code for 235U mass content verification for large size samples of nuclear materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. El Tahawy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new semi- absolute non-destructive assay technique has been developed to verify the mass content of 235U in the large sizes nuclear material samples of different enrichment through combination of experimental measurements and Mont Carlo calculations (version MCNP5. A good agreement was found between the calculated and declared values of the mass content of 235U of uranium oxide (UO2 samples. The results obtained from Mont Carlo calculations showed that the semi-absolute technique can be used with sufficient reliability to verify the uranium mass content in the large sizes nuclear material samples of different enrichment.

  12. Radiation Dose Prediction Using Data on Time to Emesis in the Case of Nuclear Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Eugene; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous statistical analysis of the retrospective estimation of radiation dose received using time to emesis and its uncertainty is provided based on 108 observations associated with accidents with significant exposures to ionizing radiation in the period 1956–2001. The standard error, confidence interval, specificity and sensitivity, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve are used to characterize the uncertainty of the dose prediction. The relative error of the dose prediction using time to emesis data is about 200%. Consequently, if D is the dose assessment, the 95% confidence interval is approximately (D/4, 4D). Our assessment of the precision is applied to computation of the probabilities in triage medical management in the case of a nuclear terrorism event. We also note several factors that indicate that there are additional problems in the use of time to emesis for triage, including a lack of consideration of individuals that do not vomit, differences between the conditions under which the data were obtained and the conditions under which they are likely to be used, and the potential for the incidence of vomiting to be altered by factors unrelated to radiation exposure such as psychogenic factors and the use of emetic agents. In summary, while time to emesis is a rapid and inexpensive method for estimating the radiation dose, it should be used with caution because it is imprecise and may lead to a very high false positive rate. More reliable methods for after-the-fact assessment of radiation dose are needed to complement the use of time to emesis. PMID:19267558

  13. Application of integral methods to prediction of heat transfer from a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesch, C J; Kulacki, F A; Christensen, R N

    1983-10-01

    Integral methods have been developed and applied to the prediction of the far field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the heat balance integral has been applied to a semi-infinite layered domain in which a limited number of sublayers form the repository overburden, and the repository is represented by an infinite plane beneath either one or two sublayers. Calculations for PWR spent fuel with an initial areal thermal loading of 60 kW/acre are carried out for various stratigraphies and overburden compositions. Results of the analyses are temperature distributions and heat fluxes to the surface as a function to time. Based on this study, the thermophysical properties of the individual layers are identified as the most important influence on temperature distributions and maximum temperature rise at any position above the repository. The thicknesses of the sublayers play a secondary role for a given rock composition. Where a comparison to exact or numerical solutions is possible, the method predicts maximum temperature increases in the overburden to within 10 percent. Heat fluxes to the surface are found to be relatively insensitive to overburden composition. For dome salt, a maximum of 1.2 percent to 2.7 percent of the initial areal thermal power of a five-term source reaches the surface. For bedded salt, a maximum of 1 percent to 1.8 percent of the initial areal thermal power reaches the surface over a wide range of sublayer compositions. Similarly, low percentages of initial areal thermal power reach the surface for the other stratigraphies considered in the calculations.

  14. Development of a software for predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lijuan; Chen Bo; Zhuo Weihai; Lu Shuyu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new software system that can directly display the predicted results on an electronic map, in order to get a directly perceived understanding of the affected areas of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. Methods: Three scenarios of events including spreading radioactive materials, dirty bomb attack, and explosion or arson attacks on the radiation facilities were assumed. Gaussian diffusion model was employed to predict the spread and deposition of radioactive pollutants, and both the internal and external doses were estimated for the representative person by using the corresponding dose conversion factors. Through integration of the computing system and Mapinfo geographic information system (GIS), the predicted results were visually displayed on the electronic maps of a city. Results: The new software system could visually display the predicted results on the electronic map of a city, and the predicted results were consistent with those calculated by the similar software Hotspot®. The deviation between this system and Hotspot was less than 0.2 km for predicted isoplethic curves of dose rate downwind. Conclusions: The newly developed software system is of the practical value in predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. (authors)

  15. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  16. Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to small-bodied hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher S; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Sridhar, Shilpa; Cameron, Noël; Churchill, Steven E

    2018-02-01

    Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of several published morphometric prediction equations when applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of modern human juveniles likely differ from those of small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful model for assessing the robustness of morphometric prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older groups, which fall in the body size range of adult Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes in these body proportions likely influence the shift in prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However, because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied hominins

  17. Nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    David Waller and Alan McDonald ask whether a nuclear renaissance can be predicted; Judith M. Greenwald discusses keeping the nuclear power option open; Paul Mobbs considers the availability of uranium and the future of nuclear energy.

  18. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  19. A quality control method for nuclear instrumentation and control systems based on software safety prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2000-04-01

    In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control (NI&C), safety-oriented quality control is required. The objective of this paper is to present a software safety classification method as a safety-oriented quality control tool. Based on this method, we predict the risk (and thus safety) of software items that are at the core of NI&C systems. Then we classify the software items according to the degree of the risk. The method can be used earlier than at the detailed design phase. Furthermore, the method can also be used in all the development phases without major changes. The proposed method seeks to utilize the measures that can be obtained from the safety analysis and requirements analysis. Using the measures proved to be desirable in a few aspects. The authors have introduced fuzzy approximate reasoning to the classification method because experts' knowledge covers the vague frontiers between good quality and bad quality with linguistic uncertainty and fuzziness. Fuzzy Colored Petri Net (FCPN) is introduced in order to offer a formal framework for the classification method and facilitate the knowledge representation, modification, or verification. Through the proposed quality control method, high-quality NI&C systems can be developed effectively and used safely.

  20. Prediction of heavy section performance of nuclear vessel steels from surveillance size specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Landes, J.D.; Ernst, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    Transition temperature behavior and fracture mechanics are coupled disciplines that are used by ASME to assess the integrity of nuclear vessels. The basis of design is a curve which is subtends a scatter band of transition temperature type data available on A508 and A533B vessel steels. The scatter of results can be due to material toughness variations and due to uncontrolled dimensional variables in test specimens. This paper considers both aspects and suggests rationale for data description. The fracture toughness behavior in the transition range is characterized by ductile crack propagation followed by a instability event with an unstable running cleavage crack. Prior to instability, the ductile tear properties is unaffected by test temperature and constraint variations created with varied specimen thicknesses. The onset of instability is sensitive to both variables mentioned. Thickness is the dominant dimensional variable that affects the transition temperature, remaining ligament size and thickness to ligament size ratio are weak second dimensional variables. The variability of instability in the transition range is also a natural consequence of material inhomogeneity. Hence it is possible to apply Weibull statistics to define a population of data results and extremal statistics can be used to predict specimen size effects on transition temperature behavior. (orig./HP)

  1. Predicting the effects of microbial activity on the corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers may occur in a disposal vault located 500-1000 m underground in the granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The extent and diversity of microbial activity in the vault is expected to be limited initially because of the aggressive conditions produced by γ-radiation, elevated temperatures and desiccation of the clay-based buffer in which the containers will be embedded. Experimental results on the heat- and radiation-sensitivity of the natural microbiota in buffer material are presented. The data suggest that the low water activity in the buffer material will severely limit the growth of microbes near the container. The most likely form of MIC involves sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Electrochemical experiments using a clay-covered copper electrode have shown that sulphide ions produced by SRB could diffuse through buffer material and induce corrosion of the container. A method to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour is presented. (author)

  2. Experience and benefits from using the EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Methodology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.; Damerell, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    The EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Methodology (PPM) is an effective tool for evaluating design basis thrust and torque requirements for MOVs. Use of the PPM has become more widespread in US nuclear power plants as they close out their Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 programs and address MOV periodic verification per GL 96-05. The PPM has also been used at plants outside the US, many of which are implementing programs similar to US plants' GL 89-10 programs. The USNRC Safety Evaluation of the PPM and the USNRC's discussion of the PPM in GL 96-05 make the PPM an attractive alternative to differential pressure (DP) testing, which can be costly and time-consuming. Significant experience and benefits, which are summarized in this paper, have been gained using the PPM. Although use of PPM requires a commitment of resources, the benefits of a solidly justified approach and a reduced need for DP testing provide a substantial safety and economic benefit. (author)

  3. Silicon isotope ratio measurements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Ducasse, Thomas; Barker, Evelyne; Jollivet, Patrick; Gin, Stéphane; Bassot, Sylvain; Cazala, Charlotte

    2017-02-15

    High-level, long-lived nuclear waste arising from spent fuel reprocessing is vitrified in silicate glasses for final disposal in deep geologic formations. In order to better understand the mechanisms driving glass dissolution, glass alteration studies, based on silicon isotope ratio monitoring of 29 Si-doped aqueous solutions, were carried out in laboratories. This work explores the capabilities of the new type of quadrupole-based ICP-MS, the Agilent 8800 tandem quadrupole ICP-MS/MS, for accurate silicon isotope ratio determination for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses. In order to avoid silicon polyatomic interferences, a new analytical method was developed using O 2 as the reaction gas in the Octopole Reaction System (ORS), and silicon isotopes were measured in mass-shift mode. A careful analysis of the potential polyatomic interferences on SiO + and SiO 2 + ion species was performed, and we found that SiO + ion species suffer from important polyatomic interferences coming from the matrix of sample and standard solutions (0.5M HNO 3 ). For SiO 2 + , no interferences were detected, and thus, these ion species were chosen for silicon isotope ratio determination. A number of key settings for accurate isotope ratio analysis like, detector dead time, integration time, number of sweeps, wait time offset, memory blank and instrumental mass fractionation, were considered and optimized. Particular attention was paid to the optimization of abundance sensitivity of the quadrupole mass filter before the ORS. We showed that poor abundance sensitivity leads to a significant shift of the data away from the Exponential Mass Fractionation Law (EMFL) due to the spectral overlaps of silicon isotopes combined with different oxygen isotopes (i.e. 28 Si 16 O 18 O + , 30 Si 16 O 16 O + ). The developed method was validated by measuring a series of reference solutions with different 29 Si enrichment. Isotope ratio trueness, uncertainty and repeatability were found to be

  4. Silicon isotope ratio measurements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis, E-mail: alkiviadis.gourgiotis@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SRTG/LT2S, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ducasse, Thomas [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Barker, Evelyne [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SRTG/LT2S, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Jollivet, Patrick; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bassot, Sylvain; Cazala, Charlotte [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SRTG/LT2S, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2017-02-15

    High-level, long-lived nuclear waste arising from spent fuel reprocessing is vitrified in silicate glasses for final disposal in deep geologic formations. In order to better understand the mechanisms driving glass dissolution, glass alteration studies, based on silicon isotope ratio monitoring of {sup 29}Si-doped aqueous solutions, were carried out in laboratories. This work explores the capabilities of the new type of quadrupole-based ICP-MS, the Agilent 8800 tandem quadrupole ICP-MS/MS, for accurate silicon isotope ratio determination for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses. In order to avoid silicon polyatomic interferences, a new analytical method was developed using O{sub 2} as the reaction gas in the Octopole Reaction System (ORS), and silicon isotopes were measured in mass-shift mode. A careful analysis of the potential polyatomic interferences on SiO{sup +} and SiO{sub 2}{sup +} ion species was performed, and we found that SiO{sup +} ion species suffer from important polyatomic interferences coming from the matrix of sample and standard solutions (0.5M HNO{sub 3}). For SiO{sub 2}{sup +}, no interferences were detected, and thus, these ion species were chosen for silicon isotope ratio determination. A number of key settings for accurate isotope ratio analysis like, detector dead time, integration time, number of sweeps, wait time offset, memory blank and instrumental mass fractionation, were considered and optimized. Particular attention was paid to the optimization of abundance sensitivity of the quadrupole mass filter before the ORS. We showed that poor abundance sensitivity leads to a significant shift of the data away from the Exponential Mass Fractionation Law (EMFL) due to the spectral overlaps of silicon isotopes combined with different oxygen isotopes (i.e. {sup 28}Si{sup 16}O{sup 18}O{sup +}, {sup 30}Si{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup +}). The developed method was validated by measuring a series of reference solutions with different {sup 29}Si

  5. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  6. Comparison of nuclear safety research reactor (TRIGA-ACPR) performance with analytical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.; Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The NSRR was taken critical on June 30, 1975 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute - Tokai-mura, Japan. Following initial core loading and control rod calibration, a series of pulsing tests was performed to characterize the performance of the reactor. A comparison has been made of performance parameters actually measured in the 157 element core versus predicted values based upon design analyses. The nuclear parameters measured were quite close to prediction. A $4.70 pulse produced a minimum period of 1.12 msec, a peak power of 20,500 MW and yielded a prompt energy release of 103 MW-sec. Pulse tests with experimental UO 2 fuel pins in the central irradiation cavity have produced 320 cal/gm, averaged at the axial center of 10% enriched UO 2 , for a 100 MW-sec pulse. The pulse rods for the NSRR contain B 4 C enriched to about 93 percent in Boron-10 in order to achieve maximum design performance with only three pulse rods. The total worth for the three transient rods was measured to be about $5.05 (vs $5.07 calculated for the 165 element core), thus verifying the effectiveness of the Boron-10 enrichment to achieve the desired result. Analysis of fuel temperature measurements made in the NSRR show that, for fuel temperatures produced during pulsing greater than 900 deg. C, heat transfer in the 0.010-inch gap between fuel and clad is enhanced by the minor outgassing of hydrogen which is characteristic of that temperature region. The hydrogen is normally all reabsorbed within about 100 sec of maximum temperature, at which time the heat transfer is characteristic of air (or argon) in the gap. In some of the temperature-instrumented elements, however, all of the hydrogen was not reabsorbed and as a result these elements gave significantly lower temperatures for high power steady state operation than were recorded prior to pulsing. In general, the NSRR parameters measured during startup were quite close to analytical prediction and the overall performance of the

