WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear industry effluents

  1. The treatment of liquid effluents from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley-Macauly, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the sources, and principles of management, of radioactive liquid wastes in the nuclear industry. The selection of processes for their treatment is based on consideration of the solution chemistry and of the total system for active waste disposal which must ensure that the activity or radiation dose arriving in the biosphere is kept within acceptable limits. Treatment processes aim primarily at concentration of the active species into a small volume, as by evaporation, selective ion exchange or precipitation. These well established methods have counterparts or developments among the more novel means of separation, such as membrane processes. (author)

  2. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  3. The exposure of the EC (European Community) population from nuclear industry effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, M.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose commitment to the EC population from routine effluents released from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants within the Community in 1978 amounted to approximately 500 man Sv. The collective dose commitments associated with discharges from the nuclear power stations was approximately 50 man Sv, being almost entirely due to airborne carbon-14. The total collective dose commitment from the reprocessing plants was approximately 450 man Sv, about two-thirds of which was due to radiocaesium in the liquid effluent from Sellafield. (UK)

  4. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  5. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  6. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  7. UNC Nuclear Industries reactor and fuels production facilities 1985 effluent release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokkan, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of routine samples from radioactive liquid and airborne streams were performed using UNC's Radioanalytical Laboratory and the analytical services of US Testing Company. All significant effluent discharges from UNC facilities to the environment during CY 1985 are reported in this document

  8. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs

  9. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  11. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  12. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  13. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. ... Key words: Genotoxicity, paint, textile, industrial effluents, Allium cepa, mutation, pollution, chromosomal .... concentration of a chemical producing 50% of the total effect).

  14. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1977-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  15. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  16. Cyanobacterial flora from polluted industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Shah, Vishal; Madamwar, Datta

    2006-05-01

    Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature, these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India and their relationship with water quality is reported in this study. Intensity of pollution was evaluated by physico-chemical analysis of water. Higher load of solids, carbon and nutrients were found to be persistent throughout the analysis. Sediment and water samples were found to be colored in nature. Cyanobacterial community structure was found to be influenced by the anthropogenic pollution. 40 different cyanobacterial species were recorded from 14 genera of 5 families and an elevated occurrence of Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus genera was observed in all the sampling sites.

  17. Agricultural utilization of industrial thermal effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is made of the utilization of thermal effluent for agricultural purpose (viz. early vegetables, cereals, trees). Heated waters are being used in field experiments on soil heating, improvement of agricultural procedures and crop yields. Thermal pollution cannot be removed yet it is reduced to acceptable limits. New prospects are open to traditional agriculture, leading towards a more competitive industrial model [fr

  18. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  19. Chromium removal from tanning industries effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    1997-01-01

    Air and water are the basic needs of human being and other living entities on the earth. Tanning industry uses water and some chemicals and so creates environmental problems, depending basically on two principal sources, hide and water. The processes of tanning are based on chromium sulphate and vegetable treatment of hide. According to the national environmental quality standards (NEQS) the effluent or disposed water should contain phenol less than 0.5 ppm, Cr, sulphates, chloride and other salts content. About 30-40 liters of water are used to process one Kg of raw hide into finished goods. Total installed capacity of hides and skins chrome tanning is 53.5 million square meter, earning a large amount of foreign exchange for our country. In the present work, seven tanning industries effluents from the suburbs of Multan city have been collected and analysed. The pH of the liquors have been found to vary from 2.72 to 4.4 and the constituent Cr have been found to be from zero to 8000 ppm from vegetable to chrome tanning industrial effluents studied. The stages involved in tanning and treatment of the effluent water waste including chemical treatment of Cr has been described with a special reference to supported liquid membranes process for removal of chromium ions. (author)

  20. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  1. Impact of industrial effluents on surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    2000-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated municipal and industrial effluents has given rise to serious problems of water pollution and human health in Pakistan. The City of Lahore discharges about 365 mgd of wastewater with a BOD load of 250 tons per day, without treatment, into Ravi river. Because of the untreated industrial discharges, river Ravi is devoid of dissolved oxygen through most of its react between Lahore and Upper Chenab Canal under low flow conditions. Pollution levels can be controlled if each industry treats its own wastewater prior to disposal, in accordance with NEQS (Pakistan). (author)

  2. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  4. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  5. Decree no 96-761 from August 27, 1996 authorizing the company for industrial wastes and effluents conditioning to create a basic nuclear installation, named Centraco, in the town of Codolet (Gard department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juppe, A.; Borotra, F.; Lepage, C.

    1996-01-01

    This decree from the French prime minister, the minister of environment and the minister of industry and postal services gives permission to the Socodei company to create a basic nuclear installation, named Centraco, in the town of Codolet (Gard department, France) for the selection, decontamination, valorization, treatment and conditioning of low radioactive effluents and wastes from French and foreign industries. The decree describes the Centraco installation (buildings, incineration and storage unit, maintenance unit). It summarizes the technical rules which must be applied concerning the quality assurance, the protection against risks of radioactive or chemical materials dissemination, the personnel and public protection against ionizing radiations, the control of environmental pollution with liquid and gaseous effluents, the reduction of volume and radioactivity of solid wastes, the transport and handling of radioactive materials, the protection against earthquakes and fire, the safety systems for plant operation, and the personnel training. (J.S.)

  6. Sulphate removal from industrial effluents through barium sulphate precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of South Africa’s water resources puts a strain on an already stressed natural resource. One of the main pollution sources is industrial effluents such as acid mine drainage (AMD) and other mining effluents. These effluents usually...

  7. IRSN's expertise about nuclear medicine hospital effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This brief note aims at presenting the radioactivity follow up of hospital effluents performed by the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). This follow up concerns the radioactive compounds and radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, and principally technetium 99 and iodine 131. The IRSN has developed a network of remote measurement systems for the monitoring of sewers and waste water cleaning facilities. Data are compiled in a data base for analysis and subsequent expertise. (J.S.)

  8. Some considerations on the use of gamma spectrometry for Kr-85 determination at gaseous effluents in the nuclear industry and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with GeLi semiconductor detector for measured the 0.514 KeV gamma radiation of Kr-B5 la explored, The detection limit of Kr-85 for a measuring time is 4.10 - 4 μCi with a counting time of 1000 minutes in a GeLi detector with a 20% efficiency relative to the INa (Tl). It is concluded that the use of gamma ray spectrometry for measuring the Kr-85 is not useful for environmental samples, but it can be used for the Kr-85 effluents control in Nuclear Stations. (Author) 26 refs

  9. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  10. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  11. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  12. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  13. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  14. Treatment of effluents in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium processing technology in India has matured in the last 50 years and is able to meet the country's requirement. Right from mining of the ore to milling and refining, effluents are generated and are being processed for their safe disposal. While the available technology is able to meet the regulatory limits of the effluents, the same may not be enough to meet the increased demand of uranium in the future. The increased population, urbanization and climate change are not only going to decrease the supply of process water but will also place increased restrictions on disposal to environment. This demands technologies that will generate less effluent for disposal and enable reuse and recycle concept to the extent possible. Presently used conventional physical-chemical methods, to contain the contaminants would, therefore, require further refinements. Contaminants like sulfates, chlorides etc in the effluent of uranium mill based on acid leach process are the concerns for the future plants. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of suitable methods for maximum recycle of the process effluents, which will also enable in minimizing the consumption of process water. A suitable membrane based process can be an option leaving a concentrated brine for reuse or for further treatment and disposal

  15. A Novel Methylotrophic Bacterial Consortium for Treatment of Industrial Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2018-01-01

    Considering the importance of methylotrophs in industrial wastewater treatment, focus of the present study was on utilization of a methylotrophic bacterial consortium as a microbial seed for biotreatment of a variety of industrial effluents. For this purpose, a mixed bacterial methylotrophic AC (Ankleshwar CETP) consortium comprising of Bordetella petrii AC1, Bacillus licheniformis AC4, Salmonella subterranea AC5, and Pseudomonas stutzeri AC8 was used. The AC consortium showed efficient biotreatment of four industrial effluents procured from fertilizer, chemical and pesticide industries, and common effluent treatment plant by lowering their chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 950-2000 mg/l to below detection limit in 60-96 h in 6-l batch reactor and 9-15 days in 6-l continuous reactor. The operating variables of wastewater treatment, viz. COD, BOD, pH, MLSS, MLVSS, SVI, and F/M ratio of these effluents, were also maintained in the permissible range in both batch and continuous reactors. Therefore, formation of the AC consortium has led to the development of an efficient microbial seed capable of treating a variety of industrial effluents containing pollutants generated from their respective industries.

  16. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    into the river. This stretch with a station 2 km further upstream forms the area of study. Faunal groups/species are rich at barmouth (st 1), gradually decline upstream and record lowest density at the effluent discharge point (st 8). Five major and 26 other...

  17. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic products. To ensure the safety of effluents, proper technologies need to be used for the complete degradation of dyes. Traditionally, treatments of textile waste water involve ...

  18. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  19. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  20. Responsability of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz Deleito, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear industry, civil responsibility with damages to the public health and properties was a critical problem, because the special conditions of this industry (nuclear accident, damages could be very high but probability of these events is very low). Legal precepts, universally accepted, in the first 60 years for all countries interested in nuclear energy are being revised, then 20 years of experience. The civil responsibility limited is being questioned and indemnities updated. (author)

  1. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  2. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  3. Nuclear industry technology boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholler, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits to the medical, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, computer, video, bioscience, laser, defense, and numerous high-tech industries from nuclear technology development fallout are indeed numerous and increase every day. Now those industries have made further progress and improvements that, in return, benefit the nuclear industry. The clean-air and particle-free devices and enclosures needed for protection and decontamination are excellent examples

  4. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  5. Nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people's republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  6. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  7. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  8. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  10. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  11. Nuclear industry chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a survey on Switzerland a pull-out organisation chart is presented of the nuclear industry showing Swiss government bodies and industrial concerns. Their interests, connections with each other and their associations with international and other national organizations and firms are indicated. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The marine centric diatom,Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901) was exposed to five different concentrations of industrial effluent for 96 hrs to investigate the effect on growth. The physico-chemical parameters viz. colour, odour, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, ammonia, nitrite, ...

  13. Effects of industrial effluents and fertilizer applications on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in south-western Nigeria to determine the effects of different fertilizer applications on the growth performance of sunflower when cultivated in an Alfisols contaminated with effluents from a paints industry. This was with a view to assessing the yield and nutrient quality of harvested sunflower ...

  14. Nuclear industry and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear industry being composed of plants, laboratories, nuclear power stations, uranium mines, power lines and fluxes of materials from one facility to another is a strong shaper of the national territory. Contrary to other European countries, French nuclear industry is present all over the national territory. In 64 departments out of 101 there is at least one enterprise whose half of the revenues depends on nuclear activities. The advantage of such a geographical dispersion is when a nuclear activity is given up the social impact is less important: people tend to find a new job in the same region. French Nuclear power plants are generally set in remote places where population density is low and being the first employer by far of the area and being a major contributor to the city revenues, they are perceived as a key element the local population is proud of. In Germany, nuclear power plants are set inside dense industrial regions and appear as an industry just like any other.(A.C.)

  15. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  16. Bioassessment of the Effluents Discharged from Two Export Oriented Industrial Zones Located in Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka Using Erythrocytic Responses of the Fish, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, C K; Pathiratne, A

    2017-10-01

    Complex effluents originating from diverse industrial processes in industrial zones could pose cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards to biota in the receiving ecosystems which cannot be revealed by conventional monitoring methods. This study assessed potential cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of treated effluents of two industrial zones which are discharged into Kelani river, Sri Lanka combining erythrocytic abnormality tests and comet assay of the tropical model fish, Nile tilapia. Exposure of fish to the effluents induced erythrocytic DNA damage and deformed erythrocytes with serrated membranes, vacuolations, nuclear buds and micronuclei showing cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards in all cases. Occasional exceedance of industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits was noted for color and lead which may have contributed to the observed cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of effluents. The results demonstrate that fish erythrocytic responses could be used as effective bioanalytical tools for cytotoxic/genotoxic hazard assessments of complex effluents of industrial zones for optimization of the waste treatment process in order to reduce biological impacts.

  17. Arsenic removal from industrial effluent through electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Dept. of Pollution Control; Madhavan, K. [Coimbatore Inst. of Technology, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-05-01

    In the present investigation, it is attempted to remove arsenic from smelter industrial wastewater through electro-coagulation. Experiments covering a wide range of operating conditions for removal of the arsenic present in the smelter wastewater are carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor. It has been observed from the present work that arsenic can be removed effectively through electrocoagulation. (orig.)

  18. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  19. Nuclear power industry, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The intent of this publication is to provide a single volume of resource material that offers a timely, comprehensive view of the nuclear option. Chapter 1 discusses the development of commercial nuclear power from a historical perspective, reviewing the factors and events that have and will influence its progress. Chapters 2 through 5 discuss in detail the nuclear powerplant and its supporting fuel cycle, including various aspects of each element from fuel supply to waste management. Additional dimension is brought to the discussion by Chapters 6 and 7, which cover the Federal regulation of nuclear power and the nuclear export industry. This vast body of thoroughly documented information offers the reader a useful tool in evaluating the record and potential of nuclear energy in the United States

  20. Updated on effluents releases of the CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities - 1995 to 2010 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Nelson Luiz Dias [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) facilities has been presented in a former work, based on the measured effluent releases data, for the period from 1995 to 2007. This work shows the update up to 2010. The effluents releases to the environment result from the routine operation of CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities (LEI - Isotopic Enrichment Laboratory, USIDE - Pilot Plant for Industrial Verification of Uranium Enrichment and LABMAT - Nuclear Materials Laboratory). Basically, this work presents the radioactive release source terms, as described at the CEA Effluent Report sent to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) each semester, and a historical assessment of the critical group annual doses from 1995 up to 2010. The assessed doses are compared to the maximum dose constraint as well as to the exemption level specified by CNEN. (author)

  1. Updated on effluents releases of the CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities - 1995 to 2010 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Nelson Luiz Dias

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) facilities has been presented in a former work, based on the measured effluent releases data, for the period from 1995 to 2007. This work shows the update up to 2010. The effluents releases to the environment result from the routine operation of CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities (LEI - Isotopic Enrichment Laboratory, USIDE - Pilot Plant for Industrial Verification of Uranium Enrichment and LABMAT - Nuclear Materials Laboratory). Basically, this work presents the radioactive release source terms, as described at the CEA Effluent Report sent to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) each semester, and a historical assessment of the critical group annual doses from 1995 up to 2010. The assessed doses are compared to the maximum dose constraint as well as to the exemption level specified by CNEN. (author)

  2. Industrial nuclear property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetre, M.

    1976-01-01

    The first requests for patents for the use of nuclear power filed in France in 1939. This paper reviews the regulations on industrial nuclear property in various countries. The patenting system in several socialist countries is characterized by the fact that inventions on the production and use of radioactive materials may not be patented. This equally applies in India. In the United States, this type of invention may be patented except for those involving military uses and which must be notified to the federal authorities. In France, all industrial nuclear property is grouped under the same body, Brevatome, created in 1958, which enables the allocation of rights to be negotiated between the different interested parties, the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and private industry. Under the Euratom Treaty, all inventions, even those governed by secrecy in Member countries, must be communicated to the Commission of the European Communities. (NEA) [fr

  3. Nuclear Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, W., E-mail: eweike@263.net.cn [Bureau of Geology, China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  4. Nuclear weapons industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, K.A.; Shaw, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    This unique study was written specifically as a reference source for institutional investors concerned about the threat posed to their stock portfolios by the debate over nuclear arms production. The authors focus their analysis on the 26 leading companies in the field. The perspective is neutral and refreshing. Background information on strategic policy, arms control and disarmament, and the influence of the industry on defense policy and the economy is presented rationally. The study also discusses the economic significance of both the conversion from military to civilian production and nuclear freeze initiatives. An appendix contains a fact-filled guide to nuclear weapon systems

  5. Industrial nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennerstedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    A great number of industrial nuclear gauges are used in Sweden. The administrative routines for testing, approval and licensing are briefly described. Safety standards, including basic ICRP criteria, are summarized and a theoretical background to the various measuring techniques is given. Numerous practical examples are given. (author)

  6. Industry plots nuclear revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogee, A.

    1984-01-01

    A successful revival of the nuclear power industry will require standardization and a reduction in the number of companies managing construction, according to Atomic Industrial Forum spokesmen. In describing the concept of a few superutilities to build nuclear plants, they emphasize the need for a nuclear culture among construction management. Future plant designs emphasize small scale, with design, engineering, licensing, financing, operator training, and paperwork completed before the sale. Utilities continue to pursue economy-of-scale despite the evidence that small-scale reactors can be economical and are more appropriate for fluctuating demand growth. Financiers want more say in construction plans in the future, while utilities want to establish generating subsidiaries for wholesale power sales

  7. Nuclear Industry Family Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a copy of the U.K.A.E.A. Question and Answer brief concerning an epidemiological study entitled the Nuclear Industry Family Study, to investigate the health of children of AEA, AWE, and BNFL Workers. The study is being carried out by an independent team of medical research workers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. (UK)

  8. News from nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    A cooperation agreement has been signed between Indian and French governments concerning energy and research. This agreement opens the Indian market to Areva for the supply of power reactors. Areva will face Russian and American competitors. Areva is already present in India in the sectors of power transmission and distribution, it employs 3500 people and operates 8 industrial plants. Areva and Northrop Grumman have signed an agreement to build the biggest site on American soil dedicated to the manufacturing of big nuclear components like reactor vessels, steam generators and pressurizers. An opinion poll shows that 78% Americans favor the use of nuclear energy for producing electricity, while 24% are opposed to it and that nuclear power plants are considered safe by 78% of the population. The Areva-Bechtel corporation has signed an agreement with Unistar Nuclear Energy for doing the preliminary studies for the construction of an EPR near the Calvert Cliffs site. More than 500 engineers are working on the project that benefit from the feedback experience of 4 EPR that are presently being built in Finland, France and China. The European Commission wants the European Union to play a major role in nuclear safety, a task group has been created whose purpose is to define new regulations illustrating common priorities and approaches for unifying national nuclear safety standards among the member states. (A.C.)

  9. Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) implementation, Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, W.; Akers, D.W.

    1985-06-01

    A review of the Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was performed. The principal review guidelines used were NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and Draft 7'' of NUREG-0472, Revision 3, ''Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Pressurized Water Reactors.'' Draft submittals were discussed with the Licensee by the NRC staff until all items requiring changes to the Technical Specifications were resolved. The Licensee then submitted final proposed RETS to the NRC which were evaluated and found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines. The proposed Offsite Dose Calculation Manual and the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Manual were reviewed and generally found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines

  10. Nuclear industry almanac v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.; Jeffs, E.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Industry Almanac. National energy profiles of 17 Western European countries are given, concentrating on electricity supply and the role nuclear power plays in meeting the demand for electric power. The nuclear industries of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom are described and addresses of establishments and industries are listed. (U.K.)

  11. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  12. Physicochemical assessment of industrial textile effluents of Punjab (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Deepika; Sharma, Neeta Raj; Kanwar, Ramesh; Singh, Joginder

    2018-06-01

    Urbanization and industrialization are generating huge quantities of untreated wastewater leading to increased water pollution and human diseases in India. The textile industry is one of the leading polluters of surface water and consumes about 200-270 tons of water to produce 1 ton of textile product. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the pollution potential of textile industry effluent draining into Buddha Nallah stream located in Ludhiana, Punjab (India), and determine the seasonal variation in physicochemical parameters (pH, water temperature, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Buddha Nallah water. During summer months, for Site 1 and Site 2, the value of pH was in the alkaline range of 8.78 ± 0.47 and 8.51 ± 0.41, respectively. The values of pH in the rainy season were found to be in the range of 7.38 ± 0.58 and 7.11 ± 0.59 for Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. In the autumn and winter seasons, the average pH values were found to be in the range of 8.58 ± 1.40 and 8.33 ± 0.970, respectively. The maximum mean temperature in summer was recorded as 41.16 ± 4.99 °C, and lowest mean temperature in winter was recorded as 39.25 ± 2.25 °C at Site 2. The suspended solids were found to be highest (143.5 ± 75.01 and 139.66 ± 71.87 mg/L) in autumn for both the sites and lowest (86.50 + 15.10 mg/L) in the rainy season for Site 1. The values of BOD and COD of the textile effluent of both sites during all the seasons ranged from 121-580 to 240-990 mg/L, respectively, much higher than WHO water quality standard of 30 mg/L for BOD and 250 mg/L for COD. The present study deals with the collection of textile industry effluent and its characterization to find out the physicochemical load being drained by the effluent generated from textile industries, on the natural wastewater streams.

  13. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  14. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  15. Characterization and consequences from CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities effluents releases - 1995 up to 2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Nelson Luiz Dias; Fonseca, Lizandra Pereira de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Discharges to the environment of airborne and/or liquid radioactive effluents from the normal operation of nuclear facilities can become a potential source of radiation exposure to humans. The highest exposed members of the public are defined as the critical group. The requirements for the control and monitoring of radioactive discharges to the environment and the degree of environmental monitoring required are linked to the assessed critical group dose. The assessed dose can be compared to dose constraint, which is a fraction of the annual effective dose to members of the public, as well as the level of exemption specified by the National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN). Effluents releases from the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) facilities are registered and described at CEA Effluent Report, semestrally sent to CNEN. Basically, that report provides information related to the type and the quantity of chemical and radioactive substances released to the environment due the routine operation of CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities (LEI - Isotopic Enrichment Laboratory, USIDE - Pilot Plant for Industrial Verification of Uranium Enrichment and LABMAT - Nuclear Materials Laboratory). CEA Annual Effluent Report includes assessment of the annual effective doses for members of the critical group for the CEA site. This work presents the characterization of the radioactive release source terms and a historical of the critical group annual doses from 1995 up to 2007. (author)

  16. Mapping of industrial effluent on coastal sediments using EDX

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available isotopes [14], magnetic and rare-earth markers such as Ta and Co [15] and bacterial tracers [16]. Passive tracers are materials/substances already present in the effluent as they leave the factory or treatment works. In the case of ?sludges? from sewage... for industrial waste [1,2]. To date, while EDX has been used to determine the speciation of marine suspended particles [21], monitor the translocation and mixing of fill sands [22] and describe the source and intermixing of sea-floor sediments [23...

  17. Industrial water and effluent management in the milk processing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, JW

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important commodities used in any food-processing industry is water which must be of the right quality. Water which comes into direct contact with milk or milk products must meet standards which are even stricter than those for a...

  18. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  19. Nuclear industry will soon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum has carried out the annual survey of nuclear industry from the very inception of the development of nuclear power in Japan. The aim is to research and analyze nuclear-related expenditures, sales and manpower, as well as the future prospect of mining and manufacturing industries, electric utilities, trading companies and other related industries. The 19th fact-finding survey investigated into the actual conditions of the nuclear industry from April, 1977, to March, 1978. The number of companies surveyed increased by 75 from the previous year to 1,244, of which 883 or 71% responded to the questions. 501 companies did the business in the field of nuclear power. The first thing to be pointed out about the economic conditions of the nuclear industry is that the nuclear related expenditures increased in electric utilities, mining and manufacturing industries and trading companies, and exceeded 1 trillion yen mark for the first time in the private sector. It is likely that the current nuclear-related activities of mining and manufacturing industries will soon increase, but it will not be easy to wipe off the cumulative deficit of the industries. The employees increased by more than 7% in the nuclear-related sectors of electric utilities and mining and manufacturing industries. The facilities of nuclear supply industry were operated at the average rate of 50%. (Kako, I.)

  20. Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa-Ntinda, Uganda. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... physicochemical parameters of streams that receive effluents from different categories of industries in Nakawa -Ntinda industrial area of Kampala. the stream water quality ...

  1. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de, E-mail: mcostac@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  2. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de

    2017-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  3. Determination of amino acids in industrial effluents contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, M.T.; Khuhawar, M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    38 samples of soil for 19 locations partially irrigated on the effluents of sugar mill and oil andghee mill, bottom sediments of evaporation ponds of sugar and fertilizer industries were collected and analyzed for amino acids after acid digestion by gas chromatography using pre column derivatization with trifluroacetyleacetone and ethyl chloroformate. The results obtained were compared with the soil samples irrigated with fresh water. The soil samples were also analyzed for pH, total nitrogen contents and organic carbon. Nine essential (leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr), lysine (Lys), L-phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), histadine (His), L-valine (Val), methionine (Met) and isoleucine Ile) and ten non-essential ( alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser), glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), Glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp), tyrosine (Tyr)) amino acids were analyzed 13-15 amino acids were identified and determined quantitatively from soil samples. Amino acids Met, Asn, Gln and Trp were observed absent from all the samples. The variation in the amino acids contents in soil with the industrial effluents added and total nitrogen and organic carbon is discussed. (author)

  4. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  5. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  6. Monitoring of noble gas radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous radionuclides in the effluents of nuclear facilities is an essential requirement in effluent management programs. Since there is no practical way of removing noble gas radioisotopes from air at release pathways, their accurate monitoring is essential for providing appropriate environmental protection. Emitted γ dose-rate is the limiting factor for concentration-time integral of noble gas in gaseous effluents of reactor facilities. The external exposure to the public from a semi-infinite cloud is directly proportional to both the noble gas isotope concentration and the integrated γ energy per disintegration. Both can be directly measured in gaseous effluent pathways with a suitable detector. The capability of NaI(T1), CaF 2 (Eu) and plastic scintillation detectors to measure the γ-Ci.MeV content of noble gas releases was experimentally evaluated. The combination of CaF 2 (Eu) detector in a pressurized through-flow chamber, with a charge integrating scaler well complied with both γ energy response and detection sensitivity requirements. Noble gas source terms and effluent monitoring criteria are discussed, theoretical and experimental results are presented and a practical, on-line noble gas monitoring system is described

  7. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, V.G.; Barnett, Brent B.; Olson, Phillip M.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  8. Obsolescence in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, U.

    2000-01-01

    Most nuclear plants around the world are roughly 15 to 30 years old. The design and procurement of CANDU plants took place from the late 60's to mid 80's (i.e., 20 to 30 years vintage). Most equipment originally installed in these plants is obsolete or the manufactures are out of business or their production has been discontinued due to technological evolution. In order to maintain operation of nuclear plants with safety integrity and commercial viability, certain spare parts must be available at the plant all the time. The objective of this paper is to identify an optimum, cost-effective approach that solves obsolescence problem efficiently and without duplicating efforts. The Nuclear Utility Obsolescence Group (NUOG) has embarked upon the following major tasks: Developing a Guideline for use by the utilities that addresses obsolescence; Collection of obsolescence data in a database (Web-based) to be shared by all members; Motivation of the suppliers to engage them in obsolescence solutions; Increase in awareness among the utility management to consider obsolescence as a priority issue and allocate funds to address them pro-actively; and Coordination with other industry groups (EPRI, INPO, NEI, BWROG etc.) to avoid duplication of effort in obsolescence resolution process. The NUOG strategy is based upon the principles of sharing. It advocates sharing of obsolescence solutions and concerns among the utilities. Candu Owners Group Inc. (COG) has initiated self-assessment of obsolescence in the members' plants. The purpose of self-assessment is to provide baseline information that would help identification of obsolescence and coordination of their solutions. The following areas are covered in the self-assessment initiative: Identification of obsolete components in selected systems in the plant. Assess effectiveness of the current obsolescence identification process and in resolution of obsolescence Issues in the plant. Identification of common Candu plant design

  9. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  10. Assesment of safe discharge limits in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, D.

    1984-01-01

    Routine releases from the nuclear industry to the environment are controlled by three principles, viz. that the practice creating the effluents should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, and radiation dose limits should not be exceeded. In the nuclear industry, the discharge of radioactive effluent is controlled by a system of dose limitation. The application of this system to conventional effluents require: i) a quantitative relationship between intake and effect so as to establish intake limits; ii) environmental models that will allow calculation of the relationship between discharge and intake; iii) a measure of the total detriment due to the discharge. For such a system discharge limits can be established for the desired level of risk (safety)

  11. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo States Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all ...

  12. Microbial conversion of Cr (VI) in to Cr (III) in industrial effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bacterial strains also take up and reduce Cr (VI) present in industrial effluents, and their reduction potential was not significantly affected in the presence of different metallic salts. Key Words: Cr (VI) reduction, bacteria, industrial effluent, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(11) 2004: 610-617 ...

  13. Industrial Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the potential use of nuclear energy for industrial systems and/or processes which have a strong demand for process heat/steam and power, and on the mapping of nuclear power reactors proposed for various industrial applications. It describes the technical concepts for combined nuclear-industrial complexes that are being pursued in various Member States, and presents the concepts that were developed in the past to be applied in connection with some major industries. It also provides an analysis of the energy demand in various industries and outlines the potential that nuclear energy may have in major industrial applications such as process steam for oil recovery and refineries, hydrogen generation, and steel and aluminium production. The audience for this publication includes academia, industry, and government agencies.

  14. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  15. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  16. The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

  17. Heavy-metal contamination of agricultural soils irrigated with industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, G.; Ashraf, M.; Aslam, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a thread of degradation of water and land-resources by industrial effluents. To evaluated the suitability of these effluents as a source of irrigation for agriculture and the study their effects on soil chemical properties, experiments were conducted in the industrial area of Sheikhupura, where effluent from Paper and Board Mill (PBM), Leather Industry (LI) and Fertilizer Industry (FI) were being used for irrigation. At each site, two fields were selected, one irrigated with industrial effluents and the other with tube-well/canal water. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for pH, ECe, SAR and for heavy metals, such as Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Al and Ni. Soil receiving effluent from LI showed higher ECe and SAR values, as compared to the soils receiving other effluents. The concentration of Al was high in the soil irrigated with LI effluent. The Mn and Fe contents were higher in soils irrigated with PBM effluent. Effluent from LI is not fit for irrigation, since its recipient soil showed high concentration of Cr and also high sodicity values. Except Cr, the heavy metals were not of environmental concern. (author)

  18. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  19. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  20. Management of effluents and radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Management of effluents and radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, from the viewpoint of radiological protection, basically consists of three main themes: 1) developing and implementing actions that minimize, or where possible, eliminate generation. These actions ranging from simple awareness of people involved with the work on project modifications; 2) maintain a system of accounting and control that allows to know the characteristics of effluents and wastes, charting indicators that reveal the performance and trends of plant, and supplying data proving the compliance of national regulatory body standards; 3) Storing the solid waste generated in a safe manner, ensuring that the physical integrity of the packaged is maintained and that there is no impact to the population and the environment

  1. The nuclear industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degot, D.

    1981-02-01

    The French nuclear industry is organized around the following main participants: - The E.D.F., owners, industrial architects and operators of the power stations, - The C.E.A. for research and development, with its subsidiary the COGEMA, who deal with all problems involving the fuel cycle, - The Industry with FRAMATOME in charge of the manufacture of nuclear boilers, and ALSTHOM-ATLANTIQUE in charge of turbo-generator units. This paper deals with the activities covered by FRAMATOME and its industrial environment. The standardization of PWR power stations built by French industry and the possibilities of exporting PWR power stations are given a brief mention [fr

  2. Technical Orders of 10 August 1976 on the limits and procedures applicable to radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Seven technical Orders by the competent Ministers (mainly the Ministers of Health, of Industry and Research, of the Quality of Life) lay down the procedures, conditions and limits applicable to gaseous and liquid radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations. These Orders of 10 August were published on 12 September 1976 in the Official French Gazette and were made in implementation of the Decree of 6 November 1974 on gaseous radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations and the Decree of 31 December 1974 on liquid radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations. Apart from the general rules for setting limits and methods for effluent discharges, they specify the measures for environmental monitoring and for control by the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations. Certain of them contain the general rules for liquid or gaseous effluent discharges from all nuclear installations, while others lay down the rules proper to light water nuclear power plants. Other types of reactor ie. fast breeders are not yet subject to such regulations. (N.E.A.) [fr

  3. Monitoring and management of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Yang, Lili; Meng, De; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to regulate tritium nuclides from the nuclear power plant effluent, the paper briefly analyzes the main source of tritium, and the regulatory requirements associated with tritium in our country and the United States. The monitoring methods of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent are described, and the purpose to give some advice to our national nuclear power plant about the effluent of tritium monitoring and management.