  7. Does Explosive Nuclear Burning Occur in Tidal Disruption Events of White Dwarfs by Intermediate-mass Black Holes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Sato, Yushi; Hachisu, Izumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakasato, Naohito, E-mail: tanikawa@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Tsuruga Ikki-machi Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    We investigate nucleosynthesis in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate-mass black holes. We consider various types of WDs with different masses and compositions by means of three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. We model these WDs with different numbers of SPH particles, N , from a few 10{sup 4} to a few 10{sup 7} in order to check mass resolution convergence, where SPH simulations with N > 10{sup 7} (or a space resolution of several 10{sup 6} cm) have unprecedentedly high resolution in this kind of simulation. We find that nuclear reactions become less active with increasing N and that these nuclear reactions are excited by spurious heating due to low resolution. Moreover, we find no shock wave generation. In order to investigate the reason for the absence of a shock wave, we additionally perform one-dimensional (1D) SPH and mesh-based simulations with a space resolution ranging from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm, using a characteristic flow structure extracted from the 3D SPH simulations. We find shock waves in these 1D high-resolution simulations, one of which triggers a detonation wave. However, we must be careful of the fact that, if the shock wave emerged in an outer region, it could not trigger the detonation wave due to low density. Note that the 1D initial conditions lack accuracy to precisely determine where a shock wave emerges. We need to perform 3D simulations with ≲10{sup 6} cm space resolution in order to conclude that WD TDEs become optical transients powered by radioactive nuclei.

  8. State-Space Model Predictive Control Method for Core Power Control in Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Guoxu Wang; Jie Wu; Bifan Zeng; Zhibin Xu; Wanqiang Wu; Xiaoqian Ma

    2017-01-01

    A well-performed core power control to track load changes is crucial in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power stations. It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands for the safety demands of the PWR due to the sensitivity of nuclear reactors. In this paper, a state-space model predictive control (MPC) method was applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reacto...

  9. Development of prediction models for radioactive caesium distribution within the 80-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae; Sato, Satoshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary prediction models have been studied for the radioactive caesium distribution within the 80-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The models were represented by exponential functions using ecological half-life of radioactive caesium in the environment. The ecological half-lives were derived from the changes in ambient dose equivalent rates through vehicle-borne surveys. It was found that the ecological half-lives of radioactive caesium were not constant within the 80-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The ecological half-life of radioactive caesium in forest areas was found to be much larger than that in urban and water areas. (authors)

  10. Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up using mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.; Bagyalakshmi, R.; Periaswami, G.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Chitambar, S.A.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Determination of burn-up using a stable fission product monitor such as 148 Nd and heavy elements, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry gives the most accurate data. This report describes the work carried out to standardise the conditions for burn-up determination. Some typical results are given. (author)

  11. Nuclear triaxiality in the A∼ 160–170 mass region: the story so far

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... In A\\tilde A\\tilde 170 mass region, the ambiguity over the real character of certain strongly deformed bands has recently been removed by extensive experimental and theoretical efforts, and the bands have now been firmly established as either enhanced deformed (ED) or superdeformed (SD).

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future reference

  14. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry for nuclear material accountability measurements: dreams and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deron, S.; )

    1996-01-01

    Gravimetry, titration, coulometry and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are alternative techniques which can be used to obtain elemental assays of the desirable accuracy. The communication briefly describes the characteristics of the procedure and summarizes a wealth of experience accumulated during actual accountability verification activities

  15. Spark ignition engine control: estimation and prediction of the in-cylinder mass and chemical species; Controle moteur a allumage commande: estimation / prediction de la masse et de la composition du melange enferme dans le cylindre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansetti, P.

    2005-09-15

    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue regarding compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. The objective of this thesis was to estimate the mass and composition of gases inside the cylinder of an engine based on physics in order to insure better control of transient phases taking into account residual gases as well as exhaust gas recirculation. Residual gas fraction has been characterized using two experiments and one CFD code. A model has been validated experimentally and integrated into an observer which predicts pressure and temperature inside the manifold. The predictions of the different gas flows and the chemical species inside the cylinder are deduced. A closed loop observer has been validated experimentally and in simulation. Moreover, an algorithm estimating the fresh and burned gas mass from the cylinder pressure has been proposed in order to obtain the information cycle by cycle and cylinder by cylinder. (author)

  16. Standard coupling unification in SO(10), hybrid seesaw neutrino mass and leptogenesis, dark matter, and proton lifetime predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, M.K.; Nayak, Bidyut Prava; Satpathy, Rajesh [Centre of Excellence in Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University,Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Awasthi, Ram Lal [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Manauli 140306 (India)

    2017-04-12

    We discuss gauge coupling unification of SU(3){sub C}×SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} descending directly from non-supersymmetric SO(10) while providing solutions to the three outstanding problems of the standard model: neutrino masses, dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the universe. Conservation of matter parity as gauged discrete symmetry for the stability and identification of dark matter in the model calls for high-scale spontaneous symmetry breaking through 126{sub H} Higgs representation. This naturally leads to the hybrid seesaw formula for neutrino masses mediated by heavy scalar triplet and right-handed neutrinos. Being quadratic in the Majorana coupling, the seesaw formula predicts two distinct patterns of right-handed neutrino masses, one hierarchical and another not so hierarchical (or compact), when fitted with the neutrino oscillation data. Predictions of the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis are investigated through the decays of both the patterns of RHν masses. A complete flavor analysis has been carried out to compute CP-asymmetries including washouts and solutions to Boltzmann equations have been utilised to predict the baryon asymmetry. The additional contribution to vertex correction mediated by the heavy left-handed triplet scalar is noted to contribute as dominantly as other Feynman diagrams. We have found successful predictions of the baryon asymmetry for both the patterns of right-handed neutrino masses. The SU(2){sub L} triplet fermionic dark matter at the TeV scale carrying even matter parity is naturally embedded into the non-standard fermionic representation 45{sub F} of SO(10). In addition to the triplet scalar and the triplet fermion, the model needs a nonstandard color octet fermion of mass ∼5×10{sup 7} GeV to achieve precision gauge coupling unification at the GUT mass scale M{sub U}{sup 0}=10{sup 15.56} GeV. Threshold corrections due to superheavy components of 126{sub H} and other representations are estimated and found to be

  17. Numerical prediction of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel rod bundles with advanced three-fluid multidimensional porous media based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran Stosic; Vladimir Stevanovic

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The modern design of nuclear fuel rod bundles for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is characterised with increased number of rods in the bundle, introduced part-length fuel rods and a water channel positioned along the bundle asymmetrically in regard to the centre of the bundle cross section. Such design causes significant spatial differences of volumetric heat flux, steam void fraction distribution, mass flux rate and other thermal-hydraulic parameters important for efficient cooling of nuclear fuel rods during normal steady-state and transient conditions. The prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) under these complex thermal-hydraulic conditions is of the prime importance for the safe and economic BWR operation. An efficient numerical method for the CHF prediction is developed based on the porous medium concept and multi-fluid two-phase flow models. Fuel rod bundle is observed as a porous medium with a two-phase flow through it. Coolant flow from the bundle entrance to the exit is characterised with the subsequent change of one-phase and several two-phase flow patterns. One fluid (one-phase) model is used for the prediction of liquid heating up in the bundle entrance region. Two-fluid modelling approach is applied to the bubbly and churn-turbulent vapour and liquid flows. Three-fluid modelling approach is applied to the annular flow pattern: liquid film on the rods wall, steam flow and droplets entrained in the steam stream. Every fluid stream in applied multi-fluid models is described with the mass, momentum and energy balance equations. Closure laws for the prediction of interfacial transfer processes are stated with the special emphasis on the prediction of the steam-water interface drag force, through the interface drag coefficient, and droplets entrainment and deposition rates for three-fluid annular flow model. The model implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. A new mechanistic approach for the CHF prediction

  18. Predicting Grief Reactions One Year Following a Mass University Shooting: Evaluating Dose-Response and Contextual Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Layne, Christopher M; Coyle, Patrick; Kaplow, Julie B; Brymer, Melissa J; Pynoos, Robert S; Jones, Russell T

    2017-12-01

    This study identifies risk factors for grief following a mass school shooting. Participants (N = 1,013) completed online questionnaires 3-4 months (Time 1) and 1 year (Time 2) post-shootings. We tested models predicting Time 2 grief reactions, exploring direct and indirect predictive effects of exposure variables (physical and social proximity) through hypothesized peritraumatic mediators (peritraumatic perceived threat to self or others) while controlling for Time 1 grief and posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions, pretrauma vulnerabilities. Findings demonstrate that closer social proximity predicted higher levels of Time 2 grief, directly and indirectly through increasing peritraumatic perceived threat to others' safety. Physical proximity and peritraumatic threat to self did not predict Time 2 grief reactions. Implications for grief screening instruments and theory building research through identifying risk factors and causal mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Simulations research of the global predictive control with self-adaptive in the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jie; Xia Guoqing; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For further improving the dynamic control capabilities of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant, this paper puts forward to apply the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive in the rotate speed control of the gas turbine, including control structure and the design of controller in the base of expounding the math model of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant. the simulation results show that the respond of the change of the gas turbine speed under the control algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive is ten second faster than that under the PID control algorithm, and the output value of the gas turbine speed under the PID control algorithm is 1%-2% higher than that under the control slgorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive. It shows that the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive can better control the output of the speed of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant and get the better control effect. (authors)

  20. Modeling of Plutonium Ionization Probabilities for Use in Nuclear Forensic Analysis by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    and identifying sources of smuggled nuclear material; however, it may also be used to determine a material’s origin in analysis of post detonation...RIMS analysis . Within this equation from [10], the desired cross section for ionization is contained. 21 U ion A ex N e N σ ω −  = −     18... analysis : 21 U ion A ex N e N σ ω −  = −     After the curve fitting was complete, the ionization probability model was executed and the results

  1. Accurate determination of 41Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long‐Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 41 Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). 41 Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF 2 precipitations. Measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The 41 Ca/ 60 Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 41 Ca in spent resins using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. • A chemical treatment procedure was developed to quantitatively recover calcium in solution and selectively extract it. • Developed firstly on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • Accelerator mass spectrometry allowed measuring concentrations of 41 Ca in spent resins as low as 0.02 ng/g of dry resin. • Final results are in agreement with current data used for spent resins management

  2. A predictive mathematical model for the calculation of the final mass of Graves' disease thyroids treated with 131I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traino, Antonio C.; Di Martino, Fabio; Grosso, Mariano; Monzani, Fabio; Dardano, Angela; Caraccio, Nadia; Mariani, Giuliano; Lazzeri, Mauro

    2005-05-01

    Substantial reductions in thyroid volume (up to 70-80%) after radioiodine therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism are common and have been reported in the literature. A relationship between thyroid volume reduction and outcome of 131I therapy of Graves' disease has been reported by some authors. This important result could be used to decide individually the optimal radioiodine activity A0 (MBq) to administer to the patient, but a predictive model relating the change in gland volume to A0 is required. Recently, a mathematical model of thyroid mass reduction during the clearance phase (30-35 days) after 131I administration to patients with Graves' disease has been published and used as the basis for prescribing the therapeutic thyroid absorbed dose. It is well known that the thyroid volume reduction goes on until 1 year after therapy. In this paper, a mathematical model to predict the final mass of Graves' diseased thyroids submitted to 131I therapy is presented. This model represents a tentative explanation of what occurs macroscopically after the end of the clearance phase of radioiodine in the gland (the so-called second-order effects). It is shown that the final thyroid mass depends on its basal mass, on the radiation dose absorbed by the gland and on a constant value α typical of thyroid tissue. α has been evaluated based on a set of measurements made in 15 reference patients affected by Graves' disease and submitted to 131I therapy. A predictive equation for the calculation of the final mass of thyroid is presented. It is based on macroscopic parameters measurable after a diagnostic 131I capsule administration (0.37-1.85 MBq), before giving the therapy. The final mass calculated using this equation is compared to the final mass of thyroid measured 1 year after therapy administration in 22 Graves' diseased patients. The final masses calculated and measured 1 year after therapy are in fairly good agreement (R = 0.81). The possibility, for the physician, to decide a

  3. A predictive mathematical model for the calculation of the final mass of Graves' disease thyroids treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traino, Antonio C; Martino, Fabio Di; Grosso, Mariano; Monzani, Fabio; Dardano, Angela; Caraccio, Nadia; Mariani, Giuliano; Lazzeri, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    Substantial reductions in thyroid volume (up to 70-80%) after radioiodine therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism are common and have been reported in the literature. A relationship between thyroid volume reduction and outcome of 131 I therapy of Graves' disease has been reported by some authors. This important result could be used to decide individually the optimal radioiodine activity A 0 (MBq) to administer to the patient, but a predictive model relating the change in gland volume to A 0 is required. Recently, a mathematical model of thyroid mass reduction during the clearance phase (30-35 days) after 131 I administration to patients with Graves' disease has been published and used as the basis for prescribing the therapeutic thyroid absorbed dose. It is well known that the thyroid volume reduction goes on until 1 year after therapy. In this paper, a mathematical model to predict the final mass of Graves' diseased thyroids submitted to 131 I therapy is presented. This model represents a tentative explanation of what occurs macroscopically after the end of the clearance phase of radioiodine in the gland (the so-called second-order effects). It is shown that the final thyroid mass depends on its basal mass, on the radiation dose absorbed by the gland and on a constant value α typical of thyroid tissue. α has been evaluated based on a set of measurements made in 15 reference patients affected by Graves' disease and submitted to 131 I therapy. A predictive equation for the calculation of the final mass of thyroid is presented. It is based on macroscopic parameters measurable after a diagnostic 131 I capsule administration (0.37-1.85 MBq), before giving the therapy. The final mass calculated using this equation is compared to the final mass of thyroid measured 1 year after therapy administration in 22 Graves' diseased patients. The final masses calculated and measured 1 year after therapy are in fairly good agreement (R = 0.81). The possibility, for the physician, to

  4. GFR prediction from cystatin C and creatinine in children: body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted....... The present equation also had the highest R2 and the narrowest 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: The new equation predicts GFR with higher accuracy than other equations. Endogenous methods are, however, still not accurate enough to replace exogenous markers when GFR must be determined with high accuracy...

  5. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted....... The present equation also had the highest R2 and the narrowest 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: The new equation predicts GFR with higher accuracy than other equations. Endogenous methods are, however, still not accurate enough to replace exogenous markers when GFR must be determined with high accuracy...

  6. Nuclear structure studies of medium-mass nuclei using large Ge arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of large Ge arrays and their ancillary detectors has greatly advanced spectroscopic studies of the medium-mass nuclei. These nuclei undergo rapid shape changes as a function of spin, excitation energy and particle number and, thus, provide a unique laboratory to test and refine a variety of theoretical models. Following a brief review of the physics motivation, some of the highlights of the experimental results obtained with the help of these powerful detector systems will be discussed. Among results presented here are the newly-discovered island of superdeformation in the A∼80 mass region, and the high-spin band structures in the N∼Z nuclei. These band structures may be understood in the framework of the conventional cranking models, without the introduction of additional T=0 neutron-proton pairing correlations

  7. On-line mass spectometry of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Simon, M. de.

    1977-01-01

    The adaptation of the on-line mass-spectrometric technique to the special conditions of heavy ion induced reactions is described. The method is very selective about A and Z, even for the very heavy reaction products in counterpart of the limitation of its applications to the alkaline elements only. This method is used in order to study the effects of angular momentum brought by the projectile in the complete fusion process and in the following neutron evaporation. The analysis of excitation functions shows that the increase in mass of the projectile has not always the effect of increasing the rotation energy of the compound nucleus. The on-line mass spectrometry has allowed to study heavy ion induced fission. Measurements of complementary isotopic distributions of fission products make it possible to explain that the total number of neutrons emitted per fission can be always deduced from the fragment excitation energy. The study of the isotope distribution variance shows that the statistical model for fission is in good agreement with experimental results after taking into account the non-fusion processes [fr

  8. Factors that Affect the Decision of Having Nuclear Energy and Predictions for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent, Köksal; Abdülkadir, Civan

    2009-01-01

    Using data for 67 countries for the period 1980-2005, we analyze to what extent do the decisions of having nuclear power and the share of nuclear energy in total energy use depend on economic, politic, social and geographic factors. Our econometric model that takes the selectivity problems of the sample into consideration reveals a positive relationship between per capita real income and the probability of selecting to have nuclear power. This relationship, however, weakens as the level of in...

  9. Models for predicting the mass of lime fruits by some engineering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraei Ashtiani, Seyed-Hassan; Baradaran Motie, Jalal; Emadi, Bagher; Aghkhani, Mohammad-Hosein

    2014-11-01

    Grading fruits based on mass is important in packaging and reduces the waste, also increases the marketing value of agricultural produce. The aim of this study was mass modeling of two major cultivars of Iranian limes based on engineering attributes. Models were classified into three: 1-Single and multiple variable regressions of lime mass and dimensional characteristics. 2-Single and multiple variable regressions of lime mass and projected areas. 3-Single regression of lime mass based on its actual volume and calculated volume assumed as ellipsoid and prolate spheroid shapes. All properties considered in the current study were found to be statistically significant (ρ mass modeling of lime based on minor diameter and first projected area are the most appropriate models in the first and the second classifications, respectively. In third classification, the best model was obtained on the basis of the prolate spheroid volume. It was finally concluded that the suitable grading system of lime mass is based on prolate spheroid volume.

  10. Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs. Fat Mass/Height3 as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI and fat mass index (FMI have been proposed as alternative approaches for assessing body fat since BMI does not ensure an accurate screening for obesity and overweight status in children and adolescents. This study proposes thresholds of the TMI and FMI for the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and young people. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 4673 participants (57.1% females, who were 9–25 years of age. As part of the study, measurements of the subjects’ weight, waist circumference, serum lipid indices, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were taken. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The TMI and FMI were calculated as weight (kg/height (m3 and fat mass (kg/height (m3, respectively. Following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition, MetS is defined as including three or more metabolic abnormalities. Cohort-specific thresholds were established to identify Colombian children and young people at high risk of MetS. The thresholds were applied to the following groups: (i a cohort of children where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.13 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 12.10 kg/m3; (ii a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.48 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 11.19 kg/m3; (iii a cohort of young adults where the women’s TMI ≥ 13.21 kg/m3 and the men’s TMI ≥ 12.19 kg/m3. The FMI reference cut-off values used for the different groups were as follows: (i a cohort of children where the girls’ FMI ≥ 2.59 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.98 fat mass/m3; (ii a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ FMI ≥ 3.12 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.46 fat mass/m3; (iii a cohort of adults where the women’s FMI ≥ 3.27 kg/m3 and the men’s FMI ≥ 1.65 kg/m3. Our results showed that the FMI and TMI had a moderate discriminatory power to detect MetS in Colombian children, adolescents, and young adults.

  11. Film mass transfer coefficient for the prediction of volatile organic compound evaporation rate from open water basin

    OpenAIRE

    Charun Bunyakan; Preyaporn Tongsoi; Chakrit Tongurai

    2001-01-01

    The evaporation of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) from treatment, storage, disposal facility(TSDF) is an important air pollution issue because of the evaporation quantity and toxicity and/or carcinogenicity. This paper concerns VOC evaporation from open water basins such as the equalization basin and nonaerate surface impoundments in a wastewater treatment plant. The amount of VOCs evaporation from open water basins can be predicted by using the two-film model that requires two mass transfe...

  12. Does Body Mass Index Predict Premature Cardiomyopathy Onset for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKane, Meghann; Soslow, Jonathan H; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Slaughter, James C; Burnette, W Bryan; Markham, Larry W

    2017-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to estimate the association of body mass index with cardiomyopathy onset. Cardiomyopathy was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction Duchenne muscular dystrophy subjects and age of cardiomyopathy onset.

  13. Use of multiple picosecond high-mass molecular dynamics simulations to predict crystallographic B-factors of folded globular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Predicting crystallographic B-factors of a protein from a conventional molecular dynamics simulation is challenging, in part because the B-factors calculated through sampling the atomic positional fluctuations in a picosecond molecular dynamics simulation are unreliable, and the sampling of a longer simulation yields overly large root mean square deviations between calculated and experimental B-factors. This article reports improved B-factor prediction achieved by sampling the atomic positional fluctuations in multiple picosecond molecular dynamics simulations that use uniformly increased atomic masses by 100-fold to increase time resolution. Using the third immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, ubiquitin, and lysozyme as model systems, the B-factor root mean square deviations (mean ± standard error of these proteins were 3.1 ± 0.2–9 ± 1 Å2 for Cα and 7.3 ± 0.9–9.6 ± 0.2 Å2 for Cγ, when the sampling was done for each of these proteins over 20 distinct, independent, and 50-picosecond high-mass molecular dynamics simulations with AMBER forcefield FF12MC or FF14SB. These results suggest that sampling the atomic positional fluctuations in multiple picosecond high-mass molecular dynamics simulations may be conducive to a priori prediction of crystallographic B-factors of a folded globular protein.

  14. MASBAL: A computer program for predicting the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1987-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for the MASBAL computer program. MASBAL's objectives are to predict the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter based on a knowledge of process conditions; to generate simulated data that can be used to estimate the uncertainty in the predicted glass composition as a function of process uncertainties; and to generate simulated data that can be used to provide a measure of the inherent variability in the glass composition as a function of the inherent variability in the feed composition. These three capabilities are important to nuclear waste glass producers because there are constraints on the range of compositions that can be processed in a ceramic melter and on the range of compositions that will be acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. MASBAL was developed specifically to simulate the operation of the West Valley Component Test system, a commercial-scale ceramic melter system that will process high-level nuclear wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the site of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (near West Valley, New York). The program is flexible enough, however, to simulate any slurry-fed ceramic melter system. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Lars J., E-mail: Lars.grimm@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  16. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Ghate, Sujata V; Yoon, Sora C; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Kim, Connie; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502-0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543-0.680,p errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  17. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Lars J.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees

  18. Assessment of Non-Traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    predictions were made where actinides were ignored. Effect of Error. The effect of measurement error was investigated by randomly perturbing the...measurements including actinides seems to perform the best but are most sensitive to measurement inaccuracies. Using the two lists including actinides ... actinides seems to perform the best, but requires the most accurate mea- sure ents. Using the two lists including actinides , in order to achieve

  19. Long-term predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae; Saito, Kimiaki; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    To analyze radiation protection strategies and rehabilitation programs in Fukushima, prediction models have been developed for ambient dose equivalent rate distributions within the 80 km-radius around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The prediction models characterized by ecological half-lives of radioactive caesium for land-use, enable Fukushima residents to obtain distribution maps of ambient dose equivalent rates after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Model parameters such as the ecological half-lives for the short-term component and the fractional distribution of short-term component were evaluated using ambient dose equivalent rates through car/vehicle-borne surveys. It was found that the ecological half-lives among land-use differ only slightly, whereas the fractional distributions of the short-term component are clearly dependent on land-use. In addition, uncertainties concerning predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates arising from variability in model parameters were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Long-term changes of ambient dose equivalent rates were predicted for different land-use areas. Distribution maps of ambient dose equivalent rates for the next 30 years after the accident, created by the prediction models are expected to be useful for follow-up of the radiological situation since they provide information on the space variation of the ambient dose equivalent rates in inhabited areas. (author)

  20. Improved methods of online monitoring and prediction in condensate and feed water system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hang; Peng, Min-jun; Wu, Peng; Cheng, Shou-yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different methods for online monitoring and diagnosis are summarized. • Numerical simulation modeling of condensate and feed water system in nuclear power plant are done by FORTRAN programming. • Integrated online monitoring and prediction methods have been developed and tested. • Online monitoring module, fault diagnosis module and trends prediction module can be verified with each other. - Abstract: Faults or accidents may occur in a nuclear power plant (NPP), but it is hard for operators to recognize the situation and take effective measures quickly. So, online monitoring, diagnosis and prediction (OMDP) is used to provide enough information to operators and improve the safety of NPPs. In this paper, distributed conservation equation (DCE) and artificial immunity system (AIS) are proposed for online monitoring and diagnosis. On this basis, quantitative simulation models and interactive database are combined to predict the trends and severity of faults. The effectiveness of OMDP in improving the monitoring and prediction of condensate and feed water system (CFWS) was verified through simulation tests.

  1. Predictions of hydrodynamic vibrations for some cylindrical structures of nuclear reactors in contact with the heat-transferring fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, D.; Berthollon, G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the vibratory behaviour of thin cylindrical structures under the turbulence of the heat transferring fluid. These simple structures constitute an idealization, often adequate, of several structures used in nuclear hydraulics. It is shown that an empiric representation of the excitation spatial field makes it possible, in the experimented cases, to predict with a fair accuracy the vibratory response of the first modes. The cases of application of such an approach are discussed. (author)

  2. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in nuclear power plant containment under severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun, E-mail: magyna@chosun.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We present a hydrogen-concentration prediction method in an NPP containment. • The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) is used in this prediction model. • The CFNN model is much better than the existing FNN model. • This prediction can help prevent severe accidents in NPP due to hydrogen explosion. - Abstract: Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have attracted worldwide interest since the Fukushima accident. If the hydrogen concentration in an NPP containment is increased above 4% in atmospheric pressure, hydrogen combustion will likely occur. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration must be kept below 4%. This study presents the prediction of hydrogen concentration using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model was developed using data on severe accidents in NPPs. The data were obtained by numerically simulating the accident scenarios using the MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The root-mean-square error level predicted by the CFNN model is below approximately 5%. It was confirmed that the CFNN model could accurately predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. If NPP operators can predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment using the CFNN model, this prediction can assist them in preventing a hydrogen explosion.