  4. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  5. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  6. The effect of industrial effluent stream on the groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the industrial wastewater stream on the groundwater. Wastewater was characterized in terms of inorganic and organic constituents. Inorganic constituents included Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/ K/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ coupled with heavy metal elements such as, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Fe and In. Organic load of the stream was determined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) contents. Other characteristics were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The correlation coefficients between quality parameter pairs of stream water and groundwater were determined to ascertain the source of groundwater contamination. At station 1, BOD/sub 5/ and COD contents were 20 times and Cr concentration was 10 times higher than the permissible limits for stream water [1]. Contents of these parameters reflected the level of industrial and domestic pollution coming from India. However, large variations in the levels of these parameters at down stream sites of the drain were characteristic of type and nature of industrial effluents and domestic sewage joining the stream. Analysis results of more than one hundred groundwater samples from shallow and deep wells around the drain showed that groundwater of shallow aquifers was contaminated due to drain water. A comparison of the contents of these parameters in shallow wells with WHO standards showed that some parameters such as turbidity, TDS, Na/sup +/, F -and heavy metals like Cr were found higher than the permissible limits. (author)

  7. Treatment of effluents from the nuclear fuel cycle reconversion stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, Ana C.Q.; Morais, Carlos A.; Goncalves, Joao S.; Souza, Pedro de

    2007-01-01

    The conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory - FCN. The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This work is aimed at the recovery of uranium from two distinct liquid effluents; one with high carbonate content and the other with elevated fluoride concentration. It is also presented a study about carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of water - methanol solution generated during the filtration step of the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUT). The results showed that (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U since carbonate has been removed as CO 2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is by precipitation as (NH 4 ) 2 UO 4 F 2 - ammonium fluorouranate peroxide (APOFU), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride or it can be removed through the addition of sulfuric acid. The product formed by adding sulfuric acid is ammonium sulfate and might be used as fertilizer. (author)

  8. The financing of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazauran, B.

    1978-01-01

    Having first recalled the usual financing rules related to the economic activities, the author analyses the applying of those rules in the nuclear field, taking into account the specific characteristics of this industrial branch [fr

  9. Nuclear industry takes off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade irradiation sterilisation of medical and pharmaceutical products proved a highly successful semi-commercial operation at Pelindaba, until it made way recently for the first full-scale radiation processing industry in SA - a classic case of science transferring technology to industry

  10. U.S. nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, R.

    1979-01-01

    At present, 72 power reactors are in the condition of being able to operate in U.S., and the total installation capacity has reached 55 million kW, which is equivalent to about 9.5% of the total power generation capacity in U.S. The nuclear power stations produced 12.5% of the total electricity consumption in 1978. Especially in the north eastern part of the U.S., the nuclear power generation occupied 42% of the total power generation at the time of recent peak load, and 47 million barrels of crude oil and 517 million dollars of foreign currency were able to be saved. Moreover, 96 plants amounting to 105 million kW are under construction, and 30 plants of 35 million kW were ordered. Electric power companies, nuclear reactor makers, nuclear fuel and other related industries believe the merits of nuclear power generation and expect that it will flourish if a certain problem is solved. Especially serious problem to which the U.S. nuclear industry is facing now is the problem of uncertainty. Many orders of nuclear power plants have been canceled, and the constructions have been postponed. The capability of the U.S. nuclear industry to construct more than the required facilities, and its extent and the necessary conditions have been investigated by the Atomic Industrial Forum. The important national and international problems of atomic energy are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  11. Industrial applications of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Celso

    2010-01-01

    Industrial applications of nuclear technology have been very diverse worldwide. This type of technology has begun to introduce in Costa Rica to evaluate and improve different industrial processes. These applications have been classified into two or three categories, according to the criteria used. Nucleonic control systems, the gamma logging and radiotracers are determined. (author) [es

  12. Control of semivolatile radionuclides in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An up-to-date review is presented of the subject, combining the results of laboratory studies on control of the most important semivolatile radionuclides in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities and the results of operating experience in that area. Ruthenium is the most significant semivolatile contaminant in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities. Volatilization of ruthenium can be reduced by various means, in particular by adding reductants. Volatilized ruthenium can be retained by adsorbents such as silica gel and ferric-oxide-based materials. Decontamination factors in the order of 10 3 have been obtained with these adsorbents under optimum conditions. Volatilized ruthenium can also be removed by other equipment such as condensers and scrubbers. Experience with high-level liquid waste solidification plants has shown that, in general, ruthenium volatilization is in the order of 10% or more unless special treatment is undertaken. There is little experience with ruthenium adsorbers in plants. Silica gel seems to have performed best, with ruthenium decontamination factors of about 10 2 to 10 3 . However, feed-to-stack ruthenium decontamination factors of 10 9 or more have been obtained even without ruthenium adsorbers. Other semivolatiles are relatively insignificant under normal conditions because of a low level of volatilization potential or mass or activity in the inventory. Moreover, owing to particulate formation, they can be easily removed without specific equipment

  13. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  14. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  15. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  16. Special issue: the nuclear industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This special issue contains papers on the following topics: French nuclear policy; nuclear energy development in Europe; nuclear diversification; Alsthom-Atlantique in the nuclear field; 1981 nuclear electricity generation; EDF siting policy; the N4 model of the 1300 MW series; Creys-Malville; the nuclear industry in Europe; pumps in the nuclear industry [fr

  17. Human capital in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development [ru

  18. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method; Aplicacion del metodo de concentracion separacion y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85 en muestras ambientales y en efluentes gaseosos de la industria nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M c; Perez, M M

    1983-07-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs.

  19. Nuclear industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This review examines the consequences of projected excess electrical generating capacity for the maintenance of an independent nuclear power capability in Canada. Although consumption of electricity will continue to grow at rages well below historical averages, significant additions to capacity will be required in all parts of Canada in the 1990s. CANDU reactors are an attractive option for meeting load growth, particularly east of Manitoba. However, the absence of domestic orders in the 1980s may threaten the maintenance of this option. Even the most optimistic projections indicate that only one supplier of each component will remain in the nuclear business in the 1990s

  20. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... and some physicochemical parameters such as conductivity, solids, chloride, chromium, alkalinity, sulphide, chemical oxygen demand, COD, and biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, of the waste water were determined. ... Keywords: tannery, effluent, pollution, environment

  1. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  2. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  3. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  4. XOQDOQ, Meteorological Evaluation of Atmospheric Nuclear Power Plant Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.; Eyberger, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: XOQDOQ was designed for meteorological evaluation of continuous and anticipated intermittent releases from commercial nuclear power reactors. It calculates annual relative effluent concentrations and average relative deposition values at locations specified by the user and at various standard radial distances and segments for downwind sectors. It also calculates these values at the specified locations for anticipated intermittent (e.g. containment or purge) releases, which occur during routine operation. The program computes an effective plume height that accounts for physical release height, aerodynamic down-wash, plume rise, and terrain features. The user may optionally select additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume depletion via dry deposition, and plume radioactive decay, or specify adjustments to represent non-straight line trajectories (recirculation or stagnation). 2 - Method of solution: XOQDOQ is based on the principle that diffusion of material released to the atmosphere can be described by a Gaussian distribution within the plume with transport described by a straight-line trajectory. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients are empirically determined, largely from observations at or near ground level. The program implements the assumptions outlined in Section C of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.111. Long-term average values of relative effluent concentration are calculated by assuming a long-term continuous release with effluent distributed evenly across a 22-1/2 degree sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 30 receptor locations/receptor type, 14 wind-speed classes, 10 distances of site-specific recirculation correction factors, 8 receptor types, 7 atmospheric stability categories, 5 separate release points. XOQDOQ cannot handle multiple emission sources or plume depletion via wet deposition, or evaluate the meteorological aspects of the consequences of

  5. Transition in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyniec, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Not long ago, nuclear energy was forecast to be the dominant force in the utility industry. An environmentally safe clean and inexpensive way to produce electricity would be welcomed by all. Civil engineering challenges on the leading edge of technology awaited the designer and constructor. As we now know, changes within the past 10 years have taken place that radically alter this outlook. Energy demand, thought to be ever increasing, was shocked by the rising costs. Plant construction delays, coupled with ever increasing regulatory requirements and higher interest rates, fueled the spiral or more cost. Economy of operation became overwhelmed by utility debt burden. Where is the nuclear utility industry now and what direction can we foresee. this symposium addresses the nuclear industry past, present, and future. The first session highlights some lessons learned from past experiences that must be applied in the future to be beneficial. Existing and future challenges are presented in the sessions on plant modifications and nuclear waste and decommissioning. The final session looks at the nuclear industry in transition from the perspectives of the different segments that make up the industry

  6. Removal of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from simulated industrial effluents using silica powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Awan, A.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrial development have led to the recognition and increasing understanding of interrelationship between pollution, public health and environment. Industrial development results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution. In Pakistan most of the industrial effluents are discharged into surrounding ecosystems without any treatment. Industrial wastes and emission contain toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health. Extensive efforts are being made around the world for the removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents. A laboratory scale study was designed for removal of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from simulated solutions at various weight of silica (0.5gm, 1gm, 2 gm, 3gm and 4 gm), Voltammeter was used to quantify the metals. Maximum removal of all metals was achieved with 4 gm of silica. Absorption of lead onto silic a was higher than other metals. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy and the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromova, E.; Vargoncik, D.; Sovadina, M.

    2013-01-01

    A popular interactive multimedia publication on nuclear energy in Slovak. 'Nuclear energy and energy' is a modern electronic publication that through engaging interpretation, combined with a number of interactive elements, explains the basic principles and facts of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Operation of nuclear power plants, an important part of the energy resources of developed countries, is frequently discussed topic in different social groups. Especially important is truthful knowledgeability of the general public about the benefits of technical solutions, but also on the risks and safety measures throughout the nuclear industry. According to an online survey 'Nuclear energy and energy' is the most comprehensive electronic multimedia publication worldwide, dedicated to the popularization of nuclear energy. With easy to understand texts, interactive and rich collection of accessories stock it belongs to modern educational and informational titles of the present time. The basic explanatory text of the publication is accompanied by history and the present time of all Slovak nuclear installations, including stock photos. For readers are presented the various attractions legible for the interpretation, which help them in a visual way to make a more complete picture of the concerned issue. Each chapter ends with a test pad where the readers can test their knowledge. Whole explanatory text (72 multimedia pages, 81,000 words) is accompanied by a lot of stock of graphic materials. The publication also includes 336 photos in 60 thematic photo galleries, 45 stock charts and drawings, diagrams and interactive 31 videos and 3D models.

  8. Nuclear plant refurbishment calls for patience. [Construction of radioactive effluent plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henly, Anna

    1989-08-01

    All nuclear power plants produce a small quantity of liquid effluent from wash hand basins, showers and surface drains on the site. The effluent is termed low-level radioactive waste and under the 'Radioactive Substances Act' can be discharged into estuaries or the sea. Before a controlled discharge can be made the effluent has to be chemically treated and have any radioactive particulate matter removed. The replacing of the radioactive effluent plant at the Berkeley nuclear power station in the United Kingdom is described, with particular reference to the vigorous safety standards and quality assurance programme operated by the Central Electricity Generating Board. (author).

  9. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental management in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Bhat, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    Safety of the environment is given due attention right at the design state of nuclear energy installations. Besides this engineered safety environmental protection measures are taken on (a) site selection criteria (b) waste management practices (c) prescribing dose limits for the public (d) having intensive environmental surveillance programme and (e) emergency preparedness. The paper enumerates the application of these protection measures in the environmental management to make the nuclear industry as an example to follow in the goal of environmental safety. (author)

  11. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, P.

    The long term development and successful utilization of the Tongonan geothermal field for electric power generation is ultimately a function of the response of the reservoir to extensive exploitation. A field drawdown test of several years duration has been planned to test this response. A number of nuclear chemical techniques have been incorporated into this to assist in quantitatively tracing the subsurface movements of both reservoir and reinjected fluids; and to provide an early warning of changes in the physical and chemical properties of the reservoir fluids with respect to natural recharge. The programme will be implemented by Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) under contract to Philippine National Oil Company - Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC). (author)

  12. The application of XML in the effluents data modeling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Feng; Lin Quanyi; Yue Huiguo; Zhang Yan; Zhang Peng; Cao Jun; Chen Bo

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive effluent data, which can provide information to distinguish whether facilities, waste disposal, and control system run normally, is an important basis of safety regulation and emergency management. It can also provide the information to start emergency alarm system as soon as possible. XML technology is an effective tool to realize the standard of effluent data exchange, in favor of data collection, statistics and analysis, strengthening the effectiveness of effluent regulation. This paper first introduces the concept of XML, the choices of effluent data modeling method, and then emphasizes the process of effluent model, finally the model and application are shown, While there is deficiency about the application of XML in the effluents data modeling of nuclear facilities, it is a beneficial attempt to the informatization management of effluents. (authors)

  13. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    is acidic, thus enhancing leaching and corrosive tendencies of the irrigation ... of heavy metals in the soil indicated contamination from the effluent from the .... well (SAR = 11.1), which contained high pH (pH= 6.65) and high Chloride ion (Cl-of.

  14. An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Man Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the effluents released from the industries and environmental degradation go hand in hand. With the ongoing global industrialization this problem has been further aggravated. As such, Nepal is no exception. Hundreds of industries are being registered in the country annually which inevitably brings the issues regarding environmental pollution. This study has been conducted with samples of wastewater from 5 different industrial sites in 4 districts of Nepal, namely, Makwanpur, Sunsari, Morang, and Kathmandu, among which two were Waste Water Treatment Plants which treated the combined effluents collected from various sources. The other three sites were from wires and cables industry, paint manufacturing industry, and plastic cutting industry. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and Cu, Cr, SO42-, and PO43- levels. Possible onsite measurements were recorded using portable, handheld devices whereas other parameters were assessed in the laboratory. The observed parameter levels in the collected samples were compared against the available Nepal national standards for industrial effluents and in the absence of standards for industrial effluents, with other relevant standard levels. Most of the parameters analysed were within the permissible limits with the exception of pH and Cr levels in some sites.

  15. Computerized effluent control and evaluation of environmental impact for an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de Angulo, L.F.; Garcia Gutierrez, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Growing public interest and concern for the environment is translated at official level into regulatory standards to limit, control and evaluate the environmental impact produced by polluting facilities. This paper seeks to demonstrate the convenience of automatizing all these computerized systems. This philosophy has been put into practice to computerize processes in the industry with the most complex standards: the nuclear industry. The application used has the capacity to store and manage data on all the discharges, evaluate the effect produced by them and generate information to be sent periodically to the competent authority. The conceptual definition of the application can be adapted to any industrial or public utility facility releasing polluting effluents which must undergo control, monitoring and analysis of the environmental impact by the relevant regulatory body, bearing in mind the environmental standard applicable to the category of the facility and the type of polluting substance released. The application can be run interactively in a personal computer on the basis of menus and screens, under a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). Its implementation is independent of the DBMS used and the hardware with supports it. (author)

  16. Nuclear industry and radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V. G.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of XXI century is marked with increasing public concern over impact of man-made activity, including nuclear technologies, on the environment. Currently, the anthropocentric principle is applied in the course of the radioecological safety guaranteeing for the environment, which postulates that human protectability serves as guarantee of the environmental one. However, this principle correctness is called in question recently. The ecocentric principle is proposed as an alternative doctrine, defining balance between human importance and that of any other elements of biota. The system recommended isn't intended for the regulatory standards development yet, because of substantial gaps in scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, renunciation of the anthropocentric principle can result in unwarranted tightened regulatory basis, decreasing of nuclear industry evolution rates, and, consequently, breaching of societal and economical priorities. It is obvious that for the safety guaranteeing, nuclear industry shouldn't stand out against a background of other fields of human activity involved hazard factors. Therefore, new conceptions applying within the regulatory system is to be weighted and exclude formal using of discussion theses. More than semi-centennial experience of the anthropocentric approach applying serves as an evidence of safe protection of ecosystems against radiation exposure that ensures safe ecological development of nuclear power industry and other fields of nuclear technologies application. (author)

  17. Towards the design of a zero effluent facility in the pharmaceutical industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available . The pharmaceutical production industry has some unique characteristics that make it possible to reach the goal of zero effluent. In such industries wastewater is generally produced from washing out of mixing vessels. The wastewater thus contains valuable product...

  18. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L −1 , respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation. - Highlights: ► Livestock effluent showed strong estrogenic activity due to E2, E1 and EE2. ► EE2 remained in all effluents after gamma-irradiation even at a dose of 10 kGy. ► DOMs in effluents inhibited degradation and activity of estrogenic compounds.

  19. The UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiation Impact to Environment of Non-nuclear Industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Wei-jie; CHENG; Wei-ya

    2015-01-01

    According to the gas,liquid effluent monitoring and survey results of non nuclear industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi provinces,the radiation effects of which on the surrounding environment were analysis and evaluation.Evaluation industrials includes three coal-fired power plants,two rare earth ores,two cement factories,one

  1. Computer systems and nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkaoua, Th.; Poizat, F.; Augueres, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with computer systems in nuclear industry. In most nuclear facilities it is necessary to handle a great deal of data and of actions in order to help plant operator to drive, to control physical processes and to assure the safety. The designing of reactors requires reliable computer codes able to simulate neutronic or mechanical or thermo-hydraulic behaviours. Calculations and simulations play an important role in safety analysis. In each of these domains, computer systems have progressively appeared as efficient tools to challenge and master complexity. (A.C.)

  2. Nuclear process steam for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    A joint industrial survey funded by the Bruce County Council, the Ontario Energy Corporation and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was carried out with the cooperation of Ontario Hydro and the Ontario Ministry of Industry and Tourism. Its objective was to identify and assess the future needs and interest of energy-intensive industries in an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The Energy Park would capitalize on the infrastructure of the existing CANDU reactors and Ontario Hydro's proven and unique capability to produce steam, as well as electricity, at a cost currently about half that from a comparable coal-fired station. Four industries with an integrated steam demand of some 1 x 10 6 lb/h were found to be prepared to consider seriously the use of nuclear steam. Their combined plants would involve a capital investment of over $200 million and provide jobs for 350-400 people. The high costs of transportation and the lack of docking facilities were considered to be the major drawbacks of the Bruce location. An indication of steam prices would be required for an over-all economic assessment

  3. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  4. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM (specific algal medium produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC with oleic acid pure (98% control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  5. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  6. Potential impact of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Zhang Yue; Sun Qunli; Hu Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on the hydrological data near Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant along the Yangtze River, the present situation of the ecological environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the predicted results of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant. The standards of cooling water and the thermal tolerances indexes of aquatic organisms were investigated. The effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms were analyzed. The potential impact of Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir was explained. The results show that in the most adverse working conditions, the surface temperature near the outfall area is not more than 1℃, the temperature of thermal effluents do not exceed the suitable thermal range of fish breeding, growth and other thermal tolerances indexes. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant have no influence about fish, plankton and benthic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  7. Studies for improvement of regulatory control on the radioactive effluent released from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, H. M.; Song, M. C.; Lee, K. H.; Jang, J. K.; Chun, J. K.; Jeong, K. H.

    2005-05-01

    This report contains the second-year results of the research project titled 'Studies for Improvement of Regulatory Control on the Radioactive Effluent Released from Nuclear Facilities' and mainly provides technical and strategic approaches to improve performance of regulatory control on the gaseous effluent released from domestic nuclear facilities. The main result contained here includes overview and technical bases of radioactive gaseous effluent control (Chapter 1), reconsideration of the sensitivity requirements for measurement of radioactivity in gaseous effluent sample (Chapter 2), uncertainty analysis of the calculated radioactivity in gaseous effluent (Chapter 3), and improvement of quantification method of noble gas releases (Chapter 4). In addition, analysis of the impact due to combined sampling of particulate from multiple release points (Chapter 5), comparison of domestic nuclear reactors gaseous effluent data to foreign PWRs (Chapter 6), standardized sampling technique for collection of gaseous tritium (Chapter 7), and application of Xe-133 equivalent concept to gaseous effluent control (Chapter 8) are also provided. As a whole, this report provides a generic approach to improve the performance of regulatory control on the gaseous effluent. Therefore, actual enforcement of the recommendations should be preceded by establishment of a series of action plans reflecting on the site- and facility-specific design and operational features

  8. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  9. Effect of textile industrial effluent on tree plantation and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Bala, N; Rathod, T R; Singh, B

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Arid Forest Research Institute to study the effect of textile industrial effluent on the growth of forest trees and associated soil properties. The effluent has high pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) whereas the bivalent cations were in traces. Eight months old seedlings of Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis juliflora were planted in July 1993. Various treatment regimes followed were; irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water in 1:1 ratio (W2), irrigation with gypsum treated effluent (W3), gypsum treated soil irrigated with effluent (W4) and wood ash treated soil irrigated with effluent (W5). Treatment regime W5 was found the best where plants attained (mean of six species) 173 cm height, 138 cm crown diameter and 9.2 cm collar girth at the age of 28 months. The poorest growth was observed under treatment regime of W3. The growth of the species varied significantly and the maximum growth was recorded for P. juliflora (188 cm height, 198 cm crown diameter and 10.0 cm collar girth). The minimum growth was recorded for A. lebbeck. Irrigation with effluent resulted in increase in percent organic matter as well as in EC. In most of the cases there were no changes in soil pH except in W5 where it was due to the effect of wood ash. Addition of wood ash influenced plant growth. These results suggest that tree species studied (except A. lebbeck) can be established successfully using textile industrial wastewater in arid region.

  10. Genotoxicity Screening of Industrial Effluents using Onion bulbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three industrial wastewaters (brewery .... National recommended water quality criteria – correction; cWorld Health Organisation (1996). ..... Industrial Pollution Policy Management Study.

  11. 10 CFR 50.36a - Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.36a Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors..., including expected occurrences, as low as is reasonably achievable, each licensee of a nuclear power reactor... the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors indicates that compliance with the...

  12. The political economy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The changing international context, in particular declining estimates of nuclear capacity and a depression in the nuclear reactor market will influence prospects for a nuclear industry in Australia. Effects of the opposition by trade unions and community groups to uranium mining are discussed. The relationship between political decisions and the economics of the nuclear power industry is stressed

  13. Biological treatment of the liquid effluents of a paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Juan Felipe; Ramirez, Gladys Eugenia; Arias Zabala, Mario

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of the microorganisms Candida utilis and Candida tropicalis in the reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the liquid effluents of a producing factory of paper kraft type, by means of fermentations made to pH of 5 and a 30 centigrade degrees during 6 days. The biological processing is preceded by a physicochemical process of directed acidulation to reduce pH of the effluent (liquor black) from its initial value, of approximately 13, to 5, in order to it is adapted for the growth of yeast. In this process, which forms precipitated, that is necessary to eliminate by centrifugation and filtration to facilitate the growth of the microorganisms, with is obtained one first removal of the COD of the order of 70 %. With the biological processing obtains for both yeasts a percentage of removal of 45 -50% of the COD surplus. The total removal of the COD, that is to say, obtained with the pre-cure and the fermentation it is of the order of 84% for the yeast. Additionally the possibility studied of implementing some complementary procedures to the biological processing, with a view to obtaining greater growth of yeast in the black liquor and thus obtaining additional reductions in the OCD of the same one

  14. Corrosion management in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion is a major degradation mechanism of metals and alloys which significantly affects the global economy with an average loss of 3.5% of GDP of several countries in many important industrial sectors including chemical, petrochemical, power, oil, refinery, fertilizer etc. The demand for higher efficiency and achieving name plate capacity, in addition to ever increasing temperatures, pressures and complexities in equipment geometry of industrial processes, necessitate utmost care in adopting appropriate corrosion management strategies in selecting, designing, fabricating and utilising various materials and coatings for engineering applications in industries. Corrosion control and prevention is an important focus area as the savings achieved from practicing corrosion control and prevention would bring significant benefits to the industry. Towards this, advanced corrosion management strategies starting from design, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, in-service inspection and online monitoring are essential. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) strategic corrosion management efforts have been pursued in order to provide solutions to practical problems emerging in the plants, in addition to innovative efforts to provide insight into mechanism and understanding of corrosion of various engineering materials and coatings. In this presentation the author highlights how the nuclear industry benefited from the practical approach to successful corrosion management, particularly with respect to fast breeder reactor programme involving both reactor and associated reprocessing plants. (author)

  15. Effluent Treatment Technologies in the Iron and Steel Industry - A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pallabi; Mondal, Gautam C; Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Abhay K; Prasad, Bably; Singh, Krishna K

    2018-05-01

      Iron and steel industry is the principal driving force propelling economic and technological growth of a nation. However, since its inception this industry is associated with widespread environmental pollution and enormous water consumption. Different units of a steel plant discharge effluents loaded with toxic, hazardous pollutants, and unutilized components which necessitates mitigation. In this paper, pollutant removal efficiency, effluent volume product quality, and economic feasibility of existing treatments are studied vis-à-vis their merits, demerits, and innovations to access their shortcomings which can be overcome with new technology to identify future research directions. While conventional methods are inadequate for complete remediation and water reclamation, the potential of advanced treatments, like membrane separation, remains relatively untapped. It is concluded that integrated systems combining membrane separation with chemical treatments can guarantee a high degree of contaminant removal, reusability of effluents concurrently leading to process intensification ensuring ecofriendliness and commercial viability.

  16. Negative environmental impacts of antibiotic-contaminated effluents from pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Ana; Šimatović, Ana; Kosić-Vukšić, Josipa; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Babić, Sanja; Jurina, Tamara; González Plaza, Juan José; Milaković, Milena; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina

    2017-12-01

    Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10.5 mg/L) than during the other two seasons (up to 638 μg/L). Accordingly, the highest total concentrations (up to 30 μg/L) in the recipient river were measured in winter and spring. Effluents from second company formulating veterinary antibiotics contained fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides and tetracyclines ranging from low μg/L to approx. 200 μg/L. Low concentrations of these antibiotics, from below the limit of quantification to approx. few μg/L, have also been measured in the recipient stream. High frequency of culturable bacteria resistant to AZI (up to 83%) or sulfamethazine (up to 90%) and oxytetracycline (up to 50%) were also found in studied effluents. Finally, we demonstrated that toxicity to algae and water fleas often exceeded the permitted values. Most highly contaminated effluents induced multiple abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, using a wide array of analyses we have demonstrated that discharges from pharmaceutical industries can pose a significant ecological and public health concern due to their toxicity to aquatic organisms and risks for promoting development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Capitalizing the contribution of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnadieu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The main contributions of the French nuclear industry to the country, and ways to make the most of them are presented. The advantages acquired include the nuclear power stations built; mastering of the combustion cycle; a powerful, well structured nuclear construction industry; and a nuclear-industrial complex giving France an important industrial potential. It is recommended that the industrial and research effort be maintained. The proposed strategy consists of defining an electronuclear program and associated economic development program and sticking to them; promoting exports; possibly merging certain industrial capacities; and strengthening the national position and independence concerning the fuel cycle [fr

  18. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

  19. Future jobs in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquier, S.

    2017-01-01

    CEA leads research on fast reactors in the framework of Generation-4 reactors, it also brings technical support to industrial partners like EDF or AREVA for today operating reactors. Computerized simulation is strongly developed in order to get reliable computers codes able to simulate mechanical behavior of new materials or neutron transport in new reactor cores. CEA is also in charge of the dismantling and remediation of its own nuclear facilities, today about 1000 people work on the dismantling of 35 facilities. CEA is also participating in fusion research programs. This broad range of activities makes CEA an important recruiter of competencies in a lot of domains from nuclear engineering to biological impact of radiations via computer sciences. (A.C.)

  20. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  1. The nuclear industries in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the nuclear industries within the European Community. The strategic importance of nuclear energy is outlined, along with the economic benefits of nuclear power. The objectives of the Community's nuclear programme are described, and include nuclear requirements in Europe, uranium supplies and management of radioactive waste. (UK)

  2. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  3. Application of the natural cellulosic supports modified chemically for the treatment of the industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassale, A.; Elbariji, S.; Lacherai, A.; Elamine, M.; Kabli, H.; Albourine, A.

    2009-01-01

    The process of purification and discoloration of industrial waters (and particularly effluents of the textile industry) can meet major difficulties: certain dyes agents get through the devices of purge without being to stop. the cost of equipment and products of purification is prohibitive. Finally, in many cases, the discoloration can be only partial because waters to be treated containing mixtures of dyes of different nature, the material of purification can be effective only screw/screw of some of them. (Author)

  4. Chemical investigation of the effluents of selected chemical industries in NWFP (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.R.; Shah, J.; Shah, H.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of effluents were collected from the waste water drains of selected chemical industries, located at small industries estate Kohat Road Peshawar on monthly basis from November 1994 to October 1995. These samples were studied for physico chemical properties and heavy metals like Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ni using spectroscopic techniques. The results of our investigation are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, .... phenol-degradation ability of bacterial isolate at the high phenol .... ed virtually no decrease in the respiratory response over.

  6. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  7. Ten years of investigation on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Incorporation, by marine algae and animals, of hydrogen-3 and other radionuclides present in effluents of nuclear or industrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Colard, J.; Koch, G.; Kirchmann, R.; Strack, S.; Luettke, A.; Carraro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Several marine plants and animals were investigated for their capability of incorporating the main radionuclides present in selected effluents. Accumulation factors are reported for 3 H, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 131 I 226 Ra and 124 Sb. Marine algae, which are involved in food chains leading to man, show the highest accumulation factors. The stable element composition of the alga Acetabularia was determined by gamma-activation analysis. The preferential accumulation of particular radionuclides by marine organisms suggests that they may have a significant role in the turnover rate of elements in the marine environment. (author)

  8. Enhanced security in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappier, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the security in the nuclear industry. After 9/11, Canada's nuclear regulator - the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) - determined that the entire industry (including its own organization) faced a need for significant enhancements in their approach to security.

  9. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Pseudomonas spp. isolated from effluent of an electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Kapil; Yedurkar, Snehal; Doshi, Sejal; Deshapnde, Sunita; Vaidya, Shashikant

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and screen bacteria from soil and effluent of electroplating industries for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and characterize the potential isolate. Soil and effluent of electroplating industries from Mumbai were screened for bacteria capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles. From two soils and eight effluent samples 20 bacterial isolates were obtained, of these, one was found to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle by bacteria was confirmed by undertaking characterization studies of nanoparticles that involved spectroscopy and electron microscopic techniques. The potential bacteria was found to be Gram-negative short rods with its biochemical test indicating Pseudomonas spp . Molecular characterization of the isolate by 16S r DNA sequencing was carried out which confirmed its relation to Pseudomonas hibiscicola ATCC 19867. Stable nanoparticles synthesized were 50 nm in size and variable shapes as seen in SEM micrographs. The XRD and FTIR confirmed the crystalline structure of nanoparticles and presence of biomolecules mainly proteins as agents for reduction and capping of nanoparticles. The study demonstrates synthesis of nanoparticles by bacteria from effluent of electroplating industry. This can be used for large scale synthesis of nanoparticles by cost effective and environmentally benign mode of synthesis.