  3. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method for Nuclear Short Tandem Repeat Testing of Skeletal Remains from Mass Graves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jon; Vanek, Daniel; Konjhodzić, Rijad; Crews, John; Huffine, Edwin; Parsons, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To quantitatively compare a silica extraction method with a commonly used phenol/chloroform extraction method for DNA analysis of specimens exhumed from mass graves. Methods DNA was extracted from twenty randomly chosen femur samples, using the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) silica method, based on Qiagen Blood Maxi Kit, and compared with the DNA extracted by the standard phenol/chloroform-based method. The efficacy of extraction methods was compared by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure DNA quantity and the presence of inhibitors and by amplification with the PowerPlex 16 (PP16) multiplex nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) kit. Results DNA quantification results showed that the silica-based method extracted on average 1.94 ng of DNA per gram of bone (range 0.25-9.58 ng/g), compared with only 0.68 ng/g by the organic method extracted (range 0.0016-4.4880 ng/g). Inhibition tests showed that there were on average significantly lower levels of PCR inhibitors in DNA isolated by the organic method. When amplified with PP16, all samples extracted by silica-based method produced 16 full loci profiles, while only 75% of the DNA extracts obtained by organic technique amplified 16 loci profiles. Conclusions The silica-based extraction method showed better results in nuclear STR typing from degraded bone samples than a commonly used phenol/chloroform method. PMID:17696302

  4. Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Flow Through Full Passage and Performance Prediction of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Zhou Wenxia; Zhang Jige; Wang Dezhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the level of self-design and domestic manufacture of the reactor coolant pump (nuclear main pump), the software FLUENT was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow through full passage of one nuclear main pump basing on RNG κ-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. The distribution of pressure and velocity of the flow in the impeller's surface was analyzed in different working conditions. Moreover, the performance of the pump was predicted based on the simulation results. The results show that the distributions of pressure and velocity are reasonable in both the working and back face of the blade in the steady working condition. The pressure of the flow is increased from the inlet to the outlet of the pump, and shows the maximal value in the impeller region. Comparatively satisfactory efficiency and head value were obtained in the condition of the pump design. The shaft power of the nuclear main pump is gradually increased with the increase of the flow flux. These results are helpful in understanding the change of the internal flow field in the nuclear main pump, which is of some importance for the pre-exploration and theoretical research on the domestic manufacture of the nuclear main pump. (authors)

  5. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  6. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in (1,2) wherein Verification and Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI (3,4) is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models

  7. Alteration of the magnitude of the proton magnetic moment in nuclear magnetons in connection with the changes in the atomic mass values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Aruev, N.N.; Alekseenko, S.A.

    1983-06-01

    In connection with the revision of the table values of the atomic masses and the forthcoming coordination of the values of the fundamental physical constants, the result of measurement of the proton magnetic moment in nuclear Magnetons obtained in 1971 is re-examined by taking into account recent data. With the atomic masses recognized in 1982 the proton magnetic moment expressed in nuclear magnetons without a correction for diamagnetic screening of the proton in a water molecule is found to be ..mu..sub(p)'/..mu..sub(n)=2.7927729+-0.0000012 (4.3x10/sup -5/%).

  8. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Casual Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-03-31

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  9. Peptide retention prediction using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgett, Majors J; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron

    2018-02-16

    A model that predicts retention for peptides using a HALO ® penta-HILIC column and gradient elution was created. Coefficients for each amino acid were derived using linear regression analysis and these coefficients can be summed to predict the retention of peptides. This model has a high correlation between experimental and predicted retention times (0.946), which is on par with previous RP and HILIC models. External validation of the model was performed using a set of H. pylori samples on the same LC-MS system used to create the model, and the deviation from actual to predicted times was low. Apart from amino acid composition, length and location of amino acid residues on a peptide were examined and two site-specific corrections for hydrophobic residues at the N-terminus as well as hydrophobic residues one spot over from the N-terminus were created. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation for CFD Prediction of Mass Transport in an Aircraft Passenger Cabin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. J; Ericson, S. C; Orzechowski, J. A; Wong, K.L; Garner, R. P

    2006-01-01

    A joint project was established to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a quantitative methodology for prediction of the distribution of pathogens released into the environmental control system (ECS...

  11. Groundwater and vadose Zone Integration Project Nuclear Material Mass Flow and Accountability on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRASHER, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a discussion of the accountable inventory of Hanford Site nuclear material (NM) over the operating period. This report does not provide judgments on impacts to the Hanford Site environs by the reported waste streams or inventory. The focus of this report is on the processes, facilities, and process streams that constituted the flow primarily of plutonium and uranium through the Hanford Site. The material balance reports (MBRS) are the basis of the NM accountable inventory maintained by each of the various contractors used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors to operate the Hanford Site. The inventory was tracked in terms of a starting inventory, receipts, transfers, and ending inventory. The various components of the inventory are discussed as well as the uncertainty in the measurement values used to establish plant inventory and material transfers. The accountable NM inventory does not report all the NM on the Hanford Site and this difference is discussed relative to some representative nuclides. The composition and location of the current accountable inventory are provided, as well as the latest approved set (2000) of flow diagrams of the proposed disposition of the excess accountable NM inventory listed on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) web page

  12. Fission product nuclear data obtained by use of an on-line mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Wright, J.F.; Anderl, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A Spectrometer for On-Line Analysis of Radionuclides (SOLAR) has been installed at a 1 MW TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. Fission product ions from a combination target/ion source located within the thermal column are brought out to a 60 0 magnetic sector mass spectrometer. Surface ionization provides copious beams of Rb + and Cs + ions and less intense beams of Br - and I - ions with negligible contamination by other elements. About 40 fission product nuclides can thus be chemically and physically separated in times of less than 1 second. Past results on independent and cumulative fission yields along with measurements of half-lives of some very neutron-rich nuclides are presented. Current work on delayed-neutron emission probabilities and energy spectra of delayed neutrons from individual nuclides is described. (7 tables, 2 figures) (U.S.)

  13. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W; Simonsick, William J; Bogusky, Michael J; Celikay, Recep W; Guare, James P; Newton, Randall C

    2016-06-28

    Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI), sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  14. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI, sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  15. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  16. Fat mass gain predicts estimated GFR decline in a relatively healthy Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young Youl; Kim, Hyang; Lee, Kyu Beck

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between fat mass directly measured by bioimpedance analysis and eGFR is not well known. We analyzed 21,859 participants without CKD at baseline who underwent two health checkups at a 5-year interval during 2002-2009. Fat mass was measured by Inbody 3.0 (Biospace, Seoul, Korea). eGFR decline was defined as eGFR 1.2 kg). After 5 years, 246 cases of eGFR decline were observed. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.22-3.40, p = 0.007), baseline eGFR (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.83, p < 0.001) and higher tertile of fat mass change (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.13, p = 0.003) were associated with eGFR decline after adjustment for sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, smoking status, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Fat mass gain over 5 years was independently associated with eGFR decline to <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in a relatively healthy Korean population. This finding suggests that lifestyle changes to prevent fat mass gain could be protective against the development of CKD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Performance Prediction for Large-Scale Nuclear Waste Repositories: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassley, W E; Nitao, J J; Grant, W; Boulos, T N; Gokoffski, M O; Johnson, J W; Kercher, J R; Levatin, J A; Steefel, C I

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was development of a software package capable of utilizing terascale computational platforms for solving subsurface flow and transport problems important for disposal of high level nuclear waste materials, as well as for DOE-complex clean-up and stewardship efforts. We sought to develop a tool that would diminish reliance on abstracted models, and realistically represent the coupling between subsurface fluid flow, thermal effects and chemical reactions that both modify the physical framework of the rock materials and which change the rock mineralogy and chemistry of the migrating fluid. Providing such a capability would enhance realism in models and increase confidence in long-term predictions of performance. Achieving this goal also allows more cost-effective design and execution of monitoring programs needed to evaluate model results. This goal was successfully accomplished through the development of a new simulation tool (NUFT-C). This capability allows high resolution modeling of complex coupled thermal-hydrological-geochemical processes in the saturated and unsaturated zones of the Earth's crust. The code allows consideration of virtually an unlimited number of chemical species and minerals in a multi-phase, non-isothermal environment. Because the code is constructed to utilize the computational power of the tera-scale IBM ASCI computers, simulations that encompass large rock volumes and complex chemical systems can now be done without sacrificing spatial or temporal resolution. The code is capable of doing one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations, allowing unprecedented evaluation of the evolution of rock properties and mineralogical and chemical change as a function of time. The code has been validated by comparing results of simulations to laboratory-scale experiments, other benchmark codes, field scale experiments, and observations in natural systems. The results of these exercises demonstrate that the physics and chemistry

  18. Determination of long-lived radionuclide (10Be, 41Ca, 129I) concentrations in nuclear waste by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bertaux, Maite; Bourles, Didier; Arnold, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for storage sites management. However, most of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN), important for long-term management, are difficult to measure since concentration levels are very low and waste matrices generally complex. In an industrial approach, LLRN concentrations are not directly measured in waste samples but assessed from scaling factors with respect to easily measured gamma emitters. Ideally, the key nuclide chosen ( 60 Co, 137 Cs) should be produced by a similar mechanism (fission or activation) as the LLRN of interest and should have similar physicochemical properties. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factors, determined from experimental and/or calculation data, can be quite important. Consequently, studies are performed to develop analytical procedures which would lead to determine precisely the concentration of LLRN in nuclear waste. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of three LLRN: 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7*10 6 a), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 9.94*10 4 a) and 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.387*10 6 a) in spent resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for measurement. The AMS technique combined mass spectrometry and nuclear physics to achieve highly efficient molecular and elemental isobars separation. Energies of several Million Electron-Volt transferred to the ions in the first accelerating part of specifically developed tandem accelerators lead to molecular isobars destruction through interaction with the argon gas used to strip the injected negative ions to positive ones. At the exit of the tandem accelerator, the energy acquired in both accelerating parts allows an elemental isobars separation based on their significantly different energy loss (dE) while passing through a thickness of matter dx that is proportional to their atomic number (Z) and inversely proportional to ions velocity (v) according to the

  19. Development of a tool for prediction of ovarian cancer in patients with adnexal masses: Value of plasma fibrinogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Seebacher

    Full Text Available To develop a tool for individualized risk estimation of presence of cancer in women with adnexal masses, and to assess the added value of plasma fibrinogen.We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of 906 patients with adnexal masses who underwent cystectomy or oophorectomy. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses including pre-operative plasma fibrinogen levels and established predictors were performed. A nomogram was generated to predict the probability of ovarian cancer. Internal validation with split-sample analysis was performed. Decision curve analysis (DCA was then used to evaluate the clinical net benefit of the prediction model.Ovarian cancer including borderline tumours was found in 241 (26.6% patients. In multivariate analysis, elevated plasma fibrinogen, elevated CA-125, suspicion for malignancy on ultrasound, and postmenopausal status were associated with ovarian cancer and formed the basis for the nomogram. The overall predictive accuracy of the model, as measured by AUC, was 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.94. DCA revealed a net benefit for using this model for predicting ovarian cancer presence compared to a strategy of treat all or treat none.We confirmed the value of plasma fibrinogen as a strong predictor for ovarian cancer in a large cohort of patients with adnexal masses. We developed a highly accurate multivariable model to help in the clinical decision-making regarding the presence of ovarian cancer. This model provided net benefit for a wide range of threshold probabilities. External validation is needed before a recommendation for its use in routine practice can be given.

  20. Predicting carbon mass of central Oklahoma soils with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in carbon (C) storage within agricultural soils of Oklahoma as an aid in reducing atmospheric greenhouse gasses, and cash flow land managers might access, has increased recently. Description of C mass requires measurement of both bulk density and C concentration, but the techniques used ar...

  1. LRP5 gene polymorphisms predict bone mass and incident fractures in elderly Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollerslev, J; Wilson, S G; Dick, I M; Islam, F M A; Ueland, T; Palmer, L; Devine, A; Prince, R L

    2005-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone mass are influenced by multiple factors including genetic variation. The importance of LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) for the regulation of bone mass has recently been established, where loss of function mutations is followed by severe osteoporosis and gain of function is related to increased bone mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymorphisms in the LRP5 gene in regulating bone mass and influencing prospective fracture frequency in a well-described, large cohort of normal, ambulatory Australian women. A total of 1301 women were genotyped for seven different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the LRP5 gene of which five were potentially informative. The effects of these gene polymorphisms on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measurements (QUS), osteodensitometry of the hip and bone-related biochemistry was examined. One SNP located in exon 15 was found to be associated with fracture rate and bone mineral density. Homozygosity for the less frequent allele of c.3357 A > G was associated with significant reduction in bone mass at most femoral sites. The subjects with the GG genotype, compared to the AA/AG genotypes showed a significant reduction in BUA and total hip, femoral neck and trochanter BMD (1.5% P = 0.032; 2.7% P = 0.047; 3.6% P = 0.008; 3.1% P = 0.050, respectively). In the 5-year follow-up period, 227 subjects experienced a total of 290 radiologically confirmed fractures. The incident fracture rate was significantly increased in subjects homozygous for the GG polymorphism (RR of fracture = 1.61, 95% CI [1.06-2.45], P = 0.027). After adjusting for total hip BMD, the fracture rate was still increased (RR = 1.67 [1.02-2.78], P = 0.045), indicating factors other than bone mass are of importance for bone strength. In conclusion, genetic variation in LRP5 seems to be of importance for regulation of bone mass and osteoporotic fractures.

  2. Evaluation of nuclear power plant environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs. Summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-02-01

    An evaluation of the effectivenss of non-radiological environmental monitoring programs is presented. The monitoring programs for Monticello, Haddam Neck, and Millstone Nuclear Generating Plants are discussed. Recommendations for improvements in monitoring programs are presented.

  3. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of four years (2002–2005 of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin<−100 nT are chosen for a statistical study. In order to achieve a good correlation Em is preconditioned. Contrary to general opinion, Em has to be applied without saturation effect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  4. Theoretical Prediction of Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient (kLa for Designing an Aeration Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Hebrard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this present paper is to propose a new theoretical prediction method of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa occurring in a gas-liquid contactor based on the dissociation of the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient (kL and the interfacial area (a. The calculated results have been compared with those obtained with the experimental process in a small-scale bubble column. Tap water was used as liquid phase and an elastic membrane with a single orifice as gas sparger. Only the dynamic bubble regime was considered in this work (ReOR= 1501000 and We = 0.0024. This study has clearly shown that, whatever the operating conditions under test, the generated bubble diameters (dB, bubble frequency (fB and their associated rising velocities (UB were the important parameters in order to predict, not only the values of kLa, but also the values of a and of kL. Moreover, these obtained results could provide a better understanding of the parameters which influence the oxygen transfer mechanism in the aeration process. By using the correlations to estimate these bubble hydrodynamics (dB and UB, it diminishes times for measuring the associated mass transfer parameters and also their experimental complexities and errors.

  5. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Lühr, H.; Doornbos, E.; Ma, S.-Y.

    2010-09-01

    With the help of four years (2002-2005) of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmineffect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned color: #000;">Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 color: #000;">Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT prediction of malignant versus benign lesion in patients presenting with adnexal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Majbritt; Iyer, Victor Vishwanath; Fisker, Rune Vincents

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of malignancy in patients with adnexal masses versus the clinical pathological staging. Our study compared the results of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT findings with the intra-operative and histopa......Objectives: The purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of malignancy in patients with adnexal masses versus the clinical pathological staging. Our study compared the results of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT findings with the intra......-operative and histopathological findings consecutively from January 2008 to April 2010. Methods: 104 patients (mean age 62 years, range: 32-89 years), with adnexal masses suspicious of ovarian cancer and elevated RMI > 200 underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT with intravenous contrast prior to surgery. The 18F-FDG PET/CT findings were...... classified as benign or malignant and the results were compared with the registered intra-operative findings and the final histopathological examination. Preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT-based staging was compared to the final histopathological staging according to FIGO 2003. Results: The preliminary results...

  7. Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hendrichs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures.

  8. Nuclear IGF-1R predicts chemotherapy and targeted therapy resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codony-Servat, Jordi; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Asensio, Elena; Montironi, Carla; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Marín-Aguilera, Mercedes; Horndler, Carlos; Martínez-Balibrea, Eva; Rubini, Michele; Jares, Pedro; Reig, Oscar; Victoria, Iván; Gaba, Lydia; Martín-Richard, Marta; Alonso, Vicente; Escudero, Pilar; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; Feliu, Jaime; Méndez, Jose Carlos; Méndez, Miguel; Gallego, Javier; Salud, Antonieta; Rojo, Federico; Castells, Antoni; Prat, Aleix; Rosell, Rafael; García-Albéniz, Xabier; Camps, Jordi; Maurel, Joan

    2017-12-05

    Although chemotherapy is the cornerstone treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), acquired chemoresistance is common and constitutes the main reason for treatment failure. Monoclonal antibodies against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been tested in pre-treated mCRC patients, but results have been largely deceiving. We analysed time to progression, overall survival, and the mutational status of RAS, BRAF and nuclear p-IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry, in 470 metastatic CRC patients. The effect of IGF-1R activation and distribution was also assessed using cellular models of CRC and RNAi for functional validation. Nuclear IGF-1R increased in metastatic tumours compared to paired untreated primary tumours, and significantly correlated with poor overall survival in mCRC patients. In vitro, chemo-resistant cell lines presented significantly higher levels of IGF-1R expression within the nuclear compartment, and PIAS3, a protein implicated also in the sumoylation process of intranuclear proteins, contributed to IGF-1R nuclear sequestration, highlighting the essential role of PIAS3 in this process. Intriguingly, we observed that ganitumab, an IGF-1R blocking-antibody used in several clinical trials, and dasatinib, an SRC inhibitor, increased the nuclear localisation of IGF-1R. Our study demonstrates that IGF-1R nuclear location might lead to chemotherapy and targeted agent resistance.

  9. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  10. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  11. Predictions of the arrival time of Coronal Mass Ejections at 1AU: an analysis of the causes of errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three existing models of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME transit between the Sun and the Earth are compared to coronagraph and in situ observations: all three models are found to perform with a similar level of accuracy (i.e. an average error between observed and predicted 1AU transit times of approximately 11h. To improve long-term space weather prediction, factors influencing CME transit are investigated. Both the removal of the plane of sky projection (as suffered by coronagraph derived speeds of Earth directed CMEs and the use of observed values of solar wind speed, fail to significantly improve transit time prediction. However, a correlation is found to exist between the late/early arrival of an ICME and the width of the preceding sheath region, suggesting that the error is a geometrical effect that can only be removed by a more accurate determination of a CME trajectory and expansion. The correlation between magnetic field intensity and speed of ejecta at 1AU is also investigated. It is found to be weak in the body of the ICME, but strong in the sheath, if the upstream solar wind conditions are taken into account.

    Key words. Solar physics, astronomy and astrophysics (flares and mass ejections – Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields; sources of the solar wind

  12. Nuclear analysis of the Chornobyl fuel containing masses with heterogeneous fuel distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    Although significant data has been obtained on the condition and composition of the fuel containing masses (FCM) located in the concrete chambers under the Chernobyl Unit 4 reactor cavity, there is still uncertainty regarding the possible recriticality of this material. The high radiation levels make access extremely difficult, and most of the samples are from the FCM surface regions. There is little information on the interior regions of the FCM, and one cannot assume with confidence that the surface measurements are representative of the interior regions. Therefore, reasonable assumptions on the key parameters such as fuel concentration, the concentrations of impurities and neutron poisons (especially boron), the void fraction of the FCM due to its known porosity, and the degrees of fuel heterogeneity, are necessary to evaluate the possibility of recriticality. The void fraction is important since it introduces the possibility of water moderator being distributed throughout the FCM. Calculations indicate that the addition of 10 to 30 volume percent (v/o) water to the FCM has a significant impact on the calculated reactivity of the FCM. Therefore, water addition must be considered carefully. The other possible moderators are graphite and silicone dioxide. As discussed later in this paper, silicone dioxide moderation does not represent a criticality threat. For graphite, both heterogeneous fuel arrangements and very large volume fractions of graphite are necessary for a graphite moderated system to go critical. Based on the observations and measurements of the FCM compositions, these conditions do not appear creditable for the Chernobyl FCM. Therefore, the focus of the analysis reported in this paper will be on reasonable heterogeneous fuel arrangements and water moderation. The analysis will evaluate a range of fuel and diluent compositions

  13. Properties of Nuclear Superdeformed Rotational Bands in A~190 Mass Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf A. M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-parameters formula based on the conventional collective rotational model is ap- plied to describe superdeformed rotational bands (SDRB’s in nuclei in the A 190 mass region, namely the five SDRB’s 192 Hg(SD1, 194 Hg(SD1, 194 Hg(SD2, 194 Pb(SD1 and 194 Pb(SD2. The bandhead spins of the observed levels have been ex- tracted by first and second-hand estimation corresponding to pure rotator and our pro- posed formula respectively by plotting the E-Gamma Over Spin (EGOS versus spin. A computer simulated search program is used to extract the model parameters in order to obtain a minimum root mean square (rms deviation between the calculated and the experimental transition energies The values of spins resulting from second estimation method are excellent consistent with spin assignment of other models. The calculated transition energies, level spins, rotational frequencies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia are systematically examined. The di ff erence in - ray transition energies ∆ E between transitions in the two isotones 192 Hg(SD1 and 194 Pb(SD1 were small and con- stant up to rotational frequency ℏ ! 0.25 MeV. Therefore, these two bands have been considered as identical bands. The ∆ I = 2 energy staggering observed in 194 Hg(SD1 and 194 Hg(SD2 of our selected SDRB’s are also described from a smooth reference representing the finite difference approximation to the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin.

  14. Higgs mass prediction with non-universal soft supersymmetry breaking in MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codoban, S.; Jurcisin, M.; Kazakov, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the MSSM (Minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model) the non-universal boundary conditions of soft SUSY breaking parameters are considered. Taking as input the top, bottom and Z-boson masses, the values of the gauge couplings at the EW scale and the infrared quasi-fixed points for Yukawa couplings and the soft parameters the mass of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson is found to be m h = 92.7 -4.9 +10 ± 5 ± 0.4 GeV/c 2 for the low tan(β) case and m h 125.7 -9.0 +6.4 ± 5 ± 0.4 GeV/c 2 (μ > 0) or m h 125.4 -9.0 +6.6 ± 5 ± 0.4 Ge V/c 2 (μ < 0) in the case of large tan(β). (authors)

  15. Accurate prediction of the ammonia probes of a variable proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Thiel, W.; Špirko, V.

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of 14NH3, 15NH3, 14ND3 and 15ND3 is carried out variationally using the TROVE approach. Variational calculations are robust and accurate, offering a new way to compute sensitivity coefficients. Particular attention is paid to the Δk = ±3 transitions between the accidentally coinciding rotation-inversion energy levels of the ν2 = 0+, 0-, 1+ and 1- states, and the inversion transitions in the ν4 = 1 state affected by the `giant' l-type doubling effect. These transitions exhibit highly anomalous sensitivities, thus appearing as promising probes of a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. Moreover, a simultaneous comparison of the calculated sensitivities reveals a sizeable isotopic dependence which could aid an exclusive ammonia detection.

  16. Development of a prediction tool for low bone mass based on clinical data and periapical radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Licks, Renata; Licks, V.; Ourique, F.; Bittencourt, Helio Radke; Fontanella, Vania Regina Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to develop and test a tool for low bone mass pre-screening by combining periapical radiographs with clinical risk factors. Methods: The study sample consisted of 60 post-menopausal women over 40 years of age who were referred for dental radiographs. These patients also had their bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Radiographic density measurements and 14 morphological features were obtained f...

  17. Can root electrical capacitance be used to predict root mass in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, R C; Bengough, A G; Jones, H G; White, P J

    2013-07-01

    Electrical capacitance, measured between an electrode inserted at the base of a plant and an electrode in the rooting substrate, is often linearly correlated with root mass. Electrical capacitance has often been used as an assay for root mass, and is conventionally interpreted using an electrical model in which roots behave as cylindrical capacitors wired in parallel. Recent experiments in hydroponics show that this interpretation is incorrect and a new model has been proposed. Here, the new model is tested in solid substrates. The capacitances of compost and soil were determined as a function of water content, and the capacitances of cereal plants growing in sand or potting compost in the glasshouse, or in the field, were measured under contrasting irrigation regimes. Capacitances of compost and soil increased with increasing water content. At water contents approaching field capacity, compost and soil had capacitances at least an order of magnitude greater than those of plant tissues. For plants growing in solid substrates, wetting the substrate locally around the stem base was both necessary and sufficient to record maximum capacitance, which was correlated with stem cross-sectional area: capacitance of excised stem tissue equalled that of the plant in wet soil. Capacitance measured between two electrodes could be modelled as an electrical circuit in which component capacitors (plant tissue or rooting substrate) are wired in series. The results were consistent with the new physical interpretation of plant capacitance. Substrate capacitance and plant capacitance combine according to standard physical laws. For plants growing in wet substrate, the capacitance measured is largely determined by the tissue between the surface of the substrate and the electrode attached to the plant. Whilst the measured capacitance can, in some circumstances, be correlated with root mass, it is not a direct assay of root mass.

  18. Center of mass velocity-based predictions in balance recovery following pelvis perturbations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, M; van Asseldonk, EHF; van der Kooij, H.

    2016-01-01

    In many simple walking models, foot placement dictates the center of pressure location and ground reaction force components, whereas humans can modulate these aspects after foot contact. Because of the differences, it is unclear to what extent predictions made by models are valid for human walking.

  19. Center of mass velocity-based predictions in balance recovery following pelvis perturbations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    In many simple walking models foot placement dictates the center of pressure location and ground reaction force components, whereas humans can modulate these aspects after foot contact. Because of the differences, it is unclear to what extend predictions made by models are valid for human walking.