  11. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  12. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear power industry and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1979-01-01

    Estimated is the environmental impact of the developing nuclear power in the UK. The radiation levels of the population due to natural and artificial sources are considered. Among the natural sources singled out are the following ones: 238 U occuring in the surface layer of the earth-crust, 40 K which is the component of man muscles and which is the most important source of internal irradiation, and the cosmic radiation as well. Among the man-made radiation sources the dominant ones are X-ray diagnostics, nuclear tests and radioactive fall-out resulted from them. It is stated that nowdays the dose, caused by nuclear power industry in the UK, constitutes approximately 0.5 mrem/yr, which is considerably less than the dose variations due to residence change within the country or frequency of X-ray diagnostical examinations. The high level of the risk for the population in the NPS vicinity and for the personnel is estimated with the help of linear extrapolation of ''dose-response'' curve regarding the natural variations caused by residence variations and occupational hazard. According to the ICRP data, the risk of late effects is 10 -4 for man-rem. Considered are the existing and perspective management methods for NPS the high-level radioactive wastes in the UK as well as the equipment

  14. Nuclear power industry and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivintsev, Yu V

    1979-01-01

    Estimated is the environmental impact of the developing nuclear power in the UK. The radiation levels of the population due to natural and artificial sources are considered. Among the natural sources singled out are the following ones: /sup 238/U occuring in the surface layer of the earth-crust, /sup 40/K which is the component of man muscles and which is the most important source of internal irradiation, and the cosmic radiation as well. Among the man-made radiation sources the dominant ones are X-ray diagnostics, nuclear tests and radioactive fall-out resulted from them. It is stated that nowdays the dose, caused by nuclear power industry in the UK, constitutes approximately 0.5 mrem/y, which is considerably less than the dose variations due to residence change within the country or frequency of X-ray diagnostical examinations. The high level of the risk for the population in the NPS vicinity and for the personnel is estimated with the help of linear extrapolation of ''dose-response'' curve regarding the natural variations caused by residence variations and occupational hazard. According to the ICRP data, the risk of late effects is 10/sup -4/ for man-rem. Considered are the existing and perspective management methods for NPS the high-level radioactive wastes in the UK as well as the equipment.

  15. Chemical sensors for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of chemical sensors for detection of gases at trace levels for applications in nuclear industry will be highlighted. The sensors have to be highly sensitive, reliable and rugged with long term stability to operate in harsh industrial environment. Semiconductor and solid electrolyte based electrochemical sensors satisfy the requirements. Physico-chemical aspects underlying the development of H 2 sensors in sodium and in cover gas circuit of the Fast breeder reactors for its smooth functioning, NH 3 and H 2 S sensors for use in Heavy water production industries and NO x sensors for spent fuel reprocessing plants will be presented. Development of oxygen sensors to monitor the oxygen level in the reactor containments and sodium sensors for detection of sodium leakages will also be discussed. The talk will focus the general aspects of identification of the sensing material for the respective analyte species, development of suitable chemical route for preparing them as fine powders, the need for configuring them in thick film or thin film geometries and their performance. Pulsed laser deposition method, an elegant technique to prepare the high quality thin films of multicomponent oxides is demonstrated for preparation of nanostructured thin films of complex oxides and its use in tailoring the morphology of the complex sensing material in the desired form by optimizing the in-situ growth conditions. (author)

  16. The discharge of radioactive effluents from the nuclear power programme into western waters of Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is presented of the British nuclear power programme and the types of radioactive effluent that arise from the power stations and from the Windscale reprocessing plant. Routes by which these effluents could affect human populations, and radiation dose limits which have been laid down, are discussed. The discharge of permitted amounts of activity into western coastal waters of Great Britain, and the requirements for monitoring the discharges, are described. (U.K.)

  17. Recommended parameters for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Fang Dong; Sun Chengzhi; Xiao Naihong

    2003-01-01

    A set of models and default parameters are recommended for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities in order to standardize the environmental effect assessment of nuclear facilities, and to simplify the observation and investigation in early phase. The paper introduces the input data and default parameters used in the model

  18. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  19. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  20. Radiation purification of the chemical industry effluents and possibilities of realization of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Savushkin, I.A.; Kazazyan, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical methods for synthetic fibre industry effluents purification from cyanides, sulphides and monomers, as well as for disinfection of circulation water and improvement in sedimental and filtering properties of waste active slurry in petrochemical industry are described. Chemical plant effluents are purified by 70-90% from cyanides at the dose rate of 0,3 - 0,5 Mrad, by 60 - 70% from sulphides and monomers at the dose of 0,2 Mrad. Circulation water of petroleum processing plant is disinfected at the dose of 0,08 Mrad; the rates of filtration and sedimentation of waste active slurry increase two and three fold, correspondingly, at the dose of 0,6 Mrad. The power of radiation sources required for the industrial realization of radiation purification of liquid wastes has been calculated

  1. Radioecological impact of effluents from a nuclear facility being decommissioned in the Antas river hydro graphic basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radioecological impact of effluents in the Antas reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronque, Leilane Barbosa; Azevedo, Heliana de; Lopes do Nascimento, Marcos Roberto; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Rodgher, Suzelei; Regali-Seleghim, Mirna Helena

    2008-01-01

    The Antas reservoir receives the treated effluents which come from acid drainage of uranium ore from the UTM-INB (Ore Treatment Unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries), located in Caldas, Minas Gerais. This study was conducted in order to determine the possible environmental impact caused by discharge of the treated liquid effluent from the UTM into the Antas reservoir. Biological (ciliated protozoa and Peridinium sp. phytoflagellate) and physicochemical variables (manganese, zinc, sulfate, uranium, dissolved oxygen and temperature), trophic state and saprobity indexes were evaluated. Sampling in reservoir (Cab, P41, P14S, and P14F points) took place during the dry winter season (July 2006). Each day, samples were collected four times (6:00 am, 12:00 pm, 6:00 pm, and 12:00 am). Biological variables analyzed at the Antas reservoir classified it as an oligo trophic and beta-mesosaprobic environment. Chemical parameters indicate failures in the nuclear facility effluent treatment plant, showing that effluents outside of standard limits established by Brazilian current legislation for Class II water are being discharged at point P41. These results agree with biological analyses, since point P41 has the lowest diversity and biomass values for ciliated protozoa organisms, indicating possible environmental impacts on the ecosystem due to effluent discharge by this mining company.(author)

  2. Manipulating meanings. [Advertising by the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, J. (University College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography)

    Nuclear industry advertising in the United Kingdom is becoming more and more frequent, and is often controversial. The content and impact of recent campaigns are considered, especially the advertisement which portrays nuclear power as beneficial to the greenhouse effect. (author).

  3. Market competition in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear industry provides a wide variety of specialized equipment and services to support the construction and operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This includes the supply of NPPs themselves, the range of materials and services required in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the services and equipment needed for maintenance and upgrading. The markets to provide these have changed substantially as they have evolved from the government-led early stages of the nuclear industry to predominantly competitive, commercial markets today. (author)

  4. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  5. Radioactive waste: the Nuclear Industry's response to the Environment Committee's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This paper represents the nuclear industry's response to the Environmental Committee's report on the handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include the historical aspects of the management of radioactive wastes, technical problems, comparisons with overseas management methods, liquid effluents, reprocessing problems, and public attitudes and perceptions of radioactive waste. Responses to the Environmental Committee's recommendations form an appendix. (U.K.)

  6. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-01-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0 3 , H 3 C 2 00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0 3 medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L -1 ) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 μg L -1 and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 μg L -1 . In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and minimize reagent consumption, as well as

  7. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hosokawa, Komei; Thomas, Steve; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Hazemann, Julie; Bradford, Peter A.

    2013-07-01

    Two years after the Fukushima disaster started unfolding on 11 March 2011, its impact on the global nuclear industry has become increasingly visible. Global electricity generation from nuclear plants dropped by a historic 7 percent in 2012, adding to the record drop of 4 percent in 2011. This World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2013 (WNISR) provides a global overview of the history, the current status and the trends of nuclear power programs worldwide. It looks at nuclear reactor units in operation and under construction. Annex 1 provides 40 pages of detailed country-by-country information. A specific chapter assesses the situation in potential newcomer countries. For the second time, the report looks at the credit-rating performance of some of the major nuclear companies and utilities. A more detailed chapter on the development patterns of renewable energies versus nuclear power is also included. Annex 6 provides an overview table with key data on the world nuclear industry by country. The 2013 edition of the World Nuclear Industry Status Report also includes an update on nuclear economics as well as an overview of the status, on-site and off-site, of the challenges triggered by the Fukushima disaster. However, this report's emphasis on recent post-Fukushima developments should not obscure an important fact: as previous editions (see www.WorldNuclearReport.org) detail, the world nuclear industry already faced daunting challenges long before Fukushima, just as the U.S. nuclear power industry had largely collapsed before the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. The nuclear promoters' invention that a global nuclear renaissance was flourishing until 3/11 is equally false: Fukushima only added to already grave problems, starting with poor economics. The performance of the nuclear industry over the year from July 2012 to July 2013 is summed up in this report

  8. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  9. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pretreatment technologies for industrial effluents: Critical review on bioenergy production and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Desika; Suvetha K, Subha; Manimudi, Varshini T; Mathimani, Thangavel; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Rene, Eldon R; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan

    2018-07-15

    The implementation of different pretreatment techniques and technologies prior to effluent discharge is a direct result of the inefficiency of several existing wastewater treatment methods. A majority of the industrial sectors have known to cause severe negative effects on the environment. The five major polluting industries are the paper and pulp mills, coal manufacturing facilities, petrochemical, textile and the pharmaceutical sectors. Pretreatment methods have been widely used in order to lower the toxicity levels of effluents and comply with environmental standards. In this review, the possible environmental benefits and concerns of adopting different pretreatment technologies for renewable energy production and product/resource recovery has been reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peat wetland as a natural filter of effluents from adjacent industrial areas

    OpenAIRE

    József DEZSO; Gabriella TÓTH; Dénes LÓCZY

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the project is the study of a peat wetland functioning as recipient of effluents from former and present-day industrial activities. The investigation was focused on heavy metal contaminations and their probable mobilization or fixation. The studied peatbog is a typical Eastern European wetland, located in Hungary on the border between medium mountains (Bakony Mountains) and a Neogene basin (the Sárrét, an area under nature conservation). Watercourses and prevailing air c...

  12. Impact of industrial effluent on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in silty clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Hossain, Mohammad; Rahman, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Molla, Abul Hossain; Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad; Khabir Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of soil and water from discharge of untreated industrial effluent is alarming in Bangladesh. Therefore, buildup of heavy metals in soil from contaminated effluent, their entry into the food chain and effects on rice yield were quantified in a pot experiment. The treatments were comprised of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% industrial effluents applied as irrigation water. Effluents, initial soil, different parts of rice plants and post-harvest pot soil were analyzed for various elements, including heavy metals. Application of elevated levels of effluent contributed to increased heavy metals in pot soils and rice roots due to translocation effects, which were transferred to rice straw and grain. The results indicated that heavy metal toxicity may develop in soil because of contaminated effluent application. Heavy metals are not biodegradable, rather they accumulate in soils, and transfer of these metals from effluent to soil and plant cells was found to reduce the growth and development of rice plants and thereby contributed to lower yield. Moreover, a higher concentration of effluent caused heavy metal toxicity as well as reduction of growth and yield of rice, and in the long run a more aggravated situation may threaten human lives, which emphasizes the obligatory adoption of effluent treatment before its release to the environment, and regular monitoring by government agencies needs to be ensured. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Application of advanced oxidation process by electron beam irradiation in the organic compounds degradation present in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The inefficacy of conventional methods to destroy toxic organic compounds present in industrial effluent has taken the search for new technologies of treatment. he water irradiation is the most efficient process to generate radicals that mineralise these compounds. A study to evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Process by electron beam irradiation to treat industrial effluent with high toxic organic compounds concentration was carried out. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 power. The effluent samples from a big industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's Liquid Effluent Irradiation Pilot Plant and the effluent samples from five steps of a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant from SABESP - ETE Suzano (industrial Receiver Unit, Coarse Bar Screens, Medium Bar Screens, Primary Sedimentation and Final Effluent), were irradiated in a batch system. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol and in the decoloring of dyes present in some samples. To remove 90% of the most organic compounds was necessary a 20 kGy dose for industry's ETE, 20 kGy for IRU, CBS and MBS and 10 kGy to 20 kGy for PS and FE. (author)

  14. Effect of soap industry effluents on soil and ground water in Albageir area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, S. O.

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates the effect on soil and ground water produced by the effluent from soap industry discharged from Alsheikh Mustafa Alamin (SMA) factory, in Albageir industrial area, located 45 Km south of Khartoum. Soil samples were taken from the periphery of the effluent pond and from 25 and 50 cm depths from pits at different distances from the pond.The samples were analyzed for the following chemical and physical characteristics PH, EC, sodium, chloride ions and their grain size, in order to investigate any possible soil degradation. The results showed that there is an increase in soil salinity and sodicity resulting from the improper discharge of the liquid waste, and from lack of treatment before the discharge. Hence, there are definitive signs for soil degradation in the study area, which could reach a high magnitude in the long.This situation could be rectified by adopting updated techniques for treatment and disposal of effluent, and by regular inspection, by the authorities in order to make sure that the regulations are not violated. Chemical and physical analyses of ground water samples showed no signs of pollution. However, if the disposal practices are not revised, the possibility of pollution in the near future is likely to occur. A package of measurements is proposed in order to curb the impact of the industry on the environment. (Author)

  15. Union innovation in Ontario's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, D.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade the Power Worker's Union (PWU) has embarked on a number of innovative approaches that have provided significant benefit to the nuclear industry. These include advanced labour relations approaches, equity participation and groundbreaking skills training initiatives. This presentation outlines these and other initiatives in the context of the union's view of the nuclear generation industry's future. (author)

  16. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  18. Investigation of endogenous biomass efficiency in the treatment of unhairing effluents from the tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlaik, Najwa; Bouzid, Jalel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar

    2009-08-01

    The tanning industry is of great economic importance worldwide; however, the potential environmental impact of tanning is significant. An important component in tanning is the removal of hair from the hide (unhairing), a process which generates considerable amounts of toxic effluent characterized by a high concentration of sulphur, rich mineral compounds, a high alkalinity and a high organic load. The purpose of the work described here was to evaluate the biodegradability of the unhairing wastewater by endogenous biomass in batch culture and continuous systems. The detoxification of the effluent was assessed by seed germination tests. The batch culture experiments showed that variations in COD, temperature and pH significantly affected the endogenous biomass growth and activity. The optimal treatment condition corresponded to an initial COD of 6 g/L, pH of 7 and 30 degrees C. Under continuous culture conditions, the reactor was fed for 48 days with the unhairing effluent. The optimal COD removal efficiency was 85.5%. During treatment, a transformation of sulphides into thiosulphates and then sulphates was also observed. The effect of untreated and treated unhairing wastewater on seed germination of different plant species was studied. The data suggested that treatment decreased the wastewater toxicity. Indeed, germination was inhibited when the effluent dilution was lower than 20% and 10% for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively.

  19. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The economic importance of the Canadian nuclear industry in saving costs and creating jobs is expounded. The medical work of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is also extolled. The Canadian Nuclear Association urges the federal government to continue to support the industry at home, and to continue to promote nuclear exports. This report was prepared in response to the Federal Finance Minister's 'A New Direction for Canada'

  1. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    and decaying food materials [8]. In order to reduce the excreted waste in the test tanks, the feeding was stopped 24hrs prior to the commencement of acute bioassay tests. Test method Short-term LC50 (median lethal concentration) toxicity tests were carried... of India. Material and Method The TDIE or the RO rejects were collected from 9 textile industries from the Erode Industrial area. Part of these collected effluents was used for physico-chemical analyses at the site itself and the other part was taken...

  2. Treatment and Energy Valorisation of an Agro-Industrial Effluent in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Reactor (UASB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated growth of the population brings with it an increase in the generation of agro-industrial effluents. The inadequate discharge of these effluents significantly affects the quality of water resources. In this way, it becomes important to invest in treatment processes for agro-industrial effluents, particularly low-cost ones. In this context, the present study includes the design and construction of an UASB reactor and optimization of the anaerobic digestion treatment of the raw effluent from sweet chestnut production in the agro-industrial company Sortegel. The efficiency of the system was evaluated through the determination / monitoring of oxygen chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), biogas production rate and quality (% methane). The reactor was fed for 25 weeks and operated under mesophilic conditions (temperature 30-40 °C). Different values were tested for the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and volumetric flow rate (VF): 0.66 days (VF=1509 L.m-3.d-1); 1.33 days (VF=755 L.m-3.d-1); 2.41 d days (VF=415 L.m-3.d-1). The average COD removal efficiency reached values of 69%, 82% and 75%, respectively, and simultaneously the associated BOD5 removal efficiency was 84%, 91% and 70%. As regards TSS, removal values were 78%, 94% and 63%. In addition, high methane production rates were obtained, between 2500 and 4800 L CH4.kg-1 COD removed d-1. For all the hydraulic retention times tested, high concentrations of methane in the biogas were recorded: 66-75%, 70% and 75% for HRT of 0.66, 1.33 and 2.41 days, respectively.

  3. Status of nuclear power industry in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadenko, I.M.; Vlasenko, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    There are five nuclear power plants and sites (NPPs) with 15 units in operation, 3 units under decommissioning and 1 drastically known as the 'Shelter' object in Ukraine. Ukraine has ambitions plans to develop nuclear industry based on own mineral, human financial resources as well as world wide international cooperation with nuclear countries

  4. The Canadian nuclear power industry. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear power, the production of electricity from uranium through nuclear fission, is by far the most prominent segment of the nuclear industry. The value of the electricity produced, $3.7 billion in Canada in 1992, far exceeds the value of any other product of the civilian nuclear industry. Power production employs many more people than any other sector, the capital investment is much greater, and nuclear power plants are much larger and more visible than uranium mining and processing facilities. They are also often located close to large population centres. This paper provides an overview of some of the enormously complex issues surrounding nuclear power. It describes the Canadian nuclear power industry, addressing i particular its performance so far and future prospects. (author). 1 tab

  5. The Canadian nuclear power industry. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, A [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear power, the production of electricity from uranium through nuclear fission, is by far the most prominent segment of the nuclear industry. The value of the electricity produced, $3.7 billion in Canada in 1992, far exceeds the value of any other product of the civilian nuclear industry. Power production employs many more people than any other sector, the capital investment is much greater, and nuclear power plants are much larger and more visible than uranium mining and processing facilities. They are also often located close to large population centres. This paper provides an overview of some of the enormously complex issues surrounding nuclear power. It describes the Canadian nuclear power industry, addressing i particular its performance so far and future prospects. (author). 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

  7. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  8. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony

    2004-12-01

    Fifty years ago, in September 1954, the head of the US Atomic Energy Commission stated that nuclear energy would become 'too cheap to meter': The cost to produce energy by nuclear power plants would be so low that the investment into electricity meters would not be justified. By coincidence the US prophecy came within three months of the announcement of the world's first nuclear power plant being connected to the grid in.. the then Soviet Union. In June 2004, the international nuclear industry celebrated the anniversary of the grid connection at the site of the world's first power reactor in Obninsk, Russia, under the original slogan '50 Years of Nuclear Power - The Next 50 Years'. This report aims to provide a solid basis for analysis into the prospects for the nuclear power industry. Twelve years ago, the Worldwatch Institute in Washington, WISE-Paris and Greenpeace International published the World Nuclear Industry Status Report 1992. In the current international atmosphere of revival of the nuclear revival debate - it has been a periodically recurring phenomenon for the past twenty years - two of the authors of the 1992 report, now independent consultants, have carried out an updated review of the status of the world nuclear industry. The performance of the nuclear industry over the past year is summed up in this report

  9. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment.

  10. Improvement of conventional parameters of actual industrial effluent by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Silveira, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ordinary process to treat wastewater from the dye, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical and paper mill industries do not degrade easily the coloured substances and organic compounds. A study on the improvement of this treatment using high energy electron irradiation was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from the public Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 80% of wastewater from industrial sources and 20% from domestic sources. A large amount of industrial wastewater comes from chemical and textile industries, which change everyday the quality, quantity and colour these characteristics depend on for the production line of each particular industry. Samples from WTP influent and effluent were collected every 15 days and irradiated in a batch system; the delivered doses were 3.0 kGy, 4.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 8.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. For the non-irradiated and irradiated samples the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), fixed and volatile total solids and fixed and volatile suspended solids, absorption spectrum (300-700nm) and gas chromatography. For samples from effluent irradiated with 3.0 kGy dose, the COD value presented a reduction average of 45%, and this result was fixed for higher doses, however the COD of influent sample did not show significant change for all the delivered doses

  11. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to make a real contribution to the nuclear energy debate (is nuclear energy the limitless solution to man's energy problems or the path to man's destruction) people must be aware of the facts. The Science Reference Library (SRL) has a collection of the primary sources of information on nuclear energy - especially journals. This guideline aims to draw attention to the up-to-date literature on nuclear energy and its technology, freely available for consultation in the main Holborn reading room. After explanations of where to look for particular types of information and the SRL classification, the booklet gives lists and brief notes on the sources held. These are abstracting and indexing periodicals and periodicals. Reports, conference proceedings, patents, bibliographies, directories, year-books and buyer's guides are covered very briefly but not listed. Nuclear reactor data and organisations are also listed with brief details of each. (U.K.)

  12. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  13. Sono assisted electrocoagulation process for the removal of pollutant from pulp and paper industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, P; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Sajjadi, Baharak; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Bin Wan

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of the sonication, electrocoagulation, and sono-electrocoagulation process for removal of pollutants from the industrial effluent of the pulp and paper industry was compared. The experimental results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process yielded higher pollutant removal percentage compared to the sonication and electrocoagulation process alone. The effect of the operating parameters in the sono-electrocoagulation process such as electrolyte concentration (1-5 g/L), current density (1-5 A/dm 2 ), effluent pH (3-11), COD concentration (1500-6000 mg/L), inter-electrode distance (1-3 cm), and electrode combination (Fe and Al) on the color removal, COD removal, and power consumption were studied. The maximum color and COD removal percentages of 100 and 95 %, respectively, were obtained at the current density of 4 A/dm 2 , electrolyte concentration of 4 g/L, effluent pH of 7, COD concentration of 3000 mg/L, electrode combination of Fe/Fe, inter-electrode distance of 1 cm, and reaction time of 4 h, respectively. The color and COD removal percentages were analyzed by using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer and closed reflux method. The results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process could be used as an efficient and environmental friendly technique for complete pollutant removal.

  14. Estimation of radioactive effluents dispersion from the nuclear power plants in Yugoslavia surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehauc, A.

    1997-01-01

    The computational method for atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents is applied to the nuclear power plants in Yugoslavia surrounding. On the basis of computation results, ground level concentrations and washout of radioactive nuclides on exposed Yugoslav territories during unfavourable meteorological conditions are estimated. (author)

  15. The worldwide nuclear industry and its markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2000-06-01

    The world nuclear industry has entered a phase of low activity since the beginning of the 90's. The opening of electricity markets to competition, the reserve of part of the public opinion with respect to nuclear energy and the competition of other power production sources explain the lack of dynamism of nuclear markets. In this context of uncertainties, the nuclear sector has started a re-structuration in depth with new strategic trends which will be decisive for the perenniality of the nuclear industry. The front-end of the fuel cycle is disturbed by production over-capacities which lead to strong tensions on prices. The veering of the German and Belgian policies has had strong impacts on the spent fuels reprocessing activity and the reactor construction activity is in decline in Europe and in the US. On the other hand, services are developing with the extension of the service life of nuclear plants and the waste management and dismantling markets are emerging. The main stakes that the occidental nuclear actors have to face today are: improving the competitiveness of nuclear industry, mastering the management of long-living radioactive wastes, proving the safeness of nuclear power, countering the arrival of Asian competitors. In front of these stakes, the nuclear actors have to take initiatives such as: concentration, vertical integration, technological innovation, communication, diversification etc.. This study examines the overall segments of the world nuclear industry. It comprises also a behaviour and strategy analysis of 13 major actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  16. NIASA: Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollard, P.; Louf, P.H.; Gentet, G.; Doix, G.

    2015-01-01

    NIASA (Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa) aims at promoting the highest standards in the development and use of nuclear technologies. NIASA was founded in 2007. South-Africa has a long history in nuclear activity since the construction of the first nuclear power plant ever built on African soil was commissioned in 1984 in South-Africa (Koeberg plant equipped with two 900 MW reactors). There is also an important center for nuclear research near Pretoria that was founded in 1948 to regulate the prospecting for uranium. NECSA (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation is a state-owned public company) that manages nuclear research, operates the Safari-1 (2 MWe - commissioned in 1965) research reactor and manages the national radioactive waste center located at Vaalputs. The South African nuclear industry employs about 4000 people. (A.C.)

  17. Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Y.; Poulat, B.; Menjeaud, C.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

  18. US nuclear policy and business trend of Japan's nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    As several countries in the east-Asia and middle-east area have been taking an increasing interest in the deployment of nuclear power generation, Japan's nuclear industries have promoted international business activities including the success in the bid of second nuclear power plants in Vietnam. While there are plans for more than thirty of new reactors in the US, the lifetime extension of existing aged reactors, development of non-existing natural gas and trend of greenhouse gases reduction measures have dampened these plans and probably most of new units will not start construction by 2030. This article reviewed the details of US's new nuclear power introduction, trend of recent government's policies, future perspective of nuclear power construction and business trend of Japan's nuclear industries. Japan's industries should be flexible regarding nuclear power as one option to realize low-carbon society. (T. Tanaka)

  19. The regulation of radioactive effluent release in France (mainly from large nuclear installations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Jean.

    1978-01-01

    In parallel with the licensing system for construction and operation of classified or so-called large nuclear installations (INB) there are in France regulations for the release of radioactive effuents from such installations. The regulations applicable to installations other than INBs are not specifically of a nuclear nature, while those covering INBs, which are analysed in this study, in particular, cover effluent release in liquid or gaseous form. The licensing and control procedures for such release are analysed in detail. (NEA) [fr

  20. Working in nuclear industry? why not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Today 200 nuclear reactors are being built or scheduled in the world and despite this, nuclear energy in western countries seems to collapse under the weights of prejudices and false ideas. No matter what the opponents say, nuclear energy is safe and clean and is a bringer of jobs. In France nuclear industry is one of a few industrial sectors that have been spared by massive de-industrialization. Nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy, has an important role to play to mitigate climate warming by working with renewable energies to provide a reliable electric power. This future is a new future for nuclear energy as new challenges have to be overcome, for instance nuclear energy has to adapt itself to the intermittency of wind and solar energies, nuclear industry has to be innovative and has to fully appropriate numerical technologies. Nuclear industry is a promising sector that proposes interesting scientific and technical jobs and is also a vital interest for the country. (A.C.)

  1. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL IN VILLAGE DINGI, DISTRICT HARIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Asghar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present report is an outcome of research work conducted in Dingi village, District Haripur in 2012. The research aimed to assess and analyze the effects of industrial effluents on the soil fertility of the village, investigate contributing factors responsible for soil pollution and underlying causes creating the problems. Data analysis revealed that area had problems pertaining to water and soil quality. The key factors affecting soil fertility were the careless discharge of the untreated industrial effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate (HIE into the natural stream passing through village. The results were compared with the soil standards set by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF and European Committee Commission (ECC and all of these were exceeding the permissible limits and affecting the soil fertility. The soils were found not fit for agriculture. The investigation highlighted the need to take some effective steps to manage the monitoring program set for checking of industries by the government according to set rules and regulation.

  2. Toxicity evaluation of the process effluent streams of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J L R; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-02-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and the acute toxicity of several wastewater streams, generated in the industrial production of synthetic rubber, were determined. The acute toxicity was evaluated in bioassays using different organisms: Danio rerio (fish), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer). The removal of toxicity attained in the industrial wastewater treatment plant was also determined upstream and downstream of the activated sludge process. The results obtained indicate that the critical streams in terms of acute toxicity are the effluents from the liquid polymer unit and the spent caustic butadiene washing stage. The biological treatment was able to partially remove the toxicity of the industrial wastewater. However, a residual toxicity level persisted in the biotreated wastewater. The results obtained with Lactuca sativa showed a high degree of reproducibility, using root length or germination index as evaluation parameters. The effect of volatile pollutants on the toxicity results obtained with lettuce seeds was assessed, using ethanol as a model compound. Modifications on the assay procedure were proposed. A strong correlation between the toxic responses of Lactuca sativa and Danio rerio was observed for most industrial effluent streams.

  3. Atomic nanoscale technology in the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Taeho

    2011-01-01

    Developments at the nanoscale are leading to new possibilities and challenges for nuclear applications in areas ranging from medicine to international commerce to atomic power production/waste treatment. Progress in nanotech is helping the nuclear industry slash the cost of energy production. It also continues to improve application reliability and safety measures, which remain a critical concern, especially since the reactor disasters in Japan. Exploring the new wide-ranging landscape of nuclear function, Atomic Nanoscale Technology in the Nuclear Industry details the breakthroughs in nanosca

  4. Preparation of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for decontamination of nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gh.; Popescu, I.; Retegan, T.; Stefanescu, I.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: (1) to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes, (2) to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation (3) to asses and to find a new procedure for preparation a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follow: (1) the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; (2) the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; (3) the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity are subjected to testing. (author)

  5. Preparation of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for decontamination of nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gh.; Popescu, I.; Retegan, T.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: - to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; - to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; - to assess and to find a new procedure for preparation a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follows: - the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; - the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; - the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity are subject to testing. (authors)

  6. Current status for applications of hydrophobic platinum catalysts in tritium removal from nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, Irina; Ionita, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D results on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: 1. to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; 2. to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; 3. to assess and find a new procedure for preparation of a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follow: 1. the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; 2. the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; 3. the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts to other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity, like VOCs oxidation from wastewater or H 2 -O 2 catalytic recombination, are subject to testing

  7. Nuclear industry: a young sector of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the 3. industrial sector in France and is the good reason why the French energy mix is largely carbon-free. The medium term challenges that faces nuclear industry in this country is first to succeed the extensive refit of nuclear power plants with a view on getting the extension of their operating life and secondly to recruit the skilled staff nuclear industry needs. About 8000 jobs dispatched in the 2500 enterprises that forms the nuclear sector will be available each year up to 2020. The age pyramid shows that numerous retirements are expected in the years to come so the issue of skill and knowledge transfer is looming. 25% of recruitment will be made on the basis of work-study contracts particularly for technical jobs. Concerning recruitment, the nuclear sector is competing with other high-tech sectors like aeronautics or the automobile sector, which make things harder. The image that nuclear industry wants to promote of itself is the image of a young, modern, high-tech industry that appeared less than 50 years ago and whose main purpose is to provide a carbon-free electricity to an avid world. (A.C.)