  20. Localized intrahepatic bile duct dilatation without a visible mass or stone as depicted on CT images: findings of malignancy prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Wan; Kim, Gab Chul; Jeong, Han Young; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jae Hyuck; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2008-01-01

    This study was preformed to evaluate factors that can predict the presence of a malignancy for localized intrahepatic bile duct dilatation without a visible mass or stone as depicted on CT images. A total of 29 patients (male: 16, female: 13) who had localized intrahepatic bile duct dilatation without a visible mass, stone or injury as depicted on CT images were included in the study. A history of extrahepatic malignancy and biliary stone disease, tumor marker levels, CT findings of the intrahepatic bile duct and associated findings were reviewed. The findings were analyzed between two groups (patients with a malignancy and patients with benign disease) on follow-up. In 29 patient, 11 patients had malignant lesions (four metastases and seven cholangiocarcinomas). The history of an extrahepatic malignancy and the shape of an intrahepatic duct obstruction or stenosis as seen on CT were significantly correlated with the results between the benign and malignant group of patients. The follow-up results of the malignant group of patients indicated that for six patients who had developed a new mass, one patient each showed aggravation of ductal dilatation and thickening of the ductal wall. When a patient with localized intrahepatic bile duct dilatation without a definite cause has a history of an extrahepatic malignancy or shows abrupt tapering or irregular narrowing on CT images, short-term follow-up should be performed. The patient should be investigated carefully for mass formation or a change of the dilated bile duct due to a possibility of malignant ductal dilatation

  1. Using body mass index to predict optimal thyroid dosing after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojomo, Kristin A; Schneider, David F; Reiher, Alexandra E; Lai, Ngan; Schaefer, Sarah; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2013-03-01

    Current postoperative thyroid replacement dosing is weight based, with adjustments made after thyroid-stimulating hormone values. This method can lead to considerable delays in achieving euthyroidism and often fails to accurately dose over- and underweight patients. Our aim was to develop an accurate dosing method that uses patient body mass index (BMI) data. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected thyroid database was performed. We selected adult patients undergoing thyroidectomy, with benign pathology, who achieved euthyroidism on thyroid hormone supplementation. Body mass index and euthyroid dose were plotted and regression was used to fit curves to the data. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 10.1 software (Stata Corp). One hundred twenty-two patients met inclusion criteria. At initial follow-up, only 39 patients were euthyroid (32%). Fifty-three percent of patients with BMI >30 kg/m(2) were overdosed, and 46% of patients with BMI regression equation was derived for calculating initial levothyroxine dose (μg/kg/d = -0.018 × BMI + 2.13 [F statistic = 52.7, root mean square error of 0.24]). The current standard of weight-based thyroid replacement fails to appropriately dose underweight and overweight patients. Body mass index can be used to more accurately dose thyroid hormone using a simple formula. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Texture analysis of common renal masses in multiple MR sequences for prediction of pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Uyen N.; Malayeri, Ashkan A.; Lay, Nathan S.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    This pilot study performs texture analysis on multiple magnetic resonance (MR) images of common renal masses for differentiation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Bounding boxes are drawn around each mass on one axial slice in T1 delayed sequence to use for feature extraction and classification. All sequences (T1 delayed, venous, arterial, pre-contrast phases, T2, and T2 fat saturated sequences) are co-registered and texture features are extracted from each sequence simultaneously. Random forest is used to construct models to classify lesions on 96 normal regions, 87 clear cell RCCs, 8 papillary RCCs, and 21 renal oncocytomas; ground truths are verified through pathology reports. The highest performance is seen in random forest model when data from all sequences are used in conjunction, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 83.7%. When using data from one single sequence, the overall accuracies achieved for T1 delayed, venous, arterial, and pre-contrast phase, T2, and T2 fat saturated were 79.1%, 70.5%, 56.2%, 61.0%, 60.0%, and 44.8%, respectively. This demonstrates promising results of utilizing intensity information from multiple MR sequences for accurate classification of renal masses.

  3. Mini-Nutritional-Assessment (MNA) without body mass index (BMI) predicts functional disability in elderly Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chin; Tsai, Alan Chung-hong

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional status and functional ability are mutually dependent especially in the elderly. This study examined the functional status-predictive ability of the MNA in a cross-sectional study. We analyzed the dataset of the "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan" (SHLSET). Subjects were 2948≥65 year-old persons who were rated with the long-form (LF) and short-form (SF) MNA with or without BMI for the risk of malnutrition, and with the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Instrument Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for functional status. The ADL and IADL scores were calculated according to rated nutritional status. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for ADL and IADL status predicted by the MNA. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of rated MNA scores with ADL or IADL status. Results showed that both SF and LF of MNA-T1 and T2 were able to predict ADL and IADL disabilities. Those who were rated malnourished or at risk of malnutrition had drastically higher risk of ADL or IADL dependency compared to those who were rated normal. The SF versions performed well in rating nutritional status and predicting ADL and IADL status. Overall, MNA-T2-SF performed at least equally well as MNA-T1-SF in rating functional decline. These results suggest the MNA is able to predict functional decline of the elderly. MNA-T2, especially the SF, a version without BMI should be particularly useful in clinical, long-term care and community settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-08

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An automated delayed neutron counting system for mass determination of fissile isotopes in special nuclear materials at the Royal Military College of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, M.T.; Corcoran, E.C.; Kelly, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A Delayed Neutron Counting System (DNCS) has been designed and installed to enhance the ability of Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) to analyze Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). By detecting and recording delayed neutron counts from SNM samples irradiated by the SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor Facility at RMC, the DNCS is able to determine the masses of multiple fissile nuclei in the samples efficiently and accurately. The system is controlled by LabVIEW software. A separate mathematical program has also been developed to determine the mass of fissile nuclei present in SNM. The DNCS and fissile mass determination program have been validated using powdered UO 2 samples. (author)

  6. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric mea...

  7. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author).

  8. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Hirohiko.

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author)

  9. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are

  10. Prediction of beef color using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) relaxometry data and multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pompeu Prado; Ferrari, Adriana Cristina; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Reis, Ricardo Andrade; Colnago, Luiz Alberto; Pereira, Fabíola Manhas Verbi

    2016-05-19

    Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics were used to predict color parameters, such as lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) of beef (Longissimus dorsi muscle) samples. Analyzing the relaxation decays with multivariate models performed with partial least-squares regression, color quality parameters were predicted. The partial least-squares models showed low errors independent of the sample size, indicating the potentiality of the method. Minced procedure and weighing were not necessary to improve the predictive performance of the models. The reduction of transverse relaxation time (T 2 ) measured by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence in darker beef in comparison with lighter ones can be explained by the lower relaxivity Fe 2+ present in deoxymyoglobin and oxymyoglobin (red beef) to the higher relaxivity of Fe 3+ present in metmyoglobin (brown beef). These results point that time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can become a useful tool for quality assessment of beef cattle on bulk of the sample and through-packages, because this technique is also widely applied to measure sensorial parameters, such as flavor, juiciness and tenderness, and physicochemical parameters, cooking loss, fat and moisture content, and instrumental tenderness using Warner Bratzler shear force. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Study on the methodology for predicting and preventing errors to improve reliability of maintenance task in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Iwaki, Toshio; Embrey, D.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and effective methodology for predicting and preventing errors in nuclear power plant maintenance tasks. A method was established by which chief maintenance personnel can predict and reduce errors when reviewing the maintenance procedures and while referring to maintenance supporting systems and methods in other industries including aviation and chemical plant industries. The method involves the following seven steps: 1. Identification of maintenance tasks. 2. Specification of important tasks affecting safety. 3. Assessment of human errors occurring during important tasks. 4. Identification of Performance Degrading Factors. 5. Dividing important tasks into sub-tasks. 6. Extraction of errors using Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA). 7. Development of strategies for reducing errors and for recovering from errors. By way of a trial, this method was applied to the pump maintenance procedure in nuclear power plants. This method is believed to be capable of identifying the expected errors in important tasks and supporting the development of error reduction measures. By applying this method, the number of accidents resulting form human errors during maintenance can be reduced. Moreover, the maintenance support base using computers was developed. (author)

  12. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghirardo, A.; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable fo...... data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later....

  13. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghirardo, A.; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable...... data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later....

  14. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  15. Evaluating the accuracy of uranium isotope amount ratio measurements performed by a quadrupole and a multi-collector magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira de Oliveira, O. Jr.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Ponzevera, E.; Alonso, A.; De Bolle, W.; Quetel, C.

    2008-01-01

    The n(U 235 )/n(U 238 ) isotope amount ratio in a set of samples was measured using two modern analytical techniques: quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and multi-collector magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The measured ratios were compared to the certified ratios provided by the high accuracy gas source mass spectrometry (GSMS). The components of the uncertainty were identified and their contribution to the combined standard uncertainty was estimated using the recommendations of the ISO-GUM guide. The values of the measurement uncertainty and bias were determined and then compared to the International Target Values for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials. It appears that only the measurements performed by MC-ICPMS can meet the stringent requirements of international nuclear safeguards. (authors)

  16. A computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of the probability of malignancy of breast masses on ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-ping; Shi, Jiazheng; Nees, Alexis; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.

    2009-02-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system with the ability to predict the probability of malignancy (PM) of a mass can potentially assist radiologists in making correct diagnostic decisions. In this study, we designed a CADx system using logistic regression (LR) as the feature classifier which could estimate the PM of a mass. Our data set included 488 ultrasound (US) images from 250 biopsy-proven breast masses (100 malignant and 150 benign). The data set was divided into two subsets T1 and T2. Two experienced radiologists, R1 and R2, independently provided Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessments and PM ratings for data subsets T2 and T1, respectively. An LR classifier was designed to estimate the PM of a mass using two-fold cross validation, in which the data subsets T1 and T2 served once as the training and once as the test set. To evaluate the performance of the system, we compared the PM estimated by the CADx system with radiologists' PM ratings (12-point scale) and BI-RADS assessments (6-point scale). The correlation coefficients between the PM ratings estimated by the radiologists and by the CADx system were 0.71 and 0.72 for data subsets T1 and T2, respectively. For the BI-RADS assessments provided by the radiologists and estimated by the CADx system, the correlation coefficients were 0.60 and 0.67 for data subsets T1 and T2, respectively. Our results indicate that the CADx system may be able to provide not only a malignancy score, but also a more quantitative estimate for the PM of a breast mass.

  17. Dose prediction in Japan for nuclear test explosions in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-11-01

    The impact on Japan of the underground test conducted in North Korea on October 9, 2006 is examined. By the use of the results of modelling assessment and environmental monitoring, it is concluded that there was no radiation impact on Japan. This suggests a safely conducted underground nuclear test or an explosion with a very low output.

  18. Standard test method for determination of impurities in nuclear grade uranium compounds by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of 67 elements in uranium dioxide samples and nuclear grade uranium compounds and solutions without matrix separation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elements are listed in Table 1. These elements can also be determined in uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH), uranium hexafluoride (UF6), triuranium octoxide (U3O8) and uranium trioxide (UO3) if these compounds are treated and converted to the same uranium concentration solution. 1.2 The elements boron, sodium, silicon, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and iron can be determined using different techniques. The analyst's instrumentation will determine which procedure is chosen for the analysis. 1.3 The test method for technetium-99 is given in Annex A1. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish ...

  19. Nuclear-moment studies in the odd-mass In isotopes up to N=82 using the Tilted Foils technique

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the magnetic moments of the neutron-rich odd-even In isotopes up to N=82 using the Tilted Foils technique and the recently installed $\\beta$-NMR setup at REX -ISOLDE. With only one proton hole in Z=50 and a neutron number approaching N=82, the indium isotopes should be a very good test ground for the extreme single-particle approximation and could provide essential data for tuning the nuclear interaction in the vicinity of the doubly-magic $^{132}$ Sn. Moments of single-particle states adjacent to closed shells are also crucial to determine the corrections to the M1 operator from core polarization and meson exchange effects. In addition to the 9/2$^{+}$, presumed to be of pure single proton hole configuration, the ½$^{-}$ isomeric states should shed light on a recent hypothesis of low-energy vibration/collectivity in the region. The detailed study of the Tilted Foils technique at higher masses is of crucial importance for its application for further g-factor studies and for the production...

  20. First-trimester multimarker prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus using targeted mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnsborg, Tina; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Trabjerg, Natacha D.

    2016-01-01

    perinatal outcome, no single protein biomarker has yet proven useful for this purpose. In the present study, we hypothesised that multimarker panels of serum proteins can improve first-trimester prediction of GDM among obese and non-obese women compared with single markers. Methods: A nested case......–control study was performed on first-trimester serum samples from 199 GDM cases and 208 controls, each divided into an obese group (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) and a non-obese group (BMI 2). Based on their biological relevance to GDM or type 2 diabetes mellitus or on their previously reported potential as biomarkers...

  1. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, R; Canovas, C; Sánchez, A

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 degrees C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 degrees C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process.

  2. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Canovas, C.; Sanchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process

  3. The nuclear power plant maintenance personnel reliability prediction (NPP/MPRP) effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Human errors committed during maintenance activities are potentially a major contribution to the overall risk associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP). An NRC-sponsored program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is attempting to develop a quantitative predictive technique to evaluate the contribution of maintenance errors to the overall NPP risk. The current work includes a survey of the requirements of potential users to ascertain the need for and content of the proposed quantitative model, plus an initial job/task analysis to determine the scope and applicability of various maintenance tasks. In addition, existing human reliability prediction models are being reviewed and assessed with respect to their applicability to NPP maintenance tasks. This paper discusses the status of the program and summarizes the results to date

  4. Penning-trap mass spectrometry and mean-field study of nuclear shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, V.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barzakh, A. E.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cocolios, T. E.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Marsh, B.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of nuclear shape coexistence in the region of neutron-deficient lead isotopes. The midshell gold isotopes 180,185,188,190Au (Z =79 ), the two long-lived nuclear states in 197At (Z =85 ), and the neutron-rich nuclide 219At were produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and their masses were determined with the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The studied gold isotopes address the trend of binding energies in a region of the nuclear chart where the nuclear charge radii show pronounced discontinuities. Significant deviations from the atomic-mass evaluation were found for Au,190188. The new trend of two-neutron separation energies is smoother, although it does reveal the onset of deformation. The origin of this effect is interpreted in connection to the odd-even staggering of binding energies, as well as theoretically by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations including quasiparticle blocking. The role of blocking for reproducing the large odd-even staggering of charge radii in the mercury isotopic chain is illustrated.

  5. Multiple regression approach to predict turbine-generator output for Chinshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yea-Kuang; Tsai, Yu-Ching [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a turbine cycle model using the multiple regression approach to estimate the turbine-generator output for the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The plant operating data was verified using a linear regression model with a corresponding 95% confidence interval for the operating data. In this study, the key parameters were selected as inputs for the multiple regression based turbine cycle model. The proposed model was used to estimate the turbine-generator output. The effectiveness of the proposed turbine cycle model was demonstrated by using plant operating data obtained from the Chinshan NPP Unit 2. The results show that this multiple regression based turbine cycle model can be used to accurately estimate the turbine-generator output. In addition, this study also provides an alternative approach with simple and easy features to evaluate the thermal performance for nuclear power plants.

  6. Multiple regression approach to predict turbine-generator output for Chinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yea-Kuang; Tsai, Yu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a turbine cycle model using the multiple regression approach to estimate the turbine-generator output for the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The plant operating data was verified using a linear regression model with a corresponding 95% confidence interval for the operating data. In this study, the key parameters were selected as inputs for the multiple regression based turbine cycle model. The proposed model was used to estimate the turbine-generator output. The effectiveness of the proposed turbine cycle model was demonstrated by using plant operating data obtained from the Chinshan NPP Unit 2. The results show that this multiple regression based turbine cycle model can be used to accurately estimate the turbine-generator output. In addition, this study also provides an alternative approach with simple and easy features to evaluate the thermal performance for nuclear power plants.

  7. Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

  8. Evaluation of Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-02-01

    This report evaluates the nonradiological monitoring program at Millstone Nuclear Power Plant. Both operational as well as preoperational monitoring programs were analyzed to produce long-term (5 yr or longer) data sets, where possible. In order to determine the effectiveness of these monitoring programs, the appropriate data sets have to be analyzed by the appropriate statistical analysis. Thus, both open literature and current statistical analysis being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) were employed in data analysis.

  9. CIAPIN1 nuclear accumulation predicts poor clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xiaolan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. The expression of cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1 correlates with the malignant progression of several cancers. However, the relationship between the subcellular localization of CIAPIN1 and clinical characteristics in EOC remains unclear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect CIAPIN1 expression in 108 EOC tissues. CIAPIN1 expressions in eight fresh EOC tissues were detected by Western blotting. The relationship between CIAPIN1 subcellular expression and patients’ clinicopathological features, including prognosis, was evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were employed to assess the CIAPIN1 subcellular localization in the EOC cell lines A2780 and HO8910. In addition, all patients were followed up to assess the prognostic value of CIAPIN1 in patients with EOC. Results CIAPIN1 is highly expressed in EOC, but is present at low levels in paired non-cancerous ovarian epithelial tissues. The results of Western blotting were in accordance with the immunohistochemical results. Poor differentiation of the tumors and EOC cell lines correlated with higher levels of CIAPIN1 nuclear expression. CIAPIN1 nuclear expression significantly correlated with the Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage and histological differentiation (P = 0.034 and P P  Conclusions CIAPIN1 might play a crucial role in the differentiation of EOC cells. Elevated expression of nuclear CIAPIN1 negatively correlated with the survival of EOC patients, suggesting that nuclear CIAPIN1 might serve as a prognostic biomarker for EOC patients.

  10. Time since introduction, seed mass, and genome size predict successful invaders among the cultivated vascular plants of Hawaii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Schmidt

    Full Text Available Extensive economic and environmental damage has been caused by invasive exotic plant species in many ecosystems worldwide. Many comparative studies have therefore attempted to predict, from biological traits, which species among the pool of naturalized non-natives become invasive. However, few studies have investigated which species establish and/or become pests from the larger pool of introduced species and controlled for time since introduction. Here we present results from a study aimed at quantifying predicting three classes of invasive species cultivated in Hawaii. Of 7,866 ornamental species cultivated in Hawaii between 1840 and 1999, 420 (5.3% species naturalized, 141 (1.8% have been classified as weeds, and 39 (0.5% were listed by the state of Hawaii as noxious. Of the 815 species introduced >80 years ago, 253 (31% have naturalized, 90 (11% are classed as weeds, and 22 (3% as noxious by the state of Hawaii. Using boosted regression trees we classified each group with nearly 90% accuracy, despite incompleteness of data and the low proportion of naturalized or pest species. Key biological predictors were seed mass and highest chromosome number standardized by genus which, when data on residence time was removed, were able to predict all three groups with 76-82% accuracy. We conclude that, when focused on a single region, screening for potential weeds or noxious plants based on a small set of biological traits can be achieved with sufficient accuracy for policy and management purposes.

  11. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillou, Sofia; Lagani, Vincenzo; Heinze-Deml, Christina; Schmidt, Angelika; Tegner, Jesper; Tsamardinos, Ioannis

    2017-10-05

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  12. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-09-29

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  13. Prediction by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN of the diffusivity, mass, moisture, volume and solids on osmotically dehydrated yacon (Smallantus sonchifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rojas Naccha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The predictive ability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN on the effect of the concentration (30, 40, 50 y 60 % w/w and temperature (30, 40 y 50°C of fructooligosaccharides solution, in the mass, moisture, volume and solids of osmodehydrated yacon cubes, and in the coefficients of the water means effective diffusivity with and without shrinkage was evaluated. The Feedforward type ANN with the Backpropagation training algorithms and the Levenberg-Marquardt weight adjustment was applied, using the following topology: 10-5 goal error, 0.01 learning rate, 0.5 moment coefficient, 2 input neurons, 6 output neurons, one hidden layer with 18 neurons, 15 training stages and logsig-pureline transfer functions. The overall average error achieved by the ANN was 3.44% and correlation coefficients were bigger than 0.9. No significant differences were found between the experimental values and the predicted values achieved by the ANN and with the predicted values achieved by a statistical model of second-order polynomial regression (p > 0.95.

  14. Transfer of infrared thermography predictive maintenance technologies to Soviet-designed nuclear power plants: experience at Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Ray; Huff, Roy

    1999-03-01

    The importance of infrared (IR) technology and analysis in today's world of predictive maintenance and reliability- centered maintenance cannot be understated. The use of infrared is especially important in facilities that are required to maintain a high degree of equipment reliability because of plant or public safety concerns. As with all maintenance tools, particularly those used in predictive maintenance approaches, training plays a key role in their effectiveness and the benefit gained from their use. This paper details an effort to transfer IR technology to Soviet- designed nuclear power plants in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. Delivery of this technology and post-delivery training activities have been completed recently at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. Many interesting challenges were encountered during this effort. Hardware procurement and delivery of IR technology to a sensitive country were complicated by United States regulations. Freight and shipping infrastructure and host-country customs policies complicated hardware transport. Training activities were complicated by special hardware, software and training material translation needs, limited communication opportunities, and site logistical concerns. These challenges and others encountered while supplying the Chornobyl plant with state-of-the-art IR technology are described in this paper.

  15. Ensuring Longevity: Ancient Glasses Help Predict Durability of Vitrified Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jamie L.; McCloy, John S.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2016-05-01

    How does glass alter with time? For the last hundred years this has been an important question to the fields of object conservation and archeology to ensure the preservation of glass artifacts. This same question is part of the development and assessment of durable glass waste forms for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Researchers have developed experiments ranging from simple to highly sophisticated to answer this question, and, as a result, have gained significant insight into the mechanisms that drive glass alteration. However, the gathered data have been predominately applicable to only short-term alteration times, i.e. over the course of decades. What has remained elusive is the long-term mechanisms of glass alteration[1]. These mechanisms are of particular interest to the international nuclear waste glass community as they strive to ensure that vitrified products will be durable for thousands to tens of thousands of years. For the last thirty years this community has been working to fill this research gap by partnering with archeologists, museum curators, and geologists to identify hundred to million-year old glass analogues that have altered in environments representative of those expected at potential nuclear waste disposal sites. The process of identifying a waste glass relevant analogue is challenging as it requires scientists to relate data collected from short-term laboratory experiments to observations made from long-term analogues and extensive geochemical modeling.

  16. Chloride-mass-balance for predicting increased recharge after land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Tyler, S.W.; Albright, W.H.; Singleton, M.J.

    2004-02-23

    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6-m-deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20 percent of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  17. Impaired cross-talk between mesolimbic food reward processing and metabolic signaling predicts body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e. monetary and food related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m² over a normal (20 to 25 kg/m² and overweight (25 to 30 kg/m² BMI, to class I (30 to 35 kg/m² and class II (35 to 40 kg/m² obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging whilst performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn snack points or money coins which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the ventral striatum, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime. This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e. increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling.

  18. Racial Discrimination and Low Household Education Predict Higher Body Mass Index in African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Devin S; Gerras, Julia M; McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Gill, Amaanat K; Kanneganti, Kamala; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable. Measured height and body weight were used to calculate BMI. Racial discrimination was positively associated with BMI, whereas household education was inversely associated with BMI in African American adolescents (discrimination: β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.01; education: β = -1.13 ± 0.47, p = 0.02). These relationships were significant when accounting for the confounding effects of stress, activity, diet, and pubertal development. Significant gender interactions were observed with racial discrimination and low household education associated with BMI in girls only (discrimination: β = 0.16 ± 0.05, p = 0.003; education: β = -1.12 ± 0.55, p = 0.045). There were no significant relationships between culture, community violence exposure, and BMI (all p's > 0.05). Environmental factors, including racial discrimination and low household education, predicted higher BMI in African American adolescents, particularly among girls. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which these environmental factors increase obesity risk in African American youth.

  19. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses

    1998-01-01

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the 'hot' canisters and the 'cold'geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  20. "Predictability of body mass index for diabetes: Affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Davood

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS and body mass index (BMI, kg.m-2 are established independent risk factors in the development of diabetes; we prospectively examined their relative contributions and joint relationship with incident diabetes in a Middle Eastern cohort. Method participants of the ongoing Tehran lipid and glucose study are followed on a triennial basis. Among non-diabetic participants aged≥ 20 years at baseline (8,121 those with at least one follow-up examination (5,250 were included for the current study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific adjusted odd ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of baseline BMI-MetS categories (normal weight without MetS as reference group for incident diabetes among 2186 men and 3064 women, aged ≥ 20 years, free of diabetes at baseline. Result During follow up (median 6.5 years; there were 369 incident diabetes (147 in men. In women without MetS, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and obese (BMI≥30 participants were 2.3 (1.2-4.3 and 2.2 (1.0-4.7, respectively. The corresponding ORs for men without MetS were 1.6 (0.9-2.9 and 3.6 (1.5-8.4 respectively. As compared to the normal-weight/without MetS, normal-weight women and men with MetS, had a multivariate-adjusted ORs for incident diabetes of 8.8 (3.7-21.2 and 3.1 (1.3-7.0, respectively. The corresponding ORs for overweight and obese women with MetS reached to 7.7 (4.0-14.9 and 12.6 (6.9-23.2 and for men reached to 3.4(2.0-5.8 and 5.7(3.9-9.9, respectively. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for MetS in normal weight individuals. Obesity increases diabetes risk in the absence of MetS, underscores the need for more stringent criteria to define healthy metabolic state among obese individuals. Weight reduction measures, thus, should be encouraged in conjunction with achieving metabolic targets not addressed by current definition of

  1. Objective Measures of Renal Mass Anatomic Complexity Predict Rates of Major Complications Following Partial Nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhan, Jay; Smaldone, Marc C.; Tsai, Kevin J.; Canter, Daniel J.; Li, Tianyu; Kutikov, Alexander; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y.T.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Uzzo, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between tumor complexity and postoperative complications after partial nephrectomy (PN) has not been well characterized. Objective We evaluated whether increasing renal tumor complexity, quantitated by nephrometry score (NS), is associated with increased complication rates following PN using the Clavien-Dindo classification system (CCS). Design, setting, and participants We queried our prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients undergoing PN from 2007 to 2010 for whom NS was available. Interventions All patients underwent PN. Measurements Tumors were categorized into low- (NS: 4–6), moderate- (NS: 7–9), and high-complexity (NS: 10–12) lesions. Complication rates within 30 d were graded (CCS: I–5), stratified as minor (CCS: I or 2) or major (CCS: 3–5), and compared between groups. Results and limitations A total of 390 patients (mean age: 58.0 ± 11.9 yr; 66.9% male) undergoing PN (44.6% open, 55.4% robotic) for low- (28%), moderate- (55.6%), and high-complexity (16.4%) tumors (mean tumor size: 3.74 ± 2.4 cm; median: 3.2 cm) from 2007 to 2010 were identified. Tumor size, estimated blood loss, and ischemia time all significantly differed (p < 0.0001) between groups; patient age, body mass index (BMI), and operative time were comparable. When stratified by CCS, minor and major complication rates for all patients were 26.7% and 11.5%, respectively. Minor complication rates were comparable (26.6 vs 24.9 vs 32.8%; p = 0.45), whereas major complication rates differed (6.4 vs 11.1 vs 21.9%; p = 0.009) among tumor complexity groups. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, type of surgical approach, operative duration, and tumor complexity, prolonged operative time (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.0–1.02) and high tumor complexity (OR: 5.4; CI, 1.2–24.2) were associated with the postoperative development of a major complication. Lack of external validation is a limitation of this study. Conclusions

  2. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y Krakauer

    Full Text Available Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI, it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC.We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 18 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths. We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI ≡ WC/(BMI(2/3height(1/2. ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of +33% per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: +20%-+48%, whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. 22% (8%-41% of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to 15% (3%-30% for BMI and 15% (4%-29% for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity, and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up.Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.