  8. The treatment of low level effluents by flocculation and settling at the Chooz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1989-01-01

    At the Chooz plant, radioactive effluents were formerly treated by evaporation, but because throughput was low, another method was studied. After laboratory tests, a 500 L/h flocculation and settling pilot plant was constructed, followed later by a 5 m 3 /h installation. The main isotopes eliminated are caesium-134 and caesium-137. Flocculation with copper ferrocyanide reduces the total activity to less than 500 Bq/L. The installation described in the paper was commissioned in 1984 and has been in industrial operation since 1985, processing all types of effluent. The evaporator can be set aside for boric acid recovery. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Treatment of Radioactive Effluents at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, Gerald [Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Investigations have also been made at Saclay to find out if the soil at the Centre could be used to receive SNRC effluents. The Saclay plateau is a sand plateau 75 m thick on a clay base (2). Its upper surface is covered by a heterogeneous layer of clay containing pieces of grindstone of varying sizes. The ion-exchange capacity of this soil is considerable, 25 meq/100 g. Low-activity waste could therefore be discharged into it, especially since the plateau has no lateral water outcrops of any size and underground water does not reappear for a long time. This method of disposal is still only experimental. It was tested with a solution of Sr{sup 90} and tritium having an activity equal to the permitted levels.

  10. Nuclear industry chart no. 21 - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A fold-out chart shows the relationship between the government bodies and industrial concerns. Nuclear power plant orders under the 1970-84 programme are tabulated. A directory is included of national bodies, firms and establishments. (U.K.)

  11. Trends in risk management in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock

    1996-01-01

    Safety management may be classified into three dimensions: risk management, accident management, and emergency management. This paper addresses the recent trends of safety management in nuclear industry, focussing on risk management and accident management

  12. Hazard and safety in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1978-01-01

    Although the number of victims in the nuclear industry has been extremely low as compared with the number of victims in other spheres of human activity society has been willing to put up with a high number of accidents resulting in few victims per accident but refuses to accept an extremely rare accident resulting in a high number of victims. The U.S. nuclear industry is spending almost 2000 dollars for each reduction of a man x rem unit and this investment raises the ''man-life value'' in the nuclear industry to 10 million dollars as compared with 10,000 to 20,000 dollars spent in other activities (roentgen, early cancer detection, etc.). To reduce the exaggerated burden placed on the nuclear industry the safety expenditures should be spread over a maximum possible range of human activities. (B.G.)

  13. US nuclear power industry overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The electric utilities in the United States are facing a number of challenges as deregulation proceeds. Cost control is one of these challenges that impacts directly the operators of nuclear power plants. This presentation reviews recent data on the performance of nuclear power plants and discusses technical developments to reduce operating costs, with particular reference to low-level radioactive waste issues

  14. Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA) [fr

  15. Estimation of radioactive effluents concentrations in the vicinity of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsov, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of mathematical prediction of radioactive effluent concentrations around nuclear power plants. This mathematical model which describes the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere here in after is expanded and adapted for radioactive effluent treatment. In this way the mathematical model includes the description of the following effects: the rise of plume caused by its vertical momentum and its heat content, wind velocity profile and vertical growth of the coefficient of diffusion, fallout under gravity, ground deposition, precipitation scavenging, and radioactive decay. The advanced computer program DIFFUS has been applied to evaluate the ground concentration of the nuclides of I, which constitute the greatest risk for population.(author)

  16. Nuclear industry project audit and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongxin; Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    With China's increasing use of nuclear energy, nuclear power related construction projects related to the deepening of the audit, some of the nuclear industry in construction field of the dominant issues have been more effective containment, such as inflated workload, high-set fixed standards, to improve billing unit price, which overestimate the risk calculation tools and behavior completed audit of the accounts have been able to escape his stuff. However, some nuclear industry construction field with a hidden problem because of its hidden nature, not easily found, and some even have intensified the trend. Construction funds to the country such problems caused by the loss of waste is enormous, to the breeding of corruption provided the soil is fertile, if not promptly and effectively to stop the breeding will spread. This paper on the current construction of the nuclear industry in several major areas of the hidden problems are discussed, and the angle from the audit of appropriate countermeasures. (authors)

  17. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Twenty years after its first edition, World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2012 portrays an industry suffering from the cumulative impacts of the world economic crisis, the Fukushima disaster, ferocious competitors and its own planning and management difficulties. The report provides a global overview of the history, the current status and trends of nuclear power programs in the world. It looks at units in operation and under construction. Annex 1 also provides detailed country-by-country information. A specific chapter assesses the situation in potential newcomer countries. For the first time, the report looks at the credit-rating performance of some of the major nuclear companies and utilities. A more detailed chapter on the development patterns of renewable energies versus nuclear power is also included. The performance of the nuclear industry over the 18 months since the beginning of 2011 is summed up in this report

  18. Modified natural zeolite as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in treatment of recalcitrants in industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Arimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial effluents with high recalcitrants should undergo post-treatment after biological treatment. The aim of this study was to use cheap and abundantly available natural materials to develop heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the removal of colored recalcitrants in molasses distillery wastewater (MDW. The pellets of zeolite, which is naturally available in many countries, were modified by pre-treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, before embedding on them the ferrous ions. The effects of pH and temperature on heterogeneous Fenton were studied using the modified catalysts. The sulphuric acid-ferrous modified catalysts showed the highest affectivity which achieved 90% color and 60% TOC (total organic carbon removal at 150 g/L pellet catalyst dosage, 2 g/L H2O2 and 25 °C. The heterogeneous Fenton with the same catalyst caused improvement in the biodegradability of anaerobic effluent from 0.07 to 0.55. The catalyst was also applied to pre-treat the raw MDW and increased it's biodegradability by 4%. The color of the resultant anaerobic effluent was also reduced. The kinetics of total TOC removal was found to depend on operation temperature. It was best described by simultaneous first and second order kinetics model for the initial reaction and second order model for the rest of the reaction.

  19. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  20. Adsorption behavior of rice husk for the decontamination of chromium from industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rahman, A.; Ahmad, S.; Toheed, A.; Ahmed, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice husk, an agricultural waste product, was studied as a potential decontaminant for chromium in the effluents of leather tanning industries. Physico-chemical parameters such as selection of appropriate electrolyte, shaking time, concentration of absorbent and absorbate were studied to optimize the best conditions in which this material can be utilized on commercial scale for the decontamination of effluents. The radiotracer technique was used to determine the distribution of chromium. In certain cases atomic absorption spectrophotometry was also employed. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol x dm -3 acid solutions (HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 ) using 3.0 g of absorbent for 2.73 x 10 -3 mol x dm -3 chromium concentration in five minutes equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in the concentrations of all acids. The adsorption data follows the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 2.73 x 10 -3 to 2.73 x 10 -2 mol x dm -3 chromium concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants, i.e., 1/n = 0.86 ± 0.06 and A = 2.35 ± 0.06 mmol x g -1 have been computed for the sorption system. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔG deg, ΔS deg and ΔH deg have also been calculated for the system. Application of the method to a test case of a medium size industry showed that 21 kg of rice husk was sufficient to maintain the NEQS limits of chromium for industrial effluents. (author)

  1. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  2. Continuous improvement methods in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, Carolyn D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate management methods for improved safety in the nuclear power industry. Process improvement management, methods of business process reengineering, total quality management, and continued process improvement (KAIZEN) are explored. The anticipated advantages of extensive use of improved process oriented management methods in the nuclear industry are increased effectiveness and efficiency in virtually all tasks of plant operation and maintenance. Important spin off include increased plant safety and economy. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  3. Personal radiation protection in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Koshcheev, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific peculiarities of organization of personal radiation protection at various nuclear industry enterprises when dealing with radioactive and other toxic substances are illuminated. Effect of heatin.g and cooling microclimate is discussed. Medical and technical requirements for personal protection means and tasks of personal protection in the field of nuclear industry are considered in short along with some peculiarities of application of different kinds of personal protection means and psychological aspects of personnel protection

  4. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E.; Kelderman, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Irvine, K.

    2018-04-01

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  5. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  6. Human resources in the Japanese nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, M.

    1995-01-01

    Japan is becoming rapidly a nation with an elderly population. Japanese students are turning away from the manufacturing industries, including the nuclear industry, and turning towards more service oriented industries that are considered to be cleaner and to pay better. Studies have been performed to devise ways to attract young workers to the nuclear industry, which is projected to continue to grown under the current long range energy plants. The paper summarizes the findings and recommendations of the recent studies conducted by the nuclear industry and academic circles. All studies point out that insufficient emphasis is placed on science in the present Japanese educational programme and that implementation of effective programmes to revitalize education in science is most urgently needed to keep Japan in the forefront of high technology. Utilization of advanced computer technology and automation is promoted to improve working conditions and efficiency in the nuclear industry. In addition, the establishment of a professional status of engineers and technicians will be vital for an effective utilization of qualified workers in the nuclear industry. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  7. Privatisation of the UK's nuclear power industry: nuclear's triple challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, W.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    At the British Nuclear Congress in December 1996, Lord Fraser of Caryllie, then UK energy minister, set out the three key issues the nuclear industry must tackle for a successful future: (1) increased competition from other energy sources, (2) a growing world market for its skills and (3) a continuing tough regulatory regime. Nuclear power, with electricity generated in the UK rising to 25%, has responded well to competition from other energy sources, and also to the further competition generated by privatisation which has already generated benefits for the public. As other countries with nuclear programmes diversify and upgrade their technology this will create new export opportunities for Britain over and above those already in existence, notably by BNFL in Japan. Other areas that Britain has to offer relate to safety improvements, notably in eastern Europe, and decommissioning, in which Magnox Electric is one of the few operators in the world with experience in decommissioning a full scale commercial reactor. The regulatory framework for the nuclear industry will continue to be as rigorous as ever, but, however the industry is structured, it should be noted that commercial success and continued safe operations are inextricably linked. The industry must operate within the framework of the development of international treaties and agreements in the nuclear field. The Government will continue to take a close interest in the safety, security and prosperity of the nuclear industry, and help Britain as a whole to be a successful and influential player in the international nuclear community. (UK)

  8. Long-Term Nuclear Industry Outlook - 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2004-09-30

    The nuclear industry has become increasingly efficient and global in nature, but may now be poised at a crossroads between graceful decline and profound growth as a viable provider of electrical energy. Predicted population and energy-demand growth, an increased interest in global climate change, the desire to reduce the international dependence on oil as an energy source, the potential for hydrogen co-generation using nuclear power reactors, and the improved performance in the nuclear power industry have raised the prospect of a “nuclear renaissance” in which nuclear power would play an increasingly more important role in both domestic and international energy market. This report provides an assessment of the role nuclear-generated power will plan in the global energy future and explores the impact of that role on export controls.

  9. Dikkers Valves for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Most countries have adopted the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, as the basis of their national requirements for licensing nuclear components. This Code gives clear directives for defining design requirements coupled with a controlled manufacturing system. It has always been and still is the policy of Dikkers to manufacture high-quality products. Dikkers manufacture nuclear products in accordance with this Code, Section III; indeed many features exceed these minimum requirements. At the Nuclex Exhibition in Basel, Dikkers Valves BV will exhibit its main products for use in nuclear power plants. (Auth.)

  10. Nuclear industry chart no. 20 - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A folding chart is presented of the Swedish nuclear industry, which shows the government bodies, companies, utilities and other groups who participate in the nuclear field. Their special interests and activities and affiliations with each other and with international organisations are indicated. (U.K.)

  11. Organization of the German nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Corporate ownership within the German nuclear industry has evolved constantly during the last decade, and recent acquisitions and mergers, reunification of the country, as well as preparation for a unified European power market, have led to many significant changes during the past two years. The country's nuclear industry continues to struggle under an increasingly anti-nuclear political environment, yet nuclear power provided more than one-third of Germany's total electricity generation in 1991. As in many countries, particularly in western Europe, many German companies involved in different facets of the nuclear industry are interrelated. Usually as a means of horizontal or vertical integration, the country's nuclear utilities own, directly or indirectly, shares in uranium mining projects; conversion, enrichment, and fabrication companies; or other utilities' nuclear power plants. The utilities own partial interests in companies in supporting industries as well, including transportation firms, waste management companies, uranium broker/traders, and nuclear equipment manufacturers. While the majority of the companies owned are German, numerous investments are made in non-German firms also

  12. Westinghouse support for Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, R.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major commitments Westinghouse has with the nuclear industry is to provide to the utilities the support necessary to have their nuclear units operating at optimum levels of availability and safety. This article outlines the organization the Energy Systems Business Unit of Westinghouse has in place to fulfill this commitment and describes the evolution of the support Westinghouse is providing to the operation o f the Spanish Nuclear Power plants. (Author)

  13. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report: 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, Christopher; Lenssen, Nicholas; Froggatt, Antony; Willis, John; Kondakji, Assad; Schneider, Mycle

    1992-05-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. This first WNISR Report was issued in 1992 in a joint publication with WISE-Paris, Greenpeace International and the World Watch Institute, Washington

  14. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  15. Environmental monitoring standardization of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mili

    1993-01-01

    China has established some environmental monitoring standards of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Up to date 33 standards have been issued; 10 to be issued; 11 in drafting. These standards cover sampling, gross activities measurement, analytical methods and management rules and so on. They involve with almost all nuclear fuel cycle facilities and have formed a complete standards system. By the end of the century, we attempt to draft a series of analytical and determination standards in various environmental various medium, they include 36 radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (3 tabs.)

  16. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, 14 C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  17. An example of toxic effluents treatment: nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, J.P.; Teulon, F.

    1993-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste has to aim to avoid to bring nuisances to future generations whom industrial people, public authorities would be responsible. The French way of doing in radioactive waste storage is called multi-barriers, to forbid or limit radionuclides migration to the biosphere. This containment system is composed of three barriers: the waste packaging, the storage and the site or geological barrier. This way of doing can also be used for toxic industrial waste. 4 refs

  18. The American nuclear power industry. A handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearman, W.A.; Starr, P.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the history and current organization of the American nuclear power industry. Part I focuses on development of the industry, including the number, capacity, and type of plants in commercial operation as well as those under construction. Part II examines the safety, environmental, antitrust, and licensing issues involved in the use of nuclear power. Part III presents case studies of selected plants, such as Three Mile Island and Seabrook, to illustrate some of the issues discussed. The book also contains a listing of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission libraries and a subject index

  19. Prospects of nuclear industry in Latin American

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, S.; Consentino, J.; Eibenschuts, J.; Gasparian, A.E.; Lepecki, W.; Mueller, A.E.F.; Spitalnik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear generation in Latin America are presented. It is mentioned that prior to the implementation of a nuclear power programme a legal, organizational and industrial infrastructure has to be developed as a condition for an effetive technology transfer. It is also mentioned that by the expansion of regional cooperation, existing experience and know-how in Latin America nuclear industry, specially regarding small and medium power reactors, could become an important development factor for the whole region. (R.S.) [pt

  20. Nuclear industry is ready for digitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear industry is now embracing the digital revolution by adapting existing digital technologies concerning big data, additive manufacturing, connected objects or enhanced reality to the constraints of nuclear industry. The expected benefits will be manifold: to assure and improve the competitiveness of new reactors, to accelerate the implementation of innovations, to develop preventive maintenance, and to allow a better communication between teams working on the same project. In some big enterprises a chief digital officer has been commissioned to prioritize the introduction of digital technologies in industrial projects. (A.C.)

  1. A view from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Conference is reminded that the nuclear industry regards occupational radiation-induced cancer as a putative rather than a demonstrated hazard at current dose levels. Although epidemiological studies have shown possible dose-response correlation, all such studies of nuclear industry personnel show an overall risk of malignant disease lower than that for the general public. Doses to workers in the nuclear industry have been reducing since the 1970s, largely in consequence of the optimisation of radiation protection and the injunction ''to keep doses as low as reasonably achievable'' without reduction in occupational dose limits over this period. It is argued that further reduction in individual dose limits will act to increase collective dose. The nuclear industry no longer has either the highest individual average or collective radiation doses to its workforce within British industry; higher average individual doses occur in the non-coal mining industry and the collective dose to coal miners is greater than that of nuclear fuel cycle workers and comparable to the sum of collective doses to fuel cycle and power generation workers. (author)

  2. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers operational nuclear power stations of capacity greater than 5C MWe and nucler fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent discharges from these installations are given for the period 1976 to 1980, expressed both in absolute terms and normalized to net electricity production from the fuel. An assesssment is then made of exposure of members of the public consequent to the 1980 discharges. Where environmental contamination levels were detectable the results have been taken into account in the dose assessment; however, environmental contamination was in general below the limit of detection. In these circumstances the dose estimates rely entirely on theoretical models which frequently incorporate conservative assumptions; hence these estimates are likely to be greater than the doses actually received. The estimated exposures have then been compared with the dose limits set out in the Euratom Directive of 15th July, 1980. It is concluded that the exposure of members of the public always left an appreciable safety margin relative to the limits and indeed lay within the variations in exposure which result from natural background

  3. The nuclear industry and the young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanti, A.

    2000-01-01

    The European Nuclear Society was founded in 1975. It is a federation of 25 nuclear societies from 24 countries-stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals and on across Russia to the Pacific. Through Russia's membership in the Pacific Nuclear Council. ENS is directly linked to that area, too. ENS comprises more than 20 000 professionals from industry, power stations, research centers and authorities, working to advance nuclear energy. ENS has three Member Societies in Australia, Israel and Morocco. Also it has collaboration agreements with the American Nuclear Society, the Argentinean Nuclear Energy Association, the Canadian and the Chinese Nuclear Societies. ENS is doing pioneering work with its Young Generation Network, standing for positive measures to recruit and educate young people as engineers, technicians and skilled staff ion the nuclear field: from school to university and in industry. The goals of the YGN are: to promote the establishment of national Young Generation networks; to promote the exchange of knowledge between older and younger generation cross-linked all over Europe; to encourage young people in nuclear technology to provide a resource for the future; to communicate nuclear issues to the public (general public, media, politicians). (N.C.)

  4. Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahu, S S; Shekhawat, A; Saravanan, D; Jugade, R M

    2016-08-01

    Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the treatment and disposal of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-exchangers can be broadly classified into organic and inorganic ion-exchangers. Inorganic ion-exchangers are stable at high temperatures and radiation dosage, resistant towards oxidizing agents and organic solvents. They are cheap and easy to prepare. Inorganic ion-exchangers, due to their superiority over organic ion-exchangers, have been extensively used for a wide variety of applications including treatment and management of industrial effluents. The criteria governing the division into essential and toxic elements for animal life have been described. The occupational sources of toxic elements and their compounds in the environment have been identified and their tolerance limits prescribed in air, water and food are given. The toxicity and adverse effects of harmful elements and their hazardous compounds are mentioned. Factors influencing sorption of trace elements onto inorganic ion-exchangers are highlighted. Examples of inorganic ion-exchangers are cited where they can be utilized for the treatment of industrial effluents before their safe discharge into waterways and biosphere. (author)

  6. Biosorption of chromium from electroplating and galvanizing industrial effluents under extreme conditions using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI] is a toxic oxidized form and an important metal pollutant in the water bodies. Biosorption of chromium(VI offers a potential alternative to conventional metal removal methods. Dried biomass of Chlorella vulgaris was used as biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents as a function of biosorbent dosage, contact time, pH, salinity and initial metal ion concentration. Batch experiments were conducted for biosorption and the optimum conditions were 1 g/L biomass, 4 h contact time, pH 2 and 2.893 mS/cm of electrical conductivity. The chromium biosorption was strictly pH dependent with a maximum Cr removal of 63.2 mg/L at pH 2. Highest Cr removal at a concentration of 81.3 mg/L was observed at Electrical conductivity (EC value of 2.893 mS/cm. A comparison of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models revealed that Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experimental data based on R2, qmax and standard error values. The results suggest that C. vulgaris biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents. Keywords: Biosorption, Chlorella vulgaris, Microalgae, Hexavalent chromium

  7. Effects of effluent from electoplating industry on the immune response in the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, V J Florence; Thatheyus, A J; Murugesan, A G; Alexander, S Catherine P; Geetha, I

    2018-08-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of sublethal concentrations of electoplating industry effluent (EIE) on the non-specific and specific immune responses in the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. Sublethal concentrations of electroplating industry effluent such as 0.004, 0.007, 0.010 and 0.013% were chosen based on the LC 50 values. Experimental fish were exposed to these sublethal concentrations of EIE for 28 days. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment, non-specific immune response by serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity and antiprotease activity and specific immune response by antibody response to Aeromonas hydrophila using bacterial agglutination assay and ELISA were assessed. The results showed that chronic exposure of fish to 0.004, 0.007, 0.010 and 0.013% EIE, dose-dependently decreased the non-specific and specific immune responses on all the days tested compared to control fish whereas statistically significant suppressive effects were observed in fish exposed to 0.013% of EIE on all activities tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This document is a reprint of a note published by the nuclear service of the French embassy in Japan. It evokes the present day situation of nuclear facilities in Japan, the public acceptance and its attitude in front of accidents, the national energy program, the deregulation and competitiveness of nuclear power, the carrying out of the nuclear program, the future reactors, the fast neutron reactors, the dismantling activities, the fuel enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuels, the use of MOX fuel, the off-site storage, the vitrified and radiological wastes, the geological disposal of wastes, the prospects of the nuclear program, the companies involved in the Japan nuclear industry, the French-Japanese bilateral cooperation, and the ITER project in the domain of nuclear fusion. (J.S.)

  9. United Nuclear Industries, Inc. reactor and fuel production facilities 1975 environmental release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    During calendar year 1975, an estimated total of 3,000,000 pounds of waste materials and approximately 150 curies of radionuclides were discharged to the environs in liquid effluent streams emanating from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. During the same period, approximately 1,700,000 pounds of reported waste materials, including 34,000 curies of reported radionuclides, were discharged to the atmosphere from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. Superscript numbers reference explanatory notes contained at the end of the report

  10. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    As chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in many areas of nuclear industry, the chemical engineer has a vital role to play in its growth and development. An account of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field is given with view of impressing upon the faculty members of the Indian universities the need for taking appropriate steps to prepare chemical engineers suitable for nuclear industry. Some of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field are : (1) separation of useful minerals from beach sand, (2) preparation of thorium nitrate of nuclear purity from monazite, (3) processing of zircon sand to obtain nuclear grade zirconium and its separation from hafnium to obtain zirconium metal sponge, (4) recovery of uranium from copper tailings, (5) economic recovery of nuclear grade uranium from low grade uranium ores found in India, (6) fuel reprocessing, (7) chemical processing of both low and high level radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  11. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  13. Assurance of durable nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortescue, P [General Atomic Co.

    1976-10-01

    The problem of conservation of fuel resources resulting in a need for reactor systems with more economical fuel cycles, is discussed. Breeders and advanced converters are first considered. An examination is then made of symbiotic arrangements to form a self-sufficient power-producing complex. An illustration is given of a gas breeder-HTGR combination. The ratio of HTGR to breeder thermal power is calculated for a self-sufficient combination without provision of industry expansion, and also when allowing for industry expansion. It is shown that fuel resources can be extended and become most rapidly useful by proper portions of LWRs, fast breeders, and HTGRs.

  14. IEC ready for turnaround in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, R.; Corte, E.; Thompson, I.

    2005-01-01

    The activity of IEC Technical Committee (TC) 45 (Nuclear Instrumentation) in conditions of turnaround in nuclear industry is considered. TC 45's main task is to lay down a comprehensive strategy for itself and its two subcommittees as well as to improve the relevance of the nuclear safety standards. Subcommittee 45A develops standards that apply to the electronic and electrical functions and associated systems and equipment used in the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear energy generation facilities. Subcommittee 45B develops and issues standards covering all aspects of instrumentation associated with radiation protection including radiation detectors, radiation monitoring, dosimetry and radiology [ru

  15. Application of hydrophobic Pt catalysts in hydrogen isotopes separation from nuclear effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionita, G.; Popescu, I.; Stefanescu, I.; Retegan, T. [National Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Separation (Romania)

    2003-09-01

    According to reviewed references and to tests effected by authors the platinum/carbon/teflon is the most active and the most stable catalyst for removal of tritium from nuclear effluents by isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water. To improve the performances of process it is recommended to use the catalyst as ordered or random mixed catalytic packing in a trickle bed reactor. (O.M.)

  16. Analysis of adaptability of radioactive liquid effluent discharge under normal condition of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yueping; Zhang Bing; Chen Yang; Zhu Lingqing; Tao Yunliang; Shangguan Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive liquid effluent from inland nuclear power plant under normal operation is an important part to be considered in environmental impact assessment. Requirements of newly revised and upcoming standards GB 6249 and GB 14587 are introduced in this paper. Through an example of an inland NPP siting in the preliminary feasibility study phase, the adaptability to the relevant regulations in the site selection is analyzed. Also, the concerned problems in the design of AP1000 units are addressed. (authors)

  17. Thermal tolerances of fish from a reservoir receiving heated effluent from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W.E.; Smith, M.H.; Gibbons, J.W.; Brown, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The heat tolerances of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) subjected to heated effluent from a nuclear reactor was compared with those of bluegill living at normal temperatures. Three of the four study areas were located in the Par Pond reservoir system on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Results shown that at least one species of warm-water fish can adjust to elevated aquatic temperatures in a natural environment by becoming more tolerant. (U.S.)

  18. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiological impact of airborne effluents of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.P.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Blanco, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    Radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides in airborne effluents of a model coal-fired steam plant is evaluated assuming a release to the atmosphere of 1 percent of the ash in the coal burned and compared with the impact of radioactive materials in the airborne effluents of model light-water reactors. The principal exposure pathway for radioactive materials released from both types of plants is ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. For nuclear plants immersion in the airborne effluents is also a significant factor in the dose commitment. Assuming that the coal burned contains 1 ppM uranium and 2 ppM thorium together with their decay products and using the same impact analysis methods used in evaluating nuclear facilities, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant for the whole body and most organs (except the thyroid) are shown to be greater than those from a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and, with the exception of the bone and kidney doses, less than those from a boiling-water reactor (BWR). With the exception of the bone dose, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant are less than the numerical design guideline limits listed for light-water reactors (LWRs). Population dose commitments from the coal plant are higher than those from either nuclear plant

  20. Assessment of the disinfection capacity and eco-toxicological impact of atmospheric cold plasma for treatment of food industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Giltrap, Michelle; Lu, Peng; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2018-08-01

    Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent. This study also investigated the eco-toxicological impact of cold plasma treatment of the effluents using a range of aquatic bioassays. Continuous ACP treatment was applied to synthetic dairy and meat effluents. Microbial inactivation showed treatment time dependence with significant reduction in microbial populations within 120 s, and to undetectable levels after 300 s. Post treatment retention time emerged as critical control parameter which promoted ACP bacterial inactivation efficiency. Moreover, ACP treatment for 20 min achieved significant reduction (≥2 Log 10 ) in Bacillus megaterium endospores in wastewater effluent. Acute aquatic toxicity was assessed using two fish cell lines (PLHC-1 and RTG-2) and a crustacean model (Daphnia magna). Untreated effluents were toxic to the aquatic models, however, plasma treatment limited the toxic effects. Differing sensitivities were observed to ACP treated effluents across the different test bio-assays in the following order: PLHC-1 > RTG-2 ≥ D. magna; with greater sensitivity retained to plasma treated meat effluent than dairy effluent. The toxic effects were dependent on concentration and treatment time of the ACP treated effluent; with 30% cytotoxicity in D. magna and fish cells observed after 24 h of exposure to ACP treated effluent for

  1. What nuclear industry after Fukushima?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power experienced a fast growth during the 70's and 80's, but a quasi-stagnation during the 90's. Since the beginning of the 21. century, a so-called renaissance could be witnessed, fuelled by concerns about energy security of supply, volatility of oil and gas prices, fear of an incoming 'peak oil', and, last but not least, the threat of global climate change due to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse effect gases. Then, on March 11 2011, a monster earthquake followed by a violent tsunami triggered an accident which all but destroyed four nuclear reactors on the Fukushima-Daiichi site, on the east coast of Honshu, the main Japanese island. There was meltdown in three reactor cores, hydrogen explosions which blew off the upper structures of four reactor buildings, and massive radioactive contamination of a spread of land north-west of the site as well as radioactive releases to the ocean. This accident triggered reactions of various intensities throughout the world, awakening the fears, and questions raised 25 years before by the Chernobyl accident. But the tsunami did not make the fundamentals of the renaissance disappear. After a pause, to fully learn lessons from the accident, the renaissance is likely to start again, all the much since the 'third generation' nuclear plants would have survived unscathed the Fukushima earthquake and tsunami. (author)

  2. Knowledge management for nuclear industry operating organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The nuclear energy sector is characterized by lengthy time frames and technical excellence. Early nuclear plants were designed to operate for 40 years but their service life now frequently extends between 50 and 60 years. Decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear plants will also be spread over several years resulting in a life cycle - from cradle to grave - in excess of 100 years, which gives rise to two challenges for the nuclear industry: (1) Retention of existing skills and competencies for a period of over fifty years, particularly in countries where no new nuclear power plants are being planned; and (2) Development of new skills and competencies in the areas of decommissioning and radioactive waste management in many industrialized countries if younger workers cannot continue to be attracted to the nuclear disciplines. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. Typically, these retirees are individuals who can answer questions very easily and who possess tacit knowledge never before extracted from them. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Therefore, the primary challenge of preserving such knowledge is to determine how best to capture tacit knowledge and transfer it to successors. These problems are exacerbated by the deregulation of energy markets around the world. The nuclear industry is now required to reduce its costs dramatically in order to compete with generators that have different technology life cycle profiles. In many countries, government funding has been dramatically reduced or has disappeared altogether while the profit margins of generators have been severely squeezed. The result has been lower electricity prices but also the loss of expertise as a result of downsizing to reduce salary costs, a loss of

  3. Corrosion issues in nuclear industry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattant, F.; Crusset, D.; Feron, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of global warming, nuclear energy is a carbon-free source of power and so is a meaningful option for energy production without CO 2 emissions. Currently, there are more than 440 commercial nuclear reactors, accounting for about 15% of electric power generation in the world, and there has not been a major accident in over 20 years. The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30 or 40 years, it is quite feasible that many nuclear power plants will be able to operate for longer than this. The re-emergence of nuclear power today is founded on the present generation of nuclear reactors meeting the demands of extended service life, ensuring the cost competitiveness of nuclear power and matching enhanced safety requirements. Nuclear power plant engineers should be able to demonstrate such integrity and reliability of their system materials and components as to enable nuclear power plants to operate beyond their initial design life. Effective waste management is another challenge for sustainable nuclear energy today; more precisely, a solution is needed for the management of high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste over the very long term. Most nuclear countries are currently gathering the data needed to assess the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository, including the prediction of the behaviour of materials over several thousands of years. The extended service life of nuclear power plants and the need for permanent disposal for nuclear waste are today's key issues in the nuclear industry. We focus here on the major role that corrosion plays in these two factors, and on the French approaches to these two issues. (authors)

  4. Future trends for electrolysers in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manifar, T.; Robinson, J.; Ozemoyah, P.; Robinson, V.; Suppiah, S.; Boniface, H.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry, through the application of electrolysers, can provide a solution to energy shortage with its competitive cost and can be one of the major future sources of hydrogen production with zero carbon emission. In addition, development of complementary, yet critical processes for upgrading or detritiation of the heavy water in the nuclear industry can be advanced with the application of electrolysers. Regardless of the technology, the electrolyser's development and application are facing many technical challenges including radiation and catalysis. In this paper, three main types of electrolysers are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysers look promising for hydrogen (or its isotopes) production. For this reason, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in collaboration with Tyne Engineering has started design and fabrication of PEM electrolysers with more than 60 Nm 3 /hr hydrogen production capacity for the application in nuclear industry. This electrolyser is being designed to withstand high concentrations of tritium. (author)

  5. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Yonezo

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Transfer parameters of fission and activation products present in effluents of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Menossi, C.A.; Ciallella, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents results of research carried out in Argentina on transfer parameters of fission and activation products which may be present in the effluents of nuclear power reactors. For some nuclides, as Sr-90, Co-137 and I-131, the parameters were obtained by studies of the fallout, from measurements of integrated levels in the environment and in the food chains. Other values are concentration factors derived from laboratory and field experiments. They refer to fish, molluscs, crustaces and fresh water plants, for several fission and activation nuclides. Transfer parameters obtained have been of significant importance for environmental assessments, relating to nuclear installations in Argentina. (author)

  7. Diffusion of information about the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion of nuclear technology means a development of a large network of activities (e.g. capital goods, construction, metallurgical and chemical industries) than a path for solving energy problems. Its ties with the arms race cause specific non-proliferation problems. A close state-capital articulation emerges, which strengthens the subsumption of labour and introduces new processes of social control. Already fulfilled investments give impulse to this tendency. The Tlatelolco regime, banishing nuclear weapons from Latin America, seems to establish a pre-condition for a regional solution to the problems thus arising. But, besides the imperfect adhesion to the Treaty, technical and political reasons obstruct a regional integration of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among other things, a lack of regional integration in other industries makes nuclear expansion more dependent on extra-regional technological ties. (Author) [pt

  8. Big problems for Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Anton; Runesson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A report of the problems for Swedish nuclear industry the summer of 2006. A detailed description of the 25th of July incident at Forsmark 1 is provided. The incident was classified as level two on the INIS scale. The other Swedish nuclear plants were subject to security evaluations in the aftermath, and at Forsmark 2 similar weaknesses were found in the security system (ml)

  9. Burgundy, the exemplary success of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugue, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This article comments the successful activity of mechanical and metallurgical industries in the French region of Burgundy in relationship with the nuclear sector. This is notably due to equipment renewal and to the continuity of the French nuclear program. Consequences are also positive for subcontracting small and medium-sized companies of the region. Collaborative action for exports is also an opportunity for the concerned companies, whether big or small

  10. Nuclear industry prepares fore shortage of engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauker, Lynn.

    1991-01-01

    It is predicted that the Canadian nuclear industry will experience a shortage of qualified personnel within the next five to ten years. The reasons for this prediction are as follows: enrollment in engineering courses, particularly five courses in nuclear engineering has been declining; immigration can no longer be expected to fill the gap; the workforce is aging. Solutions may include promotional campaigns, student employment programs, and educating workers to a professional level

  11. The nuclear industry and its European markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the worldwide nuclear energy demand and reviews the different markets which are classified as 'mature' (uranium extraction, enrichment, conversion and reactors building), 'developing' (reprocessing, MOX fuel fabrication, maintenance and services) and 'emerging' (waste treatment and dismantling). Then, the study analyzes the evolution of demand and the answers of companies and presents the strategies and performances of nuclear industry leaders. (J.S.)

  12. The rebirth of the US nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitron, G.

    2008-01-01

    Fought during a long time by ecologists but recently rehabilitated by politicians, the US civil nuclear industry has started its comeback in the first power-consuming country of the world. Utilities and industrialists are already in action, and the first cooperation agreements with foreign groups, like EdF or Areva, have been signed. After three decades of stagnation, the US nuclear industry has to re-launch its fuel cycle activities, from the fuel enrichment to the waste management, and the recruitment of a new competent manpower is one of the main concerns. (J.S.)

  13. Preparation of radiological effluent technical specifications for nuclear power plants. a guidance manual for users of standard technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegli, J.S.; Bellamy, R.R.; Britz, W.L.; Waterfield, R.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe methods found acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the calculation of certain key values required in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications using the Standard Technical Specifications for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. This manual also provides guidance to applicants for operating licenses for nuclear power plants in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications or in preparing requests for changes to existing radiological effluent Technical Specifications for operating licenses. The manual additionally describes current staff positions on the methodology for estimating radiation exposure due to the release of radioactive materials in effluents and on the administrative control of radioactive waste treatment systems

  14. The nuclear industry - pollution and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremlin, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Unlike other power sources, the only pollution from the nuclear industry is radioactive pollution, which on average in Britain represents 0.2% of the annual dose due to natural background radiation. This 0.2% is not spread uniformly over the population and there is genuine concern about its effects where it is most concentrated. The only significant doses of radiation to the general public due to the nuclear industry are derived from the spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and in particular from the concentration of Caesium-134 and Caesium-137 in fish, Ruthenium-106 in edible seaweeds and plutonium in shellfish and in silt. The concern about the possible escape of high-level wastes stored at the Sellafield site is discussed, and the hazard compared with that dangerous chemicals stored at other industrial sites. The effects of pollution by the nuclear industry, based on the conventional and generally accepted view of radiation risks, add up to a few deaths per year in the 50 million population of England and Wales from an industry producing 15% of the electricity needs of those countries. When this is compared with the risk associated with other methods of electricity production, the author concludes that replacement by nuclear power of any major source of power using fossil fuel, with the possible exception of natural gas, would save lives

  15. C. The nuclear industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Most of the European states have made a large commitment to nuclear power. In some aspects, such as fast breeder technology and oxide fuel reprocessing, they clearly lead the rest of the world. The industry is highly competitive, and is able to win contracts over US firms, even though the products offered are basically of US designs. It is also characterised by a large degree of co-operation and dependency amongst member countries. Many developments and services are of a joint nature. To ensure growth in the industry, and reduce foreign involvement, many of the governments have bought large segments of domestic companies, often from US firms. Government agencies themselves have transformed their service departments (such as those involved in the fuel cycle business) so that they now operate under the guise of commercial enterprises. These steps have arisen principally because of the large financial commitments normally associated with nuclear power. As a result of this, and despite the recent economic depression, the nuclear industry in Europe generally appears healthy. It does not seem to be suffering to the same extent from the problems that the industry in the USA is currently facing. Even though some states are experiencing a decrease in the projected rate of growth of energy demand, expectations are that an increasing proportion of energy requirements in most European countries will be met from nuclear power. The industry, both for the construction of generating capacity and fuel cycle services, is anticipating growth and financial profit

  16. The European nuclear industry - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berke, Claus

    1994-01-01

    In his talk, the President of Foratom, Dr. Claus Berke, reviews the present state of the nuclear industry in Europe. The European nuclear park is still the largest of any region in the world. In some countries, there has been a moratorium on new construction in recent years. This has made life for the supplying industry very difficult. One positive side-effect o at has been a significant rationalisation of the industry. In the course of this the previous vertical integration within European states has given place to the creation of important new transnational structures. In his talk, Dr. Berke describes some of the most important facets of the 'Europeanisation' of the industry, both in the area of power-plants and of the nuclear fuel-cycle. He also describes the increasing cooperation between utilities and suppliers in Western Europe and the operators of nuclear power plant in Eastern Europe, which is aimed at introducing a safety culture and an institutional framework in the East as close as possible to that which exists in Western Europe. Dr. Berke concludes that, over the coming years, both economic and environmental arguments will start to reverse the present political opposition, in many European countries, to new building programmes, and that the industry is likely be in a healthier state by the end of the decade

  17. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Electrochemical treatment of simulated sugar industrial effluent: Optimization and modeling using a response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Asaithambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of organic compounds from a simulated sugar industrial effluent was investigated through the electrochemical oxidation technique. Effect of various experimental parameters such as current density, concentration of electrolyte and flow rate in a batch electrochemical reactor was studied on the percentage of COD removal and power consumption. The electrochemical reactor performance was analyzed based on with and without recirculation of the effluent having constant inter-electrodes distance. It was found out that the percentage removal of COD increased with the increase of electrolyte concentration and current density. The maximum percentage removal of COD was achieved at 80.74% at a current density of 5 A/dm2 and 5 g/L of electrolyte concentration in the batch electrochemical reactor. The recirculation electrochemical reactor system parameters like current density, concentration of COD and flow rate were optimized using response surface methodology, while COD removal percents were maximized and power consumption minimized. It has been observed from the present analysis that the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient of 0.9888.

  19. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  20. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  1. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  2. Overview of the Russian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    In 2004, President Poutine decided to replace the atomic energy ministry (Minatom) by the federal atomic energy agency (Rosatom). Several projects were launched during the next two years which aimed at bringing back Russia to the fore front of the world leaders of nuclear energy use and nuclear technology export. In 2007, Rosatom agency was changed to a public holding company and a new company, named Atomenergoprom, was created which gathers all civil nuclear companies (AtomEnergoMash for the exploitation of power plants, Technabsexport (Tenex) specialized in enrichment or Atomstryexport in charge of export activities). Thus, Rosatom is at the head of all civilian and military nuclear companies, of all research centers, and of all nuclear and radiological safety facilities. In 2006, Russian nuclear power plants supplied 15.8% of the whole power consumption. Russia wishes to develop its nuclear program with the construction of new reactors in order to reach a nuclear electricity share of 25% from now to 2020. This paper presents first the 2007 institutional reform of the Russian atomic sector, and the three sectorial federal programmes: 1 - development of the nuclear energy industrial complex for the 2007-2010 era and up to 2015 (future power plants, nuclear fuel centers and reactor prototypes), 2 - nuclear safety and radioprotection for the 2008-2015 era (waste management, remedial actions, radiation protection), 3 - military program (confidential). Then, the paper presents: the international actions (export of Russian technology, cooperation agreements, non-proliferation), the situation of the existing nuclear park (reactors in operation, stopped, under construction and in project), the fuel cycle activities (production of natural uranium, enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste management), the nuclear R and D in Russia, and the nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  3. The nuclear industry in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1990-01-01

    In its reference program of 1984, the Commission presented the guidelines for the objectives in the field of nuclear electricity production within the Community. In addition, the effects have been investigated which concern the realization of these objectives for all persons involved in nuclear energy: local government, utility companies and industry. The question of nuclear energy is part of the general energy policy. Therefore, the reference program of 1984 was one of the elements which has been considered up to 1995 by the Council when defining the objectives for energy economy. The guidelines of the Commission in the reference program of 1984 are still valid today. It is important, however, to check the effects of the completion of the internal market on nuclear industry. Therefore, the Commission announced in its working program of 1989 that it will revise the reference nuclear program with regard to the prospects of the European internal market. The present document fulfills this obligation. The problems of the industry for the design and construction of nuclear power plants are treated intentionally. After the Commission for Economic and Social Affairs has given its statement, the commission will publish the document officially. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Ranking French nuclear industry on international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the success of its own ambitious nuclear power station program, France has been able to export its technology to many parts of the world, providing everything from individual components to complete power stations on a turnkey basis. Industrial partners who regurarly work together have set up the necessary structures to ensure the dovetailing of their activities during joint operations on the foreign market. These structures are matched to the needs of individual clients, and can be dispensed with completely in cases where a sole supplier is involved. Not one single unit under construction has been halted and no contract cancelled after the Chernobyl accident. France, like Japan and the USSR, is pressing on with its nuclear power program. China has ordered two PWR units for Daya Bay, while Britain has decided to construct its first PWR at Sizewell. Although a number of countries have deferred decisions in this field, this has been mainly on financial grounds. The French nuclear power industry has demonstrated its mastery of the technology, which can now be placed at the disposal of countries wishing to build nuclear power units, to improve their existing nuclear capacity, to develop parts of this future-oriented industry, or to supply their power stations with advanced nuclear fuel

  5. Using Artificial Neural Networks to Determine Significant Factors Affecting the Pricing of WPT Effluent for Industrial Uses in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmohamadsaseghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence indicates increasing trend of use of municipal wastewater treatment effluent as an alternative source of water both in developed and developing countries. Proper pricing of this unconventional water is one of the most effective economic tools to encourage optimum use of fresh water resources. In this study, artificial neural network is employed to identify and assess the factors affecting effluent tariffs supplied to local industries in Isfahan region. Given the wide variety of factors involved in the ultimate value of wastewater traement plant effluent, an assortment of relevant factors  has been considered in this study; the factors include the population served by the treatment plant, volume of effluent produced, maintenance, repair and replacement. costs of operating plants, topography, different water uses in the region, industrial wastewater collection fees, unit cost of pipe and fittings, and the volumes of water supplied from springs and aqueducts  in the region. Neural network modeling is used as a tool to determine the significance of each factor for pricing effluent. Based on the available data and the neural network models, the effects of different model architectures with different intermediate layers and numbers of nodes in each layer on the price of wastewater were investigated to develop aand adopt a final neural network model. Results indicate that the proposed neural network model enjoys a high potential and has been well capable of determining the weights of the parameter affecting in pricing effluent. Based on the the results of this study, the factors with the greatest role in effluent pricing are unit cost of pipe and fittings, industrial use of water, and the costs of plant maintentance, repair and replacement.

  6. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  7. Removal of toxic uranium from synthetic nuclear power reactor effluents using uranyl ion imprinted polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, Chandrika Ravindran; Gladis, Joseph Mary; Rao, Talasila Prasada; Venkateswaran, Gopala

    2006-05-01

    Major quantities of uranium find use as nuclear fuel in nuclear power reactors. In view of the extreme toxicity of uranium and consequent stringent limits fixed by WHO and various national governments, it is essential to remove uranium from nuclear power reactor effluents before discharge into environment. Ion imprinted polymer (IIP) materials have traditionally been used for the recovery of uranium from dilute aqueous solutions prior to detection or from seawater. We now describe the use of IIP materials for selective removal of uranium from a typical synthetic nuclear power reactor effluent. The IIP materials were prepared for uranyl ion (imprint ion) by forming binary salicylaldoxime (SALO) or 4-vinylpyridine (VP) or ternary SALO-VP complexes in 2-methoxyethanol (porogen) and copolymerizing in the presence of styrene (monomer), divinylbenzene (cross-linking monomer), and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). The resulting materials were then ground and sieved to obtain unleached polymer particles. Leached IIP particles were obtained by leaching the imprint ions with 6.0 M HCl. Control polymer particles were also prepared analogously without the imprint ion. The IIP particles obtained with ternary complex alone gave quantitative removal of uranyl ion in the pH range 3.5-5.0 with as low as 0.08 g. The retention capacity of uranyl IIP particles was found to be 98.50 mg/g of polymer. The present study successfully demonstrates the feasibility of removing uranyl ions selectively in the range 5 microg - 300 mg present in 500 mL of synthetic nuclear power reactor effluent containing a host of other inorganic species.

  8. Competitiveness in Canada's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirwald, R.

    1997-01-01

    Cameco, now a publicly traded company, mines and processes uranium. The mines are mostly in northern Saskatchewan. In 1996, Cameco increased its market share to about 15% of the western world's U 3 O 8 , and more than 20% of conversion to UF 6 . Cameco is the only commercial converter of uranium for Candu reactors. In 1996, sales were C$591 million. Net earnings last year were C$137.5 million - a fourfold increase over six years earlier - and long-term debt had been reduced to C$200 million. Cameco's position is secured by its substantial ownership position in Cigar Lake and McArthur River, the richest uranium deposits in the world. To answer questions by investors, Cameco has had to provide good public information about uranium and nuclear power

  9. National standards for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1981-01-01

    Standards needs for the nuclear industry are being met by a number of voluntary organizations, such as ANS, ASTM, AWS, ASME, and IEEE. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates these activities and approves completed standards as American National Standards. ASTM has two all-nuclear committees, E-10 and C-26. A C-26 subcommittee, Test Methods, has been active in writing analytical chemistry standards for twelve years. Thirteen have been approved as ANSI standards and others are ready for ballot. Work is continuing in all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Laser robot in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contre, M.

    1987-05-01

    Possibilities of power lasers for welding, cutting, drilling, plugging surface treatment and hard-facing are reviewed. CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers only have adequate power for nuclear applications. Radiation effects on lasers and contamination problems are examined. Then examples of applications to nuclear industry are given: PWR fuel fabrication, oxide thickness measurement in Magnox reactors, laser cutting of a cylindrical piece of steel on the bottom of a fuel channel in a gas graphite reactor, nuclear plant dismantling and fuel reprocessing. 51 refs [fr

  11. Microprocessors applications in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Microprocessors in the nuclear industry, particularly at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, have been and are being utilized in a wide variety of applications ranging from data acquisition and control for basic physics research to monitoring special nuclear material in long-term storage. Microprocessor systems have been developed to support weapons diagnostics measurements during underground weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site. Multiple single-component microcomputers are now controlling the measurement and recording of nuclear reactor operating power levels. The CMOS microprocessor data-acquisition instrumentation has operated on balloon flights to monitor power plant emissions. Target chamber mirror-positioning equipment for laser fusion facilities employs microprocessors

  12. Crisis in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, F.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the economics of the French nuclear power industry. It considers the dominant position of nuclear power in the French energy system, stresses the scale and causes of the current (1990) economic crisis and dispels the popular misconceptions on the cost efficiency of the French programme. The evidence is based on widely available French documents and articles. The report begins by looking at the background of nuclear power in France then discusses the problem of overcapacity, the technical problems and fall in load factors, generating costs and electricity prices and finally, strategic issues are considered. (UK)

  13. Development and use of thin film composite based positively charged nanofiltration membranes in separation of aqueous streams and nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, T.K.; Bindal, R.C.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    A new, positively charged, thin film composite (TFC) type nanofiltration membrane has been developed and studied for its use in various aqueous stream separations. The membrane, containing fixed quaternary ammonium moieties, was developed by insitu interfacial polymerization of a functionalized amine (polyethyleneimine) and terephthaloyl chloride on a suitable base membrane. The nature of the charge on the membrane was established by ATR FT IR spectroscopy and was estimated by determination of its ion exchange capacity. The membrane was tested for its performance in single solute feed systems containing salts of various combinations of univalent and bivalent ions (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , CaCl 2 and MgSO 4 ) in test cell as well as in 2512 spiral modules. The membrane gave differential separation profile for these solutes with high rejection for CaCl 2 and low rejection for Na 2 SO 4 due to positive charge on the membrane and the type of charge constituting the salts. The membrane was also used for separation of simulated effluent solution containing uranyl nitrate in combination with ammonium nitrate which is a common effluent generated in nuclear industry. Here also the membrane gave differential separation profile for uranyl nitrate and ammonium nitrate in their mixture by concentrating the former salt and passing the later. This helped separation of these two solutes in the mixture into two different streams. (author)

  14. Managing medical treatment waste and effluent: the point of view of a nuclear medicine practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karcher, G.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear medicine department of the Nancy CHU hospital is one of the largest in France: 16.000 patients are welcomed each year and 4.000 persons undergo a tomography there. 5 shielded and isolated rooms, dedicated to Iodine 131 treatment, allow the care of 150 to 200 patients each year. The head of the nuclear medicine department gives his meaning about the new regulation on the management of radioactive effluents. According to him, regulations are necessary but the values of the imposed thresholds have to be scientifically justified. Another point is that a lot of money is spent on radiation protection issues while the radioactive risks are almost null, which leads to wasting money. The elaboration of the radioprotection regulations must be made not as a whole but on a specific basis according to the domain: nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear medicine, it applies. (A.C.)

  15. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie; Katsuta, Tadahiro; Ramana, M.V.; Rodriguez, Juan C.; Ruedinger, Andreas; Stienne, Agnes

    2017-09-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2017 (WNISR2017) provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. The WNISR2017 edition includes a new assessment from an equity analyst view of the financial crisis of the nuclear sector and some of its biggest industrial players. The Fukushima Status Report provides not only an update on onsite and offsite issues six years after the beginning of the catastrophe, but also the latest official and new independent cost evaluations of the disaster. Focus chapters provide in-depth analysis of France, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Nuclear Power vs. Renewable Energy chapter provides global comparative data on investment, capacity, and generation from nuclear, wind and solar energy. Finally, Annex 1 presents a country-by-country overview of all other countries operating nuclear power plants

  16. Ion exchange in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchangers are used in many fields in the nuclear power industry. At nuclear power plants, organic ion exchange resins are mainly used for the removal of ionic and particulate contaminants from the primary circuit, condensate and fuel storage pond waters. Ion exchange resins are used for the solidification of low- and medium-active nuclear waste solutions. The number of applications of zeolites, and other inorganic ion exchangers, in the separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions has been increasing since the 1980s. In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, ion exchange is used for the solidification of low- and medium-active waste solutions, as well as for the partitioning of radioactive elements for further use. (Author)

  17. Utilization of ALANPOL dosemeter composed by alanine and polyethylene for determination of doses in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina S.; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Pontuschka, Walter M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of traceability and accuracy was performed with the dosimetry system ALANPOL developed by IVHTJ/ Poland that uses alanine as a dosimeter and EPR as the read out system. The dosimeter ALANPOL is a polymer compound that aggregates alanine. The dosimeter has the outside diameter 3 mm, and the length of 25,4 mm (1 inch). In order to use this dosimeter for monitoring the existing real time calorimetry dosimeter system set up in a electron beam waste treatment plant. Electron beam and gamma irradiation experiments with ALANPOL was carried out under demineralized water and industrial effluent. The result show that in the dose range of 1-40 kGy the ALANPOL dosimeter system is suitable underwater monitoring for absorbed dose and can be applied for the evaluation of the on line calorimetry dosimeter system. (author)

  18. Nuclear relations with administrations of industry services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardez Garcia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The object of the article is to try to answer to the following question that can arise to the holder of a nuclear power station: What Administration of Industry must I myself direct to be able to support my complementary facilities of Industrial Security inside the in force legality?. The raised discussion arise between if the competent administration for the legal steps, is the Central Administration across his delegates and sub delegates of government, or is of the Territorial Services of Industry of Autonomous communities. (Author)

  19. Summarization of radioactive effluent monitoring in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station 1994-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Junjie; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the radioactive effluent monitoring systems, measurement and quality control methods used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station from its commercial operation in 1994. The main work and experiences for the management of effluent release are discussed and analyzed. The radwaste data appear declining trend and are far blow the annual limit approved by the national Environmental Protection Bureau since 1995. The normalized release (unit GBq/GWa) of 9 years is as follows: liquid nuclides (except tritium) 11.1, liquid tritium 1.91 x 10 4 , noble gas 2.03 x 10 4 , halogen 0.13, aerosol 7.57 x 10 -3 . For 110m Ag, the average release from 1998 to 2002 has been reduced to 1/7 of the quantity in 1997

  20. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  1. Psychological attitudes of nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faes, M.; Stoppie, J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was carried out within the frame of occupational medicine on the psychological attitudes of workers in the nuclear industry towards ionizing radiations. Three aspects were considered: awareness of the danger; feeling of safety in the working environment; workers' feelings following incidents or accidents; satisfaction level felt by the workers in the plant [fr

  2. Knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents examples of knowledge loss in different areas related to attrition, retirements or layoff as well as the consequences of the loss of knowledge. The nature of the so called tacit knowledge and its role as a barrier to knowledge preservation is discussed. Strategies for knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry are presented

  3. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  4. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The present characteristics can be summarized in one word: expansion. Impelled by the CEA, but also by such organisations as the Electricite de France and the Merchant Marine, the French nuclear effort for the years 1957-1961 reaches about 600 thousand millions francs; over half this sum will be spent by chemical industry on research, pilot installations, construction of plants and delivery. The aim is to work efficiently, quickly and profitably. This is achieved through close collaboration between the big state organisations and private industry. It is chiefly along the following lines that this large scale effort is carried on: - thorough chemical treatment of increasing tonnages of ores from the French Union, with the aim of producing pure, plentiful and cheap uranium. - careful preparation of nuclear fuels, economical and perfectly adapted to the various types of reactor in operation or under construction. - Further treatment of irradiated fuels to extract the plutonium completely, as well as the uranium and certain fission products. industrial manufacture of material of nuclear purity or corrosion resistant required by the technology of energy producing or research reactors. - Supply to the many foreign or French users of isotopes and radioactive tracers required by medicine, industry and agriculture in ever-increasing numbers. - Meticulous chemical treatment of gaseous or liquid effluent in strictly controlled stations in order that reactors and their annexes will be perfectly safe to use. This account shows the great extent of the effort laid out by a young, energetic chemical industry in full swing. Having made sure of its techniques and set up numerous installations it is fully in a position to confront the French atomic programme. In addition it is able and anxious to associate with the developments of foreign atomic industry, especially EURATOM and Eurochemic. (author) [French] Un mot en resume les caracteristiques presentes: l'expansion. Sous l

  5. The human factor in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, Armand

    1998-01-01

    After having evoked the progressive reduction and stabilization of significant incidents occurring every year in French nuclear power plants, and the challenges faced by nuclear energy (loss of public confidence, loss of competitiveness), and then outlined the importance of safety to overcome these challenges, the author comments EDF's approach to the human factor. He first highlights the importance of information and communication towards the population. He briefly discusses the meaning of human factors for the nuclear industry, sometimes perceived as the contribution people to the company's safety and performance. He comments the evolution observed in the perception of human error in different industrial or technical environments and situations, and outlines what is at stake to reduce the production of faults and organize a 'hunt for latent defects'

  6. The nuclear industry's communication efforts viewed from outside the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuck, Moira

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude towards nuclear power of a company specialised in behavioural communication, not employed exclusively by the nuclear power industry. Only one of it's clients has a nuclear interest and that is Eskom, South Africa electricity utility which runs 21 active power stations of which 13 are fossil-fueled, 2 hydro, 2 pump storage stations, 3 gas turbine stations and 1 nuclear. This company is a firm believer in the nuclear energy option for some very practical reasons and one or two abstract reasons. The practical reasons are the ones well known, the world needs ever-increasing amounts of base load energy in order to increase the quality of life. The world also needs clean energy so that the planet can be preserved beyond the next generation. The abstract reasons are perhaps 'not so often' thought about by nuclear, communication practitioners: in harnessing nuclear energy for the service of mankind humans have captured a miracle. The harnessing of nuclear energy is a mark of man's ability to think conceptually, to walk in the realms of the unseen and bring back from those realms a tool of progress. In more prosaic terms, the loss of nuclear expertise would, very simply be a retrogression of the human race. As behavioural communication specialist it s our job to find ways for our clients to speak truthfully about their endeavours to the hearts of their audience. It is not our job to (nor will we) either lie or cover up for our clients. That which is wrong is wrong and cannot be painted rightly spoken words or clever videos or ingenious advertising. In all cases our advice to our clients has been to assume that people will not argue against the greater good of humanity. And there is much about nuclear power that contributes to the greater good: of humanity. 'That is the factor that, is common to all of us in this room today and all our colleagues in the industry. W have only to tell the truth with words that our target audiences can

  7. A telerobot for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial robots are not widely used in the nuclear industry. More use is made of telemanipulators, in which tasks are performed under total human control via a master-slave actuation system. AEA Technology have developed a Nuclear Engineered Advanced TEle Robot (NEATER), a telerobot which combines industrial robot technology with the skills of a human operator. It has been designed for use in radioactive decommissioning work and has a number of radiation tolerant properties. NEATER can be operated in a pure robotic mode using a standard computer controller and software. Or it can operate as a telerobot in a remote control mode via a television input. In this mode the operator controls the robot's movement by using a joystick or a simple six degrees of freedom input device. (UK)

  8. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Ayukawa, Yurika; Burnie, Shaun; Piria, Raffaele; Thomas, Steve; Hazemann, Julie; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2014-07-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2014 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. A 20-page chapter on nuclear economics looks at the rapidly changing market conditions for nuclear power plants, whether operating, under construction, or in the planning stage. Reactor vendor strategies and the 'Hinkley Point C Deal' are analyzed in particular. The performance on financial markets of major utilities is documented. The WNISR2013 featured for the first time a Fukushima Status Report that triggered widespread media and analyst attention. The 2014 edition entirely updates that Fukushima chapter. The Nuclear Power vs. Renewable Energy chapter that provides comparative data on investment, capacity, and generation has been greatly extended by a section on system issues. How does nuclear power perform in systems with high renewable energy share? Is this the end of traditional baseload/ peak-load concepts? Finally, the 45-page Annex 1 provides a country-by-country overview of all 31 countries operating nuclear power plants, with extended Focus sections on China, Japan, and the United States

  9. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  10. Observations of Crassostrea virginica cultured in the heated effluent and discharged radionuclides of a nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, A.H.; Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.

    1976-06-01

    American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were rafted for 26 months at four sites in the effluent waters near Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Reactor in Montsweag Bay and at a control site in the adjacent Damariscotta River. In an evaluation of the thermal effluent for aquaculture, comparisons are made among the sites of the effects of heated effluent on oyster growth and condition, and the uptake and retention of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. Growth and uptake of radionuclides were observed to be accelerated at the warmer water sites. Both experimental results and calculations for 58 Co and 54 Mn are presented

  11. The future of the nuclear plant industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    Against the background of world-wide controversy, the future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom is discussed. The various forecasts of electricity demand are considered in relation to the need for long-term planning in the nuclear industry. It is considered that towards the end of the century uranium will be in short supply for technical or political reasons, and that the emphasis would then be on the use of fast reactors (assuming nuclear power to be politically acceptable at that time). A possible UK programme is outlined, and the question of cooperation with other countries is referred to. Thermal reactors for use in the middle term are discussed. The possibilities of export are considered briefly. The effects of world economic recession, public opposition on environmental and other grounds, and the possibility of misuse of nuclear materials are considered. (U.K.)

  12. Exporting nuclear engineering and the industry's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear energy offers all possibilities to reduce the energy problems in the world which arise with the world-wide increasing population and the energy demand connected with it. The Federal Republic of Germany lives on the exports of refined technical methods which also include nuclear engineering. The exports of nuclear engineering should lead to a technology transfer with guidance and training on an equal basis between the industrial and developing countries. The preconditions of exporting nuclear-technical systems are a well-functioning domestic market and a certain support by the government, especially with regard to giving guarantees for the special exports risks of these big projects. On the other hand, exports are also needed in order to be able to continue providing high-level technology for the domestic market. (UA) [de

  13. Measurement of actinides in samples from effluent air, primary coolant and effluent water of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.

    1977-01-01

    Since the middle of 1973 the alpha radioactivity of a number of aerosol filters from the stack monitoring systems of some nuclear power stations, of water effluent samples from all german nuclear power stations and of samples from the primary coolant water of one nuclear power reactor was measured. Essentially, the following procedures of sample preparation for alpha spectrometry of the samples in large area gridded ionization chambers were used; cold ashing of the aerosol samples in 'excited' oxygen, coprecipitation of the alpha emitters from the effluent water samples with iron hydroxide and subsequent cold ashing of the precipitate, and evaporation of the samples from the primary cycle on stainless steel plates. The following transuranium nuclides, or some of them, were found in the samples of the primary coolant and in several aerosol filter samples: Pu-239/240, Pu-238 and/or Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244. Cm-242 contributes most to the alpha radioactivity in fresh samples. In the effluent water samples Cm-242, Pu-239/240 and Pu-238 and/or Am-241 were identified in some cases, in one case also Cm-244. Detection limits of the procedures used for the analysis of the above stated transuranium nuclides were in the order of 0,1 fCi per m 3 for the aerosol samples and of 0.2 pCi per 1 for the liquid samples. For the effluent air and water samples in most cases specific activities near the detection limit or somewhat higher were found. On the basis of the measurements, an estimation of the annual actinides releases from nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  14. Nuclear industry after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, Thomas; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Salha, Bernard; Behar, Christophe; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Labalette, Thibaud; Lagarde, Dominique; Planchais, Bernard; West, Jean-Pierre; Stubler, Jerome; Lancia, Bruno; Machenaud, Herve; Einaudi, Andre; Anglaret, Philippe; Brachet, Yves; Bonnave, Philippe; Knoche, Philippe; Gasquet, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This special dossier about the situation of nuclear industry two years after the Fukushima accident comprises 15 contributions dealing with: the nuclear industry two years after the Fukushima accident (Bernard Salha); a low-carbon electricity at a reasonable cost (Christophe Behar); nuclear engineering has to gain even more efficiency (Thomas Branche); how to dispose off the most radioactive wastes (Marie-Claude Dupuis, Thibaud Labalette); ensuring the continuation for more than 40 years onward (Denis Gasquet); developing and investing in the future (Philippe Knoche); more than just signing contracts (Dominique Lagarde); immersed power plants, an innovative concept (Bernard Planchais); R and D as a source of innovation for safety and performances (Jean-Pierre West); dismantlement, a very long term market (Jerome Stubler, Bruno Lancia); a reference industrial model (Herve Machenaud); recruiting and training (Andre Einaudi); a diversity of modern reactors and a world market in rebirth (Philippe Anglaret); an industrial revolution is necessary (Yves Brachet); contracts adapted to sensible works (Philippe Bonnave)

  15. UK strategy for nuclear industry LLW - 16393

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Matthew; Fisher, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the UK Government and devolved administrations (for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, from here on referred to as 'Government') published their policy for the management of solid low level waste ('the Policy'). The Policy sets out a number of core principles for the management of low level waste (LLW) and charges the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority with developing a UK-wide strategy in the case of LLW from nuclear sites. The UK Nuclear Industry LLW Strategy has been developed within the framework of the principles set out in the policy. A key factor in the development of this strategy has been the strategic partnership the NDA shares with the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg (LLWR), who now have a role in developing strategy as well as delivering an optimised waste management service at the LLWR. The strategy aims to support continued hazard reduction and decommissioning by ensuring uninterrupted capability and capacity for the management and disposal of LLW in the UK. The continued availability of a disposal route for LLW is considered vital by both the nuclear industry and non-nuclear industry low level waste producers. Given that the UK will generate significantly more low level waste (∼ 3.1 million m 3 ) than there is capacity at the LLWR (∼0.75 million m 3 ), developing alternative effective ways to manage LLW is critical. The waste management hierarchy is central to the strategy, which includes strategic goals at all levels of the hierarchy to improve its application across the industry. (authors)

  16. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie; Katsuta, Tadahiro; Ramana, M.V.; Thomas, Steve; Porritt, Jonathon

    2015-07-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. Japan without nuclear power for a full calendar year for the first time since the first commercial nuclear power plant started up in the country 50 years ago. Nuclear plant construction starts plunge from fifteen in 2010 to three in 2014. 62 reactors under construction - five fewer than a year ago - of which at least three-quarters delayed. In 10 of the 14 building countries all projects are delayed, often by years. Five units have been listed as 'under construction' for over 30 years. Share of nuclear power in global electricity mix stable at less than 11% for a third year in a row. AREVA, technically bankrupt, downgraded to 'junk' by Standard and Poor's, sees its share value plunge to a new historic low on 9 July 2015-a value loss of 90 percent since 2007 China, Germany, Japan-three of the world's four largest economies-plus Brazil, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Spain, now all generate more electricity from non-hydro renewables than from nuclear power. These eight countries represent more than three billion people or 45 percent of the world's population. In the UK, electricity output from renewable sources, including hydropower, overtook the output from nuclear. Compared to 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol on climate change was signed, in 2014 there was an additional 694 TWh per year of wind power and 185 TWh of solar photovoltaics- each exceeding nuclear's additional 147 TWh

  17. Political crisis poses problems for nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    The political crisis in Ukraine has given rise to several problematic issues for the nuclear industry, including the country's obvious dependence on Russia for nuclear fuel supplies and the transport of nuclear material. A 2013 report by the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PIIA) concluded that Ukraine will lean towards the development of ''intensive cooperation'' with Western nuclear regulators and companies as it seeks to increase its control over the sector and reduce its dependency on Russia. The PIIA report said the gas crises of 2006 and 2009, and especially the current destabilisation of the country, have highlighted Ukraine's ''excessive and problematic dependence'' on energy supply from Russia. The 'Energy Strategy of Ukraine Until 2030' assumes that the share of nuclear energy will remain the same in 2030 as it was in 2005 - about 50 % of the energy mix. To achieve its goals, Ukraine's strategy envisages several priority actions. Firstly, work should begin on identification of three or four sites for new nuclear stations. Secondly, the plan says that Khmelnistki-3 and -4 should be completed by 2016. Thirdly, the plan envisages six gigawatts of new nuclear capacity becoming operational between 2019 and 2021. Finally, lifetime extensions are planned for South Ukraine units 1 to 3, Zaporozhye units 1 to 6, Rovno units 2 and 3 and Khmelnitski-1.

  18. Nuclear engineering. Stable industry for bright minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) invited 35 students and graduate students for 'colloquies for professional orientation' to Luenen on March 8-11, 2009. Another 39 students were guests in Speyer between March 15 and 18 this year. Participants included graduates in physics, chemistry, radiation protection, and mechanical engineering as well as students of process engineering, electrical engineering and environmental technology. The colloquies for professional orientation are a service provided by the Informationskreis Kernenergie (IK) to member firms of DAtF. At the same time, the IK in this way fulfils its duty to promote young scientists and engineers within the framework of the DAtF's basic public relations activities. After all, nuclear technology in Germany is not about to end its life. Firms with international activities are in urgent need of highly qualified young staff members. Personnel is needed for a variety of activities ranging from nuclear power plant construction to fuel fabrication to waste management and the demolition and disposal of nuclear power plants. All these areas are in need of new qualified staff. Some 750 students so far have attended the DAtF colloquies for professional orientation since 2002. Many participants were hired by industries straight away or were given opportunities as trainees or students preparing their diploma theses in the nuclear industry. These contacts with the nuclear industry should not remain a one-off experience for the students. For this reason, the IK invites the participants in colloquies again this year to attend the Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology in Dresden on May 12-14, 2009. (orig.)

  19. Sizewell nuclear power station: investigation of radiation exposure pathways from liquid effluents. Local habits survey 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Smith, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A habits and consumption survey to review radiation exposure pathways due to liquid effluents released from the CEGB Sizewell site is described. It is relevant to both the Sizewell A and proposed Sizewell B nuclear power stations. The main objectives are to provide input data to a radiological assessment by means of identifying critical groups and to provide data for guidance in a review of environmental monitoring programmes. The way in which data for the different pathways should be combined in order to aid the subsequent radiological assessment is discussed. Recommendations are made for adjustments to the present monitoring programmes. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear industry prospects: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morden, Reid

    1995-01-01

    Canada, with its proven, safe and versatile CANDU reactor is well poised for the second half-century of nuclear fission. Canada's nuclear pedigree goes back to the turn-of-the-century work of Ernest Rutherford in Montreal. This year, Canada's nuclear industry celebrates the 50th anniversary of the start-up of its first research reactor at Chalk River. Last year, the pioneering work of Bert ram Blockhouse in Physics was honoured with a Nobel Prize. Future international success for the nuclear industry, such as has been achieved here in Korea, depends on continued cooperative and collaborative team work between the public and private sectors, continued strong research and development backing by the government, and new strategic partnerships. The biggest challenge is financing for the emerging markets. The brightness or dimness of future prospects are relative to the intensity of the lessons learned from history. In Canada we have a fairly long nuclear pedigree, It goes back almost a century to 1898, when Ernest Rutherford set up a world centre at McGill University in Montreal for research into the structure of the atom and into radioactivity

  1. Quality management certification for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Historically for safety critical items, the United Kingdom nuclear companies either conducted their own inspection and audit of suppliers or sub-contracted staff to do so on their behalf. However, it is becoming unrealistic for these services to be undertaken in-house for economic reasons. The power industry is looking outside its own immediate expertise to that of 3rd Party Certification Bodies. There is a danger of introducing an element of risk unless the Certification Body really does understand the industry and its requirements. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) makes it mandatory for nuclear installations to have in place Quality management systems that meet the requirements of BS 5882. This standard requires the use of quality assurance programmes and a greater degree of understanding of nuclear regulations and codes of practice than is required by BS 5750. This is a very significant factor, recognising as it does the need to harmonise the management interface between an operator of a nuclear installation and suppliers to that same installation. (author)

  2. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  3. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  4. Peat wetland as a natural filter of effluents from adjacent industrial areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József DEZSO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project is the study of a peat wetland functioning as recipient of effluents from former and present-day industrial activities. The investigation was focused on heavy metal contaminations and their probable mobilization or fixation. The studied peatbog is a typical Eastern European wetland, located in Hungary on the border between medium mountains (Bakony Mountains and a Neogene basin (the Sárrét, an area under nature conservation. Watercourses and prevailing air currents can transport contaminants from industrial areas to the wetland. At first the basic parameters of surface waters and subsurface conditions (soils, groundwater were investigated. These parameters (EC, Cl are possible indicators of contamination. Subsequently, the amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Pb extracted by solution in two steps (HCl, CaCl2 were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The extracted values indicate what amounts of which elements could be mobilized by human impact and/or production of humic acids, which occasionally emerges during the remediation works. The total heavy metal concentrations in the samples were investigated by X-ray fluorescence method. Based on the investigation, the peatbog is claimed to function as a natural filter.

  5. Remediation of lead from lead electroplating industrial effluent using sago waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, G P; Shanthi, G

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are known toxicants, which inflict acute disorders to the living beings. Electroplating industries pose great threat to the environment through heavy load of metals in the wastewater discharged on land and water sources. In the present study, sago processing waste, which is both a waste and a pollutant, was used to adsorb lead ions from lead electroplating industrial effluent. Two types of sago wastes, namely, coarse sago waste and fine sago waste were used to study their adsorption capacity with the batch adsorption and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The parameters that were considered for batch adsorption were pH (4, 5 and 6), time of contact (1, 2 and 3 hrs), temperature (30, 37 and 45 degrees C) and dosage of the adsorbent (2,4 and 6 g/L). The optimal condition for the effective removal of lead was found to be pH 5, time of contact 3 hrs, temperature 30 degrees C and dosage 4 g/L with coarse sago waste than fine sago waste.

  6. Domestic safeguards in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 brought about markedly increased security requirements at nuclear power plants. NRC established a threat level against which the security forces were expected to defend. It is asserted that an inadequate legal basis exists for the NRC requirement that nuclear plants be defended by the use of deadly force, if necessary, and that complex issues such as apprehension, retention, and pursuit of intruders are left vague. Security measures patterned after the airline industry, resolution of the deadly force issue, and definition of a creditable threat level are proposed

  7. Economics on nuclear techniques application in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masao

    1979-01-01

    The economics of the application of nuclear techniques to industry is discussed. Nuclear techniques were applied to gauging (physical measurement), analysis, a radioactive tracer method, electrolytic dissociation, and radiography and were found to be very economical. They can be applied to manufacturing, mining, oceano-engineering, environmental engineering, and construction, all of which have a great influence on economics. However, because the application of a radioactive tracer technique does not have a direct influence on economics, it is difficult to estimate how beneficial it is. The cost-benefit ratio method recommended by IAEA was used for economical calculations. Examples of calculations made in gauging and analysis are given. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Novel uses of magnetic separation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, B.T.

    1999-08-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) has been investigated in the nuclear industry, for the application of advanced technology in present and future nuclear environments within BNFL. Previous applications of HGMS have been reviewed and future novel applications investigated. The two most promising applications were then chosen as the focus of the PhD. In the first project, HGMS has been used to selectively recover biologically precipitated iron sulphide (Fe 1-x S) particles containing heavy metal ions, from a BNFL soil remediation effluent stream. The uptake of the ions is believed to be a consequence of the bacterial metabolism and the adsorptive properties of the iron sulphide. Biologically precipitated iron sulphide is known to differ in structure to its chemically precipitated equivalent and as such has certain advantages, for example, increased adsorbent properties and magnetic properties. The HGMS system was optimised and its performance investigated as a function of the magnetic field, the flow rate and the concentration of the biological particles in solution, with time. Results have shown that an efficiency of over 95% can be obtained, proving that HGMS is a valuable method for the concentration of metal ions from contaminated soils, especially when the adsorbed heavy metals are toxic or even radioactive and difficult to handle by other means. In the second project, the removal out of solution of radioactive technetium, in the form of the pertechnate ion [TcO 4 - ] was investigated. This was achieved using ion exchange techniques, Liquid Scintillation Counting LSC and HGMS. (author)

  9. Nuclear techniques in coal and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbern, A.W.; Leal, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques for the determination of important parameters in industrial installations is exemplified; advantages of these techniques over other methods conventionally used are pointed out. The use of radiotracers in the study of physical and chemical phenomena occurring in the chemical industry is discussed. It is also shown that, using certain radioisotopes, it is possible to construct devices which enable, for example, the determination of the ash content in coal samples. These devices are economical and easy to be installed for the on-line control during coal transportation. (C.L.B.) [pt

  10. Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

    2010-06-15

    Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  12. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  13. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  14. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  15. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO. The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  16. The nuclear industry and public hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansillon, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Major decisions about the French nuclear industry have been made, it is often said, without sufficiently informing and consulting the population. Laws in 1995 and 2002 provide for public hearings in order to inform the public and obtain its reactions to big projects of national interest. The responsibility for organizing a hearing is vested in an independent administrative authority, the National Commission of Public Debate (CNDP). Within 2 years, 5 issues related to the nuclear industry have been referred to it: 1) the ITER project at Cadarache in april 2003, 2) the George-Besse-II project to replace the present uranium enrichment plant at Tricastin in april 2004, 3) the research reactor Jules-Horowitz project at Cadarache in july 2004, 4) the EPR project at Flamanville in november 2004, and 5) the management of radioactive wastes in february 2005. The hearings already represent a fundamental innovation compared with earlier practices

  17. Evolution of stainless steels in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, Farhad

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the stainless steels used in the conventional industry, their adoption and successive evolutions in the nuclear industry, from one generation of nuclear reactors to another, is presented. Specific examples for several steels are given, covering fabrication procedures, qualification methods, property databases and design allowable stresses, to show how the ever-increasing demands for better performance and reliability, in particular under neutron irradiation, have been met. Particular attention is paid to the austenitic stainless steels types 304L, 316L, 316L(N), 316L(N)-IG, titanium stabilized grade 321, precipitation strengthened alloy 800, conventional and low activation ferritic/martensitic steels and their oxygen dispersion strengthening (ODS) derivatives. For each material, the evolution of the associated filler metal and welding techniques are also presented. (author)

  18. Radiological environmental quality assessment of the nuclear industry in China over the past 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Wang Zhibo; Chen Zhuzhou; Zhang Yongxing; Xei Jianlun

    1989-03-01

    The radiological evaluation of nuclear industry was begun in 1981. Up to the extent of 80 km from each facility, the investigation of population, crop distribution and food spectrum have been made. Meteorological, hydrological and geological data as well as effluents and environment monitoring data have been obtained and analyzed. All the calculation was performed through Y3001 computer code. According to the calculation results, the effective dose equivalents to all the critical groups near the nuclear facilities are below the dose limits. About 80% of the critical groups received doses are less than 1/10 of the doses caused by natural radiation (3 mSv · a -1 ). The total annual average collective effective dose equivalent resulted from the whole nuclear industry is 23 man · Sv/a, which is less than 0.01% of natural radiation dose and far below the detriment resulted from non-nuclear industries or other human activities. According to the nuclear industry planning of China, in the year of 2000, it is estimated that the total annual collective effective dose equivalent resulted from the whole nuclear industry is 59 man · Sv

  19. Computer aided design for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the new computer aided design (CAD) centre for the United Kingdom nuclear industry, and its applications. A description of the CAD system is given, including the current projects at the CAD centre. Typical applications of the 3D CAD plant based models, stress analysis studies, and the extraction of data from CAD drawings to produce associated documentation, are all described. Future developments using computer aided design systems are also considered. (U.K.)

  20. Problems and prospects of nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    A consideration is given to problems associated with operating nuclear power plants in many countries and building new NPPs. A special attention is given to safety operation of nuclear plants, to reprocessing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel as well as to radioactive waste disposal. In connection with difficulties in solving the above-mentioned problems a proposition is made to resume work on designing NPPs with the use of nuclear liquid salt reactors based on molten fuel fluoride salts. Advantages and disadvantages of fuel compositions of LiF-BeF 2 -UF 4 -(ThF 4 ) are listed. It is recommended that fundamental studies be carried out into such compositions as KF + CsF; BaF 2 + KF + NaF; AlF 3 + Na 3 AlF 6 , eutectics on the basis of tin and zinc fluorides and their complex salts of M x Sn(Zn)F y . An international program is suggested to be developed to find some way out of crisis of nuclear power industry using research efforts in homogeneous liquid salt nuclear underground reactors with a U(233)-Th fuel cycle [ru

  1. Nuclear energy and the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Fossil fuels represent a large part of the cost of iron and steel making and their increasing cost has stimulated investigation of methods to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the steel industry. Various iron and steel making routes have been studied by the European Nuclear Steelmaking Club (ENSEC) and others to determine to what extent they could use energy derived from a nuclear reactor to reduce the amount of fossil fuel consumed. The most promising concept is a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor heating helium to a temperature sufficient to steam reform hydrocarbons into reducing gases for the direct reduction of iron ores. It is proposed that the reactor/reformer complex should be separate from the direct-reduction plant/steelworks and should provide reducing gas by pipeline, not only to a number of steel works but to other industrial users. The composition of suitable reducing gases and the methods of producing them from various feedstocks are discussed. Highly industrialised countries with large steel and chemical industries have shown greatest interest in the concept, but those countries with large iron-ore reserves and growing direct capacity should consider the future value of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor as a means of extending the life of their gas reserves. (author)

  2. Competency assessments for nuclear industry personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    In 1996, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation: A Guidebook. This publication provides guidance for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for all nuclear power plant personnel using the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology. The SAT methodology has since been adopted and used for the development and implementation of training programmes for all types of nuclear facility and activities in the nuclear industry. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further guidance concerning competency assessments used for measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes of personnel as the result of training. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. A critical component of SAT (as part of the implementation phase) is the assessment of whether personnel have achieved the standards identified in the training objectives. The nuclear industry spends a significant amount of resources conducting competency assessments. Competency assessments are used for employee selection, trainee assessment, qualification, requalification and authorization (in some Member States the terminology may be 'certification' or 'licensing'), and job advancement and promotion. Ineffective testing methods and procedures, or inappropriate interpretation of test results, can have significant effects on both human performance and nuclear safety. Test development requires unique skills and, as with any skill, training and experience are needed to develop and improve them. Test item and examination development, use, interpretation of results and examination refinement, like all other aspects of SAT, should be part of an ongoing, systematic process. This publication is primarily intended for use by personnel responsible for developing and administering

  3. Corrosion engineering in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazak, M.; Tlamsa, J.; Jirousova, D.; Silber, K.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion problems in nuclear power industry are discussed from the point of view of anticorrosion measures, whose aim is not only increasing the lifetime of the equipment but, first of all, securing ecological safety. A brief description is given of causes of corrosion damage that occurred at Czechoslovak nuclear power plants and which could have been prevented. These involve the corrosion of large-volume radioactive waste tanks made of the CSN 17247 steel and of waste piping of an ion exchange station made of the same material, a crack in a steam generator collector, contamination of primary circuit water with iron, and corrosion of CrNi corrosion-resistant steel in a spent fuel store. It is concluded that if a sufficient insight into the corrosion relationships exists and a reasonable volume of data is available concerning the corrosion state during the nuclear facility performance, the required safety can be achieved without adopting extremely costly anticorrosion measures. (Z.M.)

  4. The nuclear industry within the Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    As part of its 1989 working programme, the European Commission undertook to update the provisional nuclear programme in the view of the expected changes from the single European market. This document complies with that commitment and deals exclusively with the problems of the industry engaged in the design and construction of electro-nuclear power stations. Having analysed the context and prospects for the medium and long term development of nuclear investments, in particular in relation to the establishment of a ''common electricity market'', the practical possibility of opening up the equipment and services market is examined. Actions to be taken within the Community are indicated. Finally, the standard for power stations equipped with fast neutron breeder reactors, where European efforts are directed towards a single development project, is presented. (UK)

  5. Localization and indigenization of China nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingfa

    2009-01-01

    It points out that China needs to develop nuclear power to solve the shortage of energy source. Localization and independence is the key for the development of nuclear power industry. Localized and independent nuclear power possesses economical competitiveness. China has the condition and capability to realize localization and independence of nuclear power industry. Technology introduction, adaptation and assimilation can enhance the R and D capability of China's nuclear power industry, and speed up the process of localization and independence. (authors)

  6. The structure of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaist, G.T.; Morisette, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, when Canadians began to study the application of reactors to power generation, the CANDU reactor design and the manufacturing and and engineering capability supporting it have evolved into a world-class technology. At present, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. works directly with provincial electrical utilities in developing their power reactor requirements. It assumes responsibility for the detailed design of the nuclear steam supply system of stations, undertakes some procurement activities, and may represent the utilities in licensing applications. The detailed design and supply of components for the remainder of the nuclear steam plant, as well as for the secondary plant, are provided in Ontario by Ontario Hydro together with manufacturers, and in Quebec and New Brunswick by private firms. Canadian utilities have always assumed the project managment function themselves, but with export sales AECL has taken turnkey responsiblity for either the nuclear steam plant or the complete power station. AECL owns design specifications and other documentation, the use of which it can license, but manufacturing technology resides with Canadian industry. Canadian manufacturers have supported AECL design licensing initiatives overseas. The Canadian nuclear industry's major problem is the current lack of a vigorous domestic market combined with an uncertain international one

  7. Subcontracting in nuclear industry - legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the legal framework of subcontracting in France. Subcontracting is considered as a normal mode of functioning for an enterprise: an enterprise contracts another enterprise to do what it can not do itself or does not want to do. According to the 1975 law, cascade subcontracting is allowed but subcontractors have to be accepted by the payer. In some cases the payer can share responsibility when the subcontracting enterprises do not comply to obligations like the payment of some taxes. The main subcontractor who is the one who contracted with the payer is the only one responsible for the right execution of the whole contract. In nuclear industry there are 2 exceptions to the freedom of subcontracting. The first one concerns radiation protection: in a nuclear facility the person in charge of radioprotection must be chosen among the staff. The second concerns the operations and activities that are considered important for radiation protection, it is forbidden to subcontract them. In some cases like maintenance in nuclear sector the law imposes some qualification certification for subcontracting enterprises. The end of the article challenges the common belief about subcontracting in nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  8. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This document presents the situation of nuclear industry in Japan: cooperation with France in the domain of the fuel cycle (in particular the back-end) and of for the industrial R and D about fast reactors and nuclear safety; present day situation characterized by a series of incidents in the domain of nuclear safety and by an administrative reorganization of the research and safety organizations; power of local representatives, results of April 2003 elections, liberalization of the electric power sector, impact of the TEPCO affair (falsification of safety reports) on the nuclear credibility, re-start up of the Monju reactor delayed by judicial procedures, stopping of the program of MOX fuel loading in Tepco's reactors, discovery of weld defects in the newly built Rokkasho-mura reprocessing plant, an ambitious program of reactors construction, the opportunity of Russian weapons dismantling for the re-launching of sodium-cooled fast reactors; the competition between France and Japan for the setting up of ITER reactor and its impact of the French/Japanese partnership. (J.S.)

  9. Industrial aspects of nuclear energy: French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, G.

    1986-11-01

    France decides to develop nuclear energy on a wide scale about 12 years ago. To cope with this ambitious program, the roles have been distributed within a very cohesive organization, as follows: EDF, the french national electricity utility is owner, prime contractor, and plant operator. The Atomic Energy Commission, CEA performs part of the research and development work, and supplies the necessary technical support to the safety authorities. A few leading industrial firms design and build the major parts of the nuclear power plants. Among them is Framatome, which is responsible for the design, manufacture, erection, and startup of nuclear steam supply systems (the NSSSs), and related auxiliaries. Alsthom is responsible for the supply of the turbine and its auxiliaries. It would not be proper to describe the French nuclear industry without focussing our attention on the care given to transfer of technology. Technology transfer agreements can take several forms, but local factors have to be taken into account. These forms are discussed in this paper. A typical and highly significant example (KNU 9-10 project) is given

  10. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  11. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant influences species distribution and thermal tolerance of fishes in reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.K.; Das, T.; Dalvi, R.S.; Bagchi, S.; Manush, S.M.; Ayyappan, S.; Chandrachoodan, P.P.; Apte, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    During electricity generation water bodies like reservoir act as a heat sink for thermal effluent discharges from nuclear power plant. We hypothesized that the fish fauna gets distributed according to their temperature preference in the thermal gradient. In a simulated environment using critical thermal methodology (CTM), we assessed thermal tolerance and metabolic profile of fishes (Puntius filamentosus, Parluciosoma daniconius, Ompok malabaricus, Mastacembelus armatus, Labeo calbasu, Horabragrus brachysoma, Etroplus suratensis, Danio aequipinnatus and Gonoproktopterus curmuca) collected from Kadra reservoir in Karnataka state. Results of CTM tests agrees with the species abundance as per the temperature gradient formed in the reservoir due to thermal effluent discharge. E. suratensis and H. brachysoma) appear to be adapted to high temperature (with high CTMax and CTMin values) and are in abundance at point of thermal discharge. Similarly, P. daniconius, appear to be adapted to cold (low CTM values) is in abundance in lower stretches of Kadra reservoir. Overall results indicate that discharge form nuclear power plant influences the species biodiversity in enclosed water bodies. (author)

  12. General principles governing sampling and measurement techniques for monitoring radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1978-01-01

    An explanation is given of the need to monitor the release of radioactive gases and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the ICRP recommendations and on the interest in this problem shown by the larger international organizations. This is followed by a description of the classes of radionuclides that are normally monitored in this way. The characteristics of monitoring 'in line' and 'by sample taking' are described; the disadvantages of in line monitoring and the problem of sample representativity are discussed. There follows an account of the general principles for measuring gaseous and liquid effluents that are applied in the techniques normally employed at nuclear facilities. Standards relating to the specifications for monitoring instruments are at present being devised by the International Electrotechnical Commission, and there are still major differences in national practices, at least as far as measurement thresholds are concerned. In conclusion, it is shown that harmonization of practices and standardization of equipment would probably help to make international relations in the field more productive. (author)

  13. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods are presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. However, a strong case is made for the use of biological processes for removing nitrates and heavy metals fron nuclear fuel cycle effluents. The estimated costs for these methods are as low as, or lower than, those for alternate processes. In addition, the resulting disposal products - nitrogen gas, CO 2 , and heavy metals incorporated into microorganisms - are much more ecologically desirable than the end products of other waste treatment methods

  14. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal

  15. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous effluents from nuclear-powered merchant ships (NMS-GEFF code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardile, F.P.; Bangart, R.L.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMCO) is currently preparing guidelines concerning the safety of nuclear-powered merchant ships. An important aspect of these guidelines is the determination of the releases of radioactive material in effluents from these ships and the control exercised by the ships over these releases. To provide a method for the determination of these releases, the NRC staff has developed a computerized model, the NMS-GEFF Code, which is described in the following chapters. The NMS-GEFF Code calculates releases of radioactive material in gaseous effluents for nuclear-powered merchant ships using pressurized water reactors

  16. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  17. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  18. Nuclear instrumentation for the industrial measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with nuclear instrumentation and its application to industry, power plant fuel reprocessing plant and finally with homeland security. The first part concerns the reactor instrumentation, in-core and ex-core measurement system. Ionization Uranium fission chamber will be introduced with their acquisition system especially Campbell mode system. Some progress have been done on regarding sensors failure foresee. The second part of this work deals with reprocessing plant and associated instrumentation for nuclear waste management. Proportional counters techniques will be discussed, especially Helium-3 counter, and new development on electronic concept for reprocessing nuclear waste plant (one electronic for multipurpose acquisition system). For nuclear safety and security for human and homeland will be introduce. First we will explain a new particular approach on operational dosimetric measurement and secondly, we will show new kind of organic scintillator material and associated electronics. Signal treatment with real time treatment is embedded, in order to make neutron gamma discrimination possible even in solid organic scintillator. Finally, the conclusion will point out future, with most trends in research and development on nuclear instrumentation for next years. (author) [fr

  19. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  20. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  1. Mobile robotics application in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.L.; White, J.R. [REMOTEC, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Mobile robots have been developed to perform hazardous operations in place of human workers. Applications include nuclear plant inspection/maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning police/military explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), hostage/terrorist negotiations and fire fighting. Nuclear facilities have proven that robotic applications can be cost-effective solutions to reducing personnel exposure and plant downtime. The first applications of mobile robots in the nuclear industry began in the early 1980`s, with the first vehicles being one of a kind machines or adaptations of commercial EOD robots. These activities included efforts by numerous commercial companies, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, EPRI, and several national laboratories. Some of these efforts were driven by the recovery and cleanup activities at TMI which demonstrated the potential and need for a remote means of performing surveillance and maintenance tasks in nuclear plants. The use of these machines is now becoming commonplace in nuclear facilities throughout the world. The hardware maturity and the confidence of the users has progressed to the point where the applications of mobile robots is not longer considered a novelty. These machines are being used in applications where the result is to help achieve more aggressive goals for personnel radiation exposure and plant availability, perform tasks more efficiently, and allow plant operators to retrieve information from areas previously considered inaccessible. Typical examples include surveillance in high radiation areas (during operation and outage activities), radiation surveys, waste handling, and decontamination evolutions. This paper will discuss this evolution including specific applications experiences, examples of currently available technology, and the benefits derived from the use of mobile robotic vehicles in commercial nuclear power facilities.

  2. Mobile robotics application in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.L.; White, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Mobile robots have been developed to perform hazardous operations in place of human workers. Applications include nuclear plant inspection/maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning police/military explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), hostage/terrorist negotiations and fire fighting. Nuclear facilities have proven that robotic applications can be cost-effective solutions to reducing personnel exposure and plant downtime. The first applications of mobile robots in the nuclear industry began in the early 1980's, with the first vehicles being one of a kind machines or adaptations of commercial EOD robots. These activities included efforts by numerous commercial companies, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, EPRI, and several national laboratories. Some of these efforts were driven by the recovery and cleanup activities at TMI which demonstrated the potential and need for a remote means of performing surveillance and maintenance tasks in nuclear plants. The use of these machines is now becoming commonplace in nuclear facilities throughout the world. The hardware maturity and the confidence of the users has progressed to the point where the applications of mobile robots is not longer considered a novelty. These machines are being used in applications where the result is to help achieve more aggressive goals for personnel radiation exposure and plant availability, perform tasks more efficiently, and allow plant operators to retrieve information from areas previously considered inaccessible. Typical examples include surveillance in high radiation areas (during operation and outage activities), radiation surveys, waste handling, and decontamination evolutions. This paper will discuss this evolution including specific applications experiences, examples of currently available technology, and the benefits derived from the use of mobile robotic vehicles in commercial nuclear power facilities

  3. Study of technical and economical feasibility for implementation of a movable unit for treatment of industrial effluents with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina Sciamarelli

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of industrial effluents is a practice that is disseminating in accelerated rhythm, of contributing to reinforce the public image, through the combat of the pollution, it brings economical advantages allowing the companies the reuse of the treated water in their own processes. The liquid effluent treatment technique studied in the present work is the one that uses the chemical oxidation/reduction standing out the use of the electron beam (e.b.) radiation. This technique uses an advanced oxidation process, generating radicals highly reagents that provoke the oxidation, reduction, dissociation and degradation in composed organic and exercising lethal effect in general in the microorganisms and parasites. In this work a conceptual and basic project of a movable unit of effluents treatment using electron beam radiation process was developed, in order that the unit moves until the treatment point, where the effluent is produced, facilitating the logistics. A technical and economical feasibility study was also elaborated allowing data on the capacity and cost of effluents processing to consolidate the values of the necessary investments to be presented to foundations organs for the construction of a movable unit. The results of the studies demonstrated that it is technically viable attending the pertinent legislation of Brazil, in the aspects of Radiation Protection and transport limit capacity. The unitary cost of the e.b. radiation processing in the movable unit was shown more expensive than in the fixed unit, the reason is the decrease of the efficiency of the interaction of the incident electrons in the effluent, due to the reduction of electron energy operation time of the unit. (author)

  4. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Tahsin; Huma, Tayyaba; Jalal, Fatima; Iqbal, Sarosh; Abrar, Shazia; Kiran, Shumaila; Nosheen, Sofia; Hussain, Waqar; Rafique, Muhammad Asim

    2017-12-16

    The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger ( A. niger ). All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  5. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gulzar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger (A. niger. All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  6. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  7. Education for the nuclear power industry: Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Swedish nuclear power industry staff, very few newly employed have a deep education in reactor technology. To remedy this, a joint education company, Nuclear Training and Safety Center (KSU), has been formed. To ensure that nuclear competence will be available also in a long-term perspective, the Swedish nuclear power industry and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) have formed a joint center for support of universities, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Center (SKC). The activities of these organisations, their links to universities, and their impact on the competence development for the nuclear power industry will be outlined. (author)

  8. Derived release limits (DRL's) for airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories during normal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    Derived release limits (DRL's), based on regulatory dose limits, have been calculated for routine discharges of radioactivity in airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Three types of sources of airborne effluents were considered: the NRX/NRU stack, the 61 m stack connected to the 99 Mo production facility, and a roof vent typical of those installed on several buildings on the site. Sources of liquid effluents to the Ottawa River were treated as a single source from the site as a whole. Various exposure pathways to workers on the site and to members of the public outside the site boundary were considered in the calculations. The DRL's represent upper limits for routine emissions of radioactivity from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the surrounding environment. Actual releases are regulated by Administrative Levels, set lower than the DRL's, and are confirmed by monitoring. (author)

  9. Commercial basis to nuclear industry skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Mike

    1989-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has considerable experience in measurement and control systems which it has designed for nuclear reactor use. It is now using this experience to help other industries needing to monitor variables such as flow, level, position, conductivity, thickness, temperature, density, sound, vibrations, light, movement, pressure, strain and radiation. Recently British Nuclear Fuels sought UKAEA's help to solve a process measurement problem at the Sellafield encapsulation plant which is used to recycle unspent fuel and immobilise liquid wastes using a cementation process. The level and specific gravity of the liquid waste slurry must be accurately measured before the correct amount of solidifying material can be added. The solution to this problem, using pneumacator technology, is described. (author)

  10. Industrial fans used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial fans are widely used in nuclear facilities, and their most common use is in building ventilation. To control the spread of contamination, airflows are maintained at high levels. Therefore, the selection of the fan and fan control are important to the safety of people, equipment and the environment. As a result, 80% of all energy used in nuclear facilities is fan energy. Safety evolves from the durability, control and redundancy in the system. In new or retrofit installations, testing and qualification of fans and systems are completed prior to start-up. Less important but necessary is the energy conservation aspect of fan selection and installations. Fan efficiency, type of control and system installation are evaluated for energy use

  11. Nuclear challenges in Asia, an industrial perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiffou, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author first gives a brief overview of military programmes implemented by India, China, Pakistan and North Korea to develop and manufacture the various vectors of nuclear weapons (submarines, missiles, bombers), the objective being (not always reached) to possess a nuclear triad (intercontinental ground-based missiles, submarines, and bombers). In this respect, the author briefly comments the evolutions of defence budgets, discusses the evolutions of the Chinese defence industry since the end of World War II (strong relationship with USSR, emergence of other various trade relationships, a more independent production but with a search for new technological partnerships). The author then discusses whether China is a threatening military power, more particularly for some Asian countries like Japan and South Korea

  12. Nuclear energy for technology and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    It is a sad commentary on the complete lack of informed realism of the Government and people of Australia that, after thirty years of vacillation and political chicanery, nuclear technology, one of this nation's potential ''sunrise industries'' is in its death throes. Whilst our third world neighbours, in particular Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the People's Republic of China and even impoverished Bangladesh are making giant strides to develop an autonomous expertise Australia's potential has been dissipated and its opportunities for leadership and technology transfer lost. By chance this paper was written some weeks before the nuclear accident at Chernobyl (U.S.S.R.) and many years after accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (U.S.A.) and the plutonium production reactor at Windscale (U.K.). None of these incidents alter the basic arguments or conclusions contained in this manuscript. (See Appendix). The year 1986 might represent the final opportunity for concerned professionals to seek to improve the quality of public education and information to end ''the war against the atom''. It will be necessary to re-motivate the public and private sector of a demoralised technology and to launch it on a road of responsible and successful expansion unshackled by beaurocratic interference. It is the purpose of this paper to examine why the first three decades of nuclear technology in Australia have been so singularly unsuccessful and to discuss a coherent and rational implementation of plans and policies for the future. (author)

  13. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  14. Design of nuclear instruments for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    Following an introduction to the atomic structure and the radioactive desintegration, the applications of radioisotopic sealed sources are described. The laws that govern the interaction of radiation with matter and the statistics applied to the radioactive measurements are presented. Different measurement techniques, basic equations of design, the way to provide the activity calculation of a source and the detector's characteristics are given, according to the parameters to be measured and the conditions imposed. Finally, the principles of operation and the most important characteristics of different nuclear instruments to be used in industrial measurements are described. (Author) [es

  15. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors. (auth)

  16. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doern, G B [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). School of Public Administration

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors.

  17. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  18. Fibre optic cable in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Berwyn

    1987-01-01

    The uses of optical fibre cables to transmit light signals include medical applications and telecommunications. In the nuclear industry the applications include process control and monitoring, conventional datacoms, security fencing and sensors. Time division multiplexing is described and currently available fibre optic multipexers are listed and explained. Single and multimode fibres are mentioned. Fibre optics are also used in cryogenics, to monitor the integrity of the storage vessels for cryogenic liquids. The uses of fibre optics at Hartlepool, Heysham I and Torness are mentioned in particular. (UK)

  19. Economical state of nuclear industries in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., has carried out the survey of the actual state of atomic energy industries in Japan every year, and the 22nd survey was performed on the state in 1980. In this survey, the atomic energy industries are classified into electric power business, mining and manufacture, and trading companies. The actual results of expenditures, sales, the investment in facilities, backlogs, the volume of business, the number of employees and so on were surveyed by questionnaire, respectively. The data show the history of the atomic energy industries for a quarter of a century, and are utilized to search for the problems. The period of survey was from April 1, 1980, to March 31, 1981. The number of enterprises surveyed was 1234, and 924 companies replied, accordingly, the ratio of reply was 75%. 546 enterprises among the 924 had some results related to atomic energy, therefore, the results of survey were classified, totalized, examined and analyzed, based on the survey papers of these 546 enterprises. As for the Japanese economy, the real growth of economy was 3.8%, the index of mining and manufacturing production increased by 4.6%, but total energy consumption decreased by 4.4%, as compared with the previous year. One nuclear power plant began the operation, and 4000 centrifuges are operated in the uranium enrichment pilot plant. The trends of expenditures, sales and employees are shown. (Kako, I.)

  20. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  1. The world nuclear industry status report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Froggatt, A

    2007-11-15

    The status and perspectives of the nuclear industry in the world have been subject to a large number of publications and considerable media attention over the last few years. The present report attempts to provide solid elements of key information for intelligent analysis and informed decision-making. As of 1 November 2007 there are 439 nuclear reactors operating in the world. That is five less than five years ago. There are 32 units listed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as 'under construction'. That is about 20 less than in the late 1990's. In 1989 a total of 177 nuclear reactors had been operated in what are now the 27 EU Member States. That number shrank to 146 units as of 1 November 2007. In 1992 the Worldwatch Institute in Washington, WISE-Paris and Greenpeace International published the first World Nuclear Industry Status Report. As a first updated review in 2004 showed the 1992 analyses proved correct. In reality, the combined installed nuclear capacity of the 436 units operating in the world in the year 2000 was less than 352,000 megawatts - to be compared with the forecast of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the 1970's of up to 4,450,000 megawatts. Today the 439 worldwide operating reactors total 371,000 megawatts. Nuclear power plants provide 16% of the electricity, 6% of the commercial primary energy and 2-3% of the final energy in the world - the tendency is downwards - less than hydropower alone. Twenty-one of the 31 countries operating nuclear power plants decreased their share of nuclear power within the electricity mix if compared with 2003. The average age of the operating power plants is 23 years. Some nuclear utilities envisage reactor lifetimes of 40 years or more. Considering the fact that the average age of all 117 units that have already been closed is equally about 22 years, the doubling of the operational lifetime seems already rather optimistic. However, we have assumed an average

  2. The world nuclear industry status report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Froggatt, A.

    2007-11-01

    The status and perspectives of the nuclear industry in the world have been subject to a large number of publications and considerable media attention over the last few years. The present report attempts to provide solid elements of key information for intelligent analysis and informed decision-making. As of 1 November 2007 there are 439 nuclear reactors operating in the world. That is five less than five years ago. There are 32 units listed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as 'under construction'. That is about 20 less than in the late 1990's. In 1989 a total of 177 nuclear reactors had been operated in what are now the 27 EU Member States. That number shrank to 146 units as of 1 November 2007. In 1992 the Worldwatch Institute in Washington, WISE-Paris and Greenpeace International published the first World Nuclear Industry Status Report. As a first updated review in 2004 showed the 1992 analyses proved correct. In reality, the combined installed nuclear capacity of the 436 units operating in the world in the year 2000 was less than 352,000 megawatts - to be compared with the forecast of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the 1970's of up to 4,450,000 megawatts. Today the 439 worldwide operating reactors total 371,000 megawatts. Nuclear power plants provide 16% of the electricity, 6% of the commercial primary energy and 2-3% of the final energy in the world - the tendency is downwards - less than hydropower alone. Twenty-one of the 31 countries operating nuclear power plants decreased their share of nuclear power within the electricity mix if compared with 2003. The average age of the operating power plants is 23 years. Some nuclear utilities envisage reactor lifetimes of 40 years or more. Considering the fact that the average age of all 117 units that have already been closed is equally about 22 years, the doubling of the operational lifetime seems already rather optimistic. However, we have assumed an average lifetime of 40 years

  3. Decree No 74-1181 of 31 December 1974 concerning liquid radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the licensing procedure for the release of liquid wastes from nuclear installations as well as the technical supervision of such operations. It does not apply to the transport of radioactive effluents which is governed by the regulations on the transport of dangerous goods. (NEA) [fr

  4. The application of land-based computerized spectrometers for effluent monitoring aboard nuclear powered ships. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamykowski, E.A.

    1975-12-01

    This report assesses the applicability of computer-based, Ge(Li) detector spectroscopy systems as effluent monitors aboard nuclear powered ships. A survey of the principal commercial spectrometers, in light of the expected shipboard use, indicates these systems may be employed for automatic radioisotope analysis in a seagoing environment if adequate protective measures are adopted

  5. Stakeholder involvement in the management of effluent discharges from nuclear installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Oudiz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of local stakeholders in the decision-making process regarding health, safety and environmental issues is developing in many countries. As far as the management of effluent discharges from nuclear installations in France is concerned, members of Local Commission of Information, including elected people and NGOs, are playing an increasing role in that respect. To deepen the understanding of these risk governance processes, a working group of experts from different institutions was set up in 2000 by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). The aim of this working group was to 1) analyse the stakeholder involvement processes already in place in France around nuclear and non-nuclear installations; 2) perform case studies of few national and international experiences around nuclear installations (notably concerning the revision of creation authorisation decree of COGEMA La Hague reprocessing plant, the environmental policy of BNFL Sellafield reprocessing plant, the discharges surveillance of EDF Fessenheim nuclear power plant); 3) study the evolution of the regulatory context for the stakeholder involvement. Four main elements, contributing to the social trust emerge from this analysis: 1) the social dynamics of the consultation process, notably with the emergence of 'new' stakeholders such as elected people and NGOs; 2) the readability of the plant follow-up from the point of view of local stakeholders and their involvement in the decision process (the relay role of these 'new' stakeholders); 3) the contribution of the institutional and pluralist expertise to the social trust (broadening of the range of values taken into account); 4) the issue of the local justification of the plant in the prospect of the sustainable development (no risk being acceptable without counter-parts). This paper will address these different issues on the basis of the case studies in the perspective of examining the radiological risk governance process

  6. effect of Indomie industrial effluent discharge on the fish fauna of New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    . KEYWORDS: Effluent, pollution, environment, fish and fauna. .... Atlantic ocean near Bonny and it contains fresh water till ... swamp forests and municipal sewers within the. Choba area of .... Risk and Water Quality Assessment. Overview of ...

  7. Physical factors related to the marine disposal of industrial effluents off Pondicherry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Vijayakumar, C.V.; Govindan, K.; Desai, B.N.

    the nearshore bed was mostly composed of sand. Dye-diffusion studies showed that the waters off Pondicherry proper were less turbulent than those off Pilliarkuppam. The results are discussed in the context of locating effluent outlets...

  8. Problems of nuclear industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiyama, Hirokichi

    1976-01-01

    The past twenty years growth of Japanese reactor plant makers is historically reviewed in the first part of this report. The first ten years were devoted for the construction of research reactors and for the design studies of power plants. The next ten years were devoted for the construction of power stations. Total income and expenditures of Japanese makers for these two periods are presented. It is emphasized that expenditures always exceeded income. The second part previews the projected growth of nuclear power generation. Generating capacities of 49,000 MW at 1985 and 90,000 MW at 1990 is assumed. To meet this demand, Japanese makers must have the ability of supplying about 8000 MW per year and the number of personnel (at present, about 9,000) must be increased to 25,000 in next ten years. The third part discusses the roles of plant makers. Establishment of safe and reliable technology, promotion of standardization, improvement of economical bases, and the promotion of associated industries (such as nuclear fuel makers and operator training institutions) are the main subjects. The roles of government are also shortly discussed. The rest of this paper shortly discusses about the participation to the national project (ATR, FBR, and centrifuge enrichment) and about future problems in growing to an exporting industry. (Aoki, K.)

  9. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  10. JAERI FEL applications in nuclear energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI FEL has first discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high efficiency, 1GW high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear energy industries, and others. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to prevent cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear energy and other heavy industries. (author)

  11. Coating technologies in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaae, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Metallic, ceramic, and organic coatings are so commonly used in modern industry that virtually everyone can name several applications in which coatings are employed. Thus, it is no surprise that coating technologies are widely employed in the nuclear industry. Some of these technologies utilize processes that are mature and well developed, and others utilize processes that are new and state of the art. In this paper, five generic coating processes that include almost all vapor deposition processes are described, and then applications of each of these processes for deposition of specific materials in nuclear applications are described. These latter selections, of course, are very subjective, and others will be able to name other applications. Because of their wide range of application, coating technologies are considered to be national critical technologies. The generic coating processes that cover almost all vapor deposition technologies are as follows: (1) stationary substrate chemical vapor deposition; (2) fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition; (3) plasma-assisted chemical deposition; (4) sputtering; (5) evaporation

  12. Learning curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, Jussi K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on actuarial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  13. High nitrogen stainless steels for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen alloying in stainless steels (SS) has myriad beneficial effects, including solid solution strengthening, precipitation effects, phase control and corrosion resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid development of these alloys with improved properties owing to advances in processing technologies. Furthermore, unlimited demands for high-performance advanced steels for special use in advanced applications renewed the interest in high nitrogen steels (HNS). The combination of numbers of attractive properties such as strength, fracture toughness, wear resistance, workability, magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of HNS has given a unique advantage and offers a number of prospective applications in different industries. Based on extensive studies carried out at IGCAR, nitrogen alloyed type 304LN SS and 316LN SS have been chosen as materials of construction for many engineering components of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and associated reprocessing plants. HNS austenitic SS alloys are used as structural/reactor components, i.e., main vessel, inner vessel, control plug, intermediate heat exchanger and main sodium piping for fast breeder reactor. HNS type 304LN SS is a candidate material for continuous dissolver, nuclear waste storage tanks, pipings, etc. for nitric acid service under highly corrosive conditions. Recent developments towards the manufacturing and properties of HNS alloys for application in nuclear industry are highlighted in the presentation. (author)

  14. Environmental issues and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.

    1995-01-01

    Health safety and environmental liabilities of the 'nuclear industry' reflect those of industry in general and may broadly be divided into two areas: criminal liability for regulatory non-compliance; and civil liability for damage caused to persons and their property (for example, neighbours, employees etc). In addition, environmental liability may be incurred as a result of powers of the regulatory authorities to clean up contamination and to recoup the cost. These are in addition to the regime of strict liability imposed, where relevant, by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. In the case of environmental liabilities, 'owners;, 'occupiers', 'persons responsible', 'persons in control' may all be held to be liable and for the most part these terms remain undefined both under English law and European Community (now European Union) law. This potentially has ramifications for current and former owners and operators, their boards and senior managers, other employees, parent companies, shareholders and their lenders and investors - of particular relevance in the context of privatization. (author)

  15. Future contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    In a modern futures market, standardized contracts for future delivery of a commodity are traded through an exchange that establishes contract terms and the rules of trading. The futures contract itself is simply an agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller is obligated to deliver and the buyer is obligated to accept a predetermined quantity of a specified commodity at a given location on a certain date in the future for a set price. Organized futures markets aid in price discovery; provide a risk management tool for those with commercial interests in a commodity; create speculative opportunities; and contribute to competitiveness, efficiency, and fairness in trading. There are, at present, no standardized futures contracts in the nuclear fuel industry, although the concept has been discovered for years. The idea has been raised again recently in relation to the disposition of Russian uranium. Some adaptation of traditional futures contracts, traded on an exchange composed of nuclear fuel industry participants, could provide many of the benefits found in other commodity futures markets

  16. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the whole effluent assessment approach of OSPAR has been applied for determining persistent toxicity of indirectly discharged wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry. Twenty wastewater samples from the printed circuit board and electroplating industries which indirectly discharged their wastewater to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been considered in the study. In all factories, the wastewater partial flows were separated in collecting tanks and physicochemically treated in-house. For assessing the behaviour of the wastewater samples in WWTPs, all samples were biologically pretreated for 7 days in the Zahn-Wellens test before ecotoxicity testing. Thus, persistent toxicity could be discriminated from non-persistent toxicity caused, e.g. by ammonium or readily biodegradable compounds. The fish egg test with Danio rerio, the Daphnia magna acute toxicity test, the algae test with Desmodesmus subspicatus, the Vibrio fischeri assay and the plant growth test with Lemna minor have been applied. All tests have been carried out according to well-established DIN or ISO standards and the lowest ineffective dilution (LID) concept. Additionally, genotoxicity was tested in the umu assay. The potential bioaccumulating substances (PBS) were determined by solid-phase micro-extraction and referred to the reference compound 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluents were in the range of 30-2,850 mg L(-1) (COD) and 2-614 mg L(-1) (TOC). With respect to the metal concentrations, all samples were not heavily polluted. The

  17. Nuclear Regulator Knowledge Management in a Dynamic Nuclear Industry Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper outlines the experiences to date in developing mature knowledge management within the UK’s nuclear regulatory body The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). In 2010 concerns over the loss of knowledge due to the age profile within the organization instigated a review of knowledge management and the development of a knowledge management initiative. Initially activities focused on knowledge capture but in order to move to through life knowledge transfer, knowledge management was then aligned with organizational resilience initiatives. A review of progress highlighted the need to better engage the whole organization to achieve the desired level of maturity for knowledge management. Knowledge management activities now cover organizational culture and environment and all aspects of organizational resilience. Benefits to date include clear understanding of core knowledge requirements, better specifications for recruitment and training and the ability to deploy new regulatory approaches. During the period of implementing the knowledge management programme ONR undertook several organizational changes in moving to become a separate statutory body. The UK nuclear industry was in a period of increased activity including the planning of new nuclear reactors. This dynamic environment caused challenges for embedding knowledge management within ONR which are discussed in the paper. (author

  18. JAIF formulates policy for strengthening foundation of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    With recognition that conditions surrounding the nuclear industry are becoming severe with the slowdown in the growth of the Japanese economy, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum has been discussing ways and means of strengthening the foundations of the nuclear industry. A subcommittee of the Power Reactor Development Committee has been formed. It comprizes two divisions. The first division focused on economic and social prospects for the future and other basic questions. The second division dealt with specific problems viewed from the position of the nuclear quipment supply industry and measures to resolve them. The report was prepared based on the studies done by the two divisions, and focusing on the strengthening of the basis of the nuclear industry through the year 2010. The report estimates that construction of nuclear power plants will be less than 2 units a year in the coming five year period, and will continue at about 2 units a year until about the year 2000. From this outlook, it discusses the work facing the nuclear industry and the steps to be taken to reduce nuclear power generation costs, efficient research and development and the promotion of international cooperation. The report covers four sections: the position of nuclear power development in the national economy; the present state and tasks of the nuclear industry and the nuclear equipment supply industry; measures for maintaining and strengthening the foundations of the nuclear industry, and the tasks to be done. (Nogami, K.)

  19. The main rules regarding the management of solid waste and liquid effluent contaminated during use at nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudouin, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the key requirements applicable to the management of contaminated medical waste and effluent from hospitals and health care centres, and more especially from nuclear medicine departments that use radionuclides for the purposes of diagnosis (in vivo or in vitro) or in patient treatment. It also presents the key management regulations, making a distinction between contaminated solid waste and contaminated liquid waste from such nuclear medicine departments. (author)

  20. A practicable signal processing algorithm for industrial nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yaogeng; Gao Song; Yang Wujiao

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce the statistical error and to improve dynamic performances of the industrial nuclear instrument, a practicable method of nuclear measurement signal processing is developed according to industrial nuclear measurement features. The algorithm designed is implemented with a single-chip microcomputer. The results of application in (radiation level gauge has proved the effectiveness of this method). (authors)

  1. An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

  2. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jung Bae

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment.

  3. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

  4. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H S; Yang, M H; Kim, H J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months.

  5. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months

  6. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months.

  7. Nuclear industrial and power complex of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemanskiy, V.A.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zelenski, D.I.; Papafanasopulo, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    While selecting the national power supply strategy of economic potential development four factors are laid in the basis of discussions and technical and economic decisions: effect either power complexes on people health, consequences environmental, economics and resources existence. Atomic power requires the balanced approach to power politics which, by that, avoids the dependence on any energy source. The existing electric power generation structure in Kazakhstan is Featured by the following numbers: -TEPP on coal - 79%; - TEPP on gas-black-oil fuel - 12-13%; - HEPP - 6-7%; - Atomic PP - about 0.7%. The ground for nuclear power development is considerable uranium deposits and rather developed atomic industry. Kazakhstan atomic industry includes: - uranium extractive enterprise - State Holding Company 'Tselinnyi Mining-Chemical Plant' (SHC 'TCMP'), Stepnoy Ore Division (SOD), Central ore Division 6 (COD 6), KASKOR (Aktau); - plant on fuel pellets production for APP (JSC 'UMP'); - plants on production of rare and rare-earth metals - Irtysh Chemical and Metallurgical (JSC 'CMP') and Ulba Metallurgical Plant (JSC 'UMP'); - Mangyshlak Power Plant (MAEK); - Scientific Complex of NNC RK of Ministry of Science-Academy of Science. About 25% of world deposits and uranium resources are concentrated in Kazakhstan bowels. The scientific potential of atomic production complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan is concentrated in NNC RK divisions (IAE and INP) and at JSC 'UMP' and MAEK enterprises. Ministry Energy and Nature Resources is a Board responsible for the development of atomic industry and power branches. Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic Kazakhstan performs the independent effective state supervision and control providing safety of atomic industry power installations operation

  8. Dialogue between the nuclear industry and environmentalists is the key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padley, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    'Nuclear energy - the good news for British Industry' was the title of a meeting organised by the Confederation of British Industry in July 1987. This article summarizes the contributions of each of the speakers. Between them they produced figures on the importance of the nuclear industry in various countries including the USA, France and the United Kingdom. The risks were mentioned, also the public fears following the accident at Chernobyl. The UK policy on the disposal of nuclear waste is summarized. The disposal is not technically difficult, only politically so because of adverse public opinion. These points also emerged; the nuclear industry must liaise with environmentalists and the UK manufacturing industry needs low cost energy which the nuclear industry could supply. However, the long-term development of nuclear power is only possible if there are no more reactor accidents leading to injury by radioactivity. (U.K.)

  9. Europairs project: creating an alliance of nuclear and non-nuclear industries for developing nuclear cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittner, Dominique; Bogusch, Edgar; Viala, Celine; Angulo, Carmen; Chauvet, Vincent; Fuetterer, Michael A.; De Groot, Sander; Von Lensa, Werner; Ruer, Jacques; Griffay, Gerard; Baaten, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. HTR are thus well suited to most of the non-electric applications of nuclear energy, which represent about 80% of total energy consumption. This opens opportunities for reducing CO 2 emissions and securing energy supply which are complementary to those provided by systems dedicated to electricity generation. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, much in the same way as the electronuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project just started in the frame of the EURATOM 7. Framework Programme (FP7) under AREVA coordination. Within EUROPAIRS, process heat user industries express their requirements whereas nuclear industry will provide the performance window of HTR. Starting from this shared information, an alliance will be forged by assessing the feasibility and impact of nuclear CHP from technical, industrial, economical, licensing and sustainability perspectives. This assessment work will allow pointing out the main issues and challenges for coupling an HTR with industrial process heat applications. On this basis, a Road-map will be elaborated for achieving an industrially relevant demonstration of such a coupling. This Road-map will not only take into consideration the necessary nuclear developments, but also the required adaptations of industrial application processes and the possible development of heat transport technologies from the nuclear heat source to application processes. Although only a small and short project (21 months

  10. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie; Katsuta, Tadahiro; Ramana, M.V.; Fairlie, Ian; Maltini, Fulcieri; Thomas, Steve; Kaaberger, Tomas

    2016-07-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. Nuclear power generation in the world increased by 1.3%, entirely due to a 31% increase in China. Ten reactors started up in 2015-more than in any other year since 1990-of which eight were in China. Construction on all of them started prior to the Fukushima disaster. Eight construction starts in the world in 2015-to which China contributed six-down from 15 in 2010 of which 10 were in China. No construction starts in the world in the first half of 2016. The number of units under construction is declining for the third year in a row, from 67 reactors at the end of 2013 to 58 by mid-2016, of which 21 are in China. China spent over US$100 billion on renewables in 2015, while investment decisions for six nuclear reactors amounted to US$18 billion. Eight early closure decisions taken in Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan and the U.S. Nuclear phase-out announcements in the U.S. (California) and Taiwan. In nine of the 14 building countries all projects are delayed, mostly by several years. Six projects have been listed for over a decade, of which three for over 30 years. China is no exception here, at least 10 of 21 units under construction are delayed. With the exception of United Arab Emirates and Belarus, all potential newcomer countries delayed construction decisions. Chile suspended and Indonesia abandoned nuclear plans. AREVA has accumulated US$11 billion in losses over the past five years. French government decides euro 5.6 billion bailout and breaks up the company. Share value 95 percent below 2007 peak value. State utility EDF struggles with US$ 41.5 billion debt, downgraded by S and P. Chinese utility CGN, EDF partner for Hinkley Point C, loses 60% of its share value

  11. Energy policy and nuclear power. Expectations of the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    In the opinion of the power industry, using nuclear power in Germany is a responsible attitude, while opting out of nuclear power is not. Electricity utilities will build new nuclear power plants only if the structural economic and ecological advantages of nuclear power are preserved and can be exploited in Germany. The power industry will assume responsibility for new complex, capital-intensive nuclear plants only if a broad societal consensus about this policy can be reached in this country. The power industry expects that the present squandering of nuclear power resources in Germany will be stopped. The power industry is prepared to contribute to finding a speedy consensus in energy policy, which would leave open all decisions which must not be taken today, and which would not constrain the freedom of decision of coming generations. The electricity utilities remain committed proponents of nuclear power. However, what they sell to their customers is electricity, not nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  12. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Rivero G, T.; Celis del Angel, L.; Sainz M, E.; Molina, G.

    2006-01-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  13. The development of Chinese power industry and its nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dabin

    2002-01-01

    The achievements and disparity of Chinese power industry development is introduced. The position and function of nuclear power in Chinese power industry is described. Nuclear power will play a role in ensuring the reliable and safe supply of primary energy in a long-term and economic way. The development prospects of power source construction in Chinese power industry is presented. Challenge and opportunity in developing nuclear power in China are discussed

  14. Environmental impact of the nuclear industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Wang Zhibo; Chen Zhuzhou; Zhang Yongxing; Xie Jianlun

    1996-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1955, the nuclear industry has become a comprehensive industrial, scientific and technical system in China. The nuclear industry has obviously brought great profit to the country, but how much environmental effect it has caused is a question of common interest which we should answer. This report shows the environmental assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle in China. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 22 tabs

  15. Quantification practices in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the quantification of risk practices adopted by the nuclear industries in Germany, Britain and France are examined as representative of the practices adopted throughout Europe. From this examination a number of conclusions are drawn about the common features of the practices adopted. In making this survey, the views expressed in the report of the Task Force on Safety Goals/Objectives appointed by the Commission of the European Communities, are taken into account. For each country considered, the legal requirements for presentation of quantified risk assessment as part of the licensing procedure are examined, and the way in which the requirements have been developed for practical application are then examined. (author)

  16. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz R, O.; Griffith M, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1987-07-01

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Germany, an industrialized country, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartenberg, L. v.

    2001-01-01

    The question of the future of nuclear power in Germany, and the agreement between the federal government and industry of June 14, 2000 about the future operation of plants, are important far beyond the confines of this sector of industry. In times of economic globalization and of competition among national economies, questions of location have become key issues in meeting future challenges. For this purpose, there must be more freedom for the economy; entrepreneurial action must be regarded as a positive duty to be fulfilled by society. Personal responsibility and competition, with room for self-responsibility, must not be hampered further by interventions and red tape. This applies to all sectors of the economy, in particular to the power supply sector, as is borne out by the current debate about the quota regulations for cogeneration systems (CHP). Social justice, one of the most important unifying forces in this modern society, must be interpreted as solidarity. This solidarity must be sought also in an international context. Supplying the basic necessities to all inhabitants of this earth requires all sources of energy, also in the interest of achieving sustainability. This term should be interpreted, above and beyond its meaning in environmental protection, as a concept in all areas of politics, implying that the future must be taken into account in all decisions made today. In the light of the problems associated with establishing a worldwide sustainable power supply system, inter alia meeting the objectives of climate protection, continuity of supply, and economic viability, there is no way around nuclear power. Free decisions are required in the sense of sustainable economic management, and the political boundary conditions must be created for this to be possible. (orig.) [de

  19. The sequential application of macroalgal biosorbents for the bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T Kidgell

    Full Text Available Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models.

  20. The sequential application of macroalgal biosorbents for the bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidgell, Joel T; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models.

  1. The nuclear power industry: financial considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leward, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is important not to allow the present liquidity crisis to escalate into economic and political dislocations that could result in a prolonged cessation of necessary capital investment. In assessing the future growth of nuclear power in other parts of the world, it may be instructive to consider the plight of the U.S. industry and the parallels that are apparent. In the United States, electric utility debt is growing too fast; a structural imbalance has developed even on the better corporate balance sheets; and cash flow or internal generation has diminished, particularly as the time needed to complete nuclear plants has extended, thereby precluding revenue production for as long as 10 to 15 years from the beginning of construction. Newcomers to the lending business may have little appetite to lend in unfavorable climates, and regulatory (political) bodies may irresponsibly allow unproductive use of resources and refuse to adopt difficult but essential economic policies to preserve the financial integrity of the borrower. These issues are relevant in the examination of any lender/borrower relationship, whether it be between sovereign nations, banker and borrower, or vendor and vendee. (author)

  2. The use of PHP in the radioactive effluent treatment in rare earth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitang, Q.; Ruensheng, W.

    1985-01-01

    Monazite is one of the most important rare earth resources, processing monazite, however, is accompanied by radioactive effluent that needs treatment. A satisfactory treatment should be able not only to insolubilize the radioactive isotopes but also to clarify the suspension quickly and completely. In this study, out of 15 different coagulants, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHP) of molecular weight 1000 has been chosen as the most efficient one for the clarification of the treated effluent in question. Satisfactory performance has been attained in a continuous clarifier

  3. Biosorption of Cr (VI) ions from electroplating industrial effluent using immobilized Aspergillus niger biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, S; Dhankhar, R

    2008-09-01

    A fungus, Aspergillus niger was chemically treated with 0.1 M H2SO4 and 0.1 N NaOH to form biosorbent and it was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The biosorption capacity of immobilized biosorbents for Cr (VI) was found to depend on pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial concentration of Cr (VI). The maximum uptake of Cr (VI) was 92.5, 95.9 and 98.4 mg respectively at a pH of 1.5 and with an increase in pH up to 10.5 the metal uptake decreased gradually up to 38.75, 50.19 and 65.28 mg respectively for acid treated, untreated and base treated fungal biosorbents. Increase in biosorbent dose up to 1 g of biomass and contact time up to 60 min resulted in an increase in biosorption from 19.6, 15.6 and 26.1 mg at a biosorbent dose of 0.1 g 100 ml(-1) to 92.45, 95.7 and 98.52 mg at a biosorbent dose of 1.0 g 100 ml(-1) and then further increase in adsorbent dose and contact time did not resulted in more Cr (VI) adsorption by per unit weight of biosorbent. The value of Kad (adsorption rate constant) revealed the pseudo-first order nature of biosorption. The percentage metal uptake by the biosorbent was found to decrease upto 62.33, 52.67 and 83.5 percent respectively for acid treated, untreated and base treated fungal biosorbents at the 300 mgl(-1) Cr (VI) ion concentration. The resulted data was found to fit well in Langmuir model of adsorption isotherm with a high value of correlation coefficient. The value of Qmax, b (Langmuir constants), R(L) (separation factor) and delta G (Gibb's free energy) revealed the favourable nature of adsorption. The biosorbed metal was eluted from the biosorbent by using 0.1 M H2SO4 as elutant. Immobilized biosorbent can be reused for five consecutive biosorption/desorption cycles without apparent loss of efficiency after its reconditioning. The biosorbent was found to perform well in the electroplating industrial effluent.

  4. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The report presents the available data on radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community from 1972 to 1976. Discharges are expressed both in absolute terms and relative to the net production of electricity from the fuel. On the basis of the discharges recorded for 1976 the resulting maximum exposure of members of the population is quantified and compared with the dose limits prescribed by Euratom radiological protection standards and with the exposure resulting from natural radioactivity. It is concluded that there is no case in which a discharge could have given rise to an exposure exceeding the relevant prescribed limit. Not only did the possible maximum exposures incurred by individuals leave an appreciable safety margin relative to that limit but, for the vast majority of installations, they were comparable with or were considerably lower than the geographical and temporal variations in exposures resulting from natural radioactivity. Where environmental levels have been detectable the measured results have of course been used but, with few exceptions, the levels have remained less than the very low limits of detection currently possible. In general, where theoretical models are used to evaluate exposure, they are designed to give conservative results and hence it is likely that the true exposures are even less than those calculated

  5. Decree No 74-945 of 6 November 1974 concerning gaseous radioactive effluent releases from large nuclear installations and nuclear installations located on the same site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the licensing for the release of gaseous wastes from nuclear installations as well as the technical supervision of such operations. It does not apply to the transport of radioactive effluents which is governed by the regulations on the transport of dangerous goods. (NEA) [fr

  6. New procedure for the examination of the degradation of volatile organonitrogen compounds during the treatment of industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of 32 volatile organonitrogen compounds in samples of industrial effluents with a complex matrix. The procedure, based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus and mass spectrometric detection, was optimized and validated. Optimization of the extraction included the type of extraction and disperser solvent, disperser solvent volume, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time. The procedure based on nitrogen-phosphorus detection was found to be superior, having lower limits of detection (0.0067-2.29 μg/mL) and quantitation as well as a wider linear range. The developed procedure was applied to the determination of content of volatile organonitrogen compounds in samples of raw effluents from the production of bitumens in which 13 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 10.86 μg/mL and in samples of effluents treated by various chemical methods. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The nuclear industry and the NPT: a perspective from Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Whilst exporting nuclear reactors, the nuclear industry in the United States and other nuclear exporting countries also supports the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The nuclear industry needs the IAEA safeguards and the NPT as these allow the nuclear trade to be conducted in an orderly fashion. Non-sensitive equipment, materials and technology can be made available to other nations which adhere to the NPT. Indeed article IV of the NPT encourages this. Many developing countries do not, however, have the money to pay for the imported technology. This article looks at the current situation in the world where nuclear technology has been, is being, or will be, transferred. (U.K.)

  8. Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of Far-Field Mixing of Industrial Effluent Plume in Ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to describe the dynamics of advective and dispersive transport of the effluent plume in the river and also ascertain the extent of its effect from discharge location to downstream far-field region. A homogenous differential equation was used as analytics to describe the physical process that describes the ...

  10. Design improvement and performance evaluation of solar photocatalytic reactor for industrial effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Organization, structure, and performance in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several propositions are advanced concerning the effects of industry organization and structure on the economic performance of the American commercial nuclear power industry. Both the electric utility industry and the nuclear power plant supply industry are relatively high degree of horizontal disaggregation. The latter is also characterized by an absence of vertical integration. The impact of each of these factors on construction and operating performance is discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that the combination of horizontal and vertical disaggregation in the industry has had a significant adverse effect on economic performance. The relationship between industrial structure and regulatory behavior is also discussed. 43 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  12. Industry based performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, E.M.; Van Hemel, S.B.; Haas, P.M.

    1990-07-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a two-phase study, performed with the goal of developing indirect (leading) indicators of nuclear power plant safety, using other industries as a model. It was hypothesized that other industries with similar public safety concerns could serve as analogs to the nuclear power industry. Many process industries have many more years of operating experience, and many more plants than the nuclear power industry, and thus should have accumulated much useful safety data. In Phase 1, the investigators screened a variety of potential industry analogs and chose the chemical/petrochemical manufacturing industry as the primary analog for further study. Information was gathered on safety programs and indicators in the chemical industry, as well as in the nuclear power industry. Frameworks were selected for the development of indicators which could be transferred from the chemical to the nuclear power environment, and candidate sets of direct and indirect safety indicators were developed. Estimates were made of the availability and quality of data in the chemical industry, and plans were developed for further investigating and testing these candidate indicators against safety data in both the chemical and nuclear power industries in Phase 2. 38 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Nuclear industry will be short of engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the potential shortage of nuclear engineers due to reduction of educational and training facilities and difficulty in attracting minorities into nuclear engineering. The article reports on recommendations from the National Research Council Nuclear Education Study Committee on attracting minorities to nuclear engineering, increasing DOE fellowships, funding for research and development, involvement of utilities and vendors, and support of the American Nuclear Society's advocacy of nuclear engineering education

  14. Vapor explosion studies for nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. [Arden L. Bement, Jr. Professor Nuclear Engineering, School of Nuclear Engineering, 1290 Nuclear Engineering Building, Room 108C, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)]. E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu

    2005-05-01

    Energetic melt-water explosions are a well-established contributor to risk for nuclear reactors, and even more so for the metal casting industry. In-depth studies were undertaken in an industry-national laboratory collaborative effort to understand the root causes of explosion triggering and to evaluate methods for prevention. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was devised and implemented for deriving key insights into explosion prevention. Data obtained indicated that onset of base surface-entrapment induced explosive boiling-caused trigger shocks is a result of complex combination of surface wettability, type of coating (organic versus inorganic), degree of coating wearoff, existence of bypass pathways for pressure relief, charring and non-condensable gas (NCG) release potential. Of these parameters NCGs were found to play a preeminent role on explosion prevention by stabilizing the melt-water steam interface and acting as a shock absorber. The role of NCGs was experimentally confirmed using SETS for their effect on stable film boiling using a downward facing heated body through which gases were injected. The presence of NCGs in the steam film layer caused a significant delay in the transitioning of film-to-nucleate boiling. The role of NCGs on explosion prevention was thereafter demonstrated more directly by introducing molten metal drops into water pools with and without NCG bubbling. Whereas spontaneous and energetic explosions took place without NCG injection, only benign quenching occurred in the presence of NCGs. Gravimetric analyses of organic coatings which are known to prevent explosion onset were also found to release significant NCGs during thermal attack by melt in the presence of water. These findings offer a novel, simple, cost-effective technique for deriving fundamental insights into melt-water explosions as well as for explosion prevention under most conditions of interest to metal casting, and possibly for nuclear reactor

  15. A new context for the nuclear research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Pascal Colombani, general administrator of the CEA, develops in this presentation the situation of the nuclear industry to introduce the new orientations of the CEA group. The energy context, the deregulation impacts, the energy dependence and the greenhouse effect project are discussed before the presentation of the research programs and the necessary reorganizing of the nuclear industry. (A.L.B.)

  16. Order of 30 March 1988 on licensing of gaseous radioactive effluent releases by the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the documents and information the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre must provide to the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) and lays down the permissible effluent release limits for the Centre [fr

  17. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  18. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, M.A.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  19. Health and safety record of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Carruthers, E.; Button, J.C.E.

    1975-09-01

    This paper examines the claim of the nuclear industry to have an excellent safety record, in terms of health and accident records of workers in the industry. It does not consider accidents which have not resulted in harm to the workers' health. The nuclear industry is considered to include all work with ionising radiations and radioactive materials, in education, research, medicine and industry. Since 'safety' is not an absolute concept, comparisons are made with the published records of other industries, and a study is made of the performance of the nuclear industry in relation to its own safety criteria. Data are presented on the radiation exposure of nuclear workers in Europe, America, India and Australia, in relation to the internationally recommended limits, and there is some discussion of the risks involved in these limits. The death rate in parts of the nuclear industry in America, the United Kingdom, and Australia is presented and compared with the death rate for other industries in those countries, and a listing is made of deaths caused by radiation in the period 1945 to 1968. Injury rates for the US and Australian nuclear industries are also compared with the injury rates for other industries in these countries. Consideration is given to the safety record of individual components of the nuclear industry (using the wide definition of this industry given above), special attention being given to health records of uranium miners, plutonium workers and radiologists. Although there are difficulties in obtaining sufficiently detailed information of this kind it is considered that the data presented, relative to any reasonable standard, demonstrate that the nuclear industry has a safety record to be proud of. (author)

  20. Business environment of nuclear power industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Young

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, there are total of 18 Nuclear Power Plants in operation as of the end of 2002 and 6 more plants are under construction. The first project for the Advanced Power Reactor (APR) 1400 nuclear power plant is being launched to provide reliable electricity economical competitiveness in Korea. The competitive business environment both globally and in Korea, where the power industry is undergoing significant restructuring, is requiring the Korean nuclear industry to continually improve the economic associated with nuclear power. Introduction of the APR 1400 design and continued improvement of local capabilities are two of the ways that the industry is responding to the challenge. (author)

  1. Development and issues of nuclear industry in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuangchi Liu

    1994-01-01

    Industrial and economic developments in Taiwan have achieved a so-called 'miracle' in the last decades. Endeavors by the private enterprise, prudent planning by the government, and the devoted efforts by the diligent and creative labor forces have been credited jointly with the result. To develop a sustainable nuclear industry in support of an efficient and safe power generation and other applications of nuclear energy in Taiwan, continuing efforts from the private industry, government and each individual of the nuclear industry will be required. In this paper, milestones of the past and major issues for future developments will be discussed

  2. Radiation safety in nuclear industry in retrospect and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    More than 30 years have passed since the starting up of nuclear industry in China from the early 1950's. Over the past 30-odd years, nuclear industry has always kept a good record in China thanks to the policy of 'quality first, safety first' clearly put forward for nuclear industry from the outset and a lot of suitable effective measures taken over that period. Internationally, there is rapid progress in radiation protection and nuclear safety (hereafter refereed to as radiation safety) and a number of new concepts in the field of radiation protection have been advanced. Nuclear industry is developing based on the international standardization. To ensure the further development of nuclear utility, radiation safety needs to be further strengthened

  3. Human performance in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Management of employees human performance in the Nuclear Industry is endemic to their safety when working. In the United Kingdom it has been a key focus since 2003. Employees were made aware through a detailed program of workshops, of the error prevention methods and how to apply them. The use of effective incident barriers became embedded in the safety culture. The methodology implemented was personal ownership, to enable self assessment of behaviors, attitudes and beliefs. When put in place, there are many specific barriers, which can reduce the chances of an error occurring. They come under the headings of organisational, procedural and physical barriers. All of these were used in some way and continue to be reinforced on a daily basis. Specific barriers are applied in specific situations. However, some general ones are also effective. In common use are the Take 2 or Take 5 Minutes, point of work risk assessments. Applying the human performance barrier Independent Verification (I.V.) would result in 'Take 3 and I.V.' This would independently double check the risk assessment. New ways of thinking are required to continuously improve and evolve. Results of the error reduction process included; reduced workload, increased plant reliability, efficiencies and productivity. (author)

  4. Human performance in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncz, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Management of employees human performance in the Nuclear Industry is endemic to their safety when working. In the United Kingdom it has been a key focus since 2003. Employees were made aware through a detailed program of workshops, of the error prevention methods and how to apply them. The use of effective incident barriers became embedded in the safety culture. The methodology implemented was personal ownership, to enable self assessment of behaviors, attitudes and beliefs. When put in place, there are many specific barriers, which can reduce the chances of an error occurring. They come under the headings of organisational, procedural and physical barriers. All of these were used in some way and continue to be reinforced on a daily basis. Specific barriers are applied in specific situations. However, some general ones are also effective. In common use are the Take 2 or Take 5 Minutes, point of work risk assessments. Applying the human performance barrier Independent Verification (I.V.) would result in 'Take 3 and I.V.' This would independently double check the risk assessment. New ways of thinking are required to continuously improve and evolve. Results of the error reduction process included; reduced workload, increased plant reliability, efficiencies and productivity. (author)

  5. Instilling professionalism in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, W.C.; Keeley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The American nuclear industry has implemented many technical changes in the past TMI decade. Equipment and facilities have been improved, procedures have been rewritten and refined, and operational personnel have bolstered their technical expertise. This paper reports that to place an increased focus upon professional -- the attitude, demeanor, and conscientiousness with which everyone conduct their jobs --- Westinghouse implemented the Conduct of Operations training program at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The program began by involving plant operations personnel in an intensive one-day training session using case studies to emphasize that it is people who determine the safety and effectiveness of our work environment. The case studies made it apparent that the human element is the factor common in all of these incidents. And, in these cases, when people became too removed from and/or complacent to automation, tragedy resulted. Finally, several organizations were explored in which a positive work culture and ethic is imbued so deeply and completely within the work force that it would be unthinkable to oppose the culture. Also, during the seminar session, work groups compiled their goals and values for good conduct of operations. In particular, each work group listed its standards for good conduct of operations as well as those factors necessary in the working environment to achieve their standard

  6. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  7. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  8. Thermophillic and thermotolerant fungi isolated from the thermal effluent of nuclear power generating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, J.W.; Gerhold, R.; Heath, M.

    1980-01-01

    Over a period of a year, samples of water, foam, microbial mat, soil and air were obtained from areas associated with the cooling canal of a nuclear power station. The seventeen sample sites included water in the cooling canal that was thermally enriched and soil and water adjacent to, up-stream, downstream and at a distance from the generator. Air samples were taken at the plant and at various disstances from the plant. Fifty-two species of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi were isolated. Of these, eleven species are grouped as opportunistic Mucorales or opportunistic Aspergillus sp. One veterinary pathogen was also isolated (Dactylaria gallopara). The opportunistic/pathogenic fungi were found primarily in the intake bay, the discharge bay and the cooling canal. Smaller numbers were obtained at both upstream and downstream locations. Soil samples near the cooling canal reflected an enrichment of thermophilous organisms, the previously mentioned opportunistic Mucorales and Aspergillus spp. Their numbers were found to be greater than that usually encountered in a mesophilic environment. However, air and soil samples taken at various distances from the power station indicated no greater abundance of these thermophilous fungi than would be expected from a thermal enriched environment. Our results indicate that there was no significant dissemination of thermophilous fungi from the thermal enriched effluents to the adjacent environment. These findings are consistent with the results of other investigators. (orig.)

  9. Analysis format and evaluation methods for effluent particle sampling systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    Airborne effluent sampling systems for nuclear facilities are frequently designed, installed, and operated without a systematic approach which discloses and takes into account all the circumstances and conditions which would affect the validity and adequacy of the sample. Without a comprehensive check list or something similar, the designer of the system may not be given the important information needed to provide a good design. In like manner, an already operating system may be better appraised. Furthermore, the discipline of a more formal approach may compel the one who will use the system to make sure he knows what he wants and can thus give the designer the needed information. An important consideration is the criteria to be applied to the samples to be taken. This analysis format consists of a listing of questions and statements calling forth the necessary information required to analyze a sampling system. With this information developed, one can proceed with an evaluation, the methodology of which is also discussed in the paper. Errors in probe placement, failure to sample at the proper rate, delivery line losses, and others are evaluated using mathematical models and empirically derived relationships. Experimental methods are also described for demonstrating that quality sampling will be achieved. The experiments include using a temporary, simple, but optimal sample collection system to evaluate the more complex systems. The use of tracer particles injected in the stream is also discussed. The samples obtained with the existing system are compared with those obtained by the temporary, optimal system

  10. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  11. Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

    2014-05-01

    Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent.

  12. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  13. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  14. The information of the nuclear industry before and during the nuclear debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, P.

    1978-10-01

    A review of the organization and resources for information and public relations, which the nuclear industry have at its disposal in Sweden as well as in other countries. Furthermore, pre-nuclear organizations in the Northern Countries, which are not financed by the nuclear industry are discussed. (E.R.)

  15. Decision making in the digital age: the nuclear industry response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, G. [Energy Group, Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Ten years ago, the consequences of a prolonged outage - or of choosing a costly alternative - could usually be recovered from the ratepayers without major difficulty. But today, as in the rest of industrial America, poorly crafted decisions have very real economic consequences. This paper discusses the decision making process within the nuclear industry in the age of industry deregulation.

  16. Decision making in the digital age: the nuclear industry response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Ten years ago, the consequences of a prolonged outage - or of choosing a costly alternative - could usually be recovered from the ratepayers without major difficulty. But today, as in the rest of industrial America, poorly crafted decisions have very real economic consequences. This paper discusses the decision making process within the nuclear industry in the age of industry deregulation

  17. Ecknomic benefits arising from the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This document is a collection of surveys of the Canadian nuclear industry, with forecasts covering a number of possible scenarios. Topics covered include uranium mining and processing; economic benefits arising from the design, manufacture and construction of CANDU generating stations; employment and economic activity in the Canadian nqclear industry; and an overview of the remainder of the industry

  18. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe_3O_4) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe_3O_4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe_3O_4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe_3O_4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of

  19. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok; Choi, Yoon-E; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  20. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-E, E-mail: yechoi@korea.ac.kr [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  1. Management of effluents and waste from pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Deschamps

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the management of solid waste and wastewater is a major concern for humanity. In the last decade, traces of pharmaceuticals have been reported in the water cycle and have raised concerns among regulators, water suppliers and the public regarding the potential risks to human health. This study evaluated solid waste management in the state of Minas Gerais and concluded that the main fate of hazardous waste has been incineration, while the non-hazardous waste has been recycled or sent to landfills. However, complaints to the Environmental Agency - FEAM have indicated that a significant number of companies just send their hazardous wastes to landfills or even to garbage dumps, thus highlighting the urgent need for adequate waste management in Minas Gerais. Most of the pharmaceutical companies in Minas Gerais use conventional wastewater treatment. Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS showed that the treatment routes adopted by the two 2 selected pharmaceutical industries were not effective enough since residues and degradation products of antibiotics were detected. The physicochemical analysis of the effluents showed variability in their characteristics, which may influence their treatability. The degradation assay with Fenton's reagent stood out as a promising route in achieving a higher removal capacity compared to the conventional treatment. This study contributes to enhancing our knowledge of the management of wastewater as well as of solid waste from the pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais and points out the need for further research.Atualmente, a gestão de resíduos sólidos e águas residuais é uma grande preocupação para a humanidade. Na ultima década, a detecção de traços de medicamentos no ciclo da água tem sido reportada e tem gerado preocupação entre os agentes reguladores, fornecedores de água e público devido os riscos potenciais para a saúde humana. As empresas farmacêuticas, em Minas Gerais

  2. Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjeev Kumar, S.; Kumar, M. Santosh [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Siddavattam, D. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Karegoudar, T.B., E-mail: goudartbk@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF was compared by free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells entrapped in PVA-alginate have shown more tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVA-alginate beads removed DMF even in the presence of other organic solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF from industrial effluents by PVA-alginate blended batch operations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of industrially feasible remediation strategy for DMF removal. - Abstract: Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF.

  3. Treatment of Radioactive Effluents at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre; Traitement des Effluents Radioactifs au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay; 041e 0414 ; Tratamiento de los Efluentes Radiactivos en el Centro de Energia Nuclear de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The Report Gives The Account Of Four Years' Experience In Operating The Treatment Plant For Effluents From The Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. It Contains Data Relating To The Origin, Volume And Treatment Of Waste. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente un bilan d'exploitation de l'installation de traitement des effluents du Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Saclay depuis quatre ans. On donne des chiffres concernant l'origine des residus, leur volume, leur traitement. (author) [Spanish] El autor hace un balance de explotacion de la instalacion de tratamiento de efluentes del centro de Saclay desde hace cuatro anos, dando las cifras correspondientes al origen de los residuos, a su volumen y a su tratamiento. (author) [Russian] V jetom dokumente podvoditsja itog chetyrehletnej jekspluatacii ustanovki po obrabotke zhidkih othotov v Centre jadernyh issledovanij v Sakle. V doklade privodjatsja dannye o proishozhdenii othodov, jh ob'eme i obrabotke. (author)

  4. Usage of industrial robots in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yoshio; Hamada, Kenjiro

    1982-01-01

    Japan is now at the top level in the world in robot technology.Its application to nuclear power field is one of the most expected. However, their usage spreads over various types of nuclear power plants, their manufacture and operation, and other areas such as fuel reprocessing plants and reactor plant decommissioning. The robots as used for the operation of BWR nuclear power plants, already developed and under development, are described: features in the nuclear-power usage of robots, the robots used currently for automatic fuel exchange, the replacement of control rod drives and in-service inspection; the robots under development for travelling inspection device and the inspection of main steam-relief safety valves, future development of robots. By robot usage, necessary personnel, work period and radiation exposure can be greatly reduced, and safety and reliability are also raised. (Mori, K.)

  5. Environmental effects from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Since 1969 several meetings have been convened to study the possibility of using high-level radiation in waste treatment. It was agreed that ionizing radiation offered some compromise as a feasible technology for a certain unique purpose, but economic considerations mitigated any overwhelming enthusiasm for early industrial realization. Recently a significant change has taken place in the world energy supply picture, and the expanded projection of nuclear power generation affects the analysis of comparative economic feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment of wastes. In addition, increased consideration of environmental quality not only calls for the re-evaluation of conventional waste treatment technologies, but also the development of more effective means where conventional methods might be unsatisfactory. As a result of several allied considerations, it was thought necessary and timely to review the status of research and development in the application of ionizing radiation to waste treatment and to consider the environmental implication of the proposed technology. Accordingly, the Symposium on the Use of High-Level Radiation in Waste Treatment - Status and Prospects was convened by the IAEA, in co-operation with the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau. Forty-eight papers were presented in eight sessions covering the current technology of waste-water treatment and re-use, radiosensitivity of micro-organisms, disinfection and microbiological control, physical and chemical modification of aqueous pollutants, technological and economic considerations, pilot-plant design and operating experiences, and radiation treatment of gaseous and solid wastes

  6. Status of the civilian nuclear industry in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Alexandre; Laconde, Thibault

    2011-01-01

    The main nuclear actors in Asia are China, South Korea, India and Japan. The authors indicate the share of nuclear energy in their energy mix, the number of operating reactors, the total installed power, and the number of projects. Then, for each of these four countries, and for Pakistan and Taiwan, they propose a brief history of the nuclear program and briefly present its current status. They also evoke the official reactions after the Fukushima accident. Finally, they briefly discuss some issues for the development of civilian nuclear industry in Asia: uranium supplies, nuclear waste processing, development of a national nuclear sector

  7. Standards development for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domondon, D.B.

    The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

  8. Bacterial bioluminescence response to long-term exposure to reverse osmosis treated effluents from dye industries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Francis, K.X.; ManiMurali, R.; Vethamony, P.

    essential and important in view of environmental pollution. Analysis of these effluents using physical and chemical methods is insufficient due to their complex nature and they may not reflect the biological effects (Coombe et al. 1999). In-vivo tests....K., and Duffy, L.K. 2007. Effects of total dissolved solids on aquatic organism: A review of literature and recommendation for salmonid species. Am. J Environ. Sci. 3: 1-6. 3. Coombe, V.T., Moore, K.W., and Hutchings, M.J. 1999. TIE and TRE: An abbreviated...

  9. Deeline and Fail: The ailing nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoler, P.

    1985-01-01

    Peter Stoler, a Time correspondent, believes that if the government had regulated the nuclear power industry more strictly instead of being so friendly to it, the industry would be better off today. But Stoler thinks the dying industry can and should be saved. Better management, learning from foreign experience plus more governmental concern with safety are the main prescriptions. Most of the book contains a detailed history of the industry

  10. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements

  11. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK)

  12. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-03-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK).

  13. A Study on Membrane Bioreactor for Water Reuse from the Effluent of Industrial Town Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the toxic effects of heavy metals and microbial pathogens in industrial wastewaters, it is necessary to treat metal and microbial contaminated wastewater prior to disposal in the environment. The purpose of this study is to assess the removal of heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination from a mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater using membrane bioreactor. Methods: A pilot study with a continuous stream was conducted using a 32-L-activated sludge with a flat sheet membrane. Actual wastewater from industrial wastewater treatment plant was used in this study. Membrane bioreactor was operated with a constant flow rate of 4 L/hr and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids concentration, six heavy metals concentration, and total coliform amounts were recorded during the operation. Results: High COD, suspended solids, heavy metals, and microbial contamination removal was measured during the experiment. The average removal percentages obtained by the MBR system were 81% for Al, 53% for Fe, 94% for Pb, 91% for Cu, 59% for Ni, and 49% for Cr which indicated the presence of Cu, Ni, and Cr in both soluble and particle forms in mixed liquor while Al, Fe, and Pb were mainly in particulate form. Also, coliforms in the majority of the samples were <140 MPN/100mL that showed that more than 99.9% of total coliform was removed in MBR effluent. Conclusion: The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR showed a good performance to remove heavy metals and microbial matters as well as COD and suspended solids. The effluent quality was suitable for reusing purposes.

  14. Bioprospecting of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) for bioremediation of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution and synthetic nuclear power reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashidhar, R.B.; Selvi, S. Kalaignana; Vinod, V.T.P.; Kosuri, Tanuja; Raju, D.; Karuna, R.

    2015-01-01

    An ecofriendly green chemistry method using a natural biopolymer, Gum Kondagogu (GK) for the removal of U (VI) from aqueous, simulated nuclear effluents was studied. The adsorption characteristic of GK towards U (VI) from aqueous solution was studied at varied pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial U (VI) concentration and temperature using UV–Visible spectroscopy and ICP-MS. Maximum adsorption was seen at pH 4, 0.1% GK with 60 min contact time at room temperature. The GK- U (VI) composite was characterized by FT-IR, zeta potential, TEM and SEM-EDAX. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be 487 mg of U (VI) g −1 of GK. The adsorption capacity and (%) of U (VI) was found to be 490 ± 5.4 mg g −1 and 98.5%. Moreover adsorption of U (VI) by GK was not influenced by other cations present in the simulated effluents. The adsorbed U (VI) was efficiently stripped from composite using 1 M HCl. - Highlights: • An eco-friendly method for removal of U (VI) from simulated nuclear effluents by Gum Kondagogu. • The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm indicated favourable adsorption. • The adsorption (%) of U (VI) by GK was found to be 98.5%. • Desorption studies on biosorbed metal ions showed that HCl was a good eluent

  15. Optimalisation of national industry participation in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana

    2008-01-01

    A study of national industry participation based on recent data has already been conducted. The current industry data is used to estimate the optimum level of national industry participation in nuclear power plant (NPP) construction based on the prior study. The purpose of the study is to give a figure of the optimum level of national industry participation in NPP construction. The scope of the study is the NPP construction project in related to the potency of national industry to participate in the project. The methodology used in the study are literature study, web surfing for industrial data, and on-the-spot industry survey that are potential to participate in NPP construction. In addition to that, discussion with expertise of industrial practitioner was also conducted. The study concludes that (1) based on the recent national industry capability provided and compared to prior similar study, it is estimated that the level of national industry participation in the first NPP construction with the capacity of 1000 MWe PWR is about 40%. (2) to accelerate NPP technology transfer, we need to build a small size NPP. The nuclear island will be developed by BATAN in cooperation with national industry and the non-nuclear island will be developed by national industry. Universities and other academicians should be involved to support and keep the sustainability of man power availability in developing the NPP technology. (author)

  16. French nuclear industry exportations: companies and organisations, achievements and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, V.; Pailler, S.; Miniere, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Journes, F.; Ouali, F.; Brochard, D.; Choho, T.; Lagarde, D.; Anglaret, P.; Kottman, G.; Mockly, D.; Ouzounian, G.; Cordier, P.Y.; Prenez, J.C.; Arpino, J.M.; Jaouen, C.; Jolly, B.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers a series of short articles in which the following players: French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Electricity of France (EdF), French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), AREVA, ALSTOM, the Association of French Nuclear Industry Exporters (AIFEN), the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and the French Society of Nuclear Energy (SFEN) present their competencies in their respective fields and their strategies and commercial offers for exports. 2 articles are dedicated to the achievements of the French nuclear industry in China and another details the cooperation between SFEN and its foreign counterparts. Another article briefly presents the EPR and ATMEA reactors. (A.C.)

  17. Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

    2008-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas.

  18. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl₂∙6H₂O and MgSO₄∙7H₂O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)₂ instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%.

  20. Derived release limits for radionuclides in airborne and liquid effluents for the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, A.E.

    1989-08-01

    Radionuclides released to the environment may cause external and internal radiation exposure to man via a number of potential pathways. The resulting radiation dose due to such releases from any operating facility must be kept below dose limits specified in the regulations issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. At the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), there is one primary source of liquid effluent to the Winnipeg River via the process water outfall. There are five sources of gaseous effluents: the WR-1 stack; the incinerator stack in the waste management area; the active laboratories building (including the hot cells); the Active-Liquid Waste Treatment Centre; and the compactor-baler in the Waste Management Area. This report presents the methodology and models used to calculate the maximum permissible release rates of radionuclides for each of these sources