  3. Evolutionary gradient of predicted nuclear localization signals (NLS)-bearing proteins in genomes of family Planctomycetaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Yang, Ruifu; Huang, Chen; Liao, Qiwen; Fan, Guangyi; Sun, Chenghang; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-04-04

    The nuclear envelope is considered a key classification marker that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes. However, this marker does not apply to the family Planctomycetaceae, which has intracellular spaces divided by lipidic intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs). Nuclear localization signal (NLS), a short stretch of amino acid sequence, destines to transport proteins from cytoplasm into nucleus, and is also associated with the development of nuclear envelope. We attempted to investigate the NLS motifs in Planctomycetaceae genomes to demonstrate the potential molecular transition in the development of intracellular membrane system. In this study, we identified NLS-like motifs that have the same amino acid compositions as experimentally identified NLSs in genomes of 11 representative species of family Planctomycetaceae. A total of 15 NLS types and 170 NLS-bearing proteins were detected in the 11 strains. To determine the molecular transformation, we compared NLS-bearing protein abundances in the 11 representative Planctomycetaceae genomes with them in genomes of 16 taxonomically varied microorganisms: nine bacteria, two archaea and five fungi. In the 27 strains, 29 NLS types and 1101 NLS-bearing proteins were identified, principal component analysis showed a significant transitional gradient from bacteria to Planctomycetaceae to fungi on their NLS-bearing protein abundance profiles. Then, we clustered the 993 non-redundant NLS-bearing proteins into 181 families and annotated their involved metabolic pathways. Afterwards, we aligned the ten types of NLS motifs from the 13 families containing NLS-bearing proteins among bacteria, Planctomycetaceae or fungi, considering their diversity, length and origin. A transition towards increased complexity from non-planctomycete bacteria to Planctomycetaceae to archaea and fungi was detected based on the complexity of the 10 types of NLS-like motifs in the 13 NLS-bearing proteins families. The results of this study reveal that

  4. Predicting linear and nonlinear time series with applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.L.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a primer on the analysis of both linear and nonlinear time series with applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. We analyze eight simulated and two real time series using both linear and nonlinear modeling techniques. The theoretical treatment is brief but references to pertinent theory are provided. Forecasting is our main goal. However, because our most common approach is to fit models to the data, we also emphasize checking model adequacy by analyzing forecast errors for serial correlation or nonconstant variance

  5. SCALE 5.1 Predictions of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this calculation report is to document the comparison to measurement of the isotopic concentrations for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel determined with the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 5.1 (Ref. ) epletion calculation method. Specifically, the depletion computer code and the cross-section library being evaluated are the twodimensional (2-D) transport and depletion module, TRITON/NEWT,2, 3 and the 44GROUPNDF5 (Ref. 4) cross-section library, respectively, in the SCALE .1 code system.

  6. Prediction of prestressing losses for long term operation of nuclear reactor buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillard G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete is used in nuclear reactor buildings to guarantee containment and structural integrity in case of an accident. Monitoring and operating experience over 40 years has shown that prestressing losses can be much greater than the design estimation based on the usual standard laws. A method was developed to determine the realistic residual prestress level in structures, in particular for those where no embedded instrumentation was installed, taking into account in situ measurement results rather than design characteristics. The results can enable the owner to justify extending the lifespan while guaranteeing adequate safety and to define and plan adequate maintenance actions.

  7. Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of some genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification and apoptosis is performed via the human pregnane X receptor (PXR which in turn is activated by structurally diverse agonists including steroid hormones. Activation of PXR has the potential to initiate adverse effects, altering drug pharmacokinetics or perturbing physiological processes. Reliable computational prediction of PXR agonists would be valuable for pharmaceutical and toxicological research. There has been limited success with structure-based modeling approaches to predict human PXR activators. Slightly better success has been achieved with ligand-based modeling methods including quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR analysis, pharmacophore modeling and machine learning. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis focused on prediction of 115 steroids for ligand binding activity towards human PXR. Six crystal structures were used as templates for docking and ligand-based modeling approaches (two-, three-, four- and five-dimensional analyses. The best success at external prediction was achieved with 5D-QSAR. Bayesian models with FCFP_6 descriptors were validated after leaving a large percentage of the dataset out and using an external test set. Docking of ligands to the PXR structure co-crystallized with hyperforin had the best statistics for this method. Sulfated steroids (which are activators were consistently predicted as non-activators while, poorly predicted steroids were docked in a reverse mode compared to 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol. Modeling of human PXR represents a complex challenge by virtue of the large, flexible ligand-binding cavity. This study emphasizes this aspect, illustrating modest success using the largest quantitative data set to date and multiple modeling approaches.

  8. Application of a mass-balance model to predict PCDD/F turnover in a Baltic coastal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, O. Magnus; Malmaeus, J. Mikael; Josefsson, Sarah; Wiberg, Karin; Håkanson, Lars

    2010-06-01

    A dynamical, process-based mass-balance model was applied to quantify the transports of polychlorinated- p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to, within and from the Kallrigafjärden Bay, a coastal estuary in the Baltic Sea, and to predict the PCDD/F levels in the water and sediments of the bay. Before the modelling, a one-year sampling programme was implemented in 2007-2008 to measure the flows of PCDD/Fs in tributaries entering the system, the fluxes from the adjacent sea and the levels in water, sediment and fish within the estuary. The collected data set was used as input data to the model and for validation purposes. The model was originally developed and tested for suspended particulate matter and phosphorus in Baltic coastal areas. In this work, it was run monthly without any tuning of the original model variables. The simulation results compared favourably with the field measurements of levels of 15 PCDD/F congeners in the water and sediments of the bay. The dominating fluxes of PCDD/Fs were the exchange with the adjacent sea, followed by riverine input, atmospheric deposition and sediment burial. Although the sediment-water exchange was of minor importance for the overall mass-balance due to the rapid water turnover and limited areas favourable for the long-term deposition of fine sedimentary matter, sensitivity analyses indicated that the model's predictive capability was improved with about 5% by taking the sediment burial and release into account.

  9. Predicting the locations of possible long-lived low-mass first stars: importance of satellite dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magg, Mattis; Hartwig, Tilman; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Frebel, Anna; Glover, Simon C. O.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-02-01

    The search for metal-free stars has so far been unsuccessful, proving that if there are surviving stars from the first generation, they are rare, they have been polluted or we have been looking in the wrong place. To predict the likely location of Population III (Pop III) survivors, we semi-analytically model early star formation in progenitors of Milky Way-like galaxies and their environments. We base our model on merger trees from the high-resolution dark matter only simulation suite Caterpillar. Radiative and chemical feedback are taken into account self-consistently, based on the spatial distribution of the haloes. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way today. We find that possible surviving Pop III stars are more common in Milky Way satellites than in the main Galaxy. In particular, low-mass Milky Way satellites contain a much larger fraction of Pop III stars than the Milky Way. Such nearby, low-mass Milky Way satellites are promising targets for future attempts to find Pop III survivors, especially for high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations. We provide the probabilities of finding a Pop III survivor in the red giant branch phase for all known Milky Way satellites to guide future observations.

  10. Mass scale of vectorlike matter and superpartners from IR fixed point predictions of gauge and top Yukawa couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermíšek, Radovan; McGinnis, Navin

    2018-03-01

    We use the IR fixed point predictions for gauge couplings and the top Yukawa coupling in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM) extended with vectorlike families to infer the scale of vectorlike matter and superpartners. We quote results for several extensions of the MSSM and present results in detail for the MSSM extended with one complete vectorlike family. We find that for a unified gauge coupling αG>0.3 vectorlike matter or superpartners are expected within 1.7 TeV (2.5 TeV) based on all three gauge couplings being simultaneously within 1.5% (5%) from observed values. This range extends to about 4 TeV for αG>0.2 . We also find that in the scenario with two additional large Yukawa couplings of vectorlike quarks the IR fixed point value of the top Yukawa coupling independently points to a multi-TeV range for vectorlike matter and superpartners. Assuming a universal value for all large Yukawa couplings at the grand unified theory scale, the measured top quark mass can be obtained from the IR fixed point for tan β ≃4 . The range expands to any tan β >3 for significant departures from the universality assumption. Considering that the Higgs boson mass also points to a multi-TeV range for superpartners in the MSSM, adding a complete vectorlike family at the same scale provides a compelling scenario where the values of gauge couplings and the top quark mass are understood as a consequence of the particle content of the model.

  11. Ultrasound positive predictive values by BI-RADS categories 3-5 for solid masses: An independent reader study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavros, A Thomas; Freitas, Andrea G; deMello, Giselle G N; Barke, Lora; McDonald, Dennis; Kaske, Terese; Wolverton, Ducly; Honick, Arnold; Stanzani, Daniela; Padovan, Adriana H; Moura, Ana Paula C; de Campos, Marilia C V

    2017-10-01

    We assessed multiple readers' positive predictive values (PPVs) for ACR BI-RADS 3, 4a, 4b, 4c and 5 masses on ultrasound (US) pre- and post-proposed guidelines. This retrospective, IRB-approved study included four American and four non-American readers who assigned BI-RADS categories for US images of 374 biopsy-proved masses. Readers were offered guidelines and re-classified the masses. We assessed readers' abilities to achieve ACR benchmarks BI-RADS categories pre- and post-guidelines. PPVs increased with BI-RADS category. The PPVs pre- and post-guidelines were 6.0% and 4.4% for category 3, 27.3% and 30.5% for category 4a, 49.9% and 51.5% for category 4b, 69.0% and 67.4% for category 4c, and 79.3% and 80.1% for category 5. Readers achieved the PPV benchmark for category 4c, but not for categories 3, 4a, 4b and 5, with no significant improvement after guidelines. Regular BI-RADS 4 subcategory users missed benchmarks by less than non-regular users. Pre- and post-guidelines, readers' PPVs increased with BI-RADS categories, ACR PPV benchmarks were achieved in category 4c, missed in other categories, especially in the critical 4a subcategory, where the PPV was too high. BI-RADS 4 subcategory users performed better than non-users. • Readers failed to achieve benchmarks for BI-RADS 4 subcategories, especially 4a. • USA and Brazilian readers performed similarly in ACR BI-RADS 4 subcategorization. • Proposed guidelines did not improve overall, USA or Brazilian reader performance. • Regularly BI-RADS 4 subcategory users performed better than did non-users. • US features distinguished between benign and malignant, not BI-RADS 4 subcategories.

  12. Predicting corrosion product transport in nuclear power stations using a solubility-based model for flow-accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.; Cheluget, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A general model of solubility-driven flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel was derived based on the assumption that the solubilities of ferric oxyhydroxide and magnetite control the rate of film dissolution. This process involves the dissolution of an oxide film due to fast-flowing coolant unsaturated in iron. The soluble iron is produced by (i) the corrosion of base metal under a porous oxide film and (ii) the dissolution of the oxide film at the fluid-oxide film interface. The iron released at the pipe wall is transferred into the bulk flow by turbulent mass transfer. The model is suitable for calculating concentrations of dissolved iron in feedtrain lines. These iron levels were used to calculate sludge transport rates around the feedtrain. The model was used to predict sludge transport rates due to flow accelerated corrosion of major feedtrain piping in a CANDU reactor. The predictions of the model compare well with plant measurements

  13. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  14. Common Peak Approach Using Mass Spectrometry Data Sets for Predicting the Effects of Anticancer Drugs on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ushijima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for biomarker discovery from mass spectrometry data, improving the common peak approach developed by Fushiki et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 7:358, 2006. The common peak method is a simple way to select the sensible peaks that are shared with many subjects among all detected peaks by combining a standard spectrum alignment and kernel density estimates. The key idea of our proposed method is to apply the common peak approach to each class label separately. Hence, the proposed method gains more informative peaks for predicting class labels, while minor peaks associated with specifi c subjects are deleted correctly. We used a SELDI-TOF MS data set from laser microdissected cancer tissues for predicting the treatment effects of neoadjuvant therapy using an anticancer drug on breast cancer patients. The AdaBoost algorithm is adopted for pattern recognition, based on the set of candidate peaks selected by the proposed method. The analysis gives good performance in the sense of test errors for classifying the class labels for a given feature vector of selected peak values.

  15. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K M; Paiva, L L; Sanchez, S E; Revilla, L; Lopez, T; Yasuda, M B; Yanez, N D; Gelaye, B; Williams, M A

    2011-01-24

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  16. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Knowles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, waist-height ratio (WHtR, and visceral adiposity index (VAI were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures