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Sample records for nuclear independent particle

  1. Experimental evidence of independence of nuclear de-channeling length on the particle charge sign

    CERN Document Server

    Bagli, E; Mazzolari, A; Bandiera, L; Germogli, G; Sytov, A I; De Salvador, D; Berra, A; Prest, M; Vallazza, E

    2016-01-01

    Under coherent interactions, particles undergo correlated collisions with the crystal lattice and their motion result in confinement in the fields of atomic planes, i.e. particle channeling. Other than coherently interacting with the lattice, particles also suffer incoherent interactions with individual nuclei and may leave their bounded motion, i.e., they de-channel. This latter is the main limiting factor for applications of coherent interactions in crystal-assisted particle steering. We experimentally investigated the nature of dechanneling of 120 GeV/c $e^{-}$ and $e^{+}$ in a bent silicon crystal at H4-SPS external line at CERN. We found out that while channeling efficiency differs significantly for $e^{-}$ ($4\\pm2$ $\\%$) and $e^{+}$ ($53\\pm2$ $\\%$), their nuclear dechanneling length is comparable, $(0.7\\pm0.1)$ mm for $e^{-}$ and $(0.85\\pm0.15)$ mm for $e^{+}$. The experimental proof of the equality of the nuclear dechanneling length for positrons and electrons is interpreted in terms of similar dynamic...

  2. Nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear and Particle Physics provides an introductory course on nuclear and particle physics for undergraduate and early-graduate students, which the author has taught for several years at the University of Zurich. It contains fundamentals on both nuclear and particle physics, giving emphasis to the discovery and history of developments in the field, and is experimentally/phenomenologically oriented. It contains detailed derivations of formulae such as 2–3 body phase space, the Weinberg-Salam model, and neutrino scattering. Originally published in German as Kern- und Teilchenphysik, several sections have been added to this new English version to cover modern topics, including updates on neutrinos, the Higgs boson, the top quark and bottom quark physics.

  3. Particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 26 covers the significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of particle and nuclear physics. This volume is divided into four chapters, and begins with a brief overview of the various possible ideas beyond the standard model, the problem they address and their experimental tests. The next chapter deals with the basic physics of neutrino mass based on from a gauge theoretic point of view. This chapter considers the various extensions of the standard electroweak theory, along with their implications for neutrino physics. The discussio

  4. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  5. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  6. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battistoni G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  7. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  8. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  9. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  10. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2012-07-01

    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory - a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear reactions. The book concludes with a brief review of modern applications in medicine and fusion energy research. For reasons of conciseness and of the pedagogical aims of this volume, examples are mainly taken from low-energy installations such as tandem Van de Graaff laboratories, although the emphasis of present research is shifting to medium- and high-energy nuclear physics. Consequently, this volume is restricted to describing non-relativistic processes and focuses on the energy range from astrophysical energies (a few keV) to tens of MeV. It is further restricted to polarimetry of hadronic particles. (orig.)

  11. Independent Particles in a Dynamical Random Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Mathew; Seppäläinen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion of independent particles in a dynamical random environment on the integer lattice. The environment has a product distribution. For the multidimensional case, we characterize the class of spatially ergodic invariant measures. These invariant distributions are mixtures of inhomogeneous Poisson product measures that depend on the past of the environment, and we also investigate the correlations in this measure. For dimensions one and two, we also prove convergence to equilibrium from spatially ergodic initial distributions. In the one-dimensional situation we study fluctuations of net current seen by an observer traveling at a deterministic speed. When this current is centered by its quenched mean its limit distributions are the same as for classical independent particles.

  12. Foundations of nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, T William; Holstein, Barry R; Milner, Richard G; Surrow, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.

  13. A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Hugh E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.

  14. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  15. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  16. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Yaroshevich, O I; Perelygin, V P; Petrova, R I; Brandt, R; Vater, P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the alpha-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (gamma,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 sup - sup 6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical imag...

  17. Nuclear, particle and many body physics

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, Philip M; Feshbach, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear, Particle and Many Body Physics, Volume II, is the second of two volumes dedicated to the memory of physicist Amos de-Shalit. The contributions in this volume are a testament to the respect he earned as a physicist and of the warm and rich affection he commanded as a personal friend. The book contains 41 chapters and begins with a study on the renormalization of rational Lagrangians. Separate chapters cover the scattering of high energy protons by light nuclei; approximation of the dynamics of proton-neutron systems; the scattering amplitude for the Gaussian potential; Coulomb excitati

  18. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI, Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-01

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors have been produced in a novel technology. Unlike the normal single-crystal technology, there is no intrinsic limit to the surface on which these detectors can be produced. Detectors with areas up to about 1.5 cm{sup 2}, thicknesses from 30 to 600 {micro}m, and with single electrodes as well as microstrip and pixel contacts have been fabricated and successfully tested with photons in the range of 40--660 keV, {beta} particle`s emitted from a Sr-Y source, and high energy (100 GeV) muons. Results on both charge collection and counting efficiency are reported as well as some very preliminary imaging results. The experimental results on charge collection have been compared with simulation, and a combined {mu}{tau} product 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/V for electrons has been estimated.

  19. Nuclear Track Detectors. Searches for Exotic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2008-01-01

    We used Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) CR39 and Makrofol for many purposes: i) Exposures at the SPS and at lower energy accelerator heavy ion beams for calibration purposes and for fragmentation studies. ii) Searches for GUT and Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles (IMM), nuclearites, Q-balls and strangelets in the cosmic radiation. The MACRO experiment in the Gran Sasso underground lab, with ~1000 m^2 of CR39 detectors (plus scintillators and streamer tubes), established an upper limit for superheavy GUT poles at the level of 1.4x10^-16 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 for 4x10^-5 particles. iii) Environmental studies, radiation monitoring, neutron dosimetry.

  20. Transport of large particles released in a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R.; Toivonen, H.; Lahtinen, J.; Ilander, T.

    1995-10-01

    Highly radioactive particulate material may be released in a nuclear accident or sometimes during normal operation of a nuclear power plant. However, consequence analyses related to radioactive releases are often performed neglecting the particle nature of the release. The properties of the particles have an important role in the radiological hazard. A particle deposited on the skin may cause a large and highly non-uniform skin beta dose. Skin dose limits may be exceeded although the overall activity concentration in air is below the level of countermeasures. For sheltering purposes it is crucial to find out the transport range, i.e. the travel distance of the particles. A method for estimating the transport range of large particles (aerodynamic diameter d{sub a} > 20 {mu}m) in simplified meteorological conditions is presented. A user-friendly computer code, known as TROP, is developed for fast range calculations in a nuclear emergency. (orig.) (23 refs., 13 figs.).

  1. Trojan horse particle invariance: The impact on nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2014-05-01

    In the current picture of nuclear astrophysics indirect methods and, in particular, the Trojan Horse Method cover a crucial role for the measurement of charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest, in the energy range required by the astrophysical scenarios. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The key to the method is the quasi-free break-up and some of its properties will be investigated in the present work. In particular, the Trojan Horse nucleus invariance will be studied and previous studies will be extended to the cases of the binary d(d, p)t and 6Li(d,α)4He reactions, which were tested using different quasi-free break-up's, namely 6Li and 3He. The astrophysical S(E)-factor were then extracted with the Trojan Horse formalism applied to the two different break-up schemes and compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen spectator particle also for these reactions.

  2. Trojan horse particle invariance: The impact on nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Universitá di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN (Italy); Bertulani, C. A. [Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lamia, L.; Spartá, R. [Universitá di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Tumino, A. [Universitá Kore, Enna (Italy)

    2014-05-02

    In the current picture of nuclear astrophysics indirect methods and, in particular, the Trojan Horse Method cover a crucial role for the measurement of charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest, in the energy range required by the astrophysical scenarios. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The key to the method is the quasi-free break-up and some of its properties will be investigated in the present work. In particular, the Trojan Horse nucleus invariance will be studied and previous studies will be extended to the cases of the binary d(d, p)t and {sup 6}Li(d,α){sup 4}He reactions, which were tested using different quasi-free break-up's, namely {sup 6}Li and {sup 3}He. The astrophysical S(E)-factor were then extracted with the Trojan Horse formalism applied to the two different break-up schemes and compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen spectator particle also for these reactions.

  3. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  4. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik-Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna; Barik, Sailen; Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.

    2012-01-01

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington’s, Parkinson’s diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S). PMID:22504047

  5. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Barik, Sailen [Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shevde, Lalita A. [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Samant, Rajeev S., E-mail: rsamant@usouthal.edu [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2012-06-10

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S).

  6. Nuclear Dynamics at the Particle Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoneva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new low-energy modes of excitation called pygmy resonances have been observed. Their distinct feature is the close connection to nuclear skin oscillations. A successful description of the pygmy resonances could be achieved in a microscopic theoretical approach which incorporates the density functional theory and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom. The latter is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear electric and magnetic excitations at low energies. Corresponding microscopic multi-phonon response functions are implemented in the studies of s-process of nucleosynthesis.

  7. Nuclear Dynamics at the Particle Threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Tsoneva; Horst Lenske

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new low-energy modes of excitation called pygmy resonances have been observed. Their distinct feature is the close connection to nuclear skin oscillations. A successful description of the pygmy resonances could be achieved in a microscopic theoretical approach which incorporates the density functional theory and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom. The latter is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear electric and magnetic excitations at low energies. Corresponding microscopic multi-phonon response functions are implemented in the studies of s-process of nucleosynthesis.

  8. Particle production in antiproton induced nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The quantum molecular dynamics model has been improved to investigate the reaction dynamics induced by antiprotons. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca, $^{112}$Sn, $^{181}$Ta, $^{197}$Au and $^{238}$U from a low to high incident momentum. The rapidity and momentum distributions of $\\pi^{+}$ and protons from the LEAR measurements can be well reproduced. The impacts of system size and incident momentum on particle emissions are investigated from the inclusive spectra, transverse momentum and rapidity distributions. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the particle production. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions when the incident moment...

  9. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO particle nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M., E-mail: besmanntm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Stoller, R.E., E-mail: stollerre@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Samolyuk, G., E-mail: samolyukgd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Schuck, P.C., E-mail: schuckpc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Golubov, S.I., E-mail: golubovsi@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Rudin, S.P., E-mail: srudin@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wills, J.M., E-mail: jxw@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Coe, J.D., E-mail: jcoe@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wirth, B.D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States); Kim, S., E-mail: sungtae@cae.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Morgan, D.D., E-mail: ddmorgan@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Szlufarska, I., E-mail: izabela@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel, the fission product's attack on the SiC coating layer, as well as fission product diffusion through an alternative coating layer, ZrC. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  10. Meta-material for nuclear particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting strips coated with boron were engineered with a view to subnuclear particle detection. Combining the characteristics of boron as a generator of α-particles (as a consequence of neutron absorption) and the ability of superconducting strips to act as resistive switches, it is shown that fabricated Nb-boron and NbN-boron strips represent a promising basis for implementing neutron detection devices. In particular, the superconducting transition of boron-coated NbN strips generates voltage outputs of the order of a few volts thanks to the relatively higher normal state resitivity of NbN with respect to Nb. This result, combined with the relatively high transition temperature of NbN (of the order of 16 K for the bulk material), is an appealing prospect for future developments. The coated strips are meta-devices since their constituting material does not exist in nature and it is engineered to accomplish a specific task, i.e. generate an output voltage signal upon α-particle irradiation.

  11. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy.

  12. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particles counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors having areas between 0.01 to 100 cm{sup 2} and thicknesses 30 to 600 microns, have been fabricated with single, linear strip and square pixel contact. The large area detectors 10 to 600 cm{sup 2} were produced by industrial ceramic equipment while the smaller ones, about 1 cm{sup 2} area, were produced in the laboratory. The large detectors still had large leakage currents and the production process is being revised. The smaller detectors were tested and their response to lower and higher gamma energy, beta and even 100 GeV muons at CERN will be reported.

  13. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  14. The Giant Impact Simulations with Density Independent Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosono, Natsuki; Makino, Junichiro; Genda, Hidenori; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    At present, the giant impact (GI) is the most widely accepted model for the origin of the Moon. Most of the numerical simulations of GI have been carried out with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that standard formulation of SPH (SSPH) has difficulties in the treatment of a contact discontinuity such as a core-mantle boundary and a free surface such as a planetary surface. This difficulty comes from the assumption of differentiability of density in SSPH. We have developed an alternative formulation of SPH, density independent SPH (DISPH), which is based on differentiability of pressure instead of density to solve the problem of a contact discontinuity. In this paper, we report the results of the GI simulations with DISPH and compare them with those obtained with SSPH. We found that the disk properties, such as mass and angular momentum produced by DISPH is different from that of SSPH. In general, the disks formed by DISPH are more compact: while form...

  15. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  16. The giant impact simulations with density independent smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Natsuki; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro; Genda, Hidenori; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    At present, the giant impact (GI) is the most widely accepted model for the origin of the Moon. Most of the numerical simulations of GI have been carried out with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that standard formulation of SPH (SSPH) has difficulties in the treatment of a contact discontinuity such as a core-mantle boundary and a free surface such as a planetary surface. This difficulty comes from the assumption of differentiability of density in SSPH. We have developed an alternative formulation of SPH, density independent SPH (DISPH), which is based on differentiability of pressure instead of density to solve the problem of a contact discontinuity. In this paper, we report the results of the GI simulations with DISPH and compare them with those obtained with SSPH. We found that the disk properties, such as mass and angular momentum produced by DISPH is different from that of SSPH. In general, the disks formed by DISPH are more compact: while formation of a smaller mass moon for low-oblique impacts is expected with DISPH, inhibition of ejection would promote formation of a larger mass moon for high-oblique impacts. Since only the improvement of core-mantle boundary significantly affects the properties of circumplanetary disks generated by GI and DISPH has not been significantly improved from SSPH for a free surface, we should be very careful when some conclusions are drawn from the numerical simulations for GI. And it is necessary to develop the numerical hydrodynamical scheme for GI that can properly treat the free surface as well as the contact discontinuity.

  17. Confocal Scanner for Vertical Particle Tracks in the Nuclear Photoemulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Soroko, L M

    2005-01-01

    A confocal scanner for selective observation of the vertical particle tracks in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. The particle track being searched for is imaging at an angle of 45$^\\circ$ with respect to the optical axis of the system. The confocal scanner is provided with a new optical element, an "image hogonalizator", by means of which the extended image of the inclined vertical particle track is rotated over an angle of 90$^\\circ$. The stereoscopic version of the confocal scanner is presented as well. The described systems will be used in the experiments for investigation of the neutrino oscillations in the accelerators experiments.

  18. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R&D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  19. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  20. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    2000-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by C. Rubbia and his group is a subcritical system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other application domains (radioactive isotopes production for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  1. Model independence of constraints on particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, K.; Sadoulet, B.

    1989-03-01

    The connection between the annihilation, elastic, and production cross sections is reviewed, showing how a general lower limit on the interaction rate in a detector is obtained from the requirement that a particle be the dark matter. High energy production experiments further constrain models, making very light dark matter particles unlikely. Special attention is paid to the uncertainties, loopholes and model dependencies that go into the arguments and several examples are given. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watanabe, Takehito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaja, A.I.; Kievets, M.K.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the {alpha}-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and ({gamma},f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10{sup -6} Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical image of the SSNTD surface obtained through a video camera and the determination of size and activity of 'hot' particles00.

  4. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  5. Relativistic, model-independent, three-particle quantization condition

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maxwell T

    2013-01-01

    This is a combined write-up for two talks which were given consecutively and which described different aspects of the same topic. We present a generalization of L\\"uscher's relation between the finite-volume spectrum and S-matrix to three particles. Specifically, we consider a scalar field theory, which has a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry that prevents even/odd coupling. The theory is assumed to have no two-particle bound states and to have two-particle phase shifts that are bounded by $\\pi/2$ in the regime of elastic scattering. Considering center of mass energies between one and five particle masses, we evaluate a three-to-three finite-volume correlator to all orders in perturbation theory. Only terms which are exponentially suppressed in volume are neglected. From poles in the correlator we then determine the relation between finite-volume spectrum and scattering quantities. In this analysis one must carefully treat the unitary cusp at two-particle threshold. This point, which was neglected in the conference tal...

  6. Data analysis techniques for nuclear and particle physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Pruneau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    This is an advanced data analysis textbook for scientists specializing in the areas of particle physics, nuclear physics, and related subfields. As a practical guide for robust, comprehensive data analysis, it focuses on realistic techniques to explain instrumental effects. The topics are relevant for engineers, scientists, and astroscientists working in the fields of geophysics, chemistry, and the physical sciences. The book serves as a reference for more senior scientists while being eminently accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

  7. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  8. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  9. Orbital polarization and magnetization for independent particles in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Formulas for the contribution of the conduction electrons to the polarization and magnetization are derived for disordered systems and within a one-particle framework. These results generalize known formulas for Bloch electrons and the presented proofs considerably simplify and strengthen prior justifications. The new formulas show that orbital polarization and magnetization are of geometric nature. This leads to quantization for a periodically driven Piezo effect as well as the derivative of the magnetization w.r.t. the chemical potential. It is also shown how the latter is connected to boundary currents in Chern insulators. The main technical tools in the proofs are an adaption of Nenciu's super-adiabatic theory to C$^*$-dynamical systems and Bellissard's Ito derivatives w.r.t. the magnetic field.

  10. On the momentum distribution of particles participating in nuclear stopping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Kaur; Suneel Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear stopping is studied as a function of incident energy and charge of the fragment produced in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) of $^{197}_{79}$Au+$^{197}_{79}$Au and $^{58}_{28}$Ni+$^{58}_{28}$Ni using stopping parameter VARXZ. Various momentum constraints were imposed to get better insight into the stopping. The comparison of measured and calculated values of stopping for protons reveals the significance of these constraints. Maximum stopping is obtained for the particles lying in the lowest range of the momentum distribution at all incident energies.

  11. Group theory in particle, nuclear, and hadron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    2016-01-01

    This user-friendly book on group theory introduces topics in as simple a manner as possible and then gradually develops those topics into more advanced ones, eventually building up to the current state-of-the-art. By using simple examples from physics and mathematics, the advanced topics become logical extensions of ideas already introduced. In addition to being used as a textbook, this book would also be useful as a reference guide for graduates and researchers in particle, nuclear and hadron physics.

  12. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...

  13. Spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles repeatedly cycle through Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, David; Pridalová-Hnilicová, Jarmila; Novotný, Ivan; Huranová, Martina; Blazíková, Michaela; Wen, Xin; Sapra, Aparna K; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2008-06-01

    The Cajal body (CB) is a nuclear structure closely associated with import and biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). Here, we tested whether CBs also contain mature snRNPs and whether CB integrity depends on the ongoing snRNP splicing cycle. Sm proteins tagged with photoactivatable and color-maturing variants of fluorescent proteins were used to monitor snRNP behavior in living cells over time; mature snRNPs accumulated in CBs, traveled from one CB to another, and they were not preferentially replaced by newly imported snRNPs. To test whether CB integrity depends on the snRNP splicing cycle, two human orthologues of yeast proteins involved in distinct steps in spliceosome disassembly after splicing, hPrp22 and hNtr1, were depleted by small interfering RNA treatment. Surprisingly, depletion of either protein led to the accumulation of U4/U6 snRNPs in CBs, suggesting that reassembly of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP was delayed. Accordingly, a relative decrease in U5 snRNPs compared with U4/U6 snRNPs was observed in CBs, as well as in nuclear extracts of treated cells. Together, the data show that particular phases of the spliceosome cycle are compartmentalized in living cells, with reassembly of the tri-snRNP occurring in CBs.

  14. Nonmesonic weak decay of Lambda-hypernuclei within independent-particle shell-model

    CERN Document Server

    Krmpotić, Franjo; Hussein, Mahir S

    2012-01-01

    After a short introduction to the nonmesonic weak decay (NMWD) $\\Lambda N\\go nN$ of $\\Lambda$-hypernuclei we discuss the long-standing puzzle on the ratio $\\Gamma_n/\\Gamma_p$, and some recent experimental evidences that signalized towards its final solution. Two versions of the Independent-Particle-Shell-Model (IPSM) are employed to account for the nuclear structure of the final residual nuclei. They are: (a) IPSM-a, where no correlation, except for the Pauli principle, is taken into account, and (b) IPSM-b, where the highly excited hole states are considered to be quasi-stationary and are described by Breit-Wigner distributions, whose widths are estimated from the experimental data. We evaluate the coincidence spectra in $^{4}_\\Lambda$He, $^{5}_\\Lambda$He, $^{12}_\\Lambda$C, $^{16}_\\Lambda$O, and $^{28}_\\Lambda$Si, as a function of the sum of kinetic energies $E_{nN}=E_n+E_N$ for $N=n,p$. The recent Brookhaven National Laboratory experiment E788 on $^4_\\Lambda$He, is interpreted within the IPSM . We found tha...

  15. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  16. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  17. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  18. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-02

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year.

  19. Viscous Particle Breakup within a Cooling Nuclear Fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reid, J. D. [Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Following the surface detonation of a nuclear weapon, the Earth’s crust and immediate surroundings are drawn into the fireball and form melts. Fallout is formed as these melts incorporate radioactive material from the bomb vapor and cool rapidly. The resultant fallout plume and dispersion of radioactive contamination is a function of several factors including weather patterns and fallout particle shapes and size distributions. Accurate modeling of the size distributions of fallout forms an important data point for dispersion codes that calculate the aerial distribution of fallout. While morphological evidence for aggregation of molten droplets is well documented in fallout glass populations, the breakup of these molten droplets has not been similarly studied. This study documents evidence that quenched fallout populations preserve evidence of molten breakup mechanisms.

  20. Alpha particle clusters and their condensation in nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter; Funaki, Yasuro; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Röpke, Gerd; Tohsaki, Akihiro; Yamada, Taiichi

    2016-12-01

    In this article we review the present status of α clustering in nuclear systems. First of all, an important aspect is condensation in nuclear matter. Like for pairing, quartetting in matter is at the root of similar phenomena in finite nuclei. Cluster approaches for finite nuclei are shortly recapitulated in historical order. The α container model, recently been proposed by Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR), will be outlined and the ensuing condensate aspect of the Hoyle state at 7.65 MeV in 12C is investigated in some detail. A special case will be made with respect to the very accurate reproduction of the inelastic form factor from the ground to Hoyle state with the THSR description. The extended volume will be deduced. New developments concerning excitations of the Hoyle state will be discussed. After 15 years since the proposal of the α condensation concept a critical assessment of this idea will be given. Alpha gas states in other nuclei like 16O and 13C will be considered. An important aspect is the experimental evidence, both present and future ones. The THSR wave function can also describe configurations of one α particle on top of a doubly magic core. The cases of 20Ne and 212Po will be investigated.

  1. Particle number scale invariant feature of the states around the critical point of the first order nuclear shape phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We study systematically the evolutive behaviors of some energy ratios,E2 transition rate ratios and isomer shift in the nuclear shape phase transitions.We find that the quantities sensitive to the phase transition and independent of free parameter(s) are approximately particle number N scale invariant around the critical point of the first order phase transition,similar to that in the second order phase transition.

  2. Particle number scale invariant feature of the states around the critical point of the first order nuclear shape phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HOU ZhanFeng; LIU YuXin

    2009-01-01

    We study systematically the evolutive behaviors of some energy ratios,E2 transition rate ratios and Isomer shift in the nuclear shape phase transitions.We find that the quantities sensitive to the phase transition and independent of free parameter(s) are approximately particle number N scale invariant around the critical point of the first order phase transition,similar to that in the second order phase transition.

  3. SPOUTED BED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR COATED NUCLEAR FUEL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated nuclear fuel particles embedded in a carbon-graphite fuel body. TRISO coatings consist of four layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide that are deposited on uranium ceramic fuel kernels (350µm – 500µm diameters) in a concatenated series of batch depositions. Each layer has dedicated functions such that the finished fuel particle has its own integral containment to minimize and control the release of fission products into the fuel body and reactor core. The TRISO coatings are the primary containment structure in the HTGR reactor and must have very high uniformity and integrity. To ensure high quality TRISO coatings, the four layers are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using high purity precursors and are applied in a concatenated succession of batch operations before the finished product is unloaded from the coating furnace. These depositions take place at temperatures ranging from 1230°C to 1550°C and use three different gas compositions, while the fuel particle diameters double, their density drops from 11.1 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3, and the bed volume increases more than 8-fold. All this is accomplished without the aid of sight ports or internal instrumentation that could cause chemical contamination within the layers or mechanical damage to thin layers in the early stages of each layer deposition. The converging section of the furnace retort was specifically designed to prevent bed stagnation that would lead to unacceptably high defect fractions and facilitate bed circulation to avoid large variability in coating layer dimensions and properties. The gas injection nozzle was designed to protect precursor gases from becoming overheated prior to injection, to induce bed spouting and preclude bed stagnation in the bottom of the retort. Furthermore, the retort and injection nozzle designs minimize buildup of pyrocarbon and silicon carbide on the

  4. 78 FR 40200 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel...) for an exemption request submitted by Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, on August 13, 2012 for the Oconee Nuclear Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSI). ] ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  5. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Moshe [LNS at Avery Point, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340-6097, USA and Wright Lab, Dept. of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8124 and the Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) of the Technical Design Report (TDR) (United States)

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  6. Nuclear localization of Rad51B is independent of BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K A; Hinz, J M; Yamada, A; Thompson, L H; Albala, J S

    2005-06-28

    Human Rad51 is critical for the maintenance of genome stability through its role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Rad51B (Rad51L1/hRec2) is one of the five known paralogs of human Rad51 found in a multi-protein complex with three other Rad51 paralogs, Rad51C, Rad51D and Xrcc2. Examination of EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in HeLa S3 cells and immunofluorescence in several human cell lines confirms the nuclear localization of Rad51B. This is the first report to detail putative interactions of a Rad51 paralog protein with BRCA2. Utilization of a BRCA2 mutant cell line, CAPAN-1 suggests that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of BRCA2. Although both Rad51B and BRCA2 are clearly involved in the homologous recombinational repair pathway, Rad51B and BRCA2 do not appear to associate directly. Furthermore, mutations in the KKLK motif of Rad51B, amino acid residues 4-7, mislocalizes Rad51B to the cytoplasm suggesting that this is the nuclear localization signal for the Rad51B protein. Examination of wild-type EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in mammalian cells deficient in Rad51C showed that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of Rad51C; further suggesting that Rad51B, like Rad51C, contains its own nuclear localization signal.

  7. Chitin particles induce size-dependent but carbohydrate-independent innate eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogiso, Mari; Nishiyama, Akihito; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Masataka; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Misawa, Yoshinori; Guinet, Elisabeth; Nouri-Shirazi, Mahyar; Dorey, C. Kathleen; Henriksen, Ruth Ann; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    Murine Mφ that phagocytose CMP develop into M1; this response depends on the size and the chemical composition of the particles. In contrast, recent studies concluded that chitin particles induce M2 and eosinophil migration, promoting acquired Th2 immune responses against chitin-containing microbes or allergens. This study examined whether these apparently inconsistent responses to chitin could be induced by variation in the size and chemical composition of the chitin particles. We compared the responses of Mφ with CMP, LCB, and Sephadex G-100 beads (>40 μm). Beads were given i.p. to WT mice and to mice deficient in a CRTH2, a receptor for the eosinophil chemoattractant PGD2. In contrast to the M1 activation induced by CMP, i.p. administration of LCB or Sephadex beads induced within 24 h a CRTH2-dependent peritoneal eosinophilia, as well as CRTH2-independent activation of peritoneal Mφ that expressed Arg I, an M2 phenotype. LCB-induced Mφ exhibited elevated Arg I and a surface MR, reduced surface TLR2 levels, and no change in the levels of CHI3L1 or IL-10 production. Our results indicate that the effects of chitin in vivo are highly dependent on particle size and that large, nonphagocytosable beads, independent of their chemical composition, induce innate eosinophilia and activate Mφ expressing several M2, but not M1, phenotypes. PMID:21447645

  8. Nuclear export signal-interacting protein forms complexes with lamin A/C-Nups to mediate the CRM1-independent nuclear export of large hepatitis delta antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Jiang, Jia-Yin; Chang, Shin C; Tsay, Yeou-Guang; Chen, Mei-Ru; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2013-02-01

    Nuclear export is an important process that not only regulates the functions of cellular factors but also facilitates the assembly of viral nucleoprotein complexes. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) that mediates the transport of proteins bearing the classical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) is the best-characterized nuclear export receptor. Recently, several CRM1-independent nuclear export pathways were also identified. The nuclear export of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L), a nucleocapsid protein of hepatitis delta virus (HDV), which contains a CRM1-independent proline-rich NES, is mediated by the host NES-interacting protein (NESI). The mechanism of the NESI protein in mediating nuclear export is still unknown. In this study, NESI was characterized as a highly glycosylated membrane protein. It interacted and colocalized well in the nuclear envelope with lamin A/C and nucleoporins. Importantly, HDAg-L could be coimmunoprecipitated with lamin A/C and nucleoporins. In addition, binding of the cargo HDAg-L to the C terminus of NESI was detected for the wild-type protein but not for the nuclear export-defective HDAg-L carrying a P205A mutation [HDAg-L(P205A)]. Knockdown of lamin A/C effectively reduced the nuclear export of HDAg-L and the assembly of HDV. These data indicate that by forming complexes with lamin A/C and nucleoporins, NESI facilitates the CRM1-independent nuclear export of HDAg-L.

  9. Celebrating 40 years of research in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Colin D.; Martin, Alan D.; Schwenk, Achim

    2015-09-01

    2015 marks the 40th anniversary of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. This editorial provides a brief history of the journal, and introduces a unique collection of invited articles from leading authors to celebrate the occasion.

  10. Development of a utility system for charged particle nuclear reaction data by using intelligentPad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Faculty of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF2, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the IntelligentPad architecture. By using the system, we can search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction of NRDF. Furthermore, we also see the experimental data by using graphic pads which was made through the CONTIP project. (author)

  11. Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng

    2016-03-01

    Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η(+) to a lower bound η(-) when Γ increases from 0 to ∞. It is found that the η(+) values for all three systems are bounded by η(C)/2 ≤ η(+) ≤ η(C)/(2-η(C)) due to strong coupling, where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: η(CA)=1-sqrt[1-η(C)]. When Γ → ∞, the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η(-)=η(C)/[1+a(0)(2-η(C))].

  12. Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng

    2016-03-01

    Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η+ to a lower bound η- when Γ increases from 0 to ∞ . It is found that the η+ values for all three systems are bounded by ηC/2 ≤η+≤ηC/(2 -ηC ) due to strong coupling, where ηC is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: ηCA=1 -√{1 -ηC } . When Γ →∞ , the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η-=ηC/[1 +a0(2 -ηC ) ] .

  13. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase–independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gaurav N.; Goetjen, Alexandra M.; Knecht, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  14. Experimental wrap-up: p ( d ) A — particle production and nuclear modification factors

    CERN Document Server

    Morsch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions was held in November 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa. This contribution is a summary of the results presented on particle production and nuclear modification factors in p–A like collisions.

  15. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  16. Nuclear export and import of human hepatitis B virus capsid protein and particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available It remains unclear what determines the subcellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein (HBc and particles. To address this fundamental issue, we have identified four distinct HBc localization signals in the arginine rich domain (ARD of HBc, using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and fractionation/Western blot analysis. ARD consists of four tight clustering arginine-rich subdomains. ARD-I and ARD-III are associated with two co-dependent nuclear localization signals (NLS, while ARD-II and ARD-IV behave like two independent nuclear export signals (NES. This conclusion is based on five independent lines of experimental evidence: i Using an HBV replication system in hepatoma cells, we demonstrated in a double-blind manner that only the HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV, among a total of 15 ARD mutants, can predominantly localize to the nucleus. ii These results were confirmed using a chimera reporter system by placing mutant or wild type HBc trafficking signals in the heterologous context of SV40 large T antigen (LT. iii By a heterokaryon or homokaryon analysis, the fusion protein of SV40 LT-HBc ARD appeared to transport from nuclei of transfected donor cells to nuclei of recipient cells, suggesting the existence of an NES in HBc ARD. This putative NES is leptomycin B resistant. iv We demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that HBc ARD can physically interact with a cellular factor TAP/NXF1 (Tip-associated protein/nuclear export factor-1, which is known to be important for nuclear export of mRNA and proteins. Treatment with a TAP-specific siRNA strikingly shifted cytoplasmic HBc to nucleus, and led to a near 7-fold reduction of viral replication, and a near 10-fold reduction in HBsAg secretion. v HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV was accumulated predominantly in the nucleus in a mouse model by hydrodynamic delivery. In addition to the revised map of NLS, our results suggest that HBc could shuttle rapidly between nucleus and cytoplasm via a novel

  17. The Dependence of Average Multiplicity of Produced Charged Particles on Interacting Projectile Nucleons in Nuclear Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present articles an attempt has been made for the determination of multiplicity distributions of the secondary charged particles produced in the central region of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Due to sophisticated measurement in the nuclear emulsion experiment only some particles having special criteria could be selected as central collision events with consenting accuracy.

  18. Nuclear planetology: understanding planetary mantle and crust formation in the light of nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Goetz

    2017-04-01

    conceptual model constraining the evolution of a rocky planet like Earth or Mercury from a stellar precursor of the oldest population to a Fe-C BLD, shifting through different spectral classes in a HR diagram after massive decompression and tremendous energy losses. In the light of WD/BLD cosmochronology [1], solar system bodies like Earth, Mercury and Moon are regarded as captured interlopers from the Galactic bulge, Earth and Moon possibly representing remnants of an old binary system. Such a preliminary scenario is supported by similar ages obtained from WD's for the Galactic halo [1] and, independently, by means of 187Re-232Th-238U nuclear geochronometry [3, 4], together with recent observations extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way [8]. This might be further elucidated in the near future by Th/U cosmochronometry based upon a nuclear production ratio Th/U = 0.96 [9] and additionally by means of a newly developed nucleogeochronometric age dating method for stellar spectroscopy [9-11]. The model shall stimulate geochemical data interpretation from a different perspective, to constrain the evolution and differentiation of planetary or lunar crusts and mantles in general. [1] Fontaine et al. (2001), Public. Astron. Soc. of the Pacific 113, 409-435. [2] Roller (2015), Abstract T34B-0407, AGU Spring Meeting 2015. [3] Roller (2016), Goldschmidt Conf. Abstr. 26, 2642. [4] Roller (2015), Goldschmidt Conf. Abstr. 25, 2672. [5] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 18, EGU2016-33. [6] Arevalo et al. (2010), Chem. Geol. 271, 70-85. [7] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-2399. [8] Howes et al. (2015), Nature 527, 484-487. [9] Roller (2016), JPS Conf. Proc., Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC XIV), Niigata, Japan, subm. (NICXIV-001); NICXIV Abstr. #1570244284. [10] Roller (2016), JPS Conf. Proc., Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC XIV), Niigata, Japan, subm. (NICXIV-002); NICXIV Abstr. #1570244285. [11] Roller (2016), JPS Conf. Proc., Nuclei in the

  19. Nuclear single-particle states: dynamical shell model and energy density functional methods

    CERN Document Server

    Bortignon, P F; Sagawa, H

    2010-01-01

    We discuss different approaches to the problem of reproducing the observed features of nuclear single-particle (s.p.) spectra. In particular, we analyze the dominant energy peaks, and the single-particle strength fragmentation, using the example of neutron states in 208Pb. Our main emphasis is the interpretation of that fragmentation as due to particle-vibration coupling (PVC). We compare with recent Energy Density Functional (EDF) approaches, and try to present a critical perspective.

  20. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  1. Nuclear Waste Removal Using Particle Beams Incineration with Fast Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    1997-01-01

    The management of nuclear waste is one of the major obstacles to the acceptability of nuclear power as a main source of energy for the future. TARC, a new experiment at CERN, is testing the practicality of Carlo Rubbia's idea to make use of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing to transmute long-lived fission fragments into short-lived or stable nuclides. Spallation neutrons produced in a large Lead assembly have a high probability to be captured at the energies of cross-section resonances in elements such as 99Tc, 129I, etc. An accelerator-driven sub-critical device using Thorium (Energy Amplifier) would be very effective in eliminating TRansUranic elements which constitute the most dangerous part of nuclear waste while producing from it large amounts of energy. In addition, such a system could transform, at a high rate and little energetic cost, long-lived fission fragments into short-lived elements.

  2. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States); Bridges, Lance C., E-mail: bridgesl@ecu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States); East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion.

  3. Interaction domains and nuclear targeting signals in subunits of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-associated splicing factor SF3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Jung; Ferfoglia, Fabio; Raleff, Flore; Krämer, Angela

    2011-04-15

    Human splicing factor SF3a is a component of the mature U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) and its three subunits of 60, 66, and 120 kDa are essential for splicing in vitro and in vivo. The SF3a heterotrimer forms in the cytoplasm and enters the nucleus independently of the U2 snRNP. Here, we have analyzed domains required for in vitro interactions between the SF3a subunits. Our results indicate that the SF3a66-SF3a120 interaction is mediated by a 27-amino acid region in SF3a120 C-terminal to the second suppressor-of-white-apricot and prp21/spp91 domain and amino acids 108-210 of SF3a66. Neither of these sequences contains known structural motifs, suggesting that the interaction domains are novel. Moreover, an ∼100-amino acid region, including the SURP2 domain of SF3a120 but extending into neighboring regions, is sufficient for binding to SF3a60. Analysis of determinants for nuclear import of SF3a demonstrates that SF3a120 provides the major nuclear localization signal and SF3a60 contributes to nuclear import.

  4. Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarteau, M.; Lipton, R.; Nicholson, H.; Shipsey, I.

    2016-10-01

    Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. This symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.

  5. Tracing airborne particles after Japan's nuclear plant explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2011-11-01

    The powerful Tohoku earthquake and consequent tsunami that occurred off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 devastated dozens of coastal cities and towns, causing the loss of more than 15,000 lives and leaving close to 4000 people still missing. Although nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, located on the Pacific coast, stopped their operation automatically upon the occurrence of the Mw 9.0 quake [Showstack, 2011], the cooling system for nuclear fuel broke down. From 12 to 16 March, vapor and hydrogen blasts destroyed the buildings that had contained the reactors, resulting in the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials such as sulfur-35, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137, which collectively can cause harmful health effects such as tissue damage and increased risk of cancer (particularly in children), depending on dose. Most of those materials emitted from the power plant rained out onto the grounds within its vicinity and forced tens of thousands within a 20-kilometer radius to evacuate (residents to the northwest of the site within about 40 kilometers also were moved from their homes). Some of the radioactive materials were transported and then detected at such distant locations as North America and Europe, although the level of radiation dose was sufficiently low not to affect human health in any significant manner.

  6. β-Amyloid induces nuclear protease-mediated lamin fragmentation independent of caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Vijay Sankar; Islam, Md Imamul; Haque, Md Aminul; Shin, Song Yub; Park, Il-Seon

    2016-06-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ), a hallmark peptide of Alzheimer's disease, induces both caspase-dependent apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death. In this study, we examined caspase-independent non-apoptotic cell death preceding caspase activation in Aβ42-treated cells. We first determined the optimal treatment conditions for inducing cell death without caspase activation and selected a double-treatment method involving the incubation of cells with Aβ42 for 4 and 6 h (4+6 h sample). We observed that levels of lamin A (LA) and lamin B (LB) were reduced in the 4+6 h samples. This reduction was decreased by treatment with suc-AAPF-CMK, an inhibitor of nuclear scaffold (NS) protease, but not by treatment with z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. In addition, suc-AAPF-CMK decreased the changes in nuclear morphology observed in cells in the 4+6 h samples, which were different from nuclear fragmentation observed in STS-treated cells. Furthermore, suc-AAPF-CMK inhibited cell death in the 4+6 h samples. LA and LB fragmentation occurred in the isolated nuclei and was also inhibited by suc-AAPF-CMK. Together, these data indicated that the fragmentation of LA and LB in the Aβ42-treated cells was induced by an NS protease, whose identity is not clearly determined yet. A correlation between Aβ42 toxicity and the lamin fragmentation by NS protease suggests that inhibition of the protease could be an effective method for controlling the pathological process of AD.

  7. Mapping regions in Ste5 that support Msn5-dependent and -independent nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Wang, Yunmei; Yu, Lu; Mahanty, Sanjoy K; Mendoza, Natalia; Elion, Elaine A

    2016-04-01

    Careful control of the available pool of the MAPK scaffold Ste5 is important for mating-pathway activation and the prevention of inappropriate mating differentiation in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ste5 shuttles constitutively through the nucleus, where it is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism triggered by G1 CDK phosphorylation. Here we narrow-down regions of Ste5 that mediate nuclear export. Four regions in Ste5 relocalize SV40-TAgNLS-GFP-GFP from nucleus to cytoplasm. One region is N-terminal, dependent on exportin Msn5/Ste21/Kap142, and interacts with Msn5 in 2 hybrid assays independently of mating pheromone, Fus3, Kss1, Ptc1, the NLS/PM, and RING-H2. A second region overlaps the PH domain and Ste11 binding site and 2 others are on the vWA domain and include residues essential for MAPK activation. We find no evidence for dependence on Crm1/Xpo1, despite numerous potential nuclear export sequences (NESs) detected by LocNES and NetNES1.1 predictors. Thus, Msn5 (homolog of human Exportin-5) and one or more exportins or adaptor molecules besides Crm1/Xpo1 may regulate Ste5 through multiple recognition sites.

  8. Neutron-activation analysis of hot particles from the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyul`, A.Yu.; Kolesov, G.M.; Cherkezyan, V.O. [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-04-10

    A considerable portion of the radioactive contamination of the surface layers of soil after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was caused by hot particles or aggregates with a diameter of several tens microns and a specific activity >n{center_dot}10{sup {minus}11} Ci. They consist of primary particles of the dispersed material of the nuclear fuel and secondary particles formed as a result of the interaction of the fuel and uranium fission products with the structural materials of the reactor and the destroyed active zone. The radionuclide composition of the hot particles characterizes the nuclear fuel used and the temperature conditions in the reactor during the first weeks after the accident and their chemical composition reflects the conditions and processes leading to their formation, which must be known in order; to ascertain the mechanism of the formation of the radioactive emission from the reactor and to evaluate the degree of ecological danger posed by the particles. All this promotes the urgency and importance of studying the radiation-chemical characteristics of such hot particles. Their small sizes and masses impose definite restrictions; on the investigative methods used, which must be highly sensitive and must offer the possibility of performing a nondestructive analysis. One such method is neutron-activation analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to apply instrumental neutron-activation analysis to the simultaneous determination of the elemental composition of hot particles and establishment of the isotopic composition of the uranium in them.

  9. Nanostructure of metallic particles in light water reactor used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C., E-mail: edgar.buck@pnnl.gov; Mausolf, Edward J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An extraordinary nano-structure has been observed in the noble metal particles that form in UO{sub 2} reactor fuels. • The composition of the particles was highly variable with low levels of uranium and plutonium present in the particles. • This nano-structure may play an important role in the behavior of nuclear fuels under accident conditions. - Abstract: An extraordinary nano-structure has been observed in the metallic (Mo–Tc–Ru–Rh–Pd) particles that are known to form during irradiated in light water nuclear reactor fuels. This structure points possible high catalytic reactivity through the occurrence of a very high surface area as well as defect sites. We have analyzed separated metallic particles from dissolved high burn-up spent nuclear fuel using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The larger particles vary in diameter between ∼10 and ∼300 nm and possess a hexagonally close packed epsilon-ruthenium structure. These particles are not always single crystals but often consist of much smaller crystallites on the order of 1–3 nm in diameter with evidence suggesting the occurrence of some amorphous regions. It is possible that neutron irradiation and fission product recoils generated the unusual small crystallite size. The composition of the metallic particles was variable with low levels of uranium present in some of the particles. We hypothesize that the uranium may have induced the formation of the amorphous (or frustrated) metal structure. This unique nano-structure may play an important role in the environmental behavior of nuclear fuels.

  10. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Construction Scheduling Problem with Time Restrictions: A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Kuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear power plant construction scheduling, a project is generally defined by its dependent preparation time, the time required for construction, and its reactor installation time. The issues of multiple construction teams and multiple reactor installation teams are considered. In this paper, a hierarchical particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the nuclear power plant construction scheduling problem and minimize the occurrence of projects failing to achieve deliverables within applicable due times and deadlines.

  12. Exploratory study of nuclear reaction data utility framework of Japan charged particle reaction data group (JCPRG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ohbayasi, Yosihide [Hokkaido Univ., Meme Media Lab., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Kitami Institute of Technology, Information Processing Center, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Faculty of Social Information, Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Compilation, evaluation and dissemination are essential pieces of work for the nuclear data activities. We, Japan charged particle data group, have researched the utility framework for the nuclear reaction data on the basis of recent progress of computer and network technologies. These technologies will be not only for the data dissemination but for the compilation and evaluation assistance among the many corresponding researchers of all over the world. In this paper, current progress of our research and development is shown. (author)

  13. [Fetal electrocardiogram extraction based on independent component analysis and quantum particle swarm optimizer algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanqin; Huang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    Fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) is an objective index of the activities of fetal cardiac electrophysiology. The acquired FECG is interfered by maternal electrocardiogram (MECG). How to extract the fetus ECG quickly and effectively has become an important research topic. During the non-invasive FECG extraction algorithms, independent component analysis(ICA) algorithm is considered as the best method, but the existing algorithms of obtaining the decomposition of the convergence properties of the matrix do not work effectively. Quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) is an intelligent optimization algorithm converging in the global. In order to extract the FECG signal effectively and quickly, we propose a method combining ICA and QPSO. The results show that this approach can extract the useful signal more clearly and accurately than other non-invasive methods.

  14. A comparative study of independent particle model based approaches for thermal averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Banik; Tapta Kanchan Roy; M Durga Prasad

    2013-09-01

    A comparative study is done on thermal average calculation by using the state specific vibrational self-consistent field method (ss-VSCF), the virtual vibrational self-consistent field (v-VSCF) method and the thermal self-consistent field (t-SCF) method. The different thermodynamic properties and expectation values are calculated using these three methods and the results are compared with full configuration interaction method (FVCI). We find that among these three independent particle model based methods, the ss-VSCF method provides most accurate results in the thermal averages followed by t-SCF and the v-VSCF is the least accurate. However, the ss-VSCF is found to be computationally very expensive for the large molecules. The t-SCF gives better accuracy compared to the v-VSCF counterpart especially at higher temperatures.

  15. Systematic study of pre-irradiation effects in high efficiency CVD diamond nuclear particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Paoletti, A; Pillon, M; Tucciarone, A; Verona-Rinati, G

    2002-01-01

    Many outstanding properties of diamond can, in principle, lead to the development of radiation detectors with interesting capabilities. In particular, diamond-based nuclear particle detectors are good candidates to replace silicon-based detectors in several fields, e.g. in high-flux applications such as next generation particle-accelerator experiments or beam monitoring. However, the high concentration of defects (grain boundaries, impurities) in synthetic diamond films can strongly limit the detector's performance. A significant increase in the efficiency of CVD diamond detectors is achieved by means of pre-irradiation (pumping) with beta particles. We report here on a systematic study of the effects of pumping in high-quality microwave CVD diamond films. The efficiency (eta) and charge collection distance (CCD) of nuclear particle detectors based on these films depend on the methane content in the growth gas mixture and on the film thickness. Both efficiency and CCD behave in a markedly different way in the...

  16. An alpha particle detector for a portable neutron generator for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausladen, P. A.; Neal, J. S.; Mihalczo, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    A recoil alpha particle detector has been developed for use in a portable neutron generator. The associated particle sealed tube neutron generator (APSTNG) will be used as an interrogation source for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). With the coincident emission of 14.1 MeV neutrons and 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the D-T reaction, alpha detection determines the time and direction of the neutrons of interest for subsequent use as an active nuclear materials interrogation source. The alpha particle detector uses a ZnO(Ga) scintillator coating applied to a fiber optic face plate. Gallium-doped zinc oxide is a fast (inorganic scintillator with a high melting point (1975 °C). One detector has been installed in an APSTNG and is currently being tested. Initial results include a measured efficiency for 3.5 MeV alphas of 90%.

  17. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

  18. Large amplitude collective dynamic beyond the independent particle/quasiparticle picture

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, Denis

    2015-01-01

    In the present note, a summary of selected aspects of time-dependent mean-field theory is first recalled. This approach is optimized to describe one-body degrees of freedom. A special focus is made on how this microscopic theory can be reduced to a macroscopic dynamic for a selected set of collective variables. Important physical phenomena like adiabaticity/diabaticity, one-body dissipation or memory effect are discussed. Special aspects related to the use of a time-dependent density functional instead of a time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory based on a bare hamiltonian are underlined. The absence of proper description of complex internal correlations however strongly impacts the predictive power of mean-field. A brief overview of theories going beyond the independent particles/quasi-particles theory is given. Then, a special attention is paid for finite fermionic systems at low internal excitation. In that case, quantum fluctuations in collective space that are poorly treated at the mean-field level, are impo...

  19. Correlations in Particle Production in Nuclear Collisions at LHC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Sputowska, Iwona

    New data on forward-backward charged particle correlations and multiplicity uctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at p sNN = 2.76 TeV measured by the ALICE detector at CERN are presented. The analysis focuses on the dependence of (a) the correlation coecient bcorr, (b) the intensive quantity ! and (c) the strongly-intensive quantity as a function of (1) the pseudorapidity gap (2) the centrality of the collision and (3) the width of the centrality bin. The considered observables are studied for Pb+Pb data with two dierent centrality estimators. The centrality selection methods are based on charged particle multiplicity measurement by the ALICE VZERO detector and on determination of energy carried by spectator systems by the Zero Degree Calorimeter. A strong dependence of the measured magnitude of forward-backward correlation (bcorr), and of the size of multiplicity uctuations (!), is observed as a function of the ap- plied centrality estimator and as a function of the size of centrality window. A dominant eect on ...

  20. 78 FR 61401 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Big Rock Point; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001..., and 10 CFR part 50, allows ENO to possess and store spent nuclear fuel at the permanently shutdown and... Director, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety...

  1. Uses of alpha particles, especially in nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, Syed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Scholten, Bernhard; Neumaier, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2016-11-01

    Alpha particles exhibit three important characteristics: scattering, ionisation and activation. This article briefly discusses those properties and outlines their major applications. Among others, α-particles are used in elemental analysis, investigation and improvement of materials properties, nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production. The latter two topics, dealing with activation of target materials, are treated in some detail in this paper. Measurements of excitation functions of α-particle induced reactions shed some light on their reaction mechanisms, and studies of isomeric cross sections reveal the probability of population of high-spin nuclear levels. Regarding medical radionuclides, an overview is presented of the isotopes commonly produced using α-particle beams. Consideration is also given to some routes which could be potentially useful for production of a few other radionuclides. The significance of α-particle induced reactions to produce a few high-spin isomeric states, decaying by emission of low-energy conversion or Auger electrons, which are of interest in localized internal radiotherapy, is outlined. The α-particle beam, thus broadens the scope of nuclear chemistry research related to development of non-standard positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides.

  2. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  3. Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features are independent prognostic markers in a total population of uterine sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hveem, Tarjei Sveinsgjerd; Kildal, Wanja; Abeler, Vera M; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear texture analysis measures the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image and is a promising quantitative tool for prognosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features in a total population of 354 uterine sarcomas. Isolated nuclei (monolayers) were prepared from 50 µm tissue sections and stained with Feulgen-Schiff. Local gray level entropy was measured within small windows of each nuclear image and stored in gray level entropy matrices, and two superior adaptive texture features were calculated from each matrix. The 5-year crude survival was significantly higher (P Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture was an independent prognostic marker for crude survival in multivariate analysis including relevant clinicopathological features (HR = 2.1, P = 0.001), and should therefore be considered as a potential prognostic marker in uterine sarcomas.

  4. New generation nuclear fuel structures: dense particles in selectively soluble matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pattillo, Steve G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a technology for dispersing sub-millimeter sized fuel particles within a bulk matrix that can be selectively dissolved. This may enable the generation of advanced nuclear fuels with easy separation of actinides and fission products. The large kinetic energy of the fission products results in most of them escaping from the sub-millimeter sized fuel particles and depositing in the matrix during burning of the fuel in the reactor. After the fuel is used and allowed to cool for a period of time, the matrix can be dissolved and the fission products removed for disposal while the fuel particles are collected by filtration for recycle. The success of such an approach would meet a major goal of the GNEP program to provide advanced recycle technology for nuclear energy production. The benefits of such an approach include (1) greatly reduced cost of the actinide/fission product separation process, (2) ease of recycle of the fuel particles, and (3) a radiation barrier to prevent theft or diversion of the recycled fuel particles during the time they are re-fabricated into new fuel. In this study we describe a method to make surrogate nuclear fuels of micrometer scale W (shell)/Mo (core) or HfO2 particles embedded in an MgO matrix that allows easy separation of the fission products and their embedded particles. In brief, the method consists of physically mixing W-Mo or hafnia particles with an MgO precursor. Heating the mixture, in air or argon, without agitation, to a temperature is required for complete decomposition of the precursor. The resulting material was examined using chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray computed tomography and found to consist of evenly dispersed particles in an MgO + matrix. We believe this methodology can be extended to actinides and other matrix materials.

  5. Calibrations of CR39 and Makrofol nuclear track detectors and search for exotic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)02249-7

    2003-01-01

    We present the final results of the search for exotic massive particles in the cosmic radiation performed with the MACRO underground experiment. Magnetic monopoles and nuclearites flux upper limits obtained with the CR39 nuclear track subdetector, the scintillation and streamer tube subdetectors are given. Searches at high altitude with the SLIM experiment are in progress.

  6. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lansberg J.P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  7. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P; Brodsky, S J; Chambert, V; Didelez, J P; Genolini, B; Ferreiro, E G; Fleuret, F; Hadjidakis, C; Lorce, C; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Rosier, P; Schienbein, I; Scomparin, E; Uggerhoj, U I

    2014-01-01

    We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  8. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Forrest, C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R. M.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Craxton, R. S.; Dearborn, D.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garcia, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hale, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Janezic, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Masse, L.; McEvoy, A.; McKenty, P.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Radha, P. B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rosse, B.; Rubery, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Sanchez, J.; Schmitt, M.; Schoff, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Tipton, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle-producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. The potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. The goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellar-like plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.

  9. Temperature-Independent Nuclear Quantum Effects on the Structure of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Perakis, Fivos; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Katayama, Tetsuo; Harada, Yoshihisa; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) have a significant influence on the hydrogen bonds in water and aqueous solutions and have thus been the topic of extensive studies. However, the microscopic origin and the corresponding temperature dependence of NQEs have been elusive and still remain the subject of ongoing discussion. Previous x-ray scattering investigations indicate that NQEs on the structure of water exhibit significant temperature dependence [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047801 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.047801]. Here, by performing wide-angle x-ray scattering of H2O and D2O droplets at temperatures from 275 K down to 240 K, we determine the temperature dependence of NQEs on the structure of water down to the deeply supercooled regime. The data reveal that the magnitude of NQEs on the structure of water is temperature independent, as the structure factor of D2O is similar to H2O if the temperature is shifted by a constant 5 K, valid from ambient conditions to the deeply supercooled regime. Analysis of the accelerated growth of tetrahedral structures in supercooled H2O and D2O also shows similar behavior with a clear 5 K shift. The results indicate a constant compensation between NQEs delocalizing the proton in the librational motion away from the bond and in the OH stretch vibrational modes along the bond. This is consistent with the fact that only the vibrational ground state is populated at ambient and supercooled conditions.

  10. Characterization study of cesium concentrated particles in the soils near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated a vast area. Two types of contamination, spread and spot types, were observed in soils with autoradiography using an imaging plate. Other samples such as dust filters, vegetation, X-ray films, and so on, also indicate the spot type contamination in the early stage of the FDNPP accident. The source of spot type contamination is well known as hot particles at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986. Hot particles were divided into two groups, fuel hot particles and fission product particles, and they were emitted directly from reactor core with phreatic explosion and fire. In contrast, the official reports of the FDNPP accident did not conforme core explosion. In addition, the emitted total amount of Uranium was very few (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Thus, the spot type contaminations were not identified as the same of hot particles yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to pick up and identify the spot contaminations in soils. Surface soil samples were collected at 20 km northwest from the FDNPP in June 2013. Soils were spread in plastic bags for autoradiography with imaging plate analysis. Then, the soil particles were collected on a sticky carbon tape and analyzed by SEM-EDS to detect radioactive particles. Finally, particles were confirmed to contain photo peaks in the γ-spectrum by a germanium semiconductor detector. Four radioactive particles were isolated from the soil samples in the present study. Detected γ-ray emission radionuclides were only Cs-134 and Cs-137. The X-ray spectra on the SEM-EDS of all particles showed a Cs peak as well as O, Fe, Zn, and Rb peaks, and these elements were distributed uniformly within the particles. In addition, uniform distribution of Si was also shown. Moreover, U was detected from one of the particles, but U concentration was very low and existed locally in the particle. These characters are very similar to previous

  11. Particle accelerators and nuclear energy: the challenge of reliability; Acceleradores de particulas y energia nuclear: el desafio de la fiabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucker, R.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2011-07-01

    High energy particle accelerators, that used to serve a purpose only in fundamental research, will soon be used in industrial applications of nuclear energy. In this context, they will be submitted to unprecedented (as far as such machines are concerned) reliability requirements. In order to meet them, reliability studies need to be carried out. This article describes the experience gained by Empresarios Agrupados in that field (with the Eurotrans and Ifmif projects) and presents their future activities in the framework of the Myrrha project, that is aimed at building the first ADS reactor in the world. (Author)

  12. Data-driven model-independent searches for long-lived particles at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Andrea; Curtin, David; Lubatti, H. J.; Russell, Heather; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-12-01

    Neutral long-lived particles (LLPs) are highly motivated by many beyond the Standard Model scenarios, such as theories of supersymmetry, baryogenesis, and neutral naturalness, and present both tremendous discovery opportunities and experimental challenges for the LHC. A major bottleneck for current LLP searches is the prediction of Standard Model backgrounds, which are often impossible to simulate accurately. In this paper, we propose a general strategy for obtaining differential, data-driven background estimates in LLP searches, thereby notably extending the range of LLP masses and lifetimes that can be discovered at the LHC. We focus on LLPs decaying in the ATLAS muon system, where triggers providing both signal and control samples are available at LHC run 2. While many existing searches require two displaced decays, a detailed knowledge of backgrounds will allow for very inclusive searches that require just one detected LLP decay. As we demonstrate for the h →X X signal model of LLP pair production in exotic Higgs decays, this results in dramatic sensitivity improvements for proper lifetimes ≳10 m . In theories of neutral naturalness, this extends reach to glueball masses far below the b ¯b threshold. Our strategy readily generalizes to other signal models and other detector subsystems. This framework therefore lends itself to the development of a systematic, model-independent LLP search program, in analogy to the highly successful simplified-model framework of prompt searches.

  13. Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14-15) of the accident. In contrast to the Cs-bearing radioactive materials that are currently assumed, these particles are larger, contain Fe, Zn, and Cs, and are water insoluble. Our simulation indicates that the spherical Cs-bearing particles mainly fell onto the ground by dry deposition. The finding of the spherical Cs particles will be a key to understand the processes of the accident and to accurately evaluate the health impacts and the residence time in the environment.

  14. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin – poor tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athale Chaitanya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. Results We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 μm – wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Conclusions Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M

  15. Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennema, H; Godeke, G J; Rossen, J W; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Opstelten, D J; Rottier, P J

    1996-01-01

    Budding of enveloped viruses has been shown to be driven by interactions between a nucleocapsid and a proteolipid membrane. By contrast, we here describe the assembly of viral envelopes independent of a nucleocapsid. Membrane particles containing coronaviral envelope proteins were assembled in and r

  16. Application of nuclear particle tracks: A scanning x-ray microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, P.J.

    1991-09-30

    The scanning x-ray microscope (SXM) is a short-wavelength analog of a near-field optical-scanning microscope, promising spatial resolution of {approximately}100{angstrom} up to {approximately}5 keV x-ray energy. A portion of a synchrotron x-ray beam streams through an etched nuclear particle track in an opaque membrane and impinges on an object within the narrow stream. Scattered or transmitted x-rays are detected with a photon counter. The SXM is feasible because a useful number of synchrotron x-rays, even from a bend magnet, will stream through a small diameter pore. The properties and limitations of the SXM are discussed together with other submicroscopic applications of nuclear particle tracks. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Nuclear in-medium effects of strange particles in proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of strange particles produced in proton induced nuclear reactions near threshold energies has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. The in-medium modifications on particle production in dense nuclear matter are considered through corrections on the elementary cross sections via the effective mass and the mean-field potentials. It is found that the attractive antikaon-nucleon potential enhances the subthreshold $\\overline{K}$ production and also influences the structure of inclusive spectra. The strangeness production is strongly suppressed in proton induced reactions in comparison to heavy-ion collisions. The measured K$^{-}$/K$^{+}$ ratios in the $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and p+$^{12}$C collisions from KaoS collaboration have been well explained with inclusion of the in-medium potentials.

  18. Break of symmetry in regenerating tobacco protoplasts is independent of nuclear positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Brochhausen; Jan Maisch; Peter Nick

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear migration and positioning are crucial for the morphogenesis of plant cells. We addressed the potential role of nuclear positioning for polarity induction using an experimental system based on regenerating protoplasts, where the induction of a cell axis de novo can be followed by quantification of specific regeneration stages. Using overexpression of fluorescently tagged extranuclear (perinu-clear actin basket, kinesins with a calponin homology domain (KCH)) as well as intranuclear (histone H2B) factors of nuclear positioning and time-lapse series of the early stages of regeneration, we found that nuclear position is no prerequi-site for polarity formation. However, polarity formation and nuclear migration were both modulated in the transgenic lines, indicating that both phenomena depend on factors affecting cytoskeletal tensegrity and chromatin structure. We integrated these findings into a model where retrograde signals are required for polarity induction. These signals travel via the cytoskeleton from the nucleus toward targets at the plasma membrane.

  19. Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kouji Adachi; Mizuo Kajino; Yuji Zaizen; Yasuhito Igarashi

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14–15) of the acci...

  20. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and dependence on quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R. N.; Mohanty, D. K.; Panda, P. K.; Frederico, T.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with a quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating the structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious center of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions, such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration, have been considered in a perturbative manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ and ω mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self-consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure, and compressibility of the nuclear matter. We also discuss some implications of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter along with the nucleon and nuclear σ term and the sensitivity of nuclear matter binding energy with variations in the light quark mass.

  1. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd/D lattice: emission of charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Stanislaw; Mosier-Boss, Pamela A; Gordon, Frank E

    2007-06-01

    Almost two decades ago, Fleischmann and Pons reported excess enthalpy generation in the negatively polarized Pd/D-D2O system, which they attributed to nuclear reactions. In the months and years that followed, other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system were observed, viz. tritium and helium production and transmutation of elements. In this report, we present additional evidence, namely, the emission of highly energetic charged particles emitted from the Pd/D electrode when this system is placed in either an external electrostatic or magnetostatic field. The density of tracks registered by a CR-39 detector was found to be of a magnitude that provides undisputable evidence of their nuclear origin. The experiments were reproducible. A model based upon electron capture is proposed to explain the reaction products observed in the Pd/D-D2O system.

  2. Automatic track recognition for large-angle minimum ionizing particles in nuclear emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, T; Ishida, H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuo, T; Mikado, S; Nishimura, S; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Sudou, J; Ariga, A; Tufanli, S

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed an automatic track scanning system which enables the detection of large-angle nuclear fragments in the nuclear emulsion films of the OPERA experiment. As a next step, we have investigated this system's track recognition capability for large-angle minimum ionizing particles $(1.0 \\leq |tan \\theta| \\leq 3.5)$. This paper shows that, for such tracks, the system has a detection efficiency of 95$\\%$ or higher and reports the achieved angular accuracy of the automatically recognized tracks. This technology is of general purpose and will likely contribute not only to various analyses in the OPERA experiment, but also to future experiments, e.g. on low-energy neutrino and hadron interactions, or to future research on cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions carried by balloons.

  3. Charged particle-induced nuclear fission reactions – Progress and prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kailas; K Mahata

    2014-12-01

    The nuclear fission phenomenon continues to be an enigma, even after nearly 75 years of its discovery. Considerable progress has been made towards understanding the fission process. Both light projectiles and heavy ions have been employed to investigate nuclear fission. An extensive database of the properties of fissionable nuclei has been generated. The theoretical developments to describe the fission phenomenon have kept pace with the progress in the corresponding experimental measurements. As the fission process initiated by the neutrons has been well documented, the present article will be restricted to charged particle-induced fission reactions. The progress made in recent years and the prospects in the area of nuclear fission research will be the focus of this review.

  4. Comment on "Response calculations with an independent particle system with an exact one-particle density matrix''

    CERN Document Server

    Requist, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    We point out an error in the argument [PRL 105, 013002 (2010)] that the time independence of the occupation numbers in the adiabatic approximation follows from the invariance of the ground-state interaction energy functional with respect to changes in the phases of the natural orbitals.

  5. Emergency planning and response: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the recommendations contained in the President's Commission Report on the Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident (the Kemeny Commission report) that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors have been reviewed. The assessments of the 13 facilities are based on information provided by the individual operator organizations and/or cognizant DOE Field Offices. Additional clarifying information was supplied in some, but not all, instances. This report indicates how these 13 reactor facilities measure up in light of the Kemeny and other TMI-related studies and recommendations, particularly those that have resulted in upgraded Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in the area of emergency planning and response.

  6. Climate effects of a hypothetical regional nuclear war: Sensitivity to emission duration and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Lindvall, Jenny; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Svensson, Gunilla

    2016-11-01

    Here, we use a coupled atmospheric-ocean-aerosol model to investigate the plume development and climate effects of the smoke generated by fires following a regional nuclear war between emerging third-world nuclear powers. We simulate a standard scenario where 5 Tg of black carbon (BC) is emitted over 1 day in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. However, it is likely that the emissions from the fires ignited by bomb detonations include a substantial amount of particulate organic matter (POM) and that they last more than 1 day. We therefore test the sensitivity of the aerosol plume and climate system to the BC/POM ratio (1:3, 1:9) and to the emission length (1 day, 1 week, 1 month). We find that in general, an emission length of 1 month substantially reduces the cooling compared to the 1-day case, whereas taking into account POM emissions notably increases the cooling and the reduction of precipitation associated with the nuclear war during the first year following the detonation. Accounting for POM emissions increases the particle size in the short-emission-length scenarios (1 day/1 week), reducing the residence time of the injected particle. While the initial cooling is more intense when including POM emission, the long-lasting effects, while still large, may be less extreme compared to the BC-only case. Our study highlights that the emission altitude reached by the plume is sensitive to both the particle type emitted by the fires and the emission duration. Consequently, the climate effects of a nuclear war are strongly dependent on these parameters.

  7. RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION ESTIMATE FOR FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BY A PARTICLE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and

  8. Radioactive Pollution Estimate for Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by a Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and deposit speeds. The

  9. Particle swarm optimization with random keys applied to the nuclear reactor reload problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Anderson Alvarenga de Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Fundacao Educacional de Macae (FUNEMAC), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade Professor Miguel Angelo da Silva Santos; Machado, Marcelo Dornellas; Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos Canedo; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: ameneses@con.ufrj.br; marcelo@lmp.ufrj.br; canedo@lmp.ufrj.br; schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    In 1995, Kennedy and Eberhart presented the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), an Artificial Intelligence metaheuristic technique to optimize non-linear continuous functions. The concept of Swarm Intelligence is based on the socials aspects of intelligence, it means, the ability of individuals to learn with their own experience in a group as well as to take advantage of the performance of other individuals. Some PSO models for discrete search spaces have been developed for combinatorial optimization, although none of them presented satisfactory results to optimize a combinatorial problem as the nuclear reactor fuel reloading problem (NRFRP). In this sense, we developed the Particle Swarm Optimization with Random Keys (PSORK) in previous research to solve Combinatorial Problems. Experiences demonstrated that PSORK performed comparable to or better than other techniques. Thus, PSORK metaheuristic is being applied in optimization studies of the NRFRP for Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Results will be compared with Genetic Algorithms and the manual method provided by a specialist. In this experience, the problem is being modeled for an eight-core symmetry and three-dimensional geometry, aiming at the minimization of the Nuclear Enthalpy Power Peaking Factor as well as the maximization of the cycle length. (author)

  10. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammah, Y.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box. 11001, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Ashraf, O., E-mail: osama.ashraf@edu.asu.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt); Ashry, A.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Makrofol-E detectors have been irradiated with alpha particles and fission fragments. • Fast detection of alpha particles in Makrofol-E detectors. • Bulk etching rate was calculated from fission track diameters. - Abstract: Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH{sub 3}OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  11. Particle Physics Models for the 17 MeV Anomaly in Beryllium Nuclear Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jonathan L; Galon, Iftah; Gardner, Susan; Smolinsky, Jordan; Tait, Tim M P; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The 6.8$\\sigma$ anomaly in excited 8Be nuclear decays via internal pair creation is fit well by a new particle interpretation. In a previous analysis, we showed that a 17 MeV protophobic gauge boson provides a particle physics explanation of the anomaly consistent with all existing constraints. Here we begin with a review of the physics of internal pair creation in 8Be decays and the characteristics of the observed anomaly. To develop its particle interpretation, we provide an effective operator analysis for excited 8Be decays to particles with a variety of spins and parities and show that these considerations exclude simple models with scalar or pseudoscalar particles. We discuss the required couplings for a gauge boson to give the observed signal, highlighting the significant dependence on the precise mass of the boson and isospin mixing and breaking effects. We present anomaly-free extensions of the Standard Model that contain protophobic gauge bosons with the desired couplings to explain the 8Be anomaly. ...

  12. Device for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L.J.; Willey, M.G.; Tiegs, S.M.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in hot cells designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel materials, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  13. Direct test of the time-independence of fundamental nuclear constants using the Oklo natural reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Shlyakhter, A I

    The positions of neutron resonances have been shown to be highly sensitive to the variation of fundamental nuclear constants. The analysis of the measured isotopic shifts in the natural fossil reactor at Oklo gives the following restrictions on the possible rates of the interaction constants variation: strong ~2x10^-19 yr^-1, electromagnetic ~5x10^-18 yr^-1, weak ~10^-12 yr^-1. These limits permit to exclude all the versions of nuclear constants contemporary variation discussed in the literature. URL: http://alexonline.info >. For more recent analyses see hep-ph/9606486, hep-ph/0205206 and astro-ph/0204069 .

  14. Report from IPNS research plan committee on particle and nuclear physics studies at JHF 50-GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Enyo, H; Okada, Y

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the evaluations and suggestions of IPNS research programs for JHF 50-GeV proton synchrotron. The following subjects are described: the role of JHF for particle and nuclear physics, neutrino oscillation experiment, physics of rare decay K(+) and high intense muon sources, strangeness nuclear physics, experiments of hadron physics and antiproton science experiments. (J.P.N.)

  15. Response calculations based on an independent particle system with the exact one-particle density matrix: polarizabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Giesbertz, Klaas J H; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that the problems finding a suitable adiabatic approximation in time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix functional theory can be remedied by introducing an additional degree of freedom to describe the system: the phase of the natural orbitals [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013002 (2010), J. Chem. Phys. 133, 174119 (2010)]. In this article we will show in detail how the frequency-dependent response equations give the proper static limit ($\\omega\\to0$), including the perturbation in the chemical potential, which is required in static response theory to ensure the correct number of particles. Additionally we show results for the polarizability for H$_2$ and compare the performance of two different two-electron functionals: the phase-including L\\"owdin-Shull functional and the density matrix form of the L\\"owdin-Shull functional.

  16. What future for Euratom as the UK prepares for its 'nuclear independence'?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    UK government ministers have been keeping European leaders guessing over what their negotiating position will be when formal talks start about the 'divorce' from the European Union. However, for the nuclear energy community, there was one very certain statement in recent weeks about what Brexit will also mean: withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty.

  17. Baltic states: self-sufficiency through nuclear electricity; Pays Baltes: une independance par le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainte Catherine, C. [CEA/Ambassade de France a Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    The Baltic states are connected to the Russian power grid and direct connection to the European grid are scheduled through the ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity). In end 2009 Lithuania closed its last RBMK reactor on the Ignalina site, this plant provided Lithuania with 70% of its electricity demand. A project of new reactors on the Ignalina site has been considered since 2004 but this complex regional project including Estonia, Latvia but also Poland, lacks momentum to go ahead. Nevertheless, the project shows that a nuclear plant of 3400 MW would be necessary to assure 1000 MW to Poland and 500 MW to Latvia. Latvia has not nuclear plant and produces most of its electricity by hydro-energy and bio-energy (70%) and by natural gas combustion (30%). A share in the construction of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant will allow Latvia to be less dependent on Russian gas imports. The production of electricity of Estonia is based on the burning of oil shale which is very polluting. Estonia has committed itself to use only no-emitting CO{sub 2} energy sources to generate its electricity by 2030. A share in the Lithuanian power plant or in a new nuclear power plant in Finland might be an adequate solution. Since the end of 2008 Estonia authorities are studying the construction of a mid-size reactor whose power output would range between 400 and 900 MW. (A.C.)

  18. Measurement of α-particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krosigk, B. von [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chen, M.; Liu, X.; Wright, A. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Bronx Community College, Bronx, NY (United States); Junghans, A.R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Koegler, T. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kraus, C. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Kuckert, L. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nolte, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); O' Keeffe, H.M. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Lancaster University, Physics Department, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Tseung, H.W.C. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, J.R. [Queen Mary, University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Yeh, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The α-particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, α-particles were produced in the scintillator via {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2 % of {sup nat}Sm providing an α-emitter, {sup 147}Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po provided the α-particle signal. The behavior of the observed α-particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter kB ranges from (0.0066 ± 0.0016) to (0.0076 ± 0.0003) cm/MeV. In the first approach, the α-particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron- proton elastic scattering. This enabled a first time a direct comparison of kB describing the proton and the α-particle response of LAB based scintillator. The observed kB values describing the two light response functions deviate by more than 5σ. The presented results are valuable for all current and future detectors, using LAB based scintillator as target, since they depend on an accurate knowledge of the scintillator response to different particles. (orig.)

  19. Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics 2003 Relativistic Heavy Ion Parallel Session Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, J L

    2003-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) came online in 2000, and the last three years have provided a wealth of new experimental data and theoretical work in this new energy frontier for nuclear physics. The transition from quarks and gluons bound into hadrons to a deconfined quark-gluon plasma is expected to occur at these energies, and the effort to understand the time evolution of these complex systems has been significantly advanced. The heavy ion parallel session talks from the Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics (CIPANP) 2003 are posted at: http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/WWW/publish/nagle/CIPANP/. We provide a brief summary of these sessions here.

  20. A 12-bit multichannel ADC for pixel detectors in particle physics and nuclear imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors in nuclear and particle physics experiments and also in nuclear imaging,starve for highly integrated application specified integrated circuit(ASIC),whereas in China the study of ASIC still stays far away from practical application.The lack of ASIC strictly limits the research and development of domestic high energy physics field.A 12-bit multichannel ADC designed for high density readout is introduced as a major candidate for solution.A precise model is discussed and the simulation fully agrees with the model,which indicates a key principle of design.Design is performed according to the given rule,and novel layout techniques are carried out.Measurement results in all aspects are also obtained,showing an excellent real performance,which satisfies the practical requirement.

  1. Measurement of $\\alpha$-particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    CERN Document Server

    von Krosigk, B; Hans, S; Junghans, A R; Kögler, T; Kraus, C; Kuckert, L; Liu, X; Nolte, R; O'Keeffe, H M; Tseung, H S Wan Chan; Wilson, J R; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    The $\\alpha$-particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, $\\alpha$-particles were produced in the scintillator via $^{12}$C($n$,$\\alpha$)$^9$Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2% of $^{\\mathrm{nat}}$Sm providing an $\\alpha$-emitter, $^{147}$Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants $^{222}$Rn, $^{218}$Po and $^{214}$Po provided the $\\alpha$-particle signal. The behavior of the observed $\\alpha$-particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter $kB$ ranges from $(0.0071\\pm0.0003)$ cm/MeV to $(0.0076\\pm0.0003)$ cm/MeV. In the first approach, the $\\alpha$-particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron-proto...

  2. Nuclear modification factor of charged particles and light-flavour hadrons in p--Pb collisions measured by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00360943

    2016-01-01

    The hot and dense strongly interacting Quark-Gluon Plasma (sQGP) created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be probed by studying high-$p_{\\rm T}$ particle production and parton energy loss. Similar measurements performed in p-Pb collisions may help in determining whether initial or final state nuclear effects play a role in the observed suppression of hadron production at high-$p_{\\rm T}$ in Pb--Pb collisions. By examining the nuclear modification factors through the comparison of identified hadron yields in different collision systems one can gain insight into particle production mechanisms and nuclear effects.

  3. The neutron a tool and an object in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Hans G

    2012-01-01

    The reactor-based laboratory at the Institut Laue-Langevin is recognized as the world's most productive and reliable source of slow neutrons for the study of low energy particle and nuclear physics. The book highlightsthe impact of about 600 very diverse publications about work performedin these fields during the pastmore than 30 years of reactor operation at this institute.On one hand neutronsare used as a tool to generate nuclei in excited states for studying their structure and decay, in particular fission. Uniquely sensitive experiments can tell us a great deal about the symmetry character

  4. Perspectives on Entangled Nuclear Particle Pairs Generation and Manipulation in Quantum Communication and Cryptography Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Dănilă

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.

  5. Response calculations based on an independent particle system with the exact one-particle density matrix: Polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbertz, K. J. H., E-mail: k.j.h.giesbertz@vu.nl [Section Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gritsenko, O. V. [Section Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pohang University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Baerends, E. J. [Section Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pohang University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-14

    Recently, we have demonstrated that the problems finding a suitable adiabatic approximation in time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix functional theory can be remedied by introducing an additional degree of freedom to describe the system: the phase of the natural orbitals [K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013002 (2010); K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 174119 (2010)]. In this article we will show in detail how the frequency-dependent response equations give the proper static limit (ω → 0), including the perturbation in the chemical potential, which is required in static response theory to ensure the correct number of particles. Additionally we show results for the polarizability for H{sub 2} and compare the performance of two different two-electron functionals: the phase-including Löwdin–Shull functional and the density matrix form of the Löwdin–Shull functional.

  6. Response calculations based on an independent particle system with the exact one-particle density matrix: Polarizabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K. J. H.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2014-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that the problems finding a suitable adiabatic approximation in time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix functional theory can be remedied by introducing an additional degree of freedom to describe the system: the phase of the natural orbitals [K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013002 (2010); K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 174119 (2010)]. In this article we will show in detail how the frequency-dependent response equations give the proper static limit (ω → 0), including the perturbation in the chemical potential, which is required in static response theory to ensure the correct number of particles. Additionally we show results for the polarizability for H2 and compare the performance of two different two-electron functionals: the phase-including Löwdin-Shull functional and the density matrix form of the Löwdin-Shull functional.

  7. Response calculations based on an independent particle system with the exact one-particle density matrix: polarizabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2014-05-14

    Recently, we have demonstrated that the problems finding a suitable adiabatic approximation in time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix functional theory can be remedied by introducing an additional degree of freedom to describe the system: the phase of the natural orbitals [K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013002 (2010); K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 174119 (2010)]. In this article we will show in detail how the frequency-dependent response equations give the proper static limit (ω → 0), including the perturbation in the chemical potential, which is required in static response theory to ensure the correct number of particles. Additionally we show results for the polarizability for H2 and compare the performance of two different two-electron functionals: the phase-including Löwdin-Shull functional and the density matrix form of the Löwdin-Shull functional.

  8. Using Light Charged Particles to Probe the Asymmetry Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Alan B; Kohley, Zachary; Cammarata, Paul J; Hagel, Kris; Heilborn, Lauren; Mabiala, Justin; May, Larry W; Marini, Paola; Raphelt, Andrew; Souliotis, George A; Wuenschel, Sara; Zarrella, Andrew; Yennello, Sherry J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we observed a clear dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on neutron-proton asymmetry $\\frac{N-Z}{A}$ through examination of fully reconstructed equilibrated quasi-projectile sources produced in heavy ion collisions at E/A = 35 MeV. In the present work, we extend our analysis using multiple light charged particle probes of the temperature. Temperatures are extracted with five distinct probes using a kinetic thermometer approach. Additionally, temperatures are extracted using two probes within a chemical thermometer approach (Albergo method). All seven measurements show a significant linear dependence of the source temperature on the source asymmetry. For the kinetic thermometer, the strength of the asymmetry dependence varies with the probe particle species in a way which is consistent with an average emission-time ordering.

  9. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M F Zaki; A Abdel-Naby; A Ahmed Morsy

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as 93Nb, 86Kr and 4He in CR-39 and 4He and 132Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke–Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  10. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and variation with quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, N; Mohanty, D K; Panda, P K; Frederico, T

    2013-01-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon, is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious centre of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration; have been considered in a perturbation manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to sigma and omega mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure a...

  11. Charged particle nuclear modification factor in PbPb at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Baty, Austin Alan

    2016-01-01

    In the high-luminosity 5.02 TeV collision-energy per nucleon pair PbPb and pp data provided by LHC in 2015, CMS measured the nuclear modification factor of charged particles from a transverse momentum of 0.7 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c in the central rapidity region. The centrality dependence of the nuclear modification factor is explored in several bins of collision centrality, from the most central 0-5pct to the peripheral 50-70pct centrality range. Comparisons of the measured nuclear modification factor of charged particles at 5.02 TeV are made to theory calculations and to measurements at lower collision energies. The nuclear modification factors are also compared to the measurements at 2.76 TeV with charged particles and fully reconstructed jets.

  12. Photoluminescence detection of alpha particle using DAM-ADC nuclear detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Harraz, Farid A., E-mail: fharraz68@yahoo.com [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology Division, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Ali, Atif M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sayari, S.A. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); College of Science and Arts-Sharoura, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajry, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-11

    The photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis spectral analysis of DAM-ADC (diallyl maleate: DAM, polyallyl diglycol carbonate: ADC) nuclear detector are demonstrated for the first time. The DAM-ADC surfaces were exposed to thin {sup 241}Am disk source that emits alpha particles with activity 333 kBq. It is found that the track density of the irradiated samples remarkably influences the PL characteristics of the DAM-ADC detector. The spectral peak heights and the integrated intensities under the peaks exhibit linear correlations with correlation coefficient R{sup 2}=0.9636 and 0.9806, respectively for different alpha particle fluences ranging from 8.16–40.82×10{sup 7} particles/cm{sup 2}. Additionally, a correlation coefficient R{sup 2}=0.9734 was achieved for the UV–vis spectral analysis. The linear fitting functions, along with the corresponding fitting parameters were evaluated in each case. Both the PL and the UV–vis data of the irradiated DAM-ADC samples showed considerable spectral differences, and hence they would be used to offer sensitive approaches for alpha particle detection.

  13. Photoluminescence detection of alpha particle using DAM-ADC nuclear detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ayman M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Ali, Atif M.; Al-Sayari, S. A.; Al-Hajry, A.

    2016-09-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis spectral analysis of DAM-ADC (diallyl maleate: DAM, polyallyl diglycol carbonate: ADC) nuclear detector are demonstrated for the first time. The DAM-ADC surfaces were exposed to thin 241Am disk source that emits alpha particles with activity 333 kBq. It is found that the track density of the irradiated samples remarkably influences the PL characteristics of the DAM-ADC detector. The spectral peak heights and the integrated intensities under the peaks exhibit linear correlations with correlation coefficient R2=0.9636 and 0.9806, respectively for different alpha particle fluences ranging from 8.16-40.82×107 particles/cm2. Additionally, a correlation coefficient R2=0.9734 was achieved for the UV-vis spectral analysis. The linear fitting functions, along with the corresponding fitting parameters were evaluated in each case. Both the PL and the UV-vis data of the irradiated DAM-ADC samples showed considerable spectral differences, and hence they would be used to offer sensitive approaches for alpha particle detection.

  14. Lipoprotein Particle Size and Concentration by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Samia; Otvos, James D.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Pradhan, Aruna; Buring, Julie E.; Ridker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic dyslipoproteinemia is characterized by low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. We examined the association of lipoprotein particle size and concentration measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with clinical type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective study of 26,836 initially healthy women followed for 13 years for incident type 2 diabetes (n = 1,687). Baseline lipids were measured directly and lipoprotein size and concentration by NMR. Cox regression models included nonlipid risk factors (age, race, smoking, exercise, education, menopause, blood pressure, BMI, family history, A1C, and C-reactive protein). NMR lipoproteins were also examined after further adjusting for standard lipids. RESULTS Incident diabetes was significantly associated with baseline HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and NMR-measured size and concentration of LDL, IDL, HDL, and VLDL particles. The associations of these particles differed substantially by size. Small LDLNMR and small HDLNMR were positively associated with diabetes (quintile 5 vs. 1 [adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs], 4.04 [3.21–5.09] and 1.84 [1.54–2.19], respectively). By contrast, large LDLNMR and large HDLNMR were inversely associated (quintile 1 vs. 5, 2.50 [2.12–2.95] and 4.51 [3.68–5.52], respectively). For VLDLNMR, large particles imparted higher risk than small particles (quintile 5 vs. 1, 3.11 [2.35–4.11] and 1.31 [1.10–1.55], respectively). Lipoprotein particle size remained significant after adjusting for standard lipids and nonlipid factors. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective study of women, NMR lipoprotein size and concentrations were associated with incident type 2 diabetes and remained significant after adjustment for established risk factors, including HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:20185808

  15. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  16. Nuclear expression of lysyl oxidase enzyme is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Cox, Thomas R; Cui, Weiyingqi;

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has implicated a pivotal role for lysyl oxidase (LOX) in cancer progression and metastasis. Whilst the majority of work has focused on the extracellular matrix cross-linking role of LOX, the exact function of intracellular LOX localisation remains unclear. In this study, we anal...... the nucleus of colon cancer cell lines by confocal microscopy and Western blot. Our results show a powerful link between nuclear LOX expression in tumours and patient survival, and offer a promising prognostic biomarker for rectal cancer patients....

  17. Luminosity-variation independent location of the circum-nuclear, hot dust in NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Pott, Jorg-Uwe; Elitzur, Moshe; Ghez, Andrea M; Herbst, Tom M; Schodel, Rainer; Woillez, Julien

    2010-01-01

    After recent sensitivity upgrades at the Keck Interferometer (KI), systematic interferometric 2um studies of the innermost dust in nearby Seyfert nuclei are within observational reach. Here, we present the analysis of new interferometric data of NGC 4151, discussed in context of the results from recent dust reverberation, spectro-photometric and interferometric campaigns. The complete data set gives a complex picture, in particular the measured visibilities from now three different nights appear to be rather insensitive to the variation of the nuclear luminosity. KI data alone indicate two scenarios: the K-band emission is either dominated to ~90% by size scales smaller than 30mpc, which falls short of any dust reverberation measurement in NGC 4151 and of theoretical models of circum-nuclear dust distributions. Or contrary, and more likely, the K-band continuum emission is dominated by hot dust (>= 1300K) at linear scales of about 50mpc. The linear size estimate varies by a few tens of percent depending on th...

  18. Independent yields of neutron-rich nuclei in charged-particle induced fission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huhta, M; Dendooven, P; Honkanen, A; Lhersonneau, G; Oinonen, M; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Rubchenya, V.; Aysto, J

    1997-01-01

    Yields of fission products have been studied at the recently upgraded IGISOL facility in Jyvaskyla using 50 MeV H-2(+) beam (E-q = 25 MeV) and thin (nat)Tn and U-nat targets. The independent yields of fission products in the mass regions A = 99-112 (elements Y, Nb and Tc) and A = 127-134(elements Sn

  19. Independent yields of neutron-rich nuclei in charged-particle induced fission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huhta, M; Dendooven, P; Honkanen, A; Lhersonneau, G; Oinonen, M; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Rubchenya, V.; Aysto, J

    Yields of fission products have been studied at the recently upgraded IGISOL facility in Jyvaskyla using 50 MeV H-2(+) beam (E-q = 25 MeV) and thin (nat)Tn and U-nat targets. The independent yields of fission products in the mass regions A = 99-112 (elements Y, Nb and Tc) and A = 127-134(elements

  20. Prediction of the micro-thermo-mechanical behaviors in dispersion nuclear fuel plates with heterogeneous particle distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijie; Wang, Qiming; Cui, Yi; Huo, Yongzhong; Ding, Shurong; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yuanming

    2011-11-01

    Dispersion nuclear fuel elements have promising prospects to be used in advanced nuclear reactors and disposal of nuclear wastes. They consist of fuel meat and cladding, and the fuel meat is a kind of composite fuel in which the fuel particles are embedded in the non-fissile matrix. Prediction of the micro-thermo-mechanical behaviors in dispersion nuclear plates is of importance to their irradiation safety and optimal design. In this study, the heterogeneity of the fuel particles along the thickness direction in the fuel meat is considered. The 3D finite element models have been developed respectively for two cases: (1) variation of fuel particle-particle (PP) distances for the particles near the mid-plane of the fuel meat; (2) variation of the particle-cladding (PC) distances for the fuel particles near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding. The respective finite strain constitutive relations are developed for the fuel particle, metal matrix and cladding. The developed virtual temperature method is used to simulate irradiation swelling of the fuel particles and irradiation growth of the metal cladding. Effects of the heterogeneous distributions of the fuel particles on the micro temperature fields and the micro stress-strain fields are investigated. The obtained results indicate that: (1) as a whole, the maximum Mises stress, equivalent plastic strain and first principal stress at the matrix between the two closest particles increase with decreasing the particle-particle (PP) distance; existence of large first principal stresses there may be the main factor that induces the matrix failure; (2) variation of the particle-cladding (PC) distance has remarkable effects on the interfacial normal stress and shear stress at the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding; the first principal stress at the cladding near the interface increases dramatically when the fuel particle is closer and closer to the cladding. Thus, the proper distance between the

  1. Heterogeneity in mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential is independent of the nuclear division cycle in multinucleate fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenberger, John P; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2012-03-01

    In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm. We hypothesize that the division cycle machinery has a limited zone of influence in the cytoplasm to promote nuclear autonomy. Mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells undergo cell cycle-specific changes in morphology and membrane potential and therefore can serve as a reporter of the cell cycle state of the cytoplasm. To evaluate if the cell cycle state of nuclei in A. gossypii can influence the adjacent cytoplasm, we tested whether local mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in A. gossypii are associated with the division state of a nearby nucleus. We found that mitochondria exhibit substantial heterogeneity in both morphology and membrane potential within a single multinucleated cell. Notably, differences in mitochondrial morphology or potential are not associated with a specific nuclear division state. Heterokaryon mutants with a mixture of nuclei with deletions of and wild type for the mitochondrial fusion/fission genes DNM1 and FZO1 exhibit altered mitochondrial morphology and severe growth and sporulation defects. This dominant effect suggests that the gene products may be required locally near their expression site rather than diffusing widely in the cell. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics are essential in these large syncytial cells, yet morphology and membrane potential are independent of nuclear cycle state.

  2. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  3. Universal scaling of pT distribution of particles in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. L.; Yang, C. B.

    2007-04-01

    With the experimental data from the STAR, PHENIX, and BRAHMS programs on the centrality and rapidity dependence of the pT spectrum in Au+Au and d+Au collisions, we show that a scaling distribution exists that is independent of the colliding system, centrality, and rapidity. The parameter for the average transverse momentum increases from peripheral to central d+Au collisions. This increase accounts for the enhancement of particle production in those collisions. A nonextensive entropy is used to derive the scaling function.

  4. Separated-pair independent particle model and the generalized Brillouin theorem: ab initio calculations on the dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed to optimize the separated-pair independent particle (SPIP) wave function; it is a special case of the separated-pair theory obtained by using two-term natural expansions of the geminals. The orbitals are optimized by a theory based on the generalized Brillouin theorem and iterative configuration interaction (CI) calculations in the space of the SPIP function and its single excitations. The geminal expansion coefficients are optimized by serial 2 x 2 CI calculations. Formulas are derived for the matrix elements. An algorithm to implement the method is presented, and the work needed to evaluate the molecular integrals is discussed. (auth)

  5. Nuclear factor kappa-B signaling is integral to ocular neovascularization in ischemia-independent microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael DeNiro

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia promotes the upregulation of VEGF expression and accounts for most pathological features of retinal neovascularization (NV. Paradoxically, VEGF remains the pivotal stimulator of ocular NV, despite the absence of ischemia. Therefore, the central question arises as to how the various molecular mechanisms interplay in ischemia-independent NV. It's been suggested that NFκB plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathies. Here, we dissected the molecular mechanism of ocular NV in the rho/VEGF transgenic mouse model, which develops subretinal NV in ischemia-independent microenvironment. Furthermore, we examined whether intravitreal administration of YC-1, a HIF-1 inhibitor, can modulate the activation of NFκB and its downstream angiogenic signaling in the mouse retina. We demonstrated that YC-1 inhibited retinal NFκB/p65 DNA binding activity and downregulated NFκB/p65, FAK, α5β1, EPO, ET-1, and MMP-9 expression at the message and the protein levels. In addition, YC-1 significantly inhibited subretinal NV by reducing the number of neovascular lesions, the area of each lesion and the total area of NV per retina. We further investigated the influence of VEGF signaling pathway on HIF-1α transcriptional activity to substantiate that this mouse model develops subretinal NV in an ischemia-independent microenvironment. Our data demonstrated that VEGF overexpression didn't have any impact on HIF-1α transcriptional activity, whereas treatment with YC-1 significantly inhibited endogenous HIF-1 activity. Our study suggests that retinal NFκB transcriptional activity is pivotal to ischemia-independent mechanisms, which lead to the local activation of angiogenic cascades. Our data also indicate that the nexus between VEGF and NFκB is implicated in triggering the angiogenic cascade that promotes retinal NV. Hence, targeting the VEGF/NFκB axis may act in a negative feedback loop to suppress ocular NV. This study suggests

  6. Independent yields of neutron-rich nuclei in charged-particle induced fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhta, M.; Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Oinonen, M.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rubchenya, V.; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    Yields of fission products have been studied at the recently upgraded IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylaeusing 50 MeV H{sup +}{sub 2} beam (E{sub p}=25 MeV) and thin {sup nat}Th and {sup nat}U targets. The independent yields of fission products in the mass regions A=99-112 (elements Y, Nb and Tc) and A=127-134 (elements Sn, Sb and Te) have been obtained. Comparisons of the experimental isotopic distributions with theoretical ones are presented. Enhancement of the production rate of the doubly magic {sup 132}Sn is observed in the experimental yield curve. (orig.). 5 refs.

  7. Data-driven Model-independent Searches for Long-lived Particles at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Coccaro, Andrea; Lubatti, H J; Russell, Heather; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Neutral long-lived particles (LLPs) are highly motivated by many BSM scenarios, such as theories of supersymmetry, baryogenesis, and neutral naturalness, and present both tremendous discovery opportunities and experimental challenges for the LHC. A major bottleneck for current LLP searches is the prediction of SM backgrounds, which are often impossible to simulate accurately. In this paper, we propose a general strategy for obtaining differential, data-driven background estimates in LLP searches, thereby notably extending the range of LLP masses and lifetimes that can be discovered at the LHC. We focus on LLPs decaying in the ATLAS Muon System, where triggers providing both signal and control samples are available at the LHC Run-2. While many existing searches require two displaced decays, a detailed knowledge of backgrounds will allow for very inclusive searches that require just one detected LLP decay. As we demonstrate for the $h \\to X X$ signal model of LLP pair production in exotic Higgs decays, this res...

  8. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  9. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues.

  10. Model-independent tracking of criticality signals in nuclear multifragmentation data

    CERN Document Server

    Frankland, J D; Mignon, A; Begemann-Blaich, M L; Bittiger, R; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Charvet, J L; Cussol, D; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Escano-Rodriguez, C; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; Lefèvre, A; Legrain, R; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Lukasik, J; Lynen, U; Manduci, L; Marie, J; Müller, W F J; Orth, H; Pârlog, M; Pichon, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Saija, A; Schwarz, C; Sfienti, C; Tamain, B; Trautmann, W; Trczinski, A; Turzó, K; Van Lauwe, A; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P; Zwieglinski, B; ccsd-00001474, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    We look for signals of criticality in multifragment production in heavy-ion collisions using model-independent universal fluctuations theory. The phenomenon is studied as a function of system size, bombarding energy, and impact parameter in a wide range of INDRA data. For very central collisions (b/b_max < 0.1) we find evidence that the largest fragment in each event, Z_max, plays the role of an order parameter, defining two different "phases" at low and high incident energy, respectively, according to the scaling properties of its fluctuations. Data for a wide range of system masses and incident energies collapse on to an approximately universal scaling function in each phase for the most central collisions. The forms of the scaling functions for the two phases are established, and their dependence on the total mass and the bombarding energy is mapped out. Data suggest that these phases are linked to the disappearance of heavy residues in central collisions.

  11. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect II: Effects of variations of the fuel particle diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Wang, Qiming; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-02-01

    In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.

  12. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect I: Effects of variations of the fuel particle volume fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Yan, Xiaoqing; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-05-01

    A new method of modeling the in-pile mechanical behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel elements is proposed. Considering the irradiation swelling together with the thermal effect, numerical simulations of the in-pile mechanical behaviors are performed with the developed finite element models for different fuel particle volume fractions of the fuel meat. The effects of the particle volume fractions on the mechanical performances of the fuel element are studied. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the particle volume fractions at each burnup; the locations of the maximum first principal stresses shift with increasing burnup; at low burnups, the maximum first principal stresses increase with the particle volume fractions; while at high burnups, the 20% volume fraction case holds the lowest value; (2) at the cladding, the maximum equivalent plastic strains and the tensile principal stresses increase with the particle volume fractions; while the maximum Mises stresses do not follow this order at high burnups; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles increase with the particle volume fractions, and the particles will engender plastic strains until the particle volume fraction reaches high enough.

  13. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wertheim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  14. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  15. Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).

  16. Measurement and evaluation of the excitation functions for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on niobium

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkanyi, F; Szelecsenyi, F; Sonck, M; Hermanne, A

    2002-01-01

    Alpha particle induced nuclear reactions were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural niobium targets up to 43 MeV. Excitation functions were measured for the production of sup 9 sup 6 sup m sup g Tc, sup 9 sup 5 sup m Tc, sup 9 sup 5 sup g Tc, sup 9 sup 4 sup g Tc, sup 9 sup 5 sup m sup g Nb and sup 9 sup 2 sup m Nb. Cumulative cross-sections, thick target yields and activation functions were deduced and compared with available literature data. Applications of the excitation functions in the field of thin layer activation techniques and beam monitoring are also discussed.

  17. γ-Particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagatto, V.A.B., E-mail: vinicius.zagatto@gmail.com [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, J.R.B.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L.R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Lubian, J.; Linares, R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Brazil); Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitário da FEI (Brazil); Rossi, E.S. [Centro Universitário FIEO – UNIFIEO (Brazil); Nobre, G.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Saci-Perere γ ray spectrometer (located at the Pelletron AcceleratorLaboratory – IFUSP) was employed to implement the γ-particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reaction mechanisms. For this, the {sup 18}O+{sup 110}Pd reaction has been studied in the beam energy range of 45–54 MeV. Several corrections to the data due to various effects (energy and angle integrations, beam spot size, γ detector finite size and the vacuum de-alignment) are small and well controlled. The aim of this work was to establish a proper method to analyze the data and identify the reaction mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal the inelastic scattering to the first excited state of {sup 110}Pd has been extracted and compared to coupled channel calculations using the São Paulo Potential (PSP), being reasonably well described by it.

  18. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, N.; Casini, G.; Frosini, M.; Tobia, G.; Marchi, T.

    2008-05-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their α/γ-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  19. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@fi.infn.it; Casini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Frosini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Tobia, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Marchi, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their {alpha}/{gamma}-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  20. Grain size evaluation of structural materials in nuclear power plant using a thickness independent ultrasonic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiongbing, E-mail: lixb_ex@163.com [CAD/CAM Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410075 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Song, Yongfeng [CAD/CAM Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410075 (China); Ni, Peijun [The Ningbo Branch of Ordnance Science Institute of China, Ningbo 315103 (China); Wang, Zi; Liu, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Du, Hualong [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: •We derive a coefficient of ultrasonic attenuation rate related to the grain size. •The mean grain size of the pipe can be evaluated without measuring its thickness. •Experiments show this method is better suited to square pipe than other methods. -- Abstract: It is important to accurately and nondestructively evaluate the grain size of structural materials used in nuclear power plants. The current ultrasonic non-destructive methods are so dependent on the thickness measurement of a square pipe that it reduces their practicality and reliability. In this paper, a novel method using the coefficient of ultrasonic attenuation rate is developed by using the transmission and reflection coefficients. As a result, the mean grain size of the pipe can be nondestructively evaluated without measuring its thickness. Moreover, the signal preprocessing is studied to improve the stability and accuracy of evaluation results. The experimental results show that the dependence of the attenuation rate on grain sizes is much higher than that of the ultrasonic velocity. The relative error of the attenuation rate method is lower than that of the backscatter method if the thickness of the sample is less than 5 mm. When evaluating a TP304 stainless steel square pipe whose thickness is not convenient to measure, the mean grain sizes are measured 103.5 ± 2.6 μm, 96.9 ± 3.5 μm and 94.0 ± 1.7 μm by the attenuation method, the attenuation rate method and the electron backscattering diffraction method, respectively. The result verifies that the presented method works better than the attenuation method due to the fact that the error of the thickness measurement has no effect on the ultrasonic attenuation rate.

  1. Beyond the Quasi-Particle picture in Nuclear Matter calculations using Green's function techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, H S

    2006-01-01

    Widths of low-lying states in nuclei are of the order of 30 MeV. These large widths are a consequence of the strong interactions leading to a strongly correlated many body system at the typical densities of nuclear matter. Nevertheless "traditional" Brueckner calculations treat these states as quasiparticles i.e. with spectral functions of zero widths. The width is related to the imaginary part of the selfenergy and is included selfconsistently in an extension of the Brueckner theory using T-matrix and Green's function techniques. A more general formulation applicable also to non-equilibrium systems is contained in the Kadanoff-Baym (KB) equations while still maintaining the basic many-body techniques of Bruecknet theory. In the present work the two-time KB-equations are time-stepped along the imaginary time-axis to calculate the binding energy of nuclear matter as a function of density, including the spectral widths self-consistently. These zero temperature calculations are compared with quasi-particle calcu...

  2. Electromagnetic polarisabilities of the proton in an independent particle potential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N. [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswer (India). P.G. Dept. of Phys.; Dash, B.K. [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswer (India). P.G. Dept. of Phys.; Das, P. [Department of Physics, Kendrapara College, Kendrapara-754211 (India); Panda, A.R. [Department of Physics, Kendrapara College, Kendrapara-754211 (India)

    1996-08-19

    We consider the electric and magnetic polarisabilities of the proton including the valence quark as well as pion dressing effects in an independent quark model with an effective scalar-vector harmonic potential which renders the solvability of relativistic Dirac equations for confined quarks, and has in fact acted as an alternative to the cloudy bag model (CBM). This model which has been applied successfully to a variety of hadronic problems is also observed here to yield the electromagnetic polarisabilities of the proton satisfactorily without any free parameters. The electric and magnetic polarisabilities, including valence quark core and pion cloud effects, obtained here as anti {alpha}{sub P}=14.074.10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and anti {beta}{sub P}=3.155.10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}, are well within the uncertainties of their experimental measurements of (10.9{+-}2.2{+-}1.4).10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and (3.3{+-}2.2{+-}1.4).10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}, respectively and are also in agreement with other model estimations. (orig.).

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus assembles into structured filamentous virion particles independently of host cytoskeleton and related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyza Y Shaikh

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a single-stranded RNA virus that assembles into viral filaments at the cell surface. Virus assembly often depends on the ability of a virus to use host proteins to accomplish viral tasks. Since the fusion protein cytoplasmic tail (FCT is critical for viral filamentous assembly, we hypothesized that host proteins important for viral assembly may be recruited by the FCT. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that filamin A interacted with FCT, and mammalian cell experiments showed it localized to viral filaments but did not affect viral replication. Furthermore, we found that a number of actin-associated proteins also were excluded from viral filaments. Actin or tubulin cytoskeletal rearrangement was not necessary for F trafficking to the cell surface or for viral assembly into filaments, but was necessary for optimal viral replication and may be important for anchoring viral filaments. These findings suggest that RSV assembly into filaments occurs independently of actin polymerization and that viral proteins are the principal drivers for the mechanical tasks involved with formation of complex, structured RSV filaments at the host cell plasma membrane.

  4. Classification of hot particles from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapons detonations by non-destructive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltonozhsky, V; Mück, K; Bondarkov, M

    2001-01-01

    Both after the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon detonations, agglomerates of radioactive material, so-called hot particles, were released or formed which show a behaviour in the environment quite different from the activity released in gaseous or aerosol form. The differences in their characteristic properties, in the radionuclide composition and the uranium and actinide contents are described in detail for these particles. While nuclear bomb hot particles (both from fission and fusion bombs) incorporate well detectable trace amounts of 60Co and 152Eu, these radionuclides are absent in Chernobyl hot particles. In contrast, Chernobyl hot particles contain 125Sb and 144Ce which are absent in atomic bomb HPs. Obvious differences are also observable between fusion and fission bombs' hot particles (significant differences in 152Eu/l55Eu, 154Eu/155Eu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios) which facilitate the identification of HPs of unknown provensence. The ratio of 239Pu/240Pu in Chernobyl hot particles could be determined by a non-destructive method at 1:1.5. A non-destructive method to determine the content of non-radioactive elements by Kalpha-emission measurements was developed by which inactive Zr, Nb, Fe and Ni could be verified in the particles.

  5. A novel bipartite nuclear localization signal guides BPM1 protein to nucleolus suggesting its Cullin3 independent function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Leljak Levanić

    Full Text Available BPM1 belongs to the MATH-BTB family of proteins, which act as substrate-binding adaptors for the Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. MATH-BTB proteins associate with Cullin3 via the BTB domain and with the substrate protein via the MATH domain. Few BPM1-interacting proteins with different functions are recognized, however, specific roles of BPM1, depending on its cellular localization have not been studied so far. Here, we found a novel bipartite nuclear localization signal at the C-terminus of the BPM1 protein, responsible for its nuclear and nucleolar localization and sufficient to drive the green fluorescent protein and cytoplasmic BPM4 protein into the nucleus. Co-localization analysis in live Nicotiana tabacum BY2 cells indicates a Cullin3 independent function since BPM1 localization is predominantly nucleolar and thus devoid of Cullin3. Treatment of BY2 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocks BPM1 and Cullin3 degradation, suggesting turnover of both proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Possible roles of BPM1 in relation to its in vivo localization are discussed.

  6. Serotonin increases cilia-driven particle transport via an acetylcholine-independent pathway in the mouse trachea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter König

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucociliary clearance in the airways is driven by the coordinated beating of ciliated cells. Classical neuromediators such as noradrenalin and acetylcholine increase ciliary beat frequency and thus cilia-driven transport. Despite the fact that the neuromediator serotonin is ciliostimulatory in invertebrates and has been implied in releasing acetylcholine from the airway epithelium, its role in regulating cilia function in vertebrate airways is not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of serotonin on ciliary beat frequency and cilia-driven particle transport in the acutely excised submerged mouse trachea and determined the sources of serotonin in this tissue by immunohistochemistry. Serotonin (100 microM increased cilary beat frequency (8.9+/-1.2 Hz to 17.0+/-2.7 Hz and particle transport speed (38.9+/-4.6 microm/s to 83.4+/-8.3 microm/s to an extent that was comparable to a supramaximal dose of ATP. The increase in particle transport speed was totally prevented by methysergide (100 microM. Blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine (1 microM did not reduce the effect of serotonin, although it was effective in preventing the increase in particle transport speed mediated by muscarine (100 microM. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated serotonin in mast cells pointing towards mast cells and platelets as possible endogenous sources of serotonin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that serotonin is a likely endogenous mediator that can increase cilia-driven transport independent from acetylcholine during activation of mast cells and platelets.

  7. Serotonin Increases Cilia-Driven Particle Transport via an Acetylcholine-Independent Pathway in the Mouse Trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Gabriela; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Mucociliary clearance in the airways is driven by the coordinated beating of ciliated cells. Classical neuromediators such as noradrenalin and acetylcholine increase ciliary beat frequency and thus cilia-driven transport. Despite the fact that the neuromediator serotonin is ciliostimulatory in invertebrates and has been implied in releasing acetylcholine from the airway epithelium, its role in regulating cilia function in vertebrate airways is not established. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of serotonin on ciliary beat frequency and cilia-driven particle transport in the acutely excised submerged mouse trachea and determined the sources of serotonin in this tissue by immunohistochemistry. Serotonin (100 µM) increased cilary beat frequency (8.9±1.2 Hz to 17.0±2.7 Hz) and particle transport speed (38.9±4.6 µm/s to 83.4±8.3 µm/s) to an extent that was comparable to a supramaximal dose of ATP. The increase in particle transport speed was totally prevented by methysergide (100 µM). Blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine (1 µM) did not reduce the effect of serotonin, although it was effective in preventing the increase in particle transport speed mediated by muscarine (100 µM). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated serotonin in mast cells pointing towards mast cells and platelets as possible endogenous sources of serotonin. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that serotonin is a likely endogenous mediator that can increase cilia-driven transport independent from acetylcholine during activation of mast cells and platelets. PMID:19290057

  8. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary eZeitlin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss and nuclear. Models of transport such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs. GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we therefore exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk reduced by fragmentation, but it can be argued that fragmentation also reduces the

  9. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  10. 3D imaging of particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionizing decay products is known to cause lung cancer in human. In the U.K., it has been suggested that 3 to 5 % of total lung cancer deaths can be linked to elevated radon concentrations in the home and/or workplace. Radon monitoring in buildings is therefore routinely undertaken in areas of known risk. Indeed, some organisations such as the Radon Council in the UK and the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA, advocate a ‘to test is best' policy. Radon gas occurs naturally, emanating from the decay of 238U in rock and soils. Its concentration can be measured using CR?39 plastic detectors which conventionally are assessed by 2D image analysis of the surface; however there can be some variation in outcomes / readings even in closely spaced detectors. A number of radon measurement methods are currently in use (for examples, activated carbon and electrets) but the most widely used are CR?39 solid state nuclear track?etch detectors (SSNTDs). In this technique, heavily ionizing alpha particles leave tracks in the form of radiation damage (via interaction between alpha particles and the atoms making up the CR?39 polymer). 3D imaging of the tracks has the potential to provide information relating to angle and energy of alpha particles but this could be time consuming. Here we describe a new method for rapid high resolution 3D imaging of SSNTDs. A ‘LEXT' OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope was used in confocal mode to successfully obtain 3D image data on four CR?39 plastic detectors. 3D visualisation and image analysis enabled characterisation of track features. This method may provide a means of rapid and detailed 3D analysis of SSNTDs. Keywords: Radon; SSNTDs; confocal laser scanning microscope; 3D imaging; LEXT

  11. Production of high-PT cumulative particles in proton-nuclear interactions at 50 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V V; Viktorov, V A; Gapienko, V A; Gapienko, G S; Gres, V N; Korotkov, V A; Mysnik, A I; Prudkoglyad, A F; Sviridov, Yu M; Semak, A A; Terekhov, V I; Uglekov, V Ya; Ukhanov, M N; Chuiko, B V; Baldin, A A; Shimanskiy, S S

    2014-01-01

    The data on production of cumulative particles in the high transverse momenta domain (up to ~ 3.5 GeV/c) in proton-nuclear interactions are presented for the first time. An indication on the local character of particle production in the cumulative domain is obtained. The observed strong dependence of the particle production cross section on the atomic mass of the target does not fit the A - dependence obtained in the pre-cumulative and cumulative domains for low transverse momenta at constant part of the exponent. The experiment was performed at U70 (IHEP) with the extracted 50 GeV/c proton beam.

  12. Investigation of uranium isotopic signatures in real-life particles from a nuclear facility by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiem, Monia; Richter, Stephan; Kühn, Heinz; Stefaniak, Elzbieta A; Kerckhove, Giovani; Truyens, Jan; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2011-04-15

    An improved method was recently developed for the isotopic analysis of single-reference uranium oxide particles for nuclear safeguards. This method is a combination of analytical tools including in situ SEM micromanipulation, filament carburization and multiple ion counting (MIC) detection, which is found to improve sensitivity for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) isotope ratio analysis. The question was raised whether this method could be applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in real-life particles with unknown isotopic composition. Therefore, environmental dust was collected in different locations within a nuclear facility. The screening of the samples to find the uranium particles of interest was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) detector. The comparison of the measurement results to reference data evaluated by international safeguards authorities was of key importance for data interpretation. For the majority of investigated particles, detection of uranium isotopic signatures provided information on current and past nuclear feed operations that compared well with facility declarations.

  13. The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Paysics.Nuclear Paysic8and Cosmology was held on July 22-27,2007 in Lijiang,Yunan Province.Over 70 scientists who were activelv working in the fields attended the conference and 42 physicists gave talks.9 papers have been selected to be published in the proceedings.

  14. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  15. Effects of alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide on osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand expression in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells exposed to polyethylene particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauther Max D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies demonstrated an impact of the nervous system on particle-induced osteolysis, the major cause of aseptic loosening of joint replacements. Methods In this study of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells we analyzed the influence of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles and the neurotransmitter alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP on the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factorκB (OPG/RANKL/RANK system. MG-63 cells were stimulated by different UHMWPE particle concentrations (1:100, 1:500 and different doses of alpha-CGRP (10-7 M, 10-9 M, 10-11 M. RANKL and OPG mRNA expression and protein levels were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Results Increasing particle concentrations caused an up-regulation of RANKL after 72 hours. Alpha-CGRP showed a dose-independent depressive effect on particle-induced expression of RANKL mRNA in both cell-particle ratios. RANKL gene transcripts were significantly (P -7 M lead to an up-regulation of OPG protein. Conclusion In conclusion, a possible osteoprotective influence of the neurotransmitter alpha-CGRP on particle stimulated osteoblast-like cells could be shown. Alpha-CGRP might be important for bone metabolism under conditions of particle-induced osteolysis.

  16. N-Terminally Myristoylated Feline Foamy Virus Gag Allows Env-Independent Budding of Sub-Viral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Boum Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses (FVs are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV, particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N‑terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation.

  17. Coupling quantum Monte Carlo and independent-particle calculations: self-consistent constraint for the sign problem based on density or density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations in interacting fermion systems require a constraint to control the sign problem. The constraint involves an input trial wave function which restricts the random walks. We introduce a systematically improvable constraint which relies on the fundamental role of the density or one-body density matrix. An independent-particle calculation is coupled to an auxiliary-field QMC calculation. The independent-particle solution is used as the constraint in QMC, which then produces the input density or density matrix for the next iteration. The constraint is optimized by the self-consistency between the many-body and independent-particle calculations. The approach is demonstrated in the two-dimensional Hubbard model by accurately determining the spin densities when collective modes separated by tiny energy scales are present in the magnetic and charge correlations. Our approach also provides an ab initio way to predict effective "U" parameters for independent-par...

  18. Integration of a model-independent interface for RBE predictions in a treatment planning system for active particle beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsträter, O; Scholz, U; Friedrich, T; Krämer, M; Grün, R; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-07

    Especially for heavier ions such as carbon ions, treatment planning systems (TPSs) for ion radiotherapy depend on models predicting the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the particles involved. Such models are subject to intensive research and the choice of the optimal RBE model is a matter of debate. On the other hand TPSs are often strongly coupled to particular RBE models and transition even to extended models of the same family can be difficult. We present here a model-independent interface which allows the unbiased use of any RBE model capable of providing dose-effect curves (even sampled curves) for a TPS. The full decoupling between the RBE model and TPS is based on the beam-mixing model proposed by Lam which is, in contrast to the often-used Zaider-Rossi model, independent of the explicit form of the underlying dose-effect curves. This approach not only supports the refinement of RBE models without adaptations of the TPS--which we demonstrate by means of the local effect model (LEM)--but also allows the comparison of very different model approaches on a common basis. We exemplify this by a comparison between the LEM and a model from the literature for proton RBE prediction.

  19. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  20. Characteristics and fabrication of cermet spent nuclear fuel casks: ceramic particles embedded in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Swaney, P.M.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Cermets are being investigated as an advanced material of construction for casks that can be used for storage, transport, or disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Cermets, which consist of ceramic particles embedded in steel, are a method to incorporate brittle ceramics with highly desirable properties into a strong ductile metal matrix with a high thermal conductivity, thus combining the best properties of both materials. Traditional applications of cermets include tank armor, vault armor, drill bits, and nuclear test-reactor fuel. Cermets with different ceramics (DUO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.) are being investigated for the manufacture of SNF casks. Cermet casks offer four potential benefits: greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same gross weight cask, greater capacity (more SNF assemblies) for the same external dimensions, improved resistance to assault, and superior repository performance. These benefits are achieved by varying the composition, volume fraction, and particulate size of the ceramic particles in the cermet with position in the cask body. Addition of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) to the cermet increases shielding density, improves shielding effectiveness, and increases cask capacity for a given cask weight or size. Addition of low-density aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to the outer top and bottom sections of the cermet cask, where the radiation levels are lower, can lower cask weight without compromising shielding. The use of Al2O3 and other oxides, in appropriate locations, can increase resistance to assault. Repository performance may be improved by compositional control of the cask body to (1) create a local geochemical environment that slows the long-term degradation of the SNF and (2) enables the use of DUO{sub 2} for longterm criticality control. While the benefits of using cermets follow directly from their known properties, the primary challenge is to develop low-cost methods to fabricate

  1. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  2. Unified model-independent S -matrix description of nuclear rainbow, prerainbow, and anomalous large-angle scattering in 4He-40Ca elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, V. Yu.; Molev, A. S.; Klepikov, V. F.; Korda, L. P.

    2015-02-01

    Using the evolutionary model-independent S -matrix approach, we show that a simultaneous correct description of the pictures of nuclear rainbow, prerainbow, and anomalous large-angle scattering (ALAS) in the 4He-40Ca elastic scattering can be achieved with help of the S -matrix moduli and the real nuclear phases exhibiting smooth monotonic dependencies on angular momentum, while the quantum deflection functions have a form characteristic of the nuclear rainbow case. The special role of the surface partial waves in the formation of ALAS is revealed.

  3. Size distribution of radioactive particles collected at Tokai, Japan 6 days after the nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Magara, Masaaki

    2014-06-01

    Airborne radioactive particles released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011 were collected with a cascade low-pressure impactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Tokai, Japan, 114 km south of the FDNPP. Size-fractionated samples were collected twice, in the periods of March 17-April 1, 2011, and May 9-13, 2011. These size-fractionated samplings were carried out in the earliest days at a short distance from the FDNPP. Radioactivity of short-lived nuclides (several ten days of half-life) was determined as well as (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The elemental composition of size-fractionated samples was also measured. In the first collection, the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of (129m)Te, (140)Ba, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs was 1.5-1.6 μm, while the diameter of (131)I was 0.45 μm. The diameters of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the second collection were expressed as three peaks at fractions was 0.91. A distribution map of (134)Cs/(137)Cs - (136)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was helpful in understanding the change of radioactive Cs composition. The Cs composition of size fractions released from the three reactors at the FDNPP via different processes.

  4. Highly sensitive detection of protein biomarkers via nuclear magnetic resonance biosensor with magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Hakho; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    Magnetic-based biosensors are attractive for on-site detection of biomarkers due to the low magnetic susceptibility of biological samples. Here, we report a highly sensitive magnetic-based biosensing system that is composed of a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) device and magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles (NFPs). The sensing performance, also identified as the transverse relaxation (R2) rate, of the NMR device is directly related to the magnetic properties of the NFPs. Therefore, we developed magnetically engineered NFPs (MnMg-NFP) and used them as NMR agents to exhibit a significantly improved R2 rate. The magnetization of the MnMg-NFPs was increased by controlling the Mn and Mg cation concentration and distribution during the synthesis process. This modification of the Mn and Mg cation directly contributed to improving the R2 rate. The miniaturized NMR system, combined with the magnetically engineered MnMg-NFPs, successfully detected a small amount of infectious influenza A H1N1 nucleoprotein with high sensitivity and stability.

  5. Nuclear envelope-associated dynein drives prophase centrosome separation and enables Eg5-independent bipolar spindle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Jonne A; van Heesbeen, Roy G H P; Meaders, Johnathan L; Geers, Erica F; Fernandez-Garcia, Belen; Medema, René H; Tanenbaum, Marvin E

    2012-11-05

    The microtubule motor protein kinesin-5 (Eg5) provides an outward force on centrosomes, which drives bipolar spindle assembly. Acute inhibition of Eg5 blocks centrosome separation and causes mitotic arrest in human cells, making Eg5 an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. Using in vitro directed evolution, we show that human cells treated with Eg5 inhibitors can rapidly acquire the ability to divide in the complete absence of Eg5 activity. We have used these Eg5-independent cells to study alternative mechanisms of centrosome separation. We uncovered a pathway involving nuclear envelope (NE)-associated dynein that drives centrosome separation in prophase. This NE-dynein pathway is essential for bipolar spindle assembly in the absence of Eg5, but also functions in the presence of full Eg5 activity, where it pulls individual centrosomes along the NE and acts in concert with Eg5-dependent outward pushing forces to coordinate prophase centrosome separation. Together, these results reveal how the forces are produced to drive prophase centrosome separation and identify a novel mechanism of resistance to kinesin-5 inhibitors.

  6. Expression change of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) in androgen independence prostate cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Dao-ju; JIANG Jun; WANG Luo-fu; ZHANG Yao; WAND Dong

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) in androgen independence prostate cancer (AIPC) and its clinical significance. Methods:The expression of NCoR and androgen receptor (AR) in prostatic tissues, from 15 cases with AIPC, 20 cases with androgen dependence prostate cancer (ADPC) and 20 cases with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), was detected by immunohistochemistry respectively. Results:The expression of NCoR was observed mainly in the nucleus and slightly in the nucleus. The positive cell percentage of NCoR in AIPC was significantly lower than that in ADPC and BPH (P<0.01). The NCoR expression was significantly lower in low differentiation prostate cancer (Pca) than that in high differentiation Pca (P<0.05). The rate of NCoR expression was significantly higher in low stage Pca than that in high stage Pca (P<0.05). AR, expressing in the nucleus, was found to be negative in one case of AIPC, while was strongly expressed in other cases of AIPC, and all cases of ADPC and BPH. Conclusion: The transition to AIPC of Pca may be correlated with the decrease of NCoR protein.

  7. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Derome, L; Pignol, G

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  8. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-01

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  9. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrion, O., E-mail: olivier.bourrion@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-11

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  10. Effect of PCSK9 Inhibition by Alirocumab on Lipoprotein Particle Concentrations Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Michael J; Kereiakes, Dean; Pourfarzib, Ray; Winegar, Deborah; Banerjee, Poulabi; Hamon, Sara; Hanotin, Corinne; McKenney, James M

    2015-11-19

    In patients with discordance between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and LDL particle (LDL-P) concentrations, cardiovascular risk more closely correlates with LDL-P. We investigated the effect of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, on lipoprotein particle concentration and size in hypercholesterolemic patients, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma samples were collected from patients receiving alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks (n=26) or placebo (n=31) during a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients (LDL cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL) on a stable atorvastatin dose. In this post hoc analysis, percentage change in concentrations of LDL-P, very-low-density lipoprotein particles, and high-density lipoprotein particles from baseline to week 12 was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Alirocumab significantly reduced mean concentrations of total LDL-P (-63.3% versus -1.0% with placebo) and large (-71.3% versus -21.8%) and small (-54.0% versus +17.8%) LDL-P subfractions and total very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations (-36.4% versus +33.4%; all Plipoprotein particles increased with alirocumab (+11.2% versus +1.4% with placebo; Plipoprotein particles (2.8%) with alirocumab. LDL-P size remained relatively unchanged in both groups; however, very-low-density and high-density lipoprotein particle sizes increased to a significantly greater extent with alirocumab. Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and LDL-P concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients receiving stable atorvastatin therapy. These findings may be of particular relevance to patients with discordant LDL-C and LDL-P concentrations. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01288443. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Measurements of charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factor in p+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Balek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the LHC obtained the sample of p+Pb data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}={}$5.02TeV with integrated luminosity of 25nb${}^{-1}$, which can be compared to the pp data obtained by interpolating pp measurements at $\\sqrt{s}={}$2.76TeV and 7TeV. Due to the excellent capabilities of the ATLAS detector, and its stable operation in heavy ion as well as proton-proton physics runs, the data allow measurements of the nuclear modification factor, ratio of heavy ion charged particle spectra divided by pp reference, in different centrality classes over a wide range of rapidity. The charged particle nuclear modification factor is found to vary significantly as a function of transverse momentum with a stronger dependence in more peripheral collisions.

  12. Intra-Nuclear Single-Particle Tracking (I-SPT) to Reveal the Functional Architecture of Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récamier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome architecture needs to be investigated in relation with the chemical function of DNA. The kinetics of gene expression, DNA replication, and repair are driven by the mechanisms by which a functional nuclear protein finds its substrate in the nucleus. Single-particle tracking (SPT) is a method to quantify fluorescent molecules dynamics from the tracks of the single molecules recorded by high-resolution microscopes. SPT offers direct observation of the movement and single-molecule resolution. Usually SPT is performed on membranes because of higher contrast. Here, we introduce a novel method to record the trajectories of weakly fluorescent molecules in the nucleus of living cells. I-SPT uses some specific detection and analysis tools to enable the computation of reliable statistics on nuclear particle movement.

  13. Aptamer-initiated on-particle template-independent enzymatic polymerization (aptamer-OTEP) for electrochemical analysis of tumor biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjuan; Wan, Ying; Deng, Shengyuan; Yang, Shulin; Su, Yan; Fan, Chunhai; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei

    2016-12-15

    Herein, an aptamer-initiated on-particle template-independent enzymatic polymerization (aptamer-OTEP) strategy for electrochemical aptasensor (E-aptasensor) is developed for analysis of cancer biomarker carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). A pair of DNA aptamers is employed which can be specifically bond with CEA simultaneously. One of the aptamer is thiolated at 3'-terminal and immobilized onto the gold electrode as a capture probe, while the other one has a thiol group at its 5'-terminal and is modified onto the gold nanoparticles surface to form a nanoprobe. In the present of target, the two aptamers can "sandwich" the target, thus the nanoprobe is attached to the electrode. Then terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is employed to catalyze the incorporation of biotin labeled dNTPs into the 3'-OH terminals of the DNA aptamer on the nanoprobe. The as-generated long DNA oligo tentacles allow specific binding of numerous avidin modified horseradish peroxidase (Av-HRP), resulting in tens of thousands of HRP catalyzed reduction of hydrogen peroxide and sharply increasing electrochemical signals. Taking advantage of the enzyme based nucleic acid amplification and nanoprobe, this strategy is demonstrated to possess the outstanding amplification efficiency.

  14. Applications of Hubble Volume in Atomic Physics, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Quantum Physics and Cosmic Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. S. Seshavatharam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to emphasize the major shortcomings of standard cosmology. It can be suggested that, the current cosmological changes can be understood by studying the atom and the atomic nucleus through ground based experiments. If light is coming from the atoms of the gigantic galaxy, then redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. In no way it seems to be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. With ‘cosmological increasing (emitted photon energy’, observed cosmic redshift can be considered as a measure of the age difference between our galaxy and any observed galaxy. If it is possible to show that, (from the observer older galaxy’s distance increases with its ‘age’, then ‘galaxy receding’ and ‘accelerating universe’ concepts can be put for a revision at fundamental level. At any given cosmic time, the product of ‘critical density’ and ‘Hubble volume’ gives a characteristic cosmic mass and it can be called as the ‘Hubble mass’. Interesting thing is that, Schwarzschild radius of the ‘Hubble mass’ again matches with the ‘Hubble length’. Most of the cosmologists believe that this is merely a coincidence. At any given cosmic time,’Hubble length’ can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. If one is willing to think in this direction, by increasing the number of applications of Hubble mass and Hubble volume in other areas of fundamental physics like quantum physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics and particle physics - slowly and gradually - in a progressive way, concepts of ‘Black hole Cosmology’ can be strengthened and can also be confirmed.

  15. The 15th AINSE nuclear and particle conference at the 6th APPC and 11th AIP congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 AINSE conference was held in Brisbane, at Griffith University in conjunction with the 6th APPC and the 11th Australian Institute of Physics Congress. It focused on physics of elementary particles and fields, nuclear reactions and scattering, neutrinos and dark matter. The proceedings booklet contains the conference programme and talks summaries. Seventy one papers out of the 73 contributions were indexed separately for inclusion in the INIS database.

  16. The rapidity and centrality dependence of nuclear modification factors at RHIC - what does bulk particle production tell us about the nuclear medium?

    CERN Document Server

    Samset, B H; Bearden, I G; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindal, S; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; McBreen, B; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Norris, J; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S

    2004-01-01

    The BRAHMS experiment at RHIC has measured the production of charged hadrons as a function of pseudorapidity and transverse momentum in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at a common energy of sqrt(s_NN)=200GeV, and from these spectra we construct the nuclear modification factors for both ``hot'' and ``cold'' nuclear matter. In this contribution I will show how these factors evolve with pseudorapidity and collision centrality. We see a Cronin-like enhancement in d+Au collisions at midrapidity, going to a strong suppression at eta >= 2. In central Au+Au collisions we find a suppression both at mid- and forward rapidities that vanishes for peripheral collisions. We interpret this as signs of several different medium related effects modifying bulk particle production in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC energies.

  17. Nuclear effects on ion heating within the small-angle charged-particle elastic-scattering regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A.; Hale, G. M.

    1984-10-01

    The effects of nuclear forces (in contrast to pure Coulomb interaction) on the ion heating rate which results from small-angle scattering processes between charged particles in plasmas are investigated within the framework of Fokker-Planck theory. These effects are included through the addition of analytic Coulomb-nuclear interference and nuclear elastic cross sections in the scattering integrals of the dynamical friction coefficient and dispersion tensor. It is found that corrections to traditional Fokker-Planck predictions of the ion-ion energy exchange rate can be calculated and that these corrections are sensitive to the choice of the maximum scattering angle defining the cutoff between small- and large-angle scattering.

  18. Optic neuritis is associated with inner nuclear layer thickening and microcystic macular edema independently of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Kaufhold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microcystic macular edema (MME and inner nuclear layer thickening (INL were described in multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT. The cause of these findings is currently unknown and a relation to inflammatory or degenerative processes in the optic nerve is discussed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate whether INL thickening and MME are related to optic neuritis (ON in various neuro-inflammatory disorders causingON: MS, NMO and chronic inflammatory optic neuropathy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 216 MS patients, 39 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome, 20 NMO spectrum disorder patients, 9 patients with chronic inflammatory optic neuropathy and 121 healthy subjects. Intra-retinal layer segmentation was performed for the eyes of patients with unilateral ON. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO images were reviewed for characteristic ocular fundus changes. RESULTS: Intra-retinal layer segmentation showed that eyes with a history of ON displayed MME independent INL thickening compared to contralateral eyes without previous ON. MME was detected in 22 eyes from 15 patients (5.3% of all screened patients, including 7 patients with bilateral edema. Of these, 21 had a prior history of ON (95%. The SLO images of all 22 MME-affected eyes showed crescent-shaped texture changes which were visible in the perifoveal region. A second grader who was blinded to the results of the OCT classified all SLO images for the presence of these characteristic fundus changes. All MME eyes were correctly classified (sensitivity = 100% with high specificity (95.2%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that both MME and INL thickening occur in various neuro-inflammatory disorders associated with ON. We also demonstrate that detection and analysis of MME by OCT is not limited to B-scans, but also possible using SLO images.

  19. Domain Cell Theory supports the independent evolution of the Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea and the Nuclear Compartment Commonality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James T

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, the Royal Society of London held a meeting to discuss the various hypotheses regarding the origin of the Eukarya. Although not all participants supported a hypothesis, the proposals that did fit into two broad categories: one group favoured 'Prokaryotes First' hypotheses and another addressed 'Eukaryotes First' hypotheses. Those who proposed Prokaryotes First hypotheses advocated either a fusion event between a bacterium and an archaeon that produced the first eukaryote or the direct evolution of the Eukarya from the Archaea. The Eukaryotes First proponents posit that the eukaryotes evolved initially and then, by reductive evolution, produced the Bacteria and Archaea. No mention was made of another previously published hypothesis termed the Nuclear Compartment Commonality (NuCom) hypothesis, which proposed the evolution of the Eukarya and Bacteria from nucleated ancestors (Staley 2013 Astrobiol Outreach1, 105 (doi:10.4172/2332-2519.1000105)). Evidence from two studies indicates that the nucleated Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydia superphylum members are the most ancient Bacteria known (Brochier & Philippe 2002 Nature417, 244 (doi:10.1038/417244a); Jun et al. 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA107, 133-138 (doi:10.1073/pnas.0913033107)). This review summarizes the evidence for the NuCom hypothesis and discusses how simple the NuCom hypothesis is in explaining eukaryote evolution relative to the other hypotheses. The philosophical importance of simplicity and its relationship to truth in hypotheses such as NuCom and Domain Cell Theory is presented. Domain Cell Theory is also proposed herein, which contends that each of the three cellular lineages of life, the Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya domains, evolved independently, in support of the NuCom hypothesis. All other proposed hypotheses violate Domain Cell Theory because they posit the evolution of different cellular descendants from ancestral cellular types. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hengwen [Department of Radiation, Cancer Center of Guangdong General Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Science), Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong (China); Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yajie [Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Gao, Dongsheng [Department of Oncology, Guangdong Medical College Affiliated Pengpai Memorial Hospital, Hai Feng, 516400, Gungdong (China); Zhao, Shenting, E-mail: zhaoshenting@126.com [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China)

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  1. Temporal evolution of tubular initial conditions and their influence on two-particle correlations in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, R.P.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Grassi, F., E-mail: grassi@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hama, Y. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Qian, W.-L. [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (Brazil)

    2012-06-06

    Relativistic nuclear collisions data on two-particle correlations exhibit structures as function of relative azimuthal angle and rapidity. A unified description of these near-side and away-side structures is proposed for low to moderate transverse momentum. It is based on the combined effect of tubular initial conditions and hydrodynamical expansion. Contrary to expectations, the hydrodynamics solution shows that the high-energy density tubes (leftover from the initial particle interactions) give rise to particle emission in two directions and this is what leads to the various structures. This description is sensitive to some of the initial tube parameters and may provide a probe of the strong interaction. This explanation is compared with an alternative one where some triangularity in the initial conditions is assumed. A possible experimental test is suggested.

  2. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaibu, B.S. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India); Reddy, M.L.P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India)]. E-mail: mlpreddy@yahoo.co.uk; Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-06-15

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 {mu}m) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  3. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  4. Detection of Special Nuclear Material from Delayed Neutron Emission Induced by a Dual-Particle Monoenergetic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Michael F.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I

    2016-06-30

    Detection of unique signatures of special nuclear materials is critical for their interdiction in a variety of nuclear security and nonproliferation scenarios. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from fission of uranium induced in dual-particle active interrogation based on the 11B(d,n gamma)12C nuclear reaction. Majority of the fissions are attributed to fast fission induced by the incident quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. A Li-doped glass–polymer composite scintillation neutron detector, which displays excellent neutron/γ discrimination at low energies, was used in the measurements, along with a recoil-based liquid scintillation detector. Time- dependent buildup and decay of delayed neutron emission from 238U were measured between the interrogating beam pulses and after the interrogating beam was turned off, respectively. Characteristic buildup and decay time profiles were compared to the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups, finding a good agreement between the measurement and nuclear data. This method is promising for detecting fissile and fissionable materials in cargo scanning applications and can be readily integrated with transmission radiography using low-energy nuclear reaction sources.

  5. Signal peptide peptidase-mediated nuclear localization of heme oxygenase-1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasion independent of its enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F-F; Yeh, C-T; Sun, Y-J; Chiang, M-T; Lan, W-M; Li, F-A; Lee, W-H; Chau, L-Y

    2015-04-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a heme-degrading enzyme anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum by a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS). HO-1 is highly expressed in various cancers and its nuclear localization is associated with the progression of some cancers. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying HO-1 nuclear translocation and its pathological significance remain elusive. Here we show that the signal peptide peptidase (SPP) catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of HO-1. Coexpression of HO-1 with wild-type SPP, but not a dominant-negative SPP, promoted the nuclear localization of HO-1 in cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of cytosolic HO-1 isolated from HeLa cells overexpressing HO-1 and SPP revealed two adjacent intramembrane cleavage sites located after S275 and F276 within the TMS. Mutations of S275F276 to A275L276 significantly hindered SPP-mediated HO-1 cleavage and nuclear localization. Nuclear HO-1 was detected in A549 and DU145 cancer cell lines expressing high levels of endogenous HO-1 and SPP. SPP knockdown or inhibition significantly reduced nuclear HO-1 localization in A549 and DU145 cells. The positive nuclear HO-1 stain was also evident in lung cancer tissues expressing high levels of HO-1 and SPP. Overexpression of a truncated HO-1 (t-HO-1) lacking the TMS in HeLa and H1299 cells promoted cell proliferation and migration/invasion. The effect of t-HO-1 was not affected by a mutation in the catalytic site. However, blockade of t-HO-1 nuclear localization abolished t-HO-1-mediated effect. The tumorigenic effect of t-HO-1 was also demonstrated in the mouse model. These findings disclose that SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage of HO-1 promotes HO-1 nuclear localization and cancer progression independent of HO-1 enzymatic activity.

  6. 78 FR 45575 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... response to a request submitted by Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC., on August 13, 2012, for the Oconee Nuclear... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos.: 72-1004, 72-40, 50-269, 50-270, 50-287; and NRC-2013- 0135] Duke Energy Carolinas...

  7. Activation cross sections of $\\alpha$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    CERN Document Server

    Tárk'anyi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  8. Production and characterization of monodisperse plutonium, uranium, and mixed uranium-plutonium particles for nuclear safeguard applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranebo, Y; Niagolova, N; Erdmann, N; Eriksson, M; Tamborini, G; Betti, M

    2010-05-15

    In order to prevent nuclear proliferation, the isotopic analysis of uranium and plutonium microparticles has strengthened the means in international safeguards for detecting undeclared nuclear activities. In order to ensure accuracy and precision in the analytical methodologies used, the instrumental techniques need to be calibrated. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize particles consisting of U, Pu, and mixed U-Pu, suitable for such reliability verifications. A TSI vibrating orifice aerosol generator in connection with a furnace system was used to produce micrometer sized, monodispersed particles from reference U and Pu materials in solution. The particle masses (in the range of 3-6 pg) and sizes (approximately 1.5 microm) were controlled by the experimental conditions and the parameters for the aerosol generator. Size distributions were obtained from scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the particle composition agreed with the starting material used. A secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) was used to characterize the isotopic composition of the particles. Isobaric and polyatomic interference in the SIMS spectra was identified. In order to obtain accurate estimates of the interference, a batch of Pu particles were produced of mainly (242)Pu. These were used for SIMS analysis to characterize the relative ionization of Pu and U hydride ions and to determine the SIMS useful yields of U and Pu. It was found that U had a higher propensity to form the hydride than Pu. Useful yields were determined at a mass resolution of 450 for U-Pu particles: (1.71 +/- 0.15) % for Pu and (0.72 +/- 0.06) % for U. For Pu particles: (1.65 +/- 0.14) % for Pu. This gave a relative sensitivity factor between U and Pu (RSF(U:Pu)) of 2.4 +/- 0.2. However, the RSF(U:Pu) showed large fluctuations during the sputtering time for each analyses of the mixed U-Pu particles, in the range of 1.9-3.4.

  9. Algorithm for Reconstruction of 3D Images of Nanorice Particles from Diffraction Patterns of Two Particles in Independent Random Orientations with an X-ray Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Soon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of angular correlations recovers quantities from diffraction patterns of randomly oriented particles, as expected to be measured with an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL, proportional to quadratic functions of the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the diffraction volume of a single particle. We have previously shown that it is possible to reconstruct a randomly oriented icosahedral or helical virus from the average over all measured diffraction patterns of such correlations. We point out in this paper that a structure of even simpler particles of 50 Å or so in diameter and consisting of heavier atomic elements (to enhance scattering that has been used as a test case for reconstructions from XFEL diffraction patterns can also be solved by this technique. Even though there has been earlier work on similar objects (prolate spheroids, one advantage of the present technique is its potential to also work with diffraction patterns not only due to single particles as has been suggested on the basis on nonoverlapping delta functions of angular scattering. Accordingly, we calculated from the diffraction patterns the angular momentum expansions of the pair correlations and triple correlations for general particle images and reconstructed those images in the standard way. Although the images looked pretty much the same, it is not totally clear to us that the angular correlations are exactly the same as different numbers of particles due to the possibility of constructive or destructive interference between the scattered waves from different particles. It is of course known that, for a large number of particles contributing to a diffraction parttern, the correlations converge to that of a single particle. It could be that the lack of perfect agreement between the images reconstructed with one and two particles is due to uncancelling constructive and destructive conditions that are not found in the case of solution scattering.

  10. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: Field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N., E-mail: nyamag@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-non-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604 (Japan); Eguchi, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Hayashi, K. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-non-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604 (Japan); Tsukada, H. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 {mu}m, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural practices transmit soil-derived radionuclides to the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of soil surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tillage diluted the concentrations of radionuclides in the uppermost soil layer.

  11. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

    2009-12-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  12. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Wharton

    2009-10-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  13. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  14. Report of the Defense Science Board Permanent Task Force on Nuclear Weapons Surety: Independent Assessment of the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Operational Readiness  Inspection ( NORI ) each 18 months. DNSIs as needed to meet the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of  Staff direction, conducted with NSIs...Nuclear Operational Readiness Inspection ( NORI )  • Maintenance Standardization Evaluation (MSE)  • Operations Standardization Evaluation    • Logistics...operating forces – a single  Nuclear Surety Inspection (NSI) each 18 months and a Nuclear Operational Readiness  Inspection ( NORI ) each 18  months. DNSIs as

  15. A review of TRISO-coated particle nuclear fuel performance models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; LIANG Tongxiang; TANG Chunhe

    2006-01-01

    The success of high temperature gas cooled reactor depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The understanding and evaluation of this fuel requires the development of an integrated mechanistic fuel performance model that fully describes the mechanical and physicochemical behavior of the fuel particle under irradiation. In this paper, a review of the analytical capability of some of the existing computer codes for coated particle fuel was performed. These existing models and codes include FZJ model, JAERI model, Stress3 model, ATLAS model, PARFUME model and TIMCOAT model. The theoretic model, methodology, calculation parameters and benchmark of these codes were classified. Based on the failure mechanism of coated particle, the advantage and limits of the models were compared and discussed. The calculated results of the coated particles for China HTR-10 by using some existing code are shown. Finally, problems and challenges in fuel performance modeling were listed.

  16. I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in α-Particle Evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, Dimitry Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-16

    In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of α-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of α-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental α-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single

  17. Comparison between Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Estimating Coronary Heart Disease Risk Associated with LDL and HDL Particle Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Arsenault; I. Lemieux; J.P. Després; N.J. Wareham; E.S.G. Stroes; J.J.P. Kastelein; K.T. Khaw; S.M. Boekholdt

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are both widely accepted methods for measuring LDL and HDL particle size. However, whether or not GGE- or NMR-measured LDL or HDL particle size predicts coronary heart disease (CHD) risk to a similar ext

  18. IAEA coordinated research project on nuclear data for charged-particle monitor reactions and medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Nortier, Francois Meiring; Carlson, Brett V.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Hermanne, Alex; Hussain, Mazhar; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Kellett, Mark A.; Kibédi, Tibor; Kim, Guinyun; Kondev, Filip G.; Lebeda, Ondrej; Luca, Aurelian; Naik, Haladhara; Nagai, Yasuki; Spahn, Ingo; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula V.; Tárkányi, Ferenc T.; Verpelli, Marco

    2017-09-01

    An IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish and improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions and extend data for medical radionuclide production. An international team was assembled to undertake work addressing the requirements for more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. These studies are nearing completion, and are briefly described below.

  19. Proposal of guidelines for structuring an independent regulation body for the Brazilian nuclear sector; Proposta de diretrizes para estruturacao de um orgao de regulacao independente para o setor nuclear brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll Junior, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory bodies are responsible for regulation in various sectors of society. In Brazil, they work in various areas for the development of the country and have as main objective the social, economic and national development. The progress of new technologies in the nuclear field and their commercialization underscores the need for regulation according to international safety standards. The present research searches through an extensive review of the literature identify the international guidelines for regulatory bodies and make a comparative analysis between Brazil and five countries that have independent regulatory bodies in the nuclear sector. The purpose of the work is to contribute to the Brazilian public sectors, with an evaluation of the country's regulation in the perception of specialists and propose guidelines for the structuring of an independent regulatory body, respecting international agreements and the legislation in force in the country. (author)

  20. The electric potential of particles in interstellar space released from a nuclear waste payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanisms for charging a grain in the interplanetary medium include: (1) capture of solar wind electrons; (2) capture of solar wind protons; (3) ejection of electrons through the photoelectric effect due to the solar radiation; (4) escape of beta particles from beta emitters in the grain; and (5) escape of alpha particles from alpha emitters in the grain. The potentials on both nonradioactive and radioactive grains are considered with relation to particle size and time, and the distance from the Sun. Numerical results are presented where the waste mix is assumed to be PW-4b.

  1. The particle swarm optimization algorithm applied to nuclear systems surveillance test planning; Otimizacao aplicada ao planejamento de politicas de testes em sistemas nucleares por enxame de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Newton Norat

    2006-12-15

    This work shows a new approach to solve availability maximization problems in electromechanical systems, under periodic preventive scheduled tests. This approach uses a new Optimization tool called PSO developed by Kennedy and Eberhart (2001), Particle Swarm Optimization, integrated with probabilistic safety analysis model. Two maintenance optimization problems are solved by the proposed technique, the first one is a hypothetical electromechanical configuration and the second one is a real case from a nuclear power plant (Emergency Diesel Generators). For both problem PSO is compared to a genetic algorithm (GA). In the experiments made, PSO was able to obtain results comparable or even slightly better than those obtained b GA. Therefore, the PSO algorithm is simpler and its convergence is faster, indicating that PSO is a good alternative for solving such kind of problems. (author)

  2. Radiological controls and worker and public health and safety: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tew, J.L.; Miles, M.E.; Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    DOE has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the Report of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors were reviewed by the Committee. This report was prepared to provide a measure of how the radiological control and environmental practices at the 13 individual DOE reactor facilities measure up to (1) the recommendations contained in the Report of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, (2) the requirements and guidelines contained, and (3) the requirements of the applicable Title and Part of the Code of Federal Regulations.

  3. Nanostructure of Metallic Particles in Light Water Reactor Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mausolf, Edward J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcnamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The extraordinary nano-structure of metallic particles in light water reactor fuels points to possible high reactivity through increased surface area and a high concentration of high energy defect sites. We have analyzed the metallic epsilon particles from a high burn-up fuel from a boiling water reactor using transmission electron microscopy and have observed a much finer nanostructure in these particles than has been reported previously. The individual round particles that varying in size between ~20 and ~50 nm appear to consist of individual crystallites on the order of 2-3 nm in diameter. It is likely that in-reactor irradiation induce displacement cascades results in the formation of the nano-structure. The composition of these metallic phases is variable yet the structure of the material is consistent with the hexagonal close packed structure of epsilon-ruthenium. These findings suggest that unusual catalytic behavior of these materials might be expected, particularly under accident conditions.

  4. Photons and particles emitted from cold atmospheric-pressure plasma inactivate bacteria and biomolecules independently and synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Edengeiser, Eugen; Jarzina, Fabian; Brinckmann, Steffen; Steinborn, Elena; Havenith, Martina; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E

    2013-12-06

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas are currently in use in medicine as surgical tools and are being evaluated for new applications, including wound treatment and cosmetic care. The disinfecting properties of plasmas are of particular interest, given the threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. Plasma effluents comprise (V)UV photons and various reactive particles, such as accelerated ions and radicals, that modify biomolecules; however, a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie plasma-based disinfection has been lacking. Here, we investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of plasma, including the separate, additive and synergistic effects of plasma-generated (V)UV photons and particles at the cellular and molecular levels. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that plasma-emitted particles cause physical damage to the cell envelope, whereas UV radiation does not. The lethal effects of the plasma effluent exceed the zone of physical damage. We demonstrate that both plasma-generated particles and (V)UV photons modify DNA nucleobases. The particles also induce breaks in the DNA backbone. The plasma effluent, and particularly the plasma-generated particles, also rapidly inactivate proteins in the cellular milieu. Thus, in addition to physical damage to the cellular envelope, modifications to DNA and proteins contribute to the bactericidal properties of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma.

  5. An ABCA1-independent pathway for recycling a poorly lipidated 8.1 nm apolipoprotein E particle from glia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianjia; Stukas, Sophie; Wong, Charmaine; Chan, Jennifer; May, Sharon; DeValle, Nicole; Hirsch-Reinshagen, Veronica; Wilkinson, Anna; Oda, Michael N.; Wellington, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid transport in the brain is coordinated by glial-derived lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein E (apoE) as their primary protein. Here we show that apoE is secreted from wild-type (WT) primary murine mixed glia as nascent lipoprotein subspecies ranging from 7.5 to 17 nm in diameter. Negative-staining electron microscropy (EM) revealed rouleaux, suggesting a discoidal structure. Potassium bromide (KBr) density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that all subspecies, except an 8.1 nm particle, were lipidated. Glia lacking the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 secreted only 8.1 nm particles, which were poorly lipidated and nondiscoidal but could accept lipids to form the full repertoire of WT apoE particles. Receptor-associated-protein (RAP)-mediated inhibition of apoE receptor function blocked appearance of the 8.1 nm species, suggesting that this particle may arise through apoE recycling. Selective deletion of the LDL receptor (LDLR) reduced the level of 8.1 nm particle production by approximately 90%, suggesting that apoE is preferentially recycled through the LDLR. Finally, apoA-I stimulated secretion of 8.1 nm particles in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that nascent glial apoE lipoproteins are secreted through multiple pathways and that a greater understanding of these mechanisms may be relevant to several neurological disorders. PMID:21705806

  6. Model independent search for new particles in two-dimensional mass space using events with missing energy, two jets and two leptons with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080070; Hebbeker, Thomas

    2017-07-07

    The discovery of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 completed the standard model of particle physics (SM). Despite its remarkable success many questions remain unexplained. Numerous theoretical models, predicting the existence of new heavy particles, provide answers to these unresolved questions and are tested at high energy experiments such as the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this thesis a model independent search method for new particles in two-dimensional mass space in events with missing transverse energy is presented using 19.7 $\\mbox{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at a centre of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV at the LHC. The analysis searches for signatures of pair-produced new heavy particles $\\mbox{T}^\\prime$ which decay further into unknown heavy particles $\\mbox{W}^\\prime$ and SM quarks $q$ ($\\mbox{T}^\\prime\\overline{\\mbox{T}^\\prime} \\rightarrow {...

  7. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Risk Management Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-11-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the risk management. Risk management is intended to ensure a methodology for conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, responses, and monitoring and control activities associated with the SAPHIRE project work, and to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  8. UCTM: A User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Derome, L

    2011-01-01

    A configurable trigger scaler and delay NIM module has been designed to equip nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes. It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. The design, performances and typical applications are presented.

  9. Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.

  10. Hanbury Brown-Twiss Interferometry in High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W

    1998-01-01

    I review recent applications of two-particle intensity interferometry in high energy physics, concentrating on relativistic heavy ion collisions. By measuring hadronic single-particle spectra and two-particle correlations in hadron-hadron or heavy-ion collisions, the size and dynamical state of the collision fireball at freeze-out can be reconstructed. I discuss the relevant theoretical methods and their limitations. By applying the formalism to recent pion correlation data from Pb+Pb collisions at CERN we demonstrate that the collision zone has undergone strong transverse growth before freeze-out (by a factor 2 in each direction), and that it expands both longitudinally and transversally. From the thermal and flow energy density at freeze-out the energy density at the onset of transverse expansion can be estimated from conservation laws. It comfortably exceeds the critical value for the transition to color deconfined matter.

  11. DNA-histone complexes as ligands amplify cell penetration and nuclear targeting of anti-DNA antibodies via energy-independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannikou, Markella; Bellou, Sofia; Eliades, Petros; Hatzioannou, Aikaterini; Mantzaris, Michael D; Carayanniotis, George; Avrameas, Stratis; Lymberi, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    We have generated three monoclonal cell-penetrating antibodies (CPAbs) from a non-immunized lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 mouse that exhibited high anti-DNA serum titres. These CPAbs are polyreactive because they bind to DNA and other cellular components, and localize mainly in the nucleus of HeLa cells, albeit with a distinct nuclear labelling profile. Herein, we have examined whether DNA-histone complexes (DHC) binding to CPAbs, before cell entry, could modify the cell penetration of CPAbs or their nuclear staining properties. By applying confocal microscopy and image analysis, we found that extracellular binding of purified CPAbs to DHC significantly enhanced their subsequent cell-entry, both in terms of percentages of positively labelled cells and fluorescence intensity (internalized CPAb amount), whereas there was a variable effect on their nuclear staining profile. Internalization of CPAbs, either alone or bound to DHC, remained unaltered after the addition of endocytosis-specific inhibitors at 37° or assay performance at 4°, suggesting the involvement of energy-independent mechanisms in the internalization process. These findings assign to CPAbs a more complex pathogenetic role in systemic lupus erythematosus where both CPAbs and nuclear components are abundant.

  12. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  13. Oleifolioside A mediates caspase-independent human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell apoptosis involving nuclear relocation of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors AIF and EndoG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai Yang; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Hyung-In; Choi, Yung Hyun; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-05-30

    Apoptosis, the main type of programmed cell death, plays an essential role in a variety of biological events. Whereas "classical" apoptosis is dependent on caspase activation, caspase-independent death is increasingly recognized as an alternative pathway. To develop new anticancer agents, oleifolioside A was isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille and the biochemical mechanisms of oleifolioside A-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells were investigated. Exposure to oleifolioside A resulted in caspase activation and typical features of apoptosis, although cell death was not prevented by caspase inhibition. Oleifolioside A treatment induced up-regulation of Bad, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear relocation of mitochondrial factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (EndoG), and apoptosis induction. This is the first report of anticancer activity of oleifolioside A, and nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG in oleifolioside A-treated HeLa cells might represent an alternative death signaling pathway in the absence of caspase activity.

  14. Isoscalar monopole resonance of the alpha particle: a prism to nuclear Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir; Leidemann, Winfried; Orlandini, Giuseppina

    2013-01-25

    We present an ab initio study of the isoscalar monopole excitations of (4)He using different realistic nuclear interactions, including modern effective field theory potentials. In particular we concentrate on the transition form factor F(M) to the narrow 0(+) resonance close to threshold. F(M) exhibits a strong potential model dependence, and can serve as a kind of prism to distinguish among different nuclear force models. Compared to the measurements obtained from inelastic electron scattering off ^{4}He, one finds that the state-of-the-art theoretical transition form factors are at variance with experimental data, especially in the case of effective field theory potentials. We discuss some possible reasons for such a discrepancy, which still remains a puzzle.

  15. The isoscalar monopole resonance of the alpha particle: a prism to nuclear Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Bacca, S; Leidemann, W; Orlandini, G

    2012-01-01

    We present an ab-initio study of the isoscalar monopole excitations of 4He using different realistic nuclear interactions, including modern effective field theory potentials. In particular we concentrate on the transition form factor $F_{\\cal M}$ to the narrow $0^+$ resonance close to threshold. F_M exhibits a strong potential model dependence, and can serve as a kind of prism to distinguish among different nuclear force models. Comparing to the measurements obtained from inelastic electron scattering off 4He, one finds that the state-of-the-art theoretical transition form factors are at variance with experimental data, especially in the case of effective field theory potentials. We discuss some possible reasons for such discrepancy, which still remains a puzzle.

  16. Metallic nickel nano- and fine particles induce JB6 cell apoptosis through a caspase-8/AIF mediated cytochrome c-independent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vincent

    2009-04-01

    induced by metallic nickel particles in JB6 cells is through a caspase-8/AIF mediated cytochrome c-independent pathway. Lamin A and beta-actin are involved in the process of apoptosis. Activation of Akt and Bcl-2 may play an important role in preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and may also be important in the carcinogenicity of metallic nickel particles. In addition, the results may be useful as an important reference when comparing the toxicities of different nickel compounds.

  17. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  18. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 System Test Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE System Test Plan is to assess the approach to be taken for intended testing activities associated with the SAPHIRE software product. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  19. Residual HIV-1 DNA Flap-independent nuclear import of cPPT/CTS double mutant viruses does not support spreading infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Candela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 central DNA Flap is generated during reverse transcription as a result of (+ strand initiation at the central polypurine tract (cPPT and termination after a ca. 100 bp strand displacement at the central termination sequence (CTS. The central DNA Flap is a determinant of HIV-1 nuclear import, however, neither cPPT nor CTS mutations entirely abolish nuclear import and infection. Therefore, to determine whether or not the DNA Flap is essential for HIV-1 nuclear import, we generated double mutant (DM viruses, combining cPPT and CTS mutations to abolish DNA Flap formation. Results The combination of cPPT and CTS mutations reduced the proportion of viruses forming the central DNA Flap at the end of reverse transcription and further decreased virus infectivity in one-cycle titration assays. The most affected DM viruses were unable to establish a spreading infection in the highly permissive MT4 cell line, nor in human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, indicating that the DNA Flap is required for virus replication. Surprisingly, we found that DM viruses still maintained residual nuclear import levels, amounting to 5-15% of wild-type virus, as assessed by viral DNA circle quantification. Alu-PCR quantification of integrated viral genome also indicated 5-10% residual integration levels compared to wild-type virus. Conclusion This work establishes that the central DNA Flap is required for HIV-1 spreading infection but points to a residual DNA Flap independent nuclear import, whose functional significance remains unclear since it is not sufficient to support viral replication.

  20. Independent control of metal cluster and ceramic particle characteristics during one-step synthesis of Pt/TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, H.; Madler, L.; Strobel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid quenching during flame spray synthesis of Pt/TiO2 (0-10 Wt% Pt) is demonstrated as a versatile method for independent control of support (TiO2) and noble metal (Pt)cluster characteristics. Titania grain size, morphology, crystal phase structure, and crystal size were analyzed by nitrogen...

  1. Automatic Characterization of Cross-section Coated Particle Nuclear Fuel using Greedy Coupled Bayesian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    We describe new image analysis developments in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. We previously reported a non-iterative, Bayesian approach for locating the boundaries of different particle layers in cross-sectional imagery. That method, however, had to be initialized by manual preprocessing where a user must select two points in each image, one indicating the particle center and the other indicating the first layer interface. Here, we describe a technique designed to eliminate the manual preprocessing and provide full automation. With a low resolution image, we use 'EdgeFlow' to approximate the layer boundaries with circular templates. Multiple snakes are initialized to these circles and deformed using a greedy Bayesian strategy that incorporates coupling terms as well as a priori information on the layer thicknesses and relative contrast. We show results indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. An empirical approach to the theory of particle and nuclear phenomena: Review and some new ideas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raja Ramanna; Sudhir R Jain

    2001-08-01

    Experimental data on masses and lifetimes of unstable particles falls into a pattern, a brief review of some interesting consequences is presented here. From the experience in semiclassical methods and recent advances in quantum chromodynamics, it is proposed that an appropriate generalization of the Gutzwiller trace formula for field theories may lead to a systematic semiclassical chromodynamics theory. The theory can be developed to get appropriate dynamics leading to an explanation of pattern discovered in the empirical data.

  3. Nonaqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspensions with controlled particle size and nuclear magnetic resonance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meledandri, Carla J; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Brougham, Dermot F

    2008-12-16

    We report the preparation of monodisperse maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticle suspensions in heptane, by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine surfactants. By varying the surfactant/Fe precursor mole ratio during synthesis, control was exerted both over the nanocrystal core size, in the range from 3 to 6 nm, and over the magnetic properties of the resulting nanoparticle dispersions. We report field-cycling 1H NMR relaxation analysis of the superparamagnetic relaxation rate enhancement of nonaqueous suspensions for the first time. This approach permits measurement of the relaxivity and provides information on the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy energy of the suspended particles. The saturation magnetization was found to be in the expected range for maghemite particles of this size. The anisotropy energy was found to increase significantly with decreasing particle size, which we attribute to increased shape anisotropy. This study can be used as a guide for the synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles with selected magnetic properties for a given application.

  4. Some Aspects of Multi-Particle Productions in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made for the study of multiparticle production due to the collisions of 28Si and 12C projectiles with nuclear emulsion nuclei (target at an energy of 4.5A GeV/c. Here we have studied the integral multiplicity distribution; total multiplicity charged distributions and our findings had been found in good agreement with the other works in the field of experimental high energy physics. Moreover, finally, we discussed the multiplicity correlations in terms of on Charge/Projectile (Q/Zbeam.

  5. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion.

  6. Investigation of rare particle production in high energy nuclear collisions. Progress report, December 15, 1997--December 14, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.

    1998-11-01

    The program is an investigation of the hadronization process through experimental measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. These interactions provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. The authors are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. They have completed the first physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. They have prototyped the STAR trigger and are in the process of fabricating its components and installing them in the STAR detector.

  7. Progress in development of silica aerogel for particle- and nuclear-physics experiments at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the advancement in hydrophobic silica aerogel development for use as Cherenkov radiators and muonium production targets. These devices are scheduled for use in several particle- and nuclear-physics experiments that are planned in the near future at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Our conventional method to produce aerogel tiles with an intermediate index of refraction of approximately 1.05 is extended so that we can now produce aerogel tiles with lower indices of refraction (i.e., 1.03-1.04) and higher indices of refraction (i.e., 1.075-1.08); each with excellent transparency. A new production method, called pin drying, was optimized to produce larger area aerogels consistently with an ultrahigh index of refraction (>1.10). In addition, for use as a thermal-muonium-emitting material at room temperature, dedicated low-density aerogels were fabricated using the conventional method.

  8. Suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction because of the deceleration of alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmatov, M. L., E-mail: M.Shmatov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that a rapid deceleration of alpha particles in matter of electron temperature up to 100 keV leads a strong suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction with the reproduction of fast protons in the α+{sup 11}B and n+{sup 10}B reactions. The statement that the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction with an acceleration of {sup 11}B nuclei because of elastic alpha-particle scattering manifests itself in experiments at the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility is analyzed.

  9. Objective malignancy grading of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Stereologic estimates of mean nuclear size are of prognostic value, independent of clinical stage of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Bæk-Hansen, T; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of quantitative histopathologic parameters was evaluated in 55 consecutively treated patients with operable lung carcinoma of squamous (N = 39) and mixed, adenosquamous (N = 16) cell type. Patients alive were followed for at least 12 years. METHODS: Using a projec......BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of quantitative histopathologic parameters was evaluated in 55 consecutively treated patients with operable lung carcinoma of squamous (N = 39) and mixed, adenosquamous (N = 16) cell type. Patients alive were followed for at least 12 years. METHODS: Using...... of nuclei to tissue, and the number of mitotic profiles per 10(3) nuclear profiles. For each patient, information was recorded regarding sex, age at diagnosis, and clinical stage of disease. RESULTS: Single-factor analyses showed that a favorable prognosis was associated with early clinical stages (Stages I...... volume were found to be parameters of significant, independent prognostic value. CONCLUSIONS: The present feasibility study indicates that estimates of the mean nuclear volume are of prognostic value, independent of the clinical stage of disease. This quantitative histopathologic variable is highly...

  10. Caesium-rich micro-particles: A window into the meltdown events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Genki; Imoto, Junpei; Ochiai, Asumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Nanba, Kenji; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    The nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 caused partial meltdowns of three reactors. During the meltdowns, a type of condensed particle, a caesium-rich micro-particle (CsMP), formed inside the reactors via unknown processes. Here we report the chemical and physical processes of CsMP formation inside the reactors during the meltdowns based on atomic-resolution electron microscopy of CsMPs discovered near the FDNPP. All of the CsMPs (with sizes of 2.0–3.4 μm) comprise SiO2 glass matrices and ~10-nm-sized Zn–Fe-oxide nanoparticles associated with a wide range of Cs concentrations (1.1–19 wt% Cs as Cs2O). Trace amounts of U are also associated with the Zn–Fe oxides. The nano-texture in the CsMPs records multiple reaction-process steps during meltdown in the severe FDNPP accident: Melted fuel (molten core)-concrete interactions (MCCIs), incorporating various airborne fission product nanoparticles, including CsOH and CsCl, proceeded via SiO2 condensation over aggregates of Zn-Fe oxide nanoparticles originating from the failure of the reactor pressure vessels. Still, CsMPs provide a mechanism by which volatile and low-volatility radionuclides such as U can reach the environment and should be considered in the migration model of Cs and radionuclides in the current environment surrounding the FDNPP.

  11. Caesium-rich micro-particles: A window into the meltdown events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Genki; Imoto, Junpei; Ochiai, Asumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Nanba, Kenji; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 caused partial meltdowns of three reactors. During the meltdowns, a type of condensed particle, a caesium-rich micro-particle (CsMP), formed inside the reactors via unknown processes. Here we report the chemical and physical processes of CsMP formation inside the reactors during the meltdowns based on atomic-resolution electron microscopy of CsMPs discovered near the FDNPP. All of the CsMPs (with sizes of 2.0–3.4 μm) comprise SiO2 glass matrices and ~10-nm-sized Zn–Fe-oxide nanoparticles associated with a wide range of Cs concentrations (1.1–19 wt% Cs as Cs2O). Trace amounts of U are also associated with the Zn–Fe oxides. The nano-texture in the CsMPs records multiple reaction-process steps during meltdown in the severe FDNPP accident: Melted fuel (molten core)-concrete interactions (MCCIs), incorporating various airborne fission product nanoparticles, including CsOH and CsCl, proceeded via SiO2 condensation over aggregates of Zn-Fe oxide nanoparticles originating from the failure of the reactor pressure vessels. Still, CsMPs provide a mechanism by which volatile and low-volatility radionuclides such as U can reach the environment and should be considered in the migration model of Cs and radionuclides in the current environment surrounding the FDNPP. PMID:28198440

  12. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Haba, H; Komori, Y; Aikawa, M

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. The radioisotope $^{117m}$Sn is a very important theranostic (therapeutic + diagnostic) radioisotope, so special care was taken to the results for that isotope. The well-established stacked foil technique followed by gamma-spectrometry with HPGe gamma spectrometers were used. The target and monitor foils in the stack were commercial high purity metal foils. From the irradiated targets $^{117m}$Sn, $^{113}$Sn, $^{110}$Sn, $^{117m,g}$In, $^{116m}$In, $^{115m}$In, $^{114m}$In, $^{113m}$In, $^{111}$In, $^{110m,g}$In, $^{109m}$I...

  13. Detection of accelerated particles from pulsed plasma discharge using solid state nuclear track detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M El-Aragi; U Seddik; A Abd El-Haliem

    2007-04-01

    The ion beam of a Mather-type 23.25 J plasma focus device operated with air filling at 10 Torr was registered using CR-39 nuclear track detector. The irradiated samples were etched in NaOH solution at 70°C for 1 h. It is found here that plasma beam contains multi-components of microbeams. The individual track density of microbeams is estimated and the total current density of the plasma stream is measured to be 1.2 mA/cm2. A model for counting the track density of individual microbeams is proposed here. Faraday cup measurements showed the ion pulse with energy ranging from 5.8 keV to 3.3 keV.

  14. Jets and produced particles in pp collisions from SPS to RHIC energies for nuclear applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barnafoldi, G G; Lévai, Peter; Papp, G; Zhang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Higher-order pQCD corrections play an important role in the reproduction of data at high transverse momenta in the energy range 20 GeV $ \\leq \\sqrt{s} \\leq 200$ GeV. Recent calculations of photon and pion production in $pp$ collisions yield detailed information on the next-to-leading order contributions. However, the application of these results in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is not straightforward. The study of nuclear effects requires a simplified understanding of the output of these computations. Here we summarize our analysis of recent calculations, aimed at handling the NLO results by introducing process and energy-dependent $K$ factors.

  15. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Requirements Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE requirements definition is to assess the activities that results in the specification, documentation, and review of the requirements that the software product must satisfy, including functionality, performance, design constraints, attributes and external interfaces. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP).

  16. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Requirements Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE requirements definition is to assess the activities that results in the specification, documentation, and review of the requirements that the software product must satisfy, including functionality, performance, design constraints, attributes and external interfaces. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP).

  17. In-situ removal and characterisation of uranium-containing particles from sediments surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. G.; Griffiths, I.; Jones, C. P.; Stitt, C. A.; Davies-Milner, M.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Yamashiki, Y.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.

    2016-03-01

    Traditional methods to locate and subsequently study radioactive fallout particles have focused heavily on autoradiography coupled with in-situ analytical techniques. Presented here is the application of a Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope with both backscattered electron and energy dispersive spectroscopy detectors, along with a micromanipulator setup and electron-hardening adhesive to isolate and remove individual particles before synchrotron radiation analysis. This system allows for a greater range of new and existing analytical techniques, at increased detail and speed, to be applied to the material. Using this method, it was possible to erform detailed energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation characterisation of material likely ejected from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant found within a sediment sample collected from the edge of the 30 km exclusion zone. Particulate material sub-micron in maximum dimension examined during this work via energy dispersive spectroscopy was observed to contain uranium at levels between 19.68 and 28.35 weight percent, with the application of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy confirming its presence as a major constituent. With great effort and cost being devoted to the remediation of significant areas of eastern Japan affected by the incident, it is crucial to gain the greatest possible understanding of the nature of this contamination in order to inform the most appropriate clean-up response.

  18. An Independent Assessment of Evacuation Time Estimates for A Peak Population Scenario in the Emergency Planning Zone of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Mclean, M. A.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-11-01

    This study comprises two major tasks. First, it includes an independent assessment of the methods and assumptions used in calculating evacuation time estimates (ETEs) applicable to the general population for a peak population scenario in the emergency planning zone {EPZ) of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Station. This consists of a review and analysis of previous work by Public Service of New Hampshire {PSNH) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as well as an independent calculation of evacuation times using the CLEAR model for the demographic data reported by PSNH. Secondly, this study includes independent estimations of evacuation time for the peak population scenario developed using demographic data prepared by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). These evacuation time estimates are approximately 60% and 84% greater, respectively, than the estimate provided by PSNH for a simulataneous evacuation of the entire EPZ under peak conditions. The CLEAR model, which was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory {PNL) under the sponsorship of the. NRC, was also used for these latter calculations. The results of this study reveal the importance of the assumptions used for calculating evacuation times. Because traffic routings and management plans have not been prepared for the area, the CLEAR calculations utilized indepdently prepared traffic routings and assumptions. A detailed analysis of the results suggests that the ETEs submitted by PSNH are consistent with the methods and assumptions which provide the bases for PSNH•s evacuation time estimates. Differences among evacuation time estimates stem largely from differences jn the assumed size of the evacuating population and the estimated effectiveness of traffic controls.

  19. Thin film depth profiling using simultaneous particle backscattering and nuclear resonance profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, N. P.; Mateus, R.; Fonseca, M.; Reis, M. A.; Lorenz, K.; Vickridge, I.

    2010-06-01

    We report an important extension to the DataFurnace code for Ion Beam Analysis which allows users to simultaneously and self-consistently analyse Rutherford (RBS) or non-Rutherford (EBS) elastic backscattering together with particle-induced gamma-ray (PIGE) spectra. We show that the code works correctly with a well-known sample. Previously it has not been feasible to self-consistently treat PIGE and RBS/EBS data to extract the depth profiles. The PIGE data can be supplied to the code in the usual way as counts versus beam energy, but the differential cross-sections for the PIGE reaction are required. We also compared the results obtained by the new routine with high resolution narrow resonance profiling (NRP) simulations obtained with the stochastic model of energy loss.

  20. Matrine induces caspase-independent program cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma through bid-mediated nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Gao, Ya; Deng, Zhigang; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Zhan, Yanyan; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-03-16

    Matrine, a clinical drug in China, has been used to treat viral hepatitis, cardiac arrhythmia and skin inflammations. Matrine also exhibits chemotherapeutic potential through its ability to trigger cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the major determinant for the cell death induced by matrine in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We use human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in nude mice as models to study the action of matrine in hepatocellular cancers. We found that caspase-dependent and -independent Program Cell Death (PCD) occurred in matrine-treated HepG2 cells, accompanied by the decreasing of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the increasing ROS production. Further studies showed that AIF released from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and silencing of AIF reduced the caspase-independent PCD induced by matrine. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation, and the subsequent cell death as well, was prevented by Bid inhibitor BI-6C9, Bid-targeted siRNA and ROS scavenger Tiron. In the in vivo study, matrine significantly attenuated tumor growth with AIF release from mitochondria into nucleus in nude mice. These data imply that matrine potently induce caspase-independent PCD in HepG2 cells through Bid-mediated AIF translocation.

  1. 基于ISM的中国核电产业自主化发展影响因素分析%Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Independent Development of Chinese Nuclear Power Industry Based on ISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹长城

    2011-01-01

    针对核电产业的特点,应用ISM方法建立系统结构模型,对影响中国核电产业自主化发展的主要因素进行分析,探讨中国核电产业自主化发展必须解决的关键问题.%This paper treats the independent development of nuclear power industry of China as a big compIex system,which consists of interactive factors with specific functions. According to Porter's theory of international competitiveness of industry and the characteristics of nuclear power industry, a struqural model based on ISM is build to systematically analyze the main factors influencing the independent development of nuclear power industry and explore key problems to be solved in the independent development of Chinese nuclear power industry.

  2. Nuclear Data Requirements for the Production of Medical Isotopes in Fission Reactors and Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, M A; Talbert, R J; Mashnik, S G; Wilson, W B

    1999-01-01

    Through decades of effort in nuclear data development and simulations of reactor neutronics and accelerator transmutation, a collection of reaction data is continuing to evolve with the potential of direct applications to the production of medical isotopes. At Los Alamos the CINDER'90 code and library have been developed for nuclide inventory calculations using neutron-reaction (En < 20 MeV) and/or decay data for 3400 nuclides; coupled with the LAHET Code System (LCS), irradiations in neutron and proton environments below a few GeV are tractable; additional work with the European Activation File, the HMS-ALICE code and the reaction models of MCNPX (CEM95, BERTINI, or ISABEL with or without preequilibrium, evaporation and fission) have been used to produce evaluated reaction data for neutrons and protons to 1.7 GeV. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, efforts have focused on production of medical isotopes and the identification of available neutron reaction data from results of integral measuremen...

  3. Nuclear composition and energy spectra in the 1969 April 12 solar-particle event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Reames, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of the charge composition for several of the multicharged nuclei and the energy spectra for hydrogen, helium, and medium (6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 9) nuclei in the Apr. 12, 1969, solar-particle event. The energy/nucleon spectral shape of the medium nuclei was again the same as that of the helium nuclei, and the ratio of these two species was consistent with the present best average of 58 plus or minus 5. By combining the results obtained here with previous work, improved estimates of the Ne/O and Mg/O values of 0.16 plus or minus 0.03 and 0.056 plus or minus 0.014, respectively, were obtained. Silicon and sulfur abundances relative to O were determined to be 0.208 plus or minus 0.008 plus or minus 0.006, respectively, and 85% confidence upper limits for Ar and Ca relative to O of 0.017 and 0.010 were obtained. Previously, these last four nuclei had only been listed as a group.

  4. Nuclear composition and energy spectra in the 1969 April 12 solar-particle event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Reames, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of the charge composition for several of the multicharged nuclei and the energy spectra for hydrogen, helium, and medium (6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 9) nuclei in the Apr. 12, 1969, solar-particle event. The energy/nucleon spectral shape of the medium nuclei was again the same as that of the helium nuclei, and the ratio of these two species was consistent with the present best average of 58 plus or minus 5. By combining the results obtained here with previous work, improved estimates of the Ne/O and Mg/O values of 0.16 plus or minus 0.03 and 0.056 plus or minus 0.014, respectively, were obtained. Silicon and sulfur abundances relative to O were determined to be 0.208 plus or minus 0.008 plus or minus 0.006, respectively, and 85% confidence upper limits for Ar and Ca relative to O of 0.017 and 0.010 were obtained. Previously, these last four nuclei had only been listed as a group.

  5. Confocal microscopy in the analysis of the etched nuclear particle tracks in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakes, J.; Schraube, H. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Gais, P. [GSF-Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of the morphometric analysis of etched tracks, induced by protons and alpha particles in the organic polymer allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39), using the confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM), was studied. The detectors were investigated in two groups of irradiation experiments, namely: (a) irradiated with mono-energetic neutrons of energy 1.2 MeV, (b) exposed to the alpha radiation from {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. Both groups were irradiated at normal incidence. Radiation-induced latent tracks were electrochemically etched, and their morphometric parameters were investigated in the reflection mode by using the 488-nm spectral line of an argon ion laser. A constant number of up to 200 optical sections in Z-scan mode was taken through each selected etched track at vertical spacings of 0.642 {mu}m. Successive reconstructions of Z-sections were used to determine the following parameters: the mead radius of the opening channel, the maximum diameter and the length of the track, and the angle of the track wall to the surface of the sample. (author).

  6. Effects of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes on lipoprotein subclass particle size and concentration determined by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, W Timothy; Kwon, Soonho; Zheng, Deyi; Shaughnessy, Sara; Wallace, Penny; Hutto, Amy; Pugh, Kimberly; Jenkins, Alicia J; Klein, Richard L; Liao, Youlian

    2003-02-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) is associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk. A novel method for detailed analyses of lipoprotein subclass sizes and particle concentrations that uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of whole sera has become available. To define the effects of insulin resistance, we measured dyslipidemia using both NMR lipoprotein subclass analysis and conventional lipid panel, and insulin sensitivity as the maximal glucose disposal rate (GDR) during hyperinsulinemic clamps in 56 insulin sensitive (IS; mean +/- SD: GDR 15.8 +/- 2.0 mg. kg(-1). min(-1), fasting blood glucose [FBG] 4.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l, BMI 26 +/- 5), 46 insulin resistant (IR; GDR 10.2 +/- 1.9, FBG 4.9 +/- 0.5, BMI 29 +/- 5), and 46 untreated subjects with type 2 diabetes (GDR 7.4 +/- 2.8, FBG 10.8 +/- 3.7, BMI 30 +/- 5). In the group as a whole, regression analyses with GDR showed that progressive insulin resistance was associated with an increase in VLDL size (r = -0.40) and an increase in large VLDL particle concentrations (r = -0.42), a decrease in LDL size (r = 0.42) as a result of a marked increase in small LDL particles (r = -0.34) and reduced large LDL (r = 0.34), an overall increase in the number of LDL particles (r = -0.44), and a decrease in HDL size (r = 0.41) as a result of depletion of large HDL particles (r = 0.38) and a modest increase in small HDL (r = -0.21; all P change in medium or small VLDL), which produced an increase in serum triglycerides; a decrease in LDL size as a result of an increase in small and a reduction in large LDL subclasses, plus an increase in overall LDL particle concentration, which together led to no difference (IS versus IR) or a minimal difference (IS versus diabetes) in LDL cholesterol; and a decrease in large cardioprotective HDL combined with an increase in the small HDL subclass such that there was no net significant difference in HDL cholesterol. We conclude that 1) insulin resistance had profound

  7. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  8. GEANT4 simulation and evaluation of a time-of-flight spectrometer for nuclear cross section measurements in particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, Oxana

    2011-06-08

    In 2007 a new project has been launched in a cooperation between the RWTH Aachen Physics Department, the University Hospital Aachen and the Philips Research Laboratories. The project aim is to validate and improve GEANT4 nuclear interaction models for use in proton and ion therapy. The method chosen here is the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections which will not only provide a comparison to the simulation but will also allow to improve some of the parameters in the nuclear models. In the first phase of the project 200 MeV protons are used as a projectile in combination with a thin graphite target. For use in particle therapy the excitation functions of the most frequently produced isotopes need to be measured with an accuracy of 10% or less. For this purpose a dedicated detector system has been designed and implemented in GEANT4. The detection of target fragments produced by protons in graphite is achieved via time-of-flight spectrometry. In the setup presented here the primary beam first hits the Start detector and initiates the time-of-flight measurement before it passes through the apertures of two Veto detectors and impinges on the target. Successively, the secondary particles emanating from the target travel a short distance of 70/80 cm through vacuum (0.1 mbar) before they hit one of the 20 Stop detectors which end the time-of-flight measurement and record the energy deposited by the particle. The dissertation at hand describes the underlying detector concept and presents a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the setup which allows to evaluate the detector performance with respect to target fragment identification at a projectile energy of 200 MeV. At first, correlations of time-of-flight and energy deposition are built from simulated data and are subsequently used to reconstruct mass spectra of the detected fragments. Such influences on the detection performance as the target thickness, the residual pressure within the detector chamber, the Veto system

  9. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  10. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Taichi [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kondo, Natsuko [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, Ibaraki Prefectual University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-mati, Inasiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus-Copernicus-University in Torun, ul. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Thompson, Larry H. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, L452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Helleday, Thomas [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Off Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Asada, Hideo [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  11. Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: Shape-independent particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D.; Weinzierl, B.; Petzold, A.; Kandler, K.; Ansmann, A.; Müller, T.; Tesche, M.; Freudenthaler, V.; Esselborn, M.; Heese, B.; Althausen, D.; Schladitz, A.; Otto, S.; Knippertz, P.

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations were carried out at Ouarzazate, Morocco, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) 2006. Data from one measurement day, 19 May 2006, are used to derive particle optical and microphysical parameters with AERONET's latest version of light-scattering model for non-spherical particle geometry. In our analysis we also make use of a novel measurement channel at 1638 nm wavelength. We compare the results to data products obtained by airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar, several ground-based Raman lidar, and airborne and ground-based in situ measurement platforms. We chose that specific measurement day because the dust plume was vertically well mixed. Extinction coefficients from AERONET Sun photometer and lidar observations and in situ measurements agree well. Ångström exponents from Sun photometer and lidar are in close agreement, too. Airborne in situ measurements of dust particle size distributions show larger effective radii than inferred from the AERONET data. Complex refractive indices that are derived with the AERONET algorithm differ from the values obtained with different independent techniques employed in our study. The single-scattering albedo was derived from the airborne observations of particle size distributions and complex refractive indices. Single-scattering albedo differs to the value inferred from the AERONET data. The differences may be attributed to the different effective radii that we obtained from the various techniques. The differences between the data products from the various measurement platforms, however, cannot be generalized, as we could only test data for one measurement day. An analysis of additional measurements is under way.

  12. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  13. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Collisions of $^{16}$O Beams with Emulsion Nuclei at 13-200 A GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .SK 2\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to study, on an event by event basis, multiplicities of produced charged particles, pseudo-rapidity density distributions globally and in selected regions of pseudo-rapidity, density fluctuations, multiplicity and angular distributions of nuclear fragments and recoiling protons (30-400~A~MeV) and cross sections for production and interation of light and medium (Z=2-8) projectile fragments. \\\\ \\\\ The detectors are emulsion chambers as well as conventional emulsion stacks. The emulsion chambers consist of several layers of a plastic substrate, each coated with nuclear emulsion on both sides. Since the best measurement accuracy is obtained for the particles with the smallest emission angles, this design is especially suited for the pseudo-rapidity determination. The emulsion stacks, of both high and low sensitivity, have been exposed in the conventional way, with the beam parallel to the emulsion sheets. These stacks are used to study the fragmentation of the interaction n...

  14. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  15. Michel Spiro is appointed director of the IN2P3 and the Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics of the CNRS

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Michel Spiro was appointed director of the IN2P3, by order of the Minister of Youth, National Education and Research and the Minister of Research and New Technologies on February 17, 2003. He was also appointed director of the Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics of the CNRS by decision of the CNRS Director General on February 21, 2003" (1/2 page).

  16. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  17. Nuclear Transparency and Single Particle Spectral Functions from Quasielastic A(e,e'p) Reactions up to Q2=8.1 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David McKee

    2003-05-01

    High statistics elastic and quasielastic scattering measurements were performed on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, and iron at squared momentum transfers up to 8.1 GeV2. Both the nuclear transparency and the single particle spectral functions were extracted by means of comparison with a Plane- Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. Our data provide no evidence of the onset of color transparency within our kinematic range.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238}Pu/^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241}Am/^{239}Pu mass ratio.

  19. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 mediates the transcription initiation of insulin-degrading enzyme in a TATA box-binding protein-independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Zhang

    Full Text Available CpG island promoters often lack canonical core promoter elements such as the TATA box, and have dispersed transcription initiation sites. Despite the prevalence of CpG islands associated with mammalian genes, the mechanism of transcription initiation from CpG island promoters remains to be clarified. Here we investigate the mechanism of transcription initiation of the CpG island-associated gene, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE. IDE is ubiquitously expressed, and has dispersed transcription initiation sites. The IDE core promoter locates within a 32-bp region, which contains three CGGCG repeats and a nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1 binding motif. Sequential mutation analysis indicates that the NRF-1 binding motif is critical for IDE transcription initiation. The NRF-1 binding motif is functional, because NRF-1 binds to this motif in vivo and this motif is required for the regulation of IDE promoter activity by NRF-1. Furthermore, the NRF-1 binding site in the IDE promoter is conserved among different species, and dominant negative NRF-1 represses endogenous IDE expression. Finally, TATA-box binding protein (TBP is not associated with the IDE promoter, and inactivation of TBP does not abolish IDE transcription, suggesting that TBP is not essential for IDE transcription initiation. Our studies indicate that NRF-1 mediates IDE transcription initiation in a TBP-independent manner, and provide insights into the potential mechanism of transcription initiation for other CpG island-associated genes.

  20. Independent technical support for the frozen soil barrier installation and operation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1 Site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    TEPCO is implementing a number of water countermeasures to limit the releases and impacts of contaminated water to the surrounding environment. The diverse countermeasures work together in an integrated manner to provide different types, and several levels, of protection. In general, the strategy represents a comprehensive example of a “defense in depth” concept that is used for nuclear facilities around the world. One of the key countermeasures is a frozen soil barrier encircling the damaged reactor facilities. The frozen barrier is intended to limit the flow of water into the area and provide TEPCO the ability to reduce the amount of contaminated water that requires treatment and storage. The National Laboratory team supports the selection of artificial ground freezing and the incorporation of the frozen soil barrier in the contaminated water countermeasures -- the technical characteristics of a frozen barrier are relatively well suited to the Fukushima-specific conditions and the need for inflow reduction. Further, our independent review generally supports the TEPCO/Kajima design, installation strategy and operation plan.

  1. Understanding of the mechanical and structural changes induced by alpha particles and heavy ions in the French simulated nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakurt, G., E-mail: karakurt_gokhan@yahoo.fr [SUBATECH, UMR 6457CNRS-IN2P3, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44307 Nantes (France); Abdelouas, A. [SUBATECH, UMR 6457CNRS-IN2P3, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44307 Nantes (France); Guin, J.-P.; Nivard, M. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1 – UMR 62051 IPR, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Sauvage, T. [Laboratoire CEMHTI (Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux: Haute Température et Irradiation), CNRS UPR, 3079 Orléans (France); Paris, M. [Institut des Matériaux Jean ROUXEL, Université de Nantes, UMR 6502 CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Bardeau, J.-F. [Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2016-07-15

    Borosilicate glasses are considered for the long-term confinement of high-level nuclear wastes. External irradiations with 1 MeV He{sup +} ions and 7 MeV Au{sup 5+} ions were performed to simulate effects produced by alpha particles and by recoil nuclei in the simulated SON68 nuclear waste glass. To better understand the structural modifications, irradiations were also carried out on a 6-oxides borosilicate glass, a simplified version of the SON68 glass (ISG glass). The mechanical and macroscopic properties of the glasses were studied as function of the deposited electronic and nuclear energies. Alpha particles and gold ions induced a volume change up to −0.7% and −2.7%, respectively, depending on the glass composition. Nano-indentations tests were used to determine the mechanical properties of the irradiated glasses. A decrease of about −22% to −38% of the hardness and a decrease of the reduced Young's modulus by −8% were measured after irradiations. The evolution of the glass structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy, and also {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) on a 20 MeV Kr irradiated ISG glass powder. A decrease of the silica network connectivity after irradiation with alpha particles and gold ions is deduced from the structural changes observations. NMR spectra revealed a partial conversion of BO{sub 4} to BO{sub 3} units but also a formation of AlO{sub 5} and AlO{sub 6} species after irradiation with Kr ions. The relationships between the mechanical and structural changes are also discussed. - Highlights: • Mechanical and structural properties of two borosilicate glass compositions irradiated with alpha particles and heavy ions were investigated. • Both kinds of particles induced a decrease of the hardness, reduced Young's modulus and density. • Electronic and nuclear interactions are responsible for the changes observed. • The evolution of the mechanical properties under irradiation is linked

  2. Accelerators of particles and nuclear energy: the challenge of reliability; Aceleradores de partaculas y energia nuclear: el desafio de la fiabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of particle accelerators for high energy industrial technology involves subjecting the reliability requirements more stringent than those that exist and become the main objective from the early stages of design.

  3. Understanding of the mechanical and structural changes induced by alpha particles and heavy ions in the French simulated nuclear waste glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, G.; Abdelouas, A.; Guin, J.-P.; Nivard, M.; Sauvage, T.; Paris, M.; Bardeau, J.-F.

    2016-07-01

    Borosilicate glasses are considered for the long-term confinement of high-level nuclear wastes. External irradiations with 1 MeV He+ ions and 7 MeV Au5+ ions were performed to simulate effects produced by alpha particles and by recoil nuclei in the simulated SON68 nuclear waste glass. To better understand the structural modifications, irradiations were also carried out on a 6-oxides borosilicate glass, a simplified version of the SON68 glass (ISG glass). The mechanical and macroscopic properties of the glasses were studied as function of the deposited electronic and nuclear energies. Alpha particles and gold ions induced a volume change up to -0.7% and -2.7%, respectively, depending on the glass composition. Nano-indentations tests were used to determine the mechanical properties of the irradiated glasses. A decrease of about -22% to -38% of the hardness and a decrease of the reduced Young's modulus by -8% were measured after irradiations. The evolution of the glass structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy, and also 11B and 27Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) on a 20 MeV Kr irradiated ISG glass powder. A decrease of the silica network connectivity after irradiation with alpha particles and gold ions is deduced from the structural changes observations. NMR spectra revealed a partial conversion of BO4 to BO3 units but also a formation of AlO5 and AlO6 species after irradiation with Kr ions. The relationships between the mechanical and structural changes are also discussed.

  4. Nuclear shape changes are induced by knockdown of the SWI/SNF ATPase BRG1 and are independent of cytoskeletal connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Imbalzano

    Full Text Available Changes in nuclear morphology occur during normal development and have been observed during the progression of several diseases. The shape of a nucleus is governed by the balance of forces exerted by nuclear-cytoskeletal contacts and internal forces created by the structure of the chromatin and nuclear envelope. However, factors that regulate the balance of these forces and determine nuclear shape are poorly understood. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme ATPase, BRG1, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of overall cell size and shape. Here we document that immortalized mammary epithelial cells show BRG1-dependent nuclear shape changes. Specifically, knockdown of BRG1 induced grooves in the nuclear periphery that could be documented by cytological and ultrastructural methods. To test the hypothesis that the observed changes in nuclear morphology resulted from altered tension exerted by the cytoskeleton, we disrupted the major cytoskeletal networks and quantified the frequency of BRG1-dependent changes in nuclear morphology. The results demonstrated that disruption of cytoskeletal networks did not change the frequency of BRG1-induced nuclear shape changes. These findings suggest that BRG1 mediates control of nuclear shape by internal nuclear mechanisms that likely control chromatin dynamics.

  5. HIV-derived lentiviral particles promote T-cell independent activation and differentiation of naïve cognate conventional B2-cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardt, Oliver; Grewe, Bastian; Tippler, Bettina G; Überla, Klaus; Temchura, Vladimir V

    2013-10-17

    In animal models, lentiviral particles (LP) were shown to be promising HIV vaccine candidates. Since little is known about the direct impact of LP on antigen-specific B cells, we incorporated Hen Egg Lysozyme (HEL) into LP (HEL-LP) derived from HIV to study their effect on HEL-specific, B cell receptor-transgenic B-cells (HEL(+)B-cells) in vitro. We observed preferential binding of HEL-LP to HEL(+)B-cells and their efficient internalization. HEL-LP were able to effectively cross-link B-cell receptors as indicated by the loss of surface CD62L. In the absence of CD4(+) T-cells, other activation events induced by LP in cognate naïve B-cells included increased expression of activation and co-stimulatory molecules as well as an enhanced proliferative response. Additionally, the B-cell phenotype shifted toward a germinal center pattern with further differentiation into memory and IgG3- and IgA-producing cells. The observed CD4(+) T-cell independent activation and differentiation may be due to LP-induced expression of CD40L by a subset of cognate B-cells. Thus, even in the absence of CD4(+) T-cells LP provide strong direct activation signals to cognate naïve B-cells, which may contribute to the strong humoral immune responses observed after LP immunization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  7. Imaging of radioactive material and its host particle from the nuclear power plant accident in Japan by using imaging plate and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kimura, Tohru; Sakoh, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan on March, 2012, dispersed radioactive materials. In the Meteorological Research Institute, where locates 170 km south west from the power plant, we collected two types of filter aerosol samples and wet and dry deposition particles before and after the accident. Using these samples, we analyzed 1) radioactivity using an imaging plate (IP), which visualizes the radioactivity of samples in a two-dimensional plane with space resolution ~0.05 mm and 2) shape and compositions of particles that host radioactive materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). From the samples collected on March 15 and 21, we found radioactive spots on the filter samples using the IP, suggesting that radioactive materials, presumably Cs, were carried from the power plant. Radioactivity was also detected over the aggregates of dust particles in wet and dry deposition samples collected from March 2011. We did not find any detectable radioactive materials after the April when using the IP. We further investigated the radioactive spots using the SEM to identify the host particles of the radioactive materials and to detect radioactive materials from the EDS analysis. From the SEM analysis, we found that the particles on the filters include sulfate, mineral dust, and metals, but there were no particular particles or materials in the radioactive spots comparing to those in other area. The result suggests that the radioactive materials are hosted on the surface of other particles or inside them. We, so far, did not obtain any evidences that the radioactive materials are particulate with larger than 0.1 micro meter. Further analysis will need to identify the source of radioactive spots from individual particles using a manipulator as well as SEM and IP. Such studies will reveal where the radioactive materials exist in the environment, how they resuspend in the air, and how they could

  8. A novel alkaloid, evodiamine causes nuclear localization of cytochrome-c and induces apoptosis independent of p53 in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Vijay [School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Agarwal, Rajesh [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Singh, Rana P., E-mail: ranaps@hotmail.com [School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India)

    2016-09-02

    Lung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy that contributes to high proportion of deaths globally among patients who die due to cancer. Chemotherapy remains the common mode of treatment for lung cancer patients though with limited success. We assessed the biological effects and associated molecular changes of evodiamine, a plant alkaloid, on human lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells along with other epithelial cancer and normal lung SAEC cells. Our data showed that 20–40 μM evodiamine treatment for 24–48 h strongly (up to 73%, P < 0.001) reduced the growth and survival of these cancer cells. However, it also moderately inhibited growth and survival of SAEC cells. A strong inhibition (P < 0.001) was observed on clonogenicity of A549 cells. Further, evodiamine increased (4-fold) mitochondrial membrane depolarization with 6-fold increase in apoptosis and a slight increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. It increased the cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into the cytosol as well as nucleus. Cytosolic cytochrome-c activated cascade of caspase-9 and caspase-3 intrinsic pathway, however, DR5 and caspase-8 extrinsic pathway was also activated which could be due to nuclear cytochrome-c. Pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD.fmk) partially reversed evodiamine induced apoptosis. An increase in p53 as well as its serine 15 phosphorylation was also observed. Pifithrin-α, a p53 inhibitor, slightly inhibited growth of A549 cells and under p53 inhibitory condition evodiamine-induced apoptosis could not be reversed. Together these findings suggest that evodiamine is a strong inducer of apoptosis in lung epithelial cancer cells independent of their p53 status and that could involve both intrinsic as well as extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Thus evodiamine could be a potential anticancer agent against lung cancer. - Highlights: • Evodiamine, a novel plant alkaloid, relatively selectively inhibited growth and survival of human lung cancer cells. • Increased cancer cell

  9. Nuclear factor-κB2/p100 promotes endometrial carcinoma cell survival under hypoxia in a HIF-1α independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeramian, Andree; Santacana, Maria; Sorolla, Anabel; Llobet, David; Encinas, Mario; Velasco, Ana; Bahi, Nuria; Eritja, Nuria; Domingo, Mónica; Oliva, Esther; Dolcet, Xavier; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a common female cancer, treated mainly by surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Relapse following treatment is associated with increased risk of metastases. Hypoxia, a common microenvironment in solid tumors, correlates with malignant progression, rendering tumors resistant to ionizing therapy. Hence, we assessed here the immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and members of the NF-κB family in 82 primary EC and 10 post-radiation recurrences of EC. Post-radiation recurrences were highly hypoxic, with a higher expression of HIF-1α and also RelA (p65) and p52 when compared with primary EC. We next investigated the effects of hypoxia on EC cell lines. We found that EC cell lines are highly resistant to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We thus focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in conferring hypoxic cell death resistance. We show that in addition to the classical NF-κB, hypoxia activates the alternative NF-κB pathway. To characterize the upstream kinases involved in the activation of these pathways, we used lentiviral-mediated knockdown and mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking IKKα and IKKβ kinases. Both IKKα and IKKβ kinases are required for RelA (p65) and p100 accumulation, whereas p52 processing under hypoxia is IKKα dependent. Furthermore, Ishikawa endometrial cell line harboring either RelA (p65) or p52 short-hairpin RNA was sensitive to hypoxia-induced cell death, indicating that, in addition to the known prosurvival role of RelA (p65) under hypoxia, alternative NF-κB pathway also enhances hypoxic survival of EC cells. Interestingly, although HIF-1α controlled classical NF-κB activation pathway and survival under hypoxia through RelA (p65) nuclear accumulation, the alternative pathway was HIF-1α independent. These findings have important clinical implications for the improvement of EC prognosis before radiotherapy.

  10. Particle Production in Hadron - Nuclear Matter in the Energy Range Between 50-GeV - 150-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Braune, Kersten

    1980-01-01

    In an experiment at the CERN SPS the particle production in hadron-nucleus collisions in an energy range between 50 and 150 GeV was studied. The detector detects charged particles and separates them into two groups: fast particles, mainly produced pions, and slow particles, mainly recoil protons from the nucleus, whereby the boundary lies at a velocity v/c = 0.7. Multiplicity and angular respectively pseudo-rapidity distributions were measured. From the data analysis resulted that the slow particles are a measure for the number of collisions of the projectile in the nucleus. The properties of the fast particle were studied in dependence on . Thereby it was shown that at a description of the measured results using the variable the dependence on the projectile and on the mass number A of the target are extensively eliminated.

  11. Application of atomic and nuclear techniques to the study of inhomogeneities in electrodeposited {alpha}-particle sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A. E-mail: ams@unex.es; Nuevo, M.J.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Silva, M.F. da; Roldan Garcia, C.; Paul, A.; Ferrero Calabuig, J.L.; Mendez Vilas, A.; Juanes Barber, D

    2002-05-01

    Three {alpha}-particle sources made by different methods of electrodeposition were analysed using {alpha}-particle spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on several surface zones. The thickness and homogeneity of these sources was studied using RBS, and the results were analysed jointly with those obtained with {alpha}-particle spectrometry and AFM techniques. The comparison of the electrodeposition methods showed that the most homogeneous electrodeposited zones corresponded to the source made with a stirring cathode.

  12. Interweaving of elementary modes of excitation in superfluid nuclei through particle-vibration coupling: Quantitative account of the variety of nuclear structure observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idini, A.; Potel, G.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2015-09-01

    A complete characterization of the structure of nuclei can be obtained by combining information arising from inelastic scattering, Coulomb excitation, and γ -decay, together with one- and two-particle transfer reactions. In this way it is possible to probe both the single-particle and collective components of the nuclear many-body wave function resulting from the coupling of these modes and, as a result, diagonalizing the low-energy Hamiltonian. We address the question of how accurately such a description can account for experimental observations in the case of superfluid nuclei. Our treatment goes beyond the traditional approach, in which these properties are calculated separately, and most often for systems near closed shells, based on perturbative approximations (weak coupling). It is concluded that renormalizing empirically and on equal footing bare single-particle and collective motion of open-shell nuclei in terms of self-energy (mass) and vertex corrections (screening), as well as particle-hole and pairing interactions through particle-vibration coupling (PVC), leads to a detailed, quantitative account of the data, constraining the possible values of the k mass, of the 1S0 bare N N interaction, and of the PVC strengths within a rather narrow window.

  13. Proteasome-independent major histocompatibility complex class I cross-presentation mediated by papaya mosaic virus-like particles leads to expansion of specific human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Denis; Beauseigle, Diane; Denis, Jérome; Morin, Hélène; Paré, Christine; Lamarre, Alain; Lapointe, Réjean

    2007-02-01

    The development of versatile vaccine platforms is a priority that is recognized by health authorities worldwide; such platforms should induce both arms of the immune system, the humoral and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte responses. In this study, we have established that a vaccine platform based on the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV CP), previously shown to induce a humoral response, can induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I cross-presentation of HLA-A*0201 epitopes from gp100, a melanoma antigen, and from influenza virus M1 matrix protein. PapMV proteins were able to assemble into stable virus-like particles (VLPs) in a crystalline and repetitive structure. When we pulsed HLA-A*0201+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the recombinant PapMV FLU or gp100, we noted that antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were highly reactive to these APCs, demonstrating that the epitope from the VLPs were processed and loaded on the MHC class I complex. APCs were preincubated with two different proteasome inhibitors, which did not affect the efficiency of peptide presentation on MHC class I. Classical presentation from an endogenous antigen was abolished in the same conditions. Clearly, antigen presentation mediated by the PapMV system was proteasome independent. Finally, PapMV-pulsed APCs had the capacity to expand highly avid antigen-specific T cells against the influenza virus M1 HLA-A*0201 epitope when cocultured with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This study demonstrates the potential of PapMV for MHC class I cross-presentation and for the expansion of human antigen-specific T cells. It makes VLPs from PapMV CP a very attractive platform to trigger cellular responses for vaccine development against chronic infectious diseases and cancers.

  14. Formation of the isomeric pairs 139m,gNd and 141m,gNd in proton and 3He-particle induced nuclear reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgers, K.; Sudár, S.; Qaim, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross sections were measured by the activation technique for the nuclear reactions Pr-141(p,n)Nd-141(m),Pr-141(p,3n)Nd-139(m),Ce-nat(He-3,xn)Nd-141(m), and Ce-nat(He-3,xn)Nd-139(m) up to proton energies of 44 MeV and He-3-particle energies of 35 MeV. Using the present data and some of our earlier experimental results the isomeric cross-section ratios for the nuclide pairs Nd-139(m,g) and Nd-141(m,g) were calculated. The experimental data were compared with the results of nuclear model calcula...

  15. On the Departure from Equilibrium of the Quasi-Particle Distribution Functions in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, P

    2016-01-01

    In high energy heavy ion collisions, single particle distributions are distorted from their thermal equilibrium form due to gradients in the flow velocity. These are closely related to the formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities in the quasi-particle approximation. Distorted single particle distributions are now commonly used to calculate the emission of photons and dilepton pairs, and in the late stage to calculate the conversion of a continuous fluid to individual particles. In practice this is done only in a very approximate way. We show how it can be done rigorously in the quasi-particle approximation and illustrate it with the linear $\\sigma$ model at finite temperature for both the shear and bulk contributions.

  16. A model for particle production in nuclear reactions at intermediate energies: application to C-C collisions at 95 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Dudouet, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    A model describing nuclear collisions at intermediate energies is presented and the results are compared with recently measured double differential cross sections in C-C reactions at 95 MeV/nucleon. Results show the key role played by geometrical effects and the memory of the entrance channel, in particular the momentum distributions of the two incoming nuclei. Special attention is paid to the description of processes occurring at mid-rapidity. To this end, a random particle production mechanism by means of a coalescence process in velocity space is considered in the overlap region of the two interacting nuclei.

  17. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00537113

    2016-01-01

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  18. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Gronefeld, Julius

    2016-09-21

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  19. Charge Identification of Highly Ionizing Particles in Desensitized Nuclear Emulsion Using High Speed Read-Out System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; /Nagoya U. /Aichi U. of Education /Gunma U., Maebashi /JAXA, Sagamihara /KEK, Tsukuba /Kobe

    2006-05-10

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290 MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles.

  20. Activation cross sections of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of ¹⁷⁸W/(178m)Ta generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of (178m)Ta through (nat)Hf(α,xn)(178)W-(178m)Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions (nat)Hf(α,x)(179,177,176,175)W, (183,182,178g,177,176,175)Ta, (179m,177m,175)Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and γ-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the (nat)Ta(d,xn)(178)W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ((3)He,x)) production routes for (178)W. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy particle scattering by atomic and nuclear systems; Etude de la diffusion de particules lourdes sur des systemes atomiques et nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazauskas, R

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis quantum mechanical non-relativistic few-body problem is discussed. Basing on fundamentals ideas from Faddeev and Yakubovski three and four body equations are formulated and solved for fermionic atomic and nuclear systems. Former equations are modified to include long range interactions. Original results for nuclear and molecular physics were obtained: -) positively charged particle scattering on hydrogen atoms was considered; predictions for {pi}{sup +} {yields} H, {mu}{sup +} {yields} H and p{sup +} {yields} H scattering lengths were given. Existence of an unknown, very weakly bound H{sup +}{sub 2} bound state was predicted. -) Motivated by the possible observation of bound four neutron structure at GANIL we have studied compatibility of such an existence within the current nuclear interaction models. -) 4 nucleon scattering at low energies was investigated. Results for n {yields} {sup 3}H, p {yields} {sup 3}H and p {yields} {sup 3}He systems were compared with the experimental data. Validity of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models is questioned. (author)

  2. Nuclear structure of229Th from γ-ray spectroscopy study of233U α-particle decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Barci-Funel, G.; Weiss, B.; El Samad, O.; Sheline, R. K.

    2003-09-01

    The level structure of 229Th, produced by α-particle decay of 233U, was studied with γ-ray spectroscopy measurements. The sources were continuously separated from daughters with ion-exchange chromatographic methods. Singles and coincidence measurements were performed with high-purity germanium detectors. Energies and intensities of about 220 γ rays were accurately determined. About 70 transitions were reported for the first time, especially in the 300 700 keV energy range. A 229Th level scheme was proposed, accounting for 220 transitions among 47 excited states. Alpha-particle feeding intensities and hindrance factors were deduced and compared to direct α-particle measurements; the agreement was found to be relatively good. The level structure was interpreted in the framework of rotational and/or reflection asymmetric models. The agreement with experimental data was shown to be satisfactory.

  3. Risks of nuclear waste disposal in space. III - Long-term orbital evolution of small particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Wells, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    A study of long term risks is presented that treats an additional pathway that could result in earth reentry, namely, small radioactive particles released in solar orbit due to payload fragmentation by accidental explosion or meteoroid impact. A characterization of such an event and of the initial mass size distribution of particles is given for two extremes of waste form strength. Attention is given to numerical results showing the mass-time distribution of material and the fraction of initial mass intercepted by earth. It is concluded that it appears that program planners need not be to concerned about the risks of this particular failure mechanism and return pathway.

  4. Charged particle spectra in {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p{sub T} dN/dp{sub T} and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be {Delta}y {approximately} 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p{sub T}. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T{sub f} {approximately} 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  5. Charged particle spectra in [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p[sub T] dN/dp[sub T] and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be [Delta]y [approximately] 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p[sub T]. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T[sub f] [approximately] 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  6. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  7. Alpha particle spectroscopy — A useful tool for the investigation of spent nuclear fuel from high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmbold, M.

    1984-06-01

    For more than a decade, alpha particle spectrometry of spent nuclear fuel has been used at the Kernforschungsanlage Jülich (KFA) in the field of research for the German high temperature reactor (HTR). Techniques used for the preparation of samples for alpha spectrometry have included deposition from aqueous solutions of spent fuel, annealing of fuel particles in an oven and the evaporation of fuel material by a laser beam. The resulting sources are very thin but of low activity and the alpha spectrometry data obtained from them must be evaluated with sophisticated computer codes to achieve the required accuracy. Measurements have been made on high and low enriched uranium fuel and on a variety of parameters relevant to the fuel cycle. In this paper the source preparation and data evaluation techniques will be discussed together with the results obtained to data, i.e. production of alpha active actinide isotopes, correlations between actinide isotopes and fission products, build up and transmutation of actinides during burn-up of HTR fuel, diffusion coefficients of actinides for fuel particle kernels and coating materials. All these KFA results have helped to establish the basis for the design, licensing and operation of HTR power plants, including reprocessing and waste management.

  8. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Demiyanov, Andrey; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV, in the range of $p_\\mathrm{T}$ between 0.4 and 120 GeV/$c$ and pseudorapidity $|\\eta_\\mathrm{CM}|$ lower than 1.8 in the proton-nucleon center-of-mass frame. For $p_\\mathrm{T}$ lower than 10 GeV/$c$, the charged-particle production is asymmetric about $|\\eta_\\mathrm{CM}|$ = 0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at $\\sqrt{s}$ =5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The $p_\\mathrm{T}$ distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with $p_\\mathrm{T}$ larger than 20 GeV/$c$ compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodyna...

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  10. Lasers from fission. [nuclear pumping feasibility experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Helmick, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of the nuclear pumping of lasers was demonstrated in three experiments conducted independently at three different laboratories. In this context nuclear pumping of lasers is understood to be the excitation of a laser by the kinetic energy of the fission fragments only. A description is given of research concerned with the use of nuclear energy for the excitation of gas lasers. Experimental work was supplemented by theoretical research. Attention is given to a nuclear pumped He-Xe laser, a nuclear pumped CO laser, and a neon-nitrogen laser pumped by alpha particles. Studies involving uranium hexafluoride admixture to laser media are discussed along with research on uranium hexafluoride-fueled reactors.

  11. Pro-recombination role of Srs2 protein requires SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) but is independent of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina;

    2016-01-01

    -interacting motif (SIM) of Srs2 is important for the interaction with several recombination factors. Lack of SIM, but not proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interacting motif (PIM), leads to increased cell death under circumstances requiring homologous recombination for DNA repair. Simultaneous mutation...

  12. The broad away side of azimuthal correlations: 3 vs 2 final state particles in high energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Magnin, J; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, G; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    In high energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC there are important aspects of the medium induced dynamics, that are still not well understood. In particular, there is a broadening and even a double hump structure of the away-side peak appearing in azimuthal correlation studies in Au+Au collisions which is absent in p+p collisions at the same energies. These features are already present but suppressed in p+p collisions: 2 to 3 parton processes produce such structures but are suppressed with respect to 2 to 2 processes. We argue that in A+A collisions the different geometry for the trajectories of 3 as opposed to 2 particles in the final state, together with the medium induced energy loss effects on the different cross sections, create a scenario that enhances processes with 3 particles in the final state, which gives on average this double hump structure.

  13. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre Grégory; Živković Ljiljana S.; Jaubertie Anne

    2012-01-01

    In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspec...

  14. NUCLEAR AND HEAVY ION PHYSICS: Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Jin

    2009-04-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants, spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au + Au collisions at GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  15. Ciliary Entry of the Hedgehog Transcriptional Activator Gli2 Is Mediated by the Nuclear Import Machinery but Differs from Nuclear Transport in Being Imp-α/β1-Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Belén; Graña, Martín; Badano, José L.; Irigoín, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Gli2 is the primary transcriptional activator of Hedgehog signalling in mammals. Upon stimulation of the pathway, Gli2 moves into the cilium before reaching the nucleus. However, the mechanisms underlying its entry into the cilium are not completely understood. Since several similarities have been reported between nuclear and ciliary import, we investigated if the nuclear import machinery participates in Gli2 ciliary entry. Here we show that while two conserved classical nuclear localization signals mediate Gli2 nuclear localization via importin (Imp)-α/β1, these sequences are not required for Gli2 ciliary import. However, blocking Imp-mediated transport through overexpression of GTP-locked Ran reduced the percentage of Gli2 positive cilia, an effect that was not explained by increased CRM1-dependent export of Gli2 from the cilium. We explored the participation of Imp-β2 in Gli2 ciliary traffic and observed that this transporter is involved in moving Gli2 into the cilium, as has been described for other ciliary proteins. In addition, our data indicate that Imp-β2 might also collaborate in Gli2 nuclear entry. How does Imp-β2 determine the final destination of a protein that can localize to two distinct subcellular compartments remains an open question. Therefore, our data shows that the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling machinery plays a critical role mediating the subcellular distribution of Gli2 and the activation of the pathway, but distinct importins likely play a differential role mediating its ciliary and nuclear translocation. PMID:27579771

  16. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR as a new tool to investigate the nature of organic compounds occluded in plant silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masion, Armand; Alexandre, Anne; Ziarelli, Fabio; Viel, Stéphane; Santos, Guaciara M

    2017-06-13

    The determination of the chemical nature of the organic matter associated with phytoliths remains a challenge. This difficulty mainly stems from amounts of organic carbon (C) that are often well below the detection limit of traditional spectroscopic tools. Conventional solid-state (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is widely used to examine the nature and structure of organic molecules, but its inherent low sensitivity prohibits the observation of diluted samples. The recent advent of commercial microwave source in the terahertz range triggered a renewed interest in the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) technique to improve the signal to noise ratio of solid-state NMR experiments. With this technique, the (13)C spectrum of a phytolith sample containing 0.1% w/w C was obtained overnight with sufficient quality to permit a semi-quantitative analysis of the organic matter, showing the presence of peptides and carbohydrates as predominant compounds. Considering the natural abundance of the (13)C isotope, this experiment demonstrates that DNP NMR is sufficiently sensitive to observe spin systems present in amounts as low as a few tens of ppm.

  17. Transverse Momentum Distribution and Nuclear Modification Factor of Charged Particles in p-Pb Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Francesco; Blanco, F; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Wisla; Carena, Francesco; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Das, Debasish; Dash, Sadhana; Dash, Ajay Kumar; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum ($p_T$) distribution of primary charged particles is measured in non single-diffractive p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The $p_T$ spectra measured near central rapidity in the range 0.5 < $p_T$ < 20 GeV/c exhibit a weak pseudorapidity dependence. The nuclear modification factor $R_{pPb}$ is consistent with unity for $p_T$ above 2 GeV/c. This measurement indicates that the strong suppression of hadron production at high $p_T$ observed in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC is not due to an initial-state effect. The measurement is compared to theoretical calculations.

  18. An integrated high-performance beam optics-nuclear processes framework with hybrid transfer map-Monte Carlo particle transport and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L., E-mail: bandura@msu.ed [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Erdelyi, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Nolen, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An integrated beam optics-nuclear processes framework is essential for accurate simulation of fragment separator beam dynamics. The code COSY INFINITY provides powerful differential algebraic methods for modeling and beam dynamics simulations in absence of beam-material interactions. However, these interactions are key for accurately simulating the dynamics of heavy ion fragmentation and fission. We have developed an extended version of the code that includes these interactions, and a set of new tools that allow efficient and accurate particle transport: by transfer map in vacuum and by Monte Carlo methods in materials. The new framework is presented, along with several examples from a preliminary layout of a fragment separator for a facility for rare isotope beams.

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on nuclear and particle physics at energies up to 31 GeV: new and future aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Kisslinger, L.S.; Silbar, R.R. (eds.)

    1981-03-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Physics at Energies up to 31 GeV, New and Future Aspects, held in Los Alamos, January 5 to 8, 1981. Included are invited talks and contributed papers covering recent developments in (a) weak and unified interactions (including discussions of neutrino oscillations), (b) the hadronic description of strong interactions, (c) the quark description of strong interactions, (d) hypernuclei, and (e) new facilities and proposed experiments. One of the motivations for the Workshop was to explore physics justifications for a future high-intensity proton accelerator in this energy regime. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers from this meeting. Six papers were previously included in the data base.

  20. A particle assembly/constrained expansion (PACE) model for the formation and structure of porous metal oxide deposits on nuclear fuel rods in pressurized light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Donald W.; Lu, Shijing; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Bucholz, Eric W.; Rak, Zsolt

    2015-02-01

    A new model is proposed for the structure and properties of porous metal oxide scales (aka Chalk River Unidentified Deposits (CRUD)) observed on the nuclear fuel rod cladding in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The model is based on the thermodynamically-driven expansion of agglomerated octahedral nickel ferrite particles in response to pH and temperature changes in the CRUD. The model predicts that porous nickel ferrite with internal {1 1 1} surfaces is a thermodynamically stable structure under PWR conditions even when the free energy of formation of bulk nickel ferrite is positive. This explains the pervasive presence of nickel ferrite in CRUD, observed CRUD microstructures, why CRUD maintains its porosity, and variations in porosity within the CRUD observed experimentally. This model is a stark departure from decades of conventional wisdom and detailed theoretical analysis of CRUD chemistry, and defines new research directions for model validation, and for understanding and ultimately controlling CRUD formation.

  1. Shell-model study on event rates of lightest supersymmetric particles scattering off 83Kr and 125Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinen, P.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.; Kortelainen, M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the elastic and inelastic scattering of lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter off two possible target nuclei, 83Kr and 125Te. For the nuclear-structure calculations, we employ the nuclear shell model using recently generated realistic interactions. We have condensed the nuclear-physics contribution to a set of nuclear-structure factors that are independent of the adopted supersymmetric (SUSY) model. Total event rates are then easily calculated by combining the nuclear-structure factors with SUSY parameters of choice. In particular, 125Te shows promise as a detector material with both the elastic and inelastic channels yielding an appreciable nuclear response.

  2. Differential passage of fluids and different-sized particles in fistulated oxen (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces): rumen particle size discrimination is independent from contents stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Fritz, Julia; Günther, Detlef; Hattendorf, Bodo; Hummel, Jürgen; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. We investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) on different diets. The distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rumen fluids suggested that the rumen contents were more stratified in muskoxen than moose. Correspondingly, as in previous studies, the species differed in the ratio of mean retention times of small particles to fluids in the reticulorumen, which was highest in cattle (2.03) and muskoxen (1.97-1.98), intermediate in reindeer (1.70) and lowest in moose (0.98-1.29). However, the ratio of large to small particle retention did not differ between the species, indicating similarity in the efficiency of the particle sorting mechanism. Passage kinetics of the two largest particle classes did not differ, indicating that particle retention is not a continuous function of particle size but rather threshold-dependent. Overall, the results suggest that fluid flow through the forestomach differs between ruminant species. A lower relative fluid passage, such as in moose, might limit species to a browse-based dietary niche, whereas a higher relative fluid passage broadens the dietary niche options and facilitates the inclusion of, or specialization on, grass. The function of fluid flow in the ruminant forestomach should be further investigated.

  3. Excitation function of the alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on enriched 116Cd, production of the theranostic isotope 117mSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.; Szűcs, Z.; Saito, M.

    2016-10-01

    117mSn is one of the radioisotopes can be beneficially produced through alpha particle irradiation. The targets were prepared by deposition of 116Cd metal onto high purity 12 μm thick Cu backing. The average deposited thickness was 21.9 μm. The beam energy was thoroughly measured by Time of Flight (TOF) methods and proved to be 51.2 MeV. For the experiment the well-established stacked foil technique was used. In addition to the Cd targets, Ti foils were also inserted into the stacks for energy and intensity monitoring. The Cu backings were also used for monitoring and as recoil catcher of the reaction products from the cadmium layer. The activities of the irradiated foils were measured with HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry and cross section values were determined. As a result excitation functions for the formation of 117mSn, 117m,gIn, 116mIn, 115mIn and 115m,gCd from enriched 116Cd were deduced and compared with the available literature data and with the results of the nuclear reaction model code calculations EMPIRE 3.2 and TALYS 1.8. Yield curves were also deduced for the measured nuclear reactions and compared with the literature.

  4. Experimental study of nuclear fragmentation of 200 and 400 MeV/u 12C ions in water for applications in particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, E.; Iwase, H.; Krämer, M.; Kraft, G.; Schardt, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon ion beams in the energy range of about 100-450 MeV/u offer excellent conditions for tumour therapy, in particular for the treatment of deep-seated radio-resistant tumours. Their depth-dose distribution is characterized by a low dose in the entrance channel, small lateral beam spread and an elevated biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region. In comparison to protons the radiation field of heavier ions stopping in tissue is however more complex due to nuclear fragmentation reactions occurring along their stopping path. This results in an attenuation of the primary beam flux and a build-up of lower-Z fragments with longer ranges causing the characteristic dose tail beyond the Bragg peak. In the present work the characteristics of secondary charged particles at various depths of water were investigated experimentally using 12C ion beams of 200 and 400 MeV/u delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI Darmstadt. The nuclear charge Zf of secondary fragments was identified by combining energy loss and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Energy spectra and yields were recorded at lab angles of 0° - 10° and at seven different water depths corresponding to the entrance channel, the Bragg peak region and the tail of the Bragg curve.

  5. Experimental study of nuclear fragmentation of 200 and 400 MeV/u (12)C ions in water for applications in particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, E; Iwase, H; Krämer, M; Kraft, G; Schardt, D

    2013-12-01

    Carbon ion beams in the energy range of about 100-450 MeV/u offer excellent conditions for tumour therapy, in particular for the treatment of deep-seated radio-resistant tumours. Their depth-dose distribution is characterized by a low dose in the entrance channel, small lateral beam spread and an elevated biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region. In comparison to protons the radiation field of heavier ions stopping in tissue is however more complex due to nuclear fragmentation reactions occurring along their stopping path. This results in an attenuation of the primary beam flux and a build-up of lower-Z fragments with longer ranges causing the characteristic dose tail beyond the Bragg peak. In the present work the characteristics of secondary charged particles at various depths of water were investigated experimentally using (12)C ion beams of 200 and 400 MeV/u delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI Darmstadt. The nuclear charge Zf of secondary fragments was identified by combining energy loss and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Energy spectra and yields were recorded at lab angles of 0° - 10° and at seven different water depths corresponding to the entrance channel, the Bragg peak region and the tail of the Bragg curve.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  7. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre Grégory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR, the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspected to be the cause. As better understanding of the adhesion mechanism is the key factor in the prevention of fouling and particle removal, an experimental study was carried out using a laboratory set-up. With model materials, hematite and sintered alumina, the adhesion rate and surface potentials of the interacting solids were measured under different chemical conditions (solution pH and composition in analogy with the PWR ones. The obtained results were in good agreement with the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey- Overbeek theory and used as such to interpret this industrial phenomenon.

  8. Multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in asymmetric and deformed nuclear collisions in the wounded quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, O. S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    The charged particle multiplicity (n_{ch}) and pseudorapidity density (dn_{ch}/dη) are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy-ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently much interest has been focused on asymmetric and deformed nuclei collisions since these collisions can provide a deeper understanding about the nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the phenomenological perspective, a unified model which describes the experimental data coming from various kinds of collision experiments is much needed to provide physical insights on the production mechanism. In this paper, we have calculated the charged hadron multiplicities for nucleon-nucleus, such as proton-lead ( p-Pb) and asymmetric nuclei collisions like deutron-gold ( d-Au), and copper-gold (Cu-Au) within a new version of the wounded quark model (WQM) and we have shown their variation with respect to centrality. Further we have used a suitable density function within our WQM to calculate pseudorapidity density of charged hadrons at midrapidity in the collisions of deformed uranium nuclei. We found that our model with suitable density functions describes the experimental data for symmetric, asymmetric and deformed nuclei collisions simultaneously over a wide range of the collision energy.

  9. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in asymmetric and deformed nuclear collisions in a Wounded Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, O S K; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B K

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity ($n_{ch}$) and pseudorapidity density $(dn_{ch}/d\\eta)$ are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently a lot of focus on asymmetric nuclei as well as deformed nuclei collisions has been made as these collisions can provide a deeper understanding of the nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). On phenomenological perspective a unified model which describes the experimental data coming from various kind of collision experiments, is much needed to provide the physical insights about the production mechanism. In this paper, firstly we have calculated the charged hadron multiplicities for nucleon-nucleus (such as proton-lead (p-Pb) and asymmetric nuclei collisions like deutron-gold (d-Au), and copper-gold (Cu-Au) within our recently proposed wounded quark model (WQM) and ...

  10. Conference on Real-Time Computer Applications in Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics, 6th, Williamsburg, VA, May 15-19, 1989, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pordes, Ruth (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers on real-time computer applications in nuclear, particle, and plasma physics are presented, covering topics such as expert systems tactics in testing FASTBUS segment interconnect modules, trigger control in a high energy physcis experiment, the FASTBUS read-out system for the Aleph time projection chamber, a multiprocessor data acquisition systems, DAQ software architecture for Aleph, a VME multiprocessor system for plasma control at the JT-60 upgrade, and a multiasking, multisinked, multiprocessor data acquisition front end. Other topics include real-time data reduction using a microVAX processor, a transputer based coprocessor for VEDAS, simulation of a macropipelined multi-CPU event processor for use in FASTBUS, a distributed VME control system for the LISA superconducting Linac, a distributed system for laboratory process automation, and a distributed system for laboratory process automation. Additional topics include a structure macro assembler for the event handler, a data acquisition and control system for Thomson scattering on ATF, remote procedure execution software for distributed systems, and a PC-based graphic display real-time particle beam uniformity.

  11. Calculation of Nuclear Particles Production at High-Energy Photon Beams from a Linac Operating at 6, 10 and 15 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Renato; Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2017-05-01

    Production of photonuclear particles in a tissue-equivalent medium has been calculated for linacs at 6, 10 and 15 MV from Varian TrueBeam. Based on the knowledge of bremsstrahlung fluence spectra and linac photon beam parameters, numerical integration was performed on the cross sections for photoparticle production of the constituent elements of tissue (2H,12C,13C,16O,17O,18O,14N,15N). At 15 MV, at the depth of photon maximum dose, the total absorbed dose due to neutrons, protons, alphas and residual nuclei from photon reactions in tissue (5.5E-05 Gy per Gy of photons) is comparable to that due to neutrons from accelerator head. Results reasonably agree with data reported in the literature using Monte Carlo models simulating linac head components. This work suggests a simple method to estimate the dose contributed by the photon-induced nuclear particles for high-energy photon beams produced by linacs in use, as it might be relevant for late stochastic effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fundamentals of the Orbital Conception of Elementary Particles and of their Application to the Neutron and Nuclear Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sardin, G

    1999-01-01

    An alternative approach to the Standard Model is outlined, being motivated by the increasing theoretical and experimental difficulties encountered by this model, which furthermore fails to be unitary. In particular, the conceptual uneasiness generated by the excessive multiplicity of fundamental elements of the Quark Model, 36 different quarks whose cohesion needs 8 different types of gluons, has logically led some physicists to propose a variety of quark substructures in an effort to reach unity. In order to avoid the forward escape corresponding to the attribution of a substructure to quarks and to stand away from the conceptual strangling to which the Standard model has led, we have instead opted for different fundamentals. These, in contrast to those of the Standard Model, are extremely simple and based on the assumption of a single fundamental corpuscle, of dual manifestation as corpuscle and anticorpuscle, to which is always associated an orbital that determines the structure of particles. In such a fra...

  13. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Quality Assurance Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-02-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Software Quality Assurance Plan. The Software Quality Assurance Plan is intended to ensure all actions necessary for the software life cycle; verification and validation activities; documentation and deliverables; project management; configuration management, nonconformance reporting and corrective action; and quality assessment and improvement have been planned and a systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a software product conforms to established technical requirements; and to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  14. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Quality Assurance Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Software Quality Assurance Plan. The Software Quality Assurance Plan is intended to ensure all actions necessary for the software life cycle; verification and validation activities; documentation and deliverables; project management; configuration management, nonconformance reporting and corrective action; and quality assessment and improvement have been planned and a systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a software product conforms to established technical requirements; and to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  15. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  16. Cloning of the cDNA for U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle 70K protein from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S.; Czernik, A. J.; An, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1992-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a plant cDNA that encodes U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) 70K protein. The plant U1 snRNP 70K protein cDNA is not full length and lacks the coding region for 68 amino acids in the amino-terminal region as compared to human U1 snRNP 70K protein. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the plant U1 snRNP 70K protein with the amino acid sequence of animal and yeast U1 snRNP 70K protein showed a high degree of homology. The plant U1 snRNP 70K protein is more closely related to the human counter part than to the yeast 70K protein. The carboxy-terminal half is less well conserved but, like the vertebrate 70K proteins, is rich in charged amino acids. Northern analysis with the RNA isolated from different parts of the plant indicates that the snRNP 70K gene is expressed in all of the parts tested. Southern blotting of genomic DNA using the cDNA indicates that the U1 snRNP 70K protein is coded by a single gene.

  17. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Volume 3 Users' Guide Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE 8 Volume 3 Users’ Guide is to assess the user documentation for its completeness, correctness, and consistency with respect to requirements for user interface and for any functionality that can be invoked by the user. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  18. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: nuclear fragmentation produced by $^4$He ion beams in a PMMA target

    CERN Document Server

    Marafini, M; Pinci, D; Battistoni, G; Collamati, F; De Lucia, E; Faccini, R; Frallicciardi, P M; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Mattei, I; Muraro, S; Piersanti, L; Rovituso, M; Rucinski, A; Russomando, A; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Toppi, M; Traini, G; Voena, C; Patera, V

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in Particle Therapy treatments exploiting light ion beams against tumors due to their enhanced Relative Biological Effectiveness and high space selectivity. In particular promising results are obtained by the use of $^4$He projectiles. Unlike the treatments performed using protons, the beam ions can undergo a fragmentation process when interacting with the atomic nuclei in the patient body. In this paper the results of measurements performed at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy center are reported. For the first time the absolute fluxes and the energy spectra of the fragments - protons, deuterons, and tritons - produced by $^4$He ion beams of 102, 125 and 145 MeV/u energies on a poly-methyl methacrylate target were evaluated at different angles. The obtained results are particularly relevant in view of the necessary optimization and review of the Treatment Planning Software being developed for clinical use of $^4$He beams in clinical routine and the relative benchmarking of ...

  19. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: nuclear fragmentation produced by 4He ion beams in a PMMA target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafini, M.; Paramatti, R.; Pinci, D.; Battistoni, G.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Mancini-Terracciano, C.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Piersanti, L.; Rovituso, M.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.; Patera, V.

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in particle therapy treatments exploiting light ion beams against tumors due to their enhanced relative biological effectiveness and high space selectivity. In particular promising results are obtained by the use of 4He projectiles. Unlike the treatments performed using protons, the beam ions can undergo a fragmentation process when interacting with the atomic nuclei in the patient body. In this paper the results of measurements performed at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy center are reported. For the first time the absolute fluxes and the energy spectra of the fragments—protons, deuterons, and tritons—produced by 4He ion beams of 102, 125 and 145 MeV u-1 energies on a poly-methyl methacrylate target were evaluated at different angles. The obtained results are particularly relevant in view of the necessary optimization and review of the treatment planning software being developed for clinical use of 4He beams in clinical routine and the relative bench-marking of Monte Carlo algorithm predictions.

  20. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, N.; Sahoo, B. K.; Yoshinaga, N.; Sato, T.; Asahi, K.; Das, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested.

  1. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, N. [RIKEN, Wako, iTHES Research Group, Saitama (Japan); Far Eastern Federal University, Complex Simulation Group, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Sahoo, B.K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Division, Ahmedabad (India); Yoshinaga, N. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama (Japan); Sato, T. [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Asahi, K. [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and International Education and Research Center of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Das, B.P. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and International Education and Research Center of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested. (orig.)

  2. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, David G., E-mail: d.reading@noc.soton.ac.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Britton, Richard [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40–200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 235}U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. - Highlights: • Low energy gamma photons (<200 keV) are attenuated in U-bearing compounds. • Corrections based on bulk density do not yield accurate activity

  3. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Configuration Management Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE configuration management is to assess the activities that results in the process of identifying and defining the baselines associated with the SAPHIRE software product; controlling the changes to baselines and release of baselines throughout the life cycle; recording and reporting the status of baselines and the proposed and actual changes to the baselines; and verifying the correctness and completeness of baselines.. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  4. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Design and Interface Design Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE software design and interface design is to assess the activities that results in the development, documentation, and review of a software design that meets the requirements defined in the software requirements documentation. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP) design specification.

  5. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Configuration Management Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE configuration management is to assess the activities that results in the process of identifying and defining the baselines associated with the SAPHIRE software product; controlling the changes to baselines and release of baselines throughout the life cycle; recording and reporting the status of baselines and the proposed and actual changes to the baselines; and verifying the correctness and completeness of baselines.. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  6. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Acceptance Test Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE 8 Software Acceptance Test Plan is to assess the approach to be taken for intended testing activities. The plan typically identifies the items to be tested, the requirements being tested, the testing to be performed, test schedules, personnel requirements, reporting requirements, evaluation criteria, and any risks requiring contingency planning. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  7. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Design and Interface Design Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE software design and interface design is to assess the activities that results in the development, documentation, and review of a software design that meets the requirements defined in the software requirements documentation. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP) design specification.

  8. Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in PbPb and pPb collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02 $$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D’Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. 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M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cerminara, G.; D’Alfonso, M.; d’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R. -S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Gecit, F. H.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Onengut, G.; Ozcan, M.; Ozdemir, K.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O’Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Trauger, H.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y. -J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Kumar, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.

    2016-02-01

    The spectra of charged particles produced within the pseudorapidity window $| \\eta | < $ 1 at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}= $ 5.02 TeV are measured using 404 $ \\mu $b$^{-1}$ of PbPb and 27.4 pb$^{-1}$ of pp data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2015. The spectra are presented over the transverse momentum ranges spanning 0.5 $ < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < $ 400 GeV in pp and 0.7 $ < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < $ 400 GeV in PbPb collisions. The corresponding nuclear modification factor, ${R_\\mathrm{AA}} $, is measured in bins of collision centrality. The ${R_\\mathrm{AA}} $ in the 5% most central collisions shows a maximal suppression by a factor of 7-8 in the $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ region of 6-9 GeV. This dip is followed by an increase, which continues up to the highest $ p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ measured, and approaches unity in the vicinity of $p_{\\mathrm{T}}= $ 200 GeV. The ${R_\\mathrm{AA}} $ is compared to theoretical predictions and earlier experimental results at lower collision energies. The newly measured pp spectrum is combined with the pPb spectrum previously published by the CMS Collaboration to construct the pPb nuclear modification factor, ${R_{\\mathrm{ p }\\mathrm{A}}} $, up to 120 GeV. For $ p_{\\mathrm{T}} > $ 20 GeV, ${R_{\\mathrm{ p }\\mathrm{A}}} $ exhibits weak momentum dependence and shows a moderate enhancement above unity.

  9. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for 72Ge, 75As, 89Y, and 109Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for 90Zr and 55Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  10. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.jp; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for {sup 72}Ge, {sup 75}As, {sup 89}Y, and {sup 109}Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for {sup 90}Zr and {sup 55}Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  11. An O(N) and parallel approach to integral problems by a kernel-independent fast multipole method: Application to polarization and magnetization of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xikai; Li, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xujun; Qin, Jian; Karpeev, Dmitry; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; de Pablo, Juan J.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-08-01

    Large classes of materials systems in physics and engineering are governed by magnetic and electrostatic interactions. Continuum or mesoscale descriptions of such systems can be cast in terms of integral equations, whose direct computational evaluation requires O(N2) operations, where N is the number of unknowns. Such a scaling, which arises from the many-body nature of the relevant Green's function, has precluded wide-spread adoption of integral methods for solution of large-scale scientific and engineering problems. In this work, a parallel computational approach is presented that relies on using scalable open source libraries and utilizes a kernel-independent Fast Multipole Method (FMM) to evaluate the integrals in O(N) operations, with O(N) memory cost, thereby substantially improving the scalability and efficiency of computational integral methods. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability of our approach in the context of two examples. In the first, we solve a boundary value problem for a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic volume in free space. In the second, we solve an electrostatic problem involving polarizable dielectric bodies in an unbounded dielectric medium. The results from these test cases show that our proposed parallel approach, which is built on a kernel-independent FMM, can enable highly efficient and accurate simulations and allow for considerable flexibility in a broad range of applications.

  12. B0d-B¯0d mixing and the prediction of the top-quark mass in an independent particle potential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, N.; Das, P.; Panda, A. R.; Roy, K. C.

    1993-10-01

    Considering B0d-B¯ 0d mixing in a potential model of independent quarks by taking the effective interaction Hamiltonian of the standard Salam-Weinberg-Glashow model and subsequently diagonalizing the corresponding mass matrix with respect to B0d and B¯0d states, we obtain an expression for the mass difference ΔM0Bd in terms of the t-quark mass mt. Using the recent observation of the mixing parameter xd=0.72+/-0.15 by the ARGUS Collaboration, we predict the lower bound on the top-quark mass as mt>=149 GeV. Further, a consideration of experimental mass difference ΔM0Bd=(4.0+/-0.8)×10-13 GeV also leads to mt=167+16-17 GeV which is in agreement with the recent experimental bound as well as other theoretical predictions. However, such a prediction of mt that utilizes the experimental value of the CKM matrix element ||Vtd|| may not appear convincing in view of the large uncertainties in the measurement of ||Vtd|| so far reported. Therefore using the range of mt values within its bounds predicted from other independent works, we make a reasonable estimation of ||Vtd||.

  13. Human herpesvirus 6B U19 protein is a PML-regulated transcriptional activator that localizes to nuclear foci in a PML-independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2008-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) contains an IE-B domain spanning open reading frames U16/17-U19, based on homology with human cytomegalovirus. Here, the protein product, U19, of the HHV-6B U19 gene is identified as a 47 kDa transcriptional activator. HHV-6B infection or overexpression of U19...... transactivated the RANTES promoter. Mutational analysis of the promoter indicated that transactivation was not critically dependent on the promoter sites CRE, NF-kappaB, ISRE or NF-IL6. ND10 are nuclear substructures that are involved in several cellular regulatory pathways, including those controlling gene...... structure, U19 also localized to the centre of ND10. Knockdown of PML by small interfering RNA did not prevent U19 localization to ND10-like foci, but instead led to a fourfold increase in U19-induced transcription from the RANTES promoter. Generation of four truncated U19 proteins indicated that the N...

  14. Challenging particle physics as path to truth

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, G

    2001-01-01

    Particle physicist's ultimate goal is 'grand unification' - describing the four forces observed today - electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear forces and gravity with just a single law, expressable as a few concise equations. But some solid state physicists are now contesting the validity of this approach, arguing that many forms of matter cannot be described solely in terms of fundamental particle interactions - when systems are very complex, new and independent laws emerge. They propose that there is no one theory of everything, just a lot of theories of things.

  15. An O(N) and parallel approach to integral problems by a kernel-independent fast multipole method: Application to polarization and magnetization of interacting particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Xikai; Zhao, Xujun; Qin, Jian; Karpeev, Dmitry; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; de Pablo, Juan; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Large classes of materials systems in physics and engineering are governed by magnetic and electrostatic interactions. Continuum or mesoscale descriptions of such systems can be cast in terms of integral equations, whose direct computational evaluation requires O(N^2) operations, where N is the number of unknowns. Such a scaling, which arises from the many-body nature of the relevant Green's function, has precluded wide-spread adoption of integral methods for solution of large-scale scientific and engineering problems. In this work, a parallel computational approach is presented that relies on using scalable open source libraries and utilizes a kernel-independent Fast Multipole Method to evaluate the integrals in O(N) operations, with O(N) memory cost, thereby substantially improving the scalability and efficiency of computational integral methods. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability of our approach in the contest of two examples. In the first, we solve a boundary value problem for a ferr...

  16. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  17. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section data for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y via proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced transmutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneb, H; Hussain, M; Amjad, N; Qaim, S M

    2016-06-01

    Proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced reactions on (87,88)Sr, (nat)Zr and (85)Rb targets were evaluated for the production of (87,88)Y. The literature data were compared with nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The evaluated cross sections were generated; therefrom thick target yields of (87,88)Y were calculated. Analysis of radio-yttrium impurities and yield showed that the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y and (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reactions are the best routes for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y respectively. The calculated yield for the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y reaction is 104 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 14→2.7MeV. Similarly, the calculated yield for the (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reaction is 3.2 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 15→7MeV.

  18. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar' adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@um.edu.my [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of {sup nat}Ti(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the {sup nat}Ti(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the {sup 51,49,48}Cr, {sup 48}V, {sup 43}K, and {sup 43,44m,44g,46g+m,47,48}Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  19. Virus-Like Particles Derived from HIV-1 for Delivery of Nuclear Proteins: Improvement of Production and Activity by Protein Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Marc-André; Lytvyn, Viktoria; Deforet, Francis; Gilbert, Rénald; Gaillet, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from retroviruses and lentiviruses can be used to deliver recombinant proteins without the fear of causing insertional mutagenesis to the host cell genome. In this study we evaluate the potential of an inducible lentiviral vector packaging cell line for VLP production. The Gag gene from HIV-1 was fused to a gene encoding a selected protein and it was transfected into the packaging cells. Three proteins served as model: the green fluorescent protein and two transcription factors-the cumate transactivator (cTA) of the inducible CR5 promoter and the human Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). The sizes of the VLPs were 120-150 nm in diameter and they were resistant to freeze/thaw cycles. Protein delivery by the VLPs reached up to 100% efficacy in human cells and was well tolerated. Gag-cTA triggered up to 1100-fold gene activation of the reporter gene in comparison to the negative control. Protein engineering was required to detect Gag-KLF4 activity. Thus, insertion of the VP16 transactivation domain increased the activity of the VLPs by eightfold. An additional 2.4-fold enhancement was obtained by inserting nuclear export signal. In conclusion, our platform produced VLPs capable of efficient protein transfer, and it was shown that protein engineering can be used to improve the activity of the delivered proteins as well as VLP production.

  20. Emission of β+ Particles Via Internal Pair Production in the 0+ – 0+ Transition of 90Zr: Historical Background and Current Applications in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D'Arienzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 90Y is traditionally considered as a pure β– emitter. However, the decay of this radionuclide has a minor branch to the 0+ first excited state of 90Zr at 1.76 MeV, that is followed by a β+/β– emission. This internal pair production has been largely studied in the past because it is generated by a rare electric monopole transition (E0 between the states 0+/0+ of 90Zr. The positronic emission has been recently exploited for nuclear medicine applications, i.e. positron emission tomography (PET acquisitions of 90Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, widely used as therapeutic agents in internal radiation therapy. To date, this topic is gaining increasing interest in the radiation dosimetry community, as the possibility of detecting β+ emissions from 90Y by PET scanners may pave the way for an accurate patient-specific dosimetry. This could lead to an explosion in scientific production in this field. In the present paper the historical background behind the study of the internal pair production of the 0+/0+ transition of 90Zr is presented along with most up to date measured branch ratio values. An overview of most recent studies that exploit β+ particles emitted from 90Y for PET acquisitions is also provided.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Detects Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt-Independent Traits Common to Pluripotent Murine Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Malignant Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Romanska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells, a potential source of somatic precursors for cell therapies, cause tumors after transplantation. Studies of mammalian carcinogenesis using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy have revealed changes in the choline region, particularly increased phosphocholine (PCho content. High PCho levels in murine ES (mES cells have recently been attributed to cell pluripotency. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway has been implicated in tumor-like properties of mES cells. This study aimed to examine a potential link between the metabolic profile associated with choline metabolism of pluripotent mES cells and PI3K/Akt signaling. We used mES (ES-D3 and murine embryonal carcinoma cells (EC-F9 and compared the metabolic profiles of 1 pluripotent mES (ESD0, 2 differentiated mES (ESD14, and 3 pluripotent F9 cells. Involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway was assessed using LY294002, a selective PI3K inhibitor. Metabolic profiles were characterized in the extracted polar fraction by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Similarities were found between the levels of choline phospholipid metabolites (PCho/total choline and PCho/glycerophosphocholine [GPCho] in ESD0 and F9 cell spectra and a greater-than five-fold decrease of the PCho/GPCho ratio associated with mES cell differentiation. LY294002 caused no significant change in relative PCho levels but led to a greater-than two-fold increase in PCho/GPCho ratios. These results suggest that the PCho/GPCho ratio is a metabolic trait shared by pluripotent and malignant cells and that PI3K does not underlie its development. It is likely that the signature identified here in a mouse model may be relevant for safe therapeutic applications of human ES cells.

  2. Dissertation Award in Nuclear Physics Prize Talk: Model-Independent Measurement of the ^8B Solar Neutrino Flux and Evidence for Neutrino Flavor Change at SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2003-04-01

    With heavy water as a target medium the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to study solar neutrinos by measuring both the total flux of ^8B neutrinos through the neutral-current interaction as well as the electron-type neutrino flux via charged-current dissociation of deuterium. Using data from the pure D_2O phase of SNO we have determined the interaction rates of solar neutrinos with deuterium and characterized the backgrounds throughout the SNO detector volume. Without assumptions about the shape of the underlying ^8B spectrum a model-independent measurement of the total flux of active solar ^8B neutrinos is made. The measurement of the neutral-current and charged-current interaction rates provides direct evidence for the flavor transformation of solar neutrinos and indicates that neutrinos have mass. A combined analysis of solar neutrino data from SNO and Super-Kamiokande can be used to constrain the leading weak axial two-body current, the dominant uncertainty of the low-energy weak interaction deuteron breakup process. It is shown that the theoretical inputs to SNO's determination of the CC and NC interaction rates are not a significant theoretical uncertainty and can be self-calibrated.

  3. Control of Toll-like receptor-mediated T cell-independent type 1 antibody responses by the inducible nuclear protein IκB-ζ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanihara-Tatsuzawa, Fumito; Miura, Hanae; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Isagawa, Takayuki; Okuma, Atsushi; Manabe, Ichiro; MaruYama, Takashi

    2014-11-07

    Antibody responses have been classified as being either T cell-dependent or T cell-independent (TI). TI antibody responses are further classified as being either type 1 (TI-1) or type 2 (TI-2), depending on their requirement for B cell-mediated antigen receptor signaling. Although the mechanistic basis of antibody responses has been studied extensively, it remains unclear whether different antibody responses share similarities in their transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that mice deficient in IκB-ζ, specifically in their B cells, have impaired TI-1 antibody responses but normal T cell-dependent and TI-2 antibody responses. The absence of IκB-ζ in B cells also impaired proliferation triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, plasma cell differentiation, and class switch recombination (CSR). Mechanistically, IκB-ζ-deficient B cells could not induce TLR-mediated induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a class-switch DNA recombinase. Retroviral transduction of AID in IκB-ζ-deficient B cells restored CSR activity. Furthermore, acetylation of histone H3 in the vicinity of the transcription start site of the gene that encodes AID was reduced in IκB-ζ-deficient B cells relative to IκB-ζ-expressing B cells. These results indicate that IκB-ζ regulates TLR-mediated CSR by inducing AID. Moreover, IκB-ζ defines differences in the transcriptional regulation of different antibody responses.

  4. 核电厂DCS安全级设备自主装配技术%Independent Assembly Technology for DCS Safety Equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝爱霞

    2014-01-01

    本文描述了核电厂DCS安全级设备自主装配工艺鉴定和验证技术,主要包括特种工艺、布线工艺和装配检验技术。并将此技术应用于北京广利核系统工程有限公司在执行自主产品(FirmSys)工程样机项目机柜的装配中,通过实践证明了应用该技术的安全可靠性和实用性。%A independent assembly technology of identification and verification was pro‐posed ,which included special process , wiring process and verification process . The safety reliability and practicability of the proposed technology were verified according to the application in FirmSys assembly implemented by China Techenergy Co .,Ltd .

  5. A novel nuclear DnaJ protein, DNAJC8, can suppress the formation of spinocerebellar ataxia 3 polyglutamine aggregation in a J-domain independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Norie [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Kamiguchi, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Katsuya; Sokolovskya, Alice; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Yasuaki; Murai, Aiko; Yamamoto, Eri; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kochin, Vitaly [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Chiba, Susumu [Department of Neurology, Clinical Brain Research Laboratory, Toyokura Memorial Hall, Sapporo Yamano-ue Hospital (Japan); Shimohama, Shun [Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Sato, Noriyuki [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Torigoe, Toshihiko, E-mail: torigoe@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2016-06-10

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases comprise neurodegenerative disorders caused by expression of expanded polyQ-containing proteins. The cytotoxicity of the expanded polyQ-containing proteins is closely associated with aggregate formation. In this study, we report that a novel J-protein, DNAJ (HSP40) Homolog, Subfamily C, Member 8 (DNAJC8), suppresses the aggregation of polyQ-containing protein in a cellular model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), which is also known as Machado-Joseph disease. Overexpression of DNAJC8 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells significantly reduced the polyQ aggregation and apoptosis, and DNAJC8 was co-localized with the polyQ aggregation in the cell nucleus. Deletion mutants of DNAJC8 revealed that the C-terminal domain of DNAJC8 was essential for the suppression of polyQ aggregation, whereas the J-domain was dispensable. Furthermore, 22-mer oligopeptide derived from C-termilal domain could suppress the polyQ aggregation. These results indicate that DNAJC8 can suppress the polyQ aggregation via a distinct mechanism independent of HSP70-based chaperone machinery and have a unique protective role against the aggregation of expanded polyQ-containing proteins such as pathogenic ataxin-3 proteins.

  6. Simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear protein expression of melanoma antigen-A family and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens represents an independent marker for poor survival in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Simon; Atanackovic, Djordje; Luetkens, Tim; Knecht, Rainald; Busch, Chia-Jung; Freytag, Marcus; Spagnoli, Giulio; Ritter, Gerd; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Knuth, Alexander; Sauter, Guido; Wilczak, Waldemar; Blessmann, Marco; Borgmann, Kerstin; Muenscher, Adrian; Clauditz, Till S

    2014-09-01

    The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients remains poor. The identification of high-risk subgroups is needed for the development of custom-tailored therapies. The expression of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) has been linked to a worse prognosis in other cancer types; however, their prognostic value in HNSCC is unclear because only few patients have been examined and data on CTA protein expression are sparse. A tissue microarray consisting of tumor samples from 453 HNSCC patients was evaluated for the expression of CTA proteins using immunohistochemistry. Frequency of expression and the subcellular expression pattern (nuclear, cytoplasmic, or both) was recorded. Protein expression of melanoma antigen (MAGE)-A family CTA, MAGE-C family CTA and NY-ESO-1 was found in approximately 30, 7 and 4% of tumors, respectively. The subcellular expression pattern in particular had a marked impact on the patients' prognosis. Median overall survival (OS) of patients with (i) simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear expression compared to (ii) either cytoplasmic or nuclear expression and (iii) negative patients was 23.0 versus 109.0 versus 102.5 months, for pan-MAGE (p < 0.0001), 46.6 versus 50.0 versus 109.0 for MAGE-A3/A4 (p = 0.0074) and 13.3 versus 50.0 versus 100.2 months for NY-ESO-1 (p = 0.0019). By multivariate analysis, these factors were confirmed as independent markers for poor survival. HNSCC patients showing protein expression of MAGE-A family members or NY-ESO-1 represent a subgroup with an extraordinarily poor survival. The development of immunotherapeutic strategies targeting these CTA may, therefore, be a promising approach to improve the outcome of HNSCC patients.

  7. When is a Particle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Sidney D.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a new definition for the concept of the elementary particle in nuclear physics. Explains why the existance of the quark as an elementary particle could be an accepted fact even though it lacks what traditionally identifies a particle. Compares this with the development which took place during the discovery of the neutrino in the early…

  8. PRECISION SCATTERING OF NUCLEAR PARTICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes: Deuteron-Induced Reactions from N14, N15, and He4, reprinted from Physical Review , 105, p. 639-647, 15 Jan 57; the The Determination and...Shell, by J. B. French and A. Fujii, written in cooperation with U. of Rochester, reprinted from Physical Review , 105, p.652-657, 15 Jan 1957.

  9. Nuclear Transparency and Single Particle Spectral Functions from Quasielastic A(e,e'p) Reactions up to Q2=8.1 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, David Wayne [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2003-05-01

    High statistics elastic and quasielastic scattering measurements were performed on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, and iron at squared momentum transfers up to 8.1 GeV2. Both the nuclear transparency and the single particle spectral functions were extracted by means of comparison with a Plane- Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. Our data provide no evidence of the onset of color transparency within our kinematic range.

  10. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium); Takahashi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  11. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  12. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...... about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  13. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  14. Nuclear Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the $\\pi$-$\\gamma$ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  15. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  16. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  17. Isolation and microscopic characterization of nuclear fuel particles from contaminated soil of ChernobylSéparation et caractérisation microscopique des particules de combustible nucléaire présentes dans les sols contaminés de Tchernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamdach, Noureddine; Stammose, Denise

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear fuel particles were separated from Chernobyl contaminated soil sample by sedimentation in bromoform. Their physicochemical characteristics were studied using the scanning electron microscope. One part of the particles contained U and O and the other part contained U, Zr and O. The size of the particles containing Zr was greater than that of the pure fuel particles. The structure and the surface morphology of the studied particles were variable and characterized the conditions of their formation. Thus, the source term is heterogeneous. This heterogeneity has direct consequences on the dissolution of the fuel particles.

  18. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  19. Decay patterns of multi-quasiparticle bands—a model independent test of chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear chiral systems exhibit chiral symmetry bands, built on left-handed and right-handed angular momentum nucleon configurations. The experimental search for such chiral systems revealed a number of suitable candidates, however an unambiguous identification of nuclear chiral symmetry is still outstanding. In this work it is shown that the decay patterns of chiral bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations are different from those involving different single-particle configurations. It is suggested to use the observed decay patterns of chiral candidates as a new model-independent test of chiral symmetry.

  20. Sources of high energy particles obtained with intense lasers for applications in nuclear physics; Sources de particules de hautes energies obtenues avec des lasers intenses pour applications a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbaux, M

    2007-12-15

    This experimental study concerns the characterization of the beams of electrons and protons with energies above a few MeV produced in the interaction of an ultra-intense (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser beam with a 10 {mu}m thick solid target. This work was issued in the framework to use these beams in nuclear physics experiments. It was hence necessary to know quantitatively the characteristics of these particle beams. Laser accelerated particle beams have very different characteristics from conventional ones produced in accelerators, especially on account of their transience and intensity as well as their continuous energy distribution. These properties make their characterization complex and led us to develop methods combining measurements with diodes spectrometers, radiochromic films, nuclear activation of chosen materials and Monte-Carlo simulations. These methods have been employed on 2 different facilities but with similar characteristics for the study of the electron beams as a function of the target material. The angular aperture of the electron beam appears to be strongly dependent on the atomic number of the target. An experiment was also carried out to characterize at each shot the proton beam produced with the LULI 100 TW laser facility. This experiment also proved the possibility to induce nuclear reactions in plasma and to measure quantitatively the reaction rate in order to scale an experiment on the perturbation of the nucleus electronic-shells coupling via a strong electromagnetic field due to the laser. (author)

  1. Quantification of BaSO{sub 4} and polyacetal wear particles in the periprosthetic tissue around loosened isoelastic hip stems by nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazar, K. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloska 9, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kavcic, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si; Smit, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Antolic, V. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloska 9, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Coer, A. [Institute for Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of the biologically active wear particles in the periprosthetic tissue around loosened polyacetal isoelastic stems to find the pattern of their distribution in the periprosthetic tissue and determine their origin. Proton microbeam measurements of thin tissue sections enabled us identification and quantified elemental analysis of individual wear particles in the tissue. The Ba concentration measured on the wear particles matches the Ba concentration measured with in-air PIXE on the polyacetal stem directly proving the origin of the wear particles which suppose to play a decisive biological role in the process of premature aseptic loosening of polyacetal stems.

  2. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  3. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  4. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    2016-06-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e' p) reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e' p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV) and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  5. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickhoff W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e′ p reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e′ p and (p, 2p reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  6. Investigation of Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions Using Plastic - Nuclear - Track Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment CR39 plastic nuclear track detectors will be used which are sensitive to detect relativistic nuclear fragments with charges Z@$>$5. They will be analyzed using an automatic track measuring system which was developed at the University of Siegen.\\\\ \\\\ This allows to measure large quantities of tracks in these passive detectors and to perform high statistics experiments. We intend to measure cross sections for the production of nuclear fragments from heavy ion beams at the SPS. \\\\ \\\\ The energy independence of the cross sections predicted by the idea of limiting fragmentation will be tested at high energies. In exposures with different targets we plan to analyze the factorization of the fragmentation cross sections into a target depending factor and a factor depending on the beam particle and the fragment. The cross sections for one proton remov Coulomb dissociation. \\\\ \\\\ We plan to investigate Coulomb dissociation for different targets and different energies. Fragment and projectile charges ...

  7. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  8. Sensitivity of Λ single-particle energies to the ΛN spin-orbit coupling and to nuclear core structure in p-shell and sd-shell hypernuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselý, P.; Hiyama, E.; Hrtánková, J.; Mareš, J.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a mean field model based on realistic 2-body baryon interactions and calculate spectra of a set of p-shell and sd-shell Λ hypernuclei - 13ΛC, 17ΛO, 21ΛNe, 29ΛSi and 41ΛCa. The hypernuclear spectra are compared with the results of a relativistic mean field (RMF) model and available experimental data. The sensitivity of Λ single-particle energies to the nuclear core structure is explored. Special attention is paid to the effect of spin-orbit ΛN interaction on the energy splitting of the Λ single particle levels 0p3/2 and 0p1/2. In particular, we analyze the contribution of the symmetric (SLS) and the anti-symmetric (ALS) spin-orbit terms to the energy splitting. We give qualitative predictions for the calculated hypernuclei.

  9. Measurement of charged particle spectra in pp collisions and nuclear modification factor $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$ at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note presents an analysis of the inclusive charged particle spectra in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$TeV that are measured with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The measurements are performed with pp data recorded in 2015 with an integrated luminosity of 25pb$^{-1}$. The ratio of spectra measured in the p+Pb collisions to the pp cross section scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$, is evaluated to facilitate a comparison of the particle production in the two colliding systems. The nuclear modification factor does not show any significant deviation from unity in the probed transverse momentum region.

  10. Solution composition and particle size effects on the dissolution and solubility of a ThO{sub 2} microstructural analogue for UO{sub 2} matrix of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myllykylae, Emmi; Lavonen, Tiina; Ollila, Kaija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Stennett, Martin; Corkhill, Claire; Hyatt, Neil [Univ. Sheffield (United Kingdom). Immobilisation Science Lab.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dissolution rate of ThO{sub 2} which was synthesised to approximate, as closely as possible, the microstructure of UO{sub 2} in a nuclear fuel matrix. The optimal sintering temperature for ThO{sub 2} pellets was found to be 1750 C, which produced pellets with a microstructure similar to UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellets, with randomly oriented grains ranging in size from 10 to 30 μm. Dissolution was conducted using ThO{sub 2} particles of different size fractions (80 to 160 μm and 2 to 4 mm) in the presence and absence of carbonate, in solutions with pH from 2 to 8 and at 80 C. Dissolution rates were calculated from Th released from the solid phase to solution. Particles of ThO{sub 2} were also leached with 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 80 C in order to investigate the morphological changes at the particle surfaces. The concentration of Th was found to be ≥ 10{sup -9} mol/L at pH ≤ 4, lower than the theoretical solubility of crystalline ThO{sub 2}. At higher pH values, from 4 to 8, the measured concentrations (10{sup -10} to 10{sup -12} mol/L) were between the theoretical solubility of ThO{sub 2} and Th(OH){sub 4}. Grain boundaries were shown to exert an influence on the dissolution of ThO{sub 2} particles. Using high resolution aqueous solution analysis, these data presented here extend the current understanding of Th solubility in solution.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 activates apoptosis during testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a nuclear factor-kappaB-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Fazzari, Carmine; Maisano, Daniele; Romeo, Carmelo; Altavilla, Domenica

    2009-02-14

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase3/MAPK1 and MAPK8 are involved in testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (testicular-I/R). NF-kappaB knock-out mice (KO) subjected to testicular-I/R have a reduced testicular damage, blunted MAPK8 activation and enhanced MAPK3/MAPK1 activity. To better understand the role of MAPK3/MAPK1 up-regulation during testicular-I/R, we investigated the effects of PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK3/MAPK1, in KO mice during testicular-I/R. KO and wild-type (WT) animals underwent 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion or a sham testicular-I/R. Animals received either PD98059 (5 mg/kg/ip) or its vehicle. MAPK3/MAPK1, BAX, caspase-3 and -9 and TNF-alpha expression were assessed along with histological examination and an immunostaining for protein of apoptosis. Testicular-I/R caused a greater increase in MAPK3/MAPK1 in KO than in WT animals in both testes. KO mice had a lower expression of the apoptotic proteins and TNF-alpha as well as reduced histological damage compared to WT. Immunostaining confirmed the lower expression of BAX in the Leydig cells of KO mice. Administration of PD98059, abrogated MAPK3/MAPK1 expression and slightly reduced TNF-alpha but did not improve or reverse the histological damage in KO. PD98059 significantly reduced the histological damage in WT mice and markedly reduced the apoptotic proteins in KO and WT mice. These results suggest that testicular-I/R triggers also a pathway of organ damage involving MAPK3/MAPK1, TNF-alpha, BAX, caspase-3 and -9 that activates an apoptotic machinery in an NF-kappaB independent manner. These findings should contribute to better understand testicular torsion-induced damage.

  12. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  13. Correlated Strength in Nuclear Spectral Function

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, D; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Bültmann, S; Carasco, C C; Day, D; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Garrow, K; Gasparian, A; Gueye, P; Hauger, M; Honegger, A; Jourdan, J; Keppel, C E; Kubon, G; Lindgren, R; Lung, A; Mack, D J; Mitchell, J H; Mkrtchyan, H G; Mocelj, D; Normand, K; Petitjean, T; Rondon, Oscar A; Segbefia, E; Sick, I; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L; Tiefenbacher, F; Vulcan, W F; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Yuan, L; Zeier, M; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out an (e,e'p) experiment at high momentum transfer and in parallel kinematics to measure the strength of the nuclear spectral function S(k,E) at high nucleon momenta k and large removal energies E. This strength is related to the presence of short-range and tensor correlations, and was known hitherto only indirectly and with considerable uncertainty from the lack of strength in the independent-particle region. This experiment confirms by direct measurement the correlated strength predicted by theory.

  14. Correlated Strength in the Nuclear Spectral Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rohe; C. S. Armstrong; R. Asaturyan; O. K. Baker; S. Bueltmann; C. Carasco; D. Day; R. Ent; H. C. Fenker; K. Garrow; A. Gasparian; P. Gueye; M. Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; C. E. Keppel; G. Kubon; R. Lindgren; A. Lung; D. J. Mack; J. H. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchyan; D. Mocelj; K. Normand; T. Petitjean; O. Rondon; E. Segbefia; I. Sick; S. Stepanyan; L. Tang; F. Tiefenbacher; W. F. Vulcan; G. Warren; S. A. Wood; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; H. Zhu; B. Zihlmann

    2004-10-01

    We have carried out an (e,ep) experiment at high momentum transfer and in parallel kinematics to measure the strength of the nuclear spectral function S(k,E) at high nucleon momenta k and large removal energies E. This strength is related to the presence of short-range and tensor correlations, and was known hitherto only indirectly and with considerable uncertainty from the lack of strength in the independent-particle region. This experiment locates by direct measurement the correlated strength predicted by theory.

  15. Nuclear transparency from quasielastic 12C(e,e'p)

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, D; Armstrong, C S; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Bültmann, S; Carasco, C C; Day, D; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Garrow, K; Gasparian, A; Gueye, P; Hauger, M; Honegger, A; Jourdan, J; Keppel, C E; Kubon, G; Lindgren, R; Lung, A; Mack, D J; Mitchell, J H; Mkrtchyan, H G; Mocelj, D; Normand, K; Petitjean, T; Rondon, Oscar A; Segbefia, E; Sick, I; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L; Tiefenbacher, F; Vulcan, W F; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Yuan, L; Zeier, M; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B

    2005-01-01

    We studied the reaction 12C(e,e'p) in quasielastic kinematics at momentum transfers between 0.6 and 1.8 (GeV/c)^2 covering the single-particle region. From this the nuclear transparency factors are extracted using two methods. The results are compared to theoretical predictions obtained using a generalization of Glauber theory described in this paper. Furthermore, the momentum distribution in the region of the 1s-state up to momenta of 300 MeV/c is obtained from the data and compared to the Correlated Basis Function theory and the Independent-Particle Shell model.

  16. Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in PbPb and pPb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=5.02 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Zykunov, V.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Zeid, S. Abu; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M. Vidal; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Teles, P. Rebello; Chagas, E. Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Guativa, L. M. Huertas; Malbouisson, H.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Herrera, C. Mora; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Abad, D. Romero; Vargas, J. C. Ruiz; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Hernández, C. F. González; Alvarez, J. D. Ruiz; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Tsiakkouri, D.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Jarrin, E. Carrera; Abdelalim, A. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Salama, E.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. 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R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. 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T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Moya, M. Miñano; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. 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P.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Rodrigues, A. Malta; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; De Lima, R. Teixeira; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. 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A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-04-01

    The spectra of charged particles produced within the pseudorapidity window | η| 20 GeV, R pA exhibits weak momentum dependence and shows a moderate enhancement above unity. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in PbPb and pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}= $ 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Zykunov, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; 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Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Markin, Oleg; Polikarpov, Sergey; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Diamond, Brendan; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-04-07

    The spectra of charged particles produced within the pseudorapidity window $| \\eta | $ 20 GeV, ${R_{\\mathrm{ p }\\mathrm{A}}} $ exhibits weak momentum dependence and shows a moderate enhancement above unity.

  18. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels -- Final Report under the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Martin, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Phelip, Mayeul [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ballinger, Ronald [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this INERI project was to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated-particle fuels and to explore improved coated-particle fuel designs that could be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in gas-cooled fast reactors. Project participants included the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), Centre Étude Atomique (CEA), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To accomplish the project objectives, work was organized into five tasks.

  19. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on separation of radioactive isotopes from particle bombarded target. The main interest is production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic and therapy. The investigation program includes measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections,, band resolution technique, preparation of radioactive sources, detection of non-radioactive trace elements. An independent project on desulphurization of flue gases is also carried out in the Laboratory. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory - Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory -conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out. (author).

  20. 3D asynchronous particle tracking in single and dual continuum matrix-fractures. Application to nuclear waste storage; Modelisation 3D du transport particulaire asynchrone en simple et double continuum matrice-fractures: application au stockage de dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, M.Ph

    2008-06-15

    This PhD research was conducted as a collaboration between Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement (LNHE) from EDF R and D and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT) in the frame of a CIFRE contract. This PhD thesis aims at providing LNHE a reliable numerical model to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste storage in deep geological structures. The main focus of the thesis is put on developing and implementing a Random Walk Particle Method (RWPM) to model contaminant transport in 3D heterogeneous and fractured porous media. In its first part, the report presents the Lagrangian particle tracking method used to model transport in heterogeneous media with a direct high resolution approach. The solute plume is discretized into concentration packets: particles. The model tracks each particle based on a time-explicit displacement algorithm according to an advective component and a diffusive random component. The method is implemented on a hydraulic model discretized on a 3D unstructured tetrahedral finite element mesh. We focus on techniques to overcome problems due to the discontinuous transport parameters and the unstructured mesh. First, we introduce an asynchronous time-stepping approach to deal with the numerical and overshoot errors that occur with conventional RWPM. Then, a filtering method is applied to smooth discontinuous transport parameters (pre-processing). Finally, once the particle displacements are computed, we propose several filtering and sampling methods to obtain concentrations from particle positions (post-processing). Applications of these methods are presented with cases of tracer advection-dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. For dense fracture networks, direct high resolution methods are very time consuming and need a lot of computational resources. So, as an alternative to the discrete approach, a dual-continuum representation is used, in the second part of the report, to describe the porous

  1. Nuclear Science Division: 1993 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W.D. [ed.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the activities of the Nuclear Science Division for the 1993 calendar year. This was another significant year in the history of the Division with many interesting and important accomplishments. Activities for the following programs are covered here: (1) nuclear structure and reactions program; (2) the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics; (3) relativistic nuclear collisions program; (4) nuclear theory program; (5) nuclear data evaluation program, isotope project; and (6) 88-inch cyclotron operations.

  2. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, T T; Khaldeeva, I V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large sta...

  3. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  4. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  5. Study of the Production Mechanisms and Decay Properties of Charmed Particles Observed in Nuclear Emulsions Coupled to the NA14 Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this test experiment are: \\item a)~~~~to check the expected improvement in scanning speed and efficiency, due to the use of the microstrip vertex detector of the NA14 set-up and to the help of automated microscopes; \\item b)~~~~to evaluate the enrichment factor in the charmed event content of the sample to be searched, due to the particle identification power and the vertex detector of NA14; \\item c)~~~~to collect some 100 pairs of charmed particles, produced and decaying in emulsion, which would allow a comparison with the results from the WA58 experiment, in particular about the possible energy dependence of the production mechanism of associated @L^c|+~$\\bar{D}$. \\end{enumerate} The incident beam will consist of tagged photons between 70 and 150-200~GeV.

  6. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety - Development of a technique for simultaneous measurement of particle size and velocity for direct containment heating accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Song, Si Hong; Koh, Kwang Woong; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Chul Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The main objective is to develop a high performance software routine to process the output signals from the phase/Doppler device for simultaneous measurement of drop sizes and two-dimensional velocities of spray drops/particles. The present work has been carried out as an extension work of the first year`s research, where the principles and the limitation of this measuring technique have been thoroughly reviewed. In order to verify the performance and reliability of this software for simultaneous measurement of sizes and velocities of spray drops with two-dimensional motions, the results were compared with those from commercial signal processor DSA by Aerometrics, and concluded to be satisfactory. The routine developed throughout this project is applicable not only to the DCH model experiments but also to the measurements of sizes and velocities of drops/particles in combustors, dryers, humidifiers, and in various two-phase equipments. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs. (author)

  7. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  8. Stopping the growth of particles to silica-supported mono-nuclear Ru hydride surface species by tuning silica with surface silanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, Romain; Fenet, Bernard; Lukens, Wayne; Pelzer, Katrin; Basset, Jean-Marie; Candy, Jean-Pierre; Coperet, Christophe

    2007-07-11

    Tuning silica by replacing surface silanols with silanes allows chemical grafting of Ru(COD)(COT) through a covalent Ru-Si bond, as evidenced by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and EXAFS. Treatment of these surface species under H2 at 300 oC yields a mononuclear Ru hydride species, without any sintering of the metal according to TEM and EXAFS analyses. This supported system displays catalytic properties different from those of supported Ru particles (2 nm), selectively hydrogenating olefins over aromatics.

  9. A New Numerical Approach to Evaluate Variation of Electric Field Strength at the End of Particle Trajectory in Nuclear Track Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiu-Dong; Ali Mostofizadeh; HOU Chun-Feng; M.Reza Kardan

    2008-01-01

    A geometrical model for an electrochemical etching(ECE)track in a dielectric detector is defined and a primary programme is written to generate the track.The generated track is transformed to an M×N matrix of primary voltages.Using a numerical method,the matrix of final voltages is computed,and using another numerical approach.the electric field strengths in the elements of detector volume are computed.The final field strength at the end of particle trajectory is obtained.The results of our numerical computation show that there are exact correlations between the field strength at the end of particle trajectory and the parameters of track under ECE.It is found that although two traditional models of Mason and Smythe in dielectrics can be partly applied for short we find that there is an expressive relationship between the field strength and the incidence angle of impacted particle.while the mentioned traditional models are not able to explain this effect.

  10. Nuclear nirvana?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, T.

    1997-06-10

    This article describes a proposed method of processing high-level radioactive wastes from existing PWR reactors and weapons grade plutonium to produce relatively benign medium-level wastes, which is easier to handle and store. The energy amplifier proposed by Carlo Rubbia, ex-director-general of CERN, causes fission to occur as a result of nuclear cascades, rather than chain reactions, by bombarding a thorium-based mixture of radioactive materials with a high-intensity beam of sub-atomic particles. He claims that, as it depends largely on proven technology it could be in commercial operation with ten years, well ahead of even a prototype fusion reactor and thus provide a viable, sustainable and more environmentally acceptable power source. (Author).

  11. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  12. Particle dependence of azimuthal anisotropy and nuclear modification of particle production at moderate p(T) in Au+Au collisions at s(NN)**(1/2) = 200-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D P; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gushin, E; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, Thomas W; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilev, A N; Vasilev, M; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    The elliptic flow parameter ($v_2$) and the centrality dependenceof particle yields for kaons ($K_S^0$, $K^+$ and $K^-$) and lambdas ($\\Lambda + \\bar{\\Lambda}$) have been measured at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV by the STAR collaboration. A distinct particle-type dependence is observed within the measured $p_T$ region ($p_T < 6$ GeV/c). At intermediate $p_T$, the $\\Lambda+\\bar{\\Lambda}$ $v_2$ saturates at a higher value than the $K_S^0$ $v_2$ and both deviate from the hydrodynamic type behavior observed in the low $p_T$ region. The kaon yields in central collisions are suppressed with respect to expectations from binary scaling for all measured $p_T$. The yield of $\\Lambda+\\bar{\\Lambda}$ in central collisions is close to expectations from binary scaling for $p_T$ from 1.8--3.5 GeV/c. At $p_T \\sim$ 5.0 GeV/c, the $K_S^0$, $\\Lambda+\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and charged hadron yields are suppressed from binary scaling by a similar factor. We discuss the physics implications of these fea...

  13. Purification and characterization of a simple ribonucleoprotein particle containing small nucleoplasmic RNAs (snRNP) as a subset of RNP containing heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNP) from HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, C; Widada, J S; Lelay, M N; Jeanteur, P; Liautard, J P

    1981-02-25

    A ribonucleoprotein complex whose RNA complement consists exclusively of small nuclear RNA species (snRNA) has been purified from particles containing heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNP) from HeLa cells. This was accomplished by taking advantage of their ability to band at a density of about 1.43 g/cm3 in plain cesium chloride as well as in cesium chloride gradients containing 0.5% sarkosyl without prior aldehyde fixation. After these two steps of equilibrium density centrifugation, these snRNPs were still largely contaminated by free proteins (and especially phosphoproteins). A final step of purification by velocity sedimentation in a sucrose gradient containing 0.5 M cesium chloride and 0.5% sarkosyl was efficient in completely eliminating all free proteins. U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 species according to the nomenclature of Lerner et al. (Nature, (1980) 283, 220-224) were found in these purified snRNPs, while a significant part of U6 and a small amount of U2 were found in the bottom fraction. 5S species behaved entirely as free RNA and is presumably a contaminant of cytoplasmic origin. Electrophoresis of proteins from snRNP labeled in vivo with (35S) methionine, revealed four bands with migrations corresponding to molecular weights ranging between 10,000 and 14,000 daltons.

  14. Centrality Dependence of Charged Particle Production at Large Transverse Momentum in Pb--Pb Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin

    2013-01-01

    The inclusive transverse momentum (pT) distributions of primary charged particles are measured in the pseudo-rapidity range |$\\eta$| 30 GeV/c. In peripheral collisions (70–80%), the suppression is weaker with $R_{AA}$ about 0.7 almost independent of pT. The measured nuclear modification factors are compared to other measurements and model calculations.

  15. Performance of paint coatings in the radiation fields of nuclear reactors and of high energy particle accelerators and after contamination by radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut; Oesterle, K M; Van de Voorde, M

    1977-01-01

    Several commercially available two/component coating systems based on epoxy and polyurethane resin, as well as lithium silicate/zinc dust paint coatings, have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor up to a dose of 2*10/sup 9/ rad and in a 28 GeV proton accelerator up to a dose of 1*10/sup 9/ rad. Besides assessment by visual inspection, the irradiated specimens have been subjected to the impact hardness test, the infinitesimal hardness behaviour tests, the grid scarification test and to swelling tests in methanol and acetone. The decontaminability of these paint coatings after contamination with solutions containing Ca 45, S 35 and I 131 is also investigated. Very good results in respect of decontaminability and radiation resistance up to 1*10/sup 9/ rad have been obtained with a coating of polyurethane cross-linked with an aliphatic diisocyanate. (9 refs).

  16. Regulation of neuronal differentiation by proteins associated with nuclear bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Förthmann

    Full Text Available Nuclear bodies are large sub-nuclear structures composed of RNA and protein molecules. The Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN protein localizes to Cajal bodies (CBs and nuclear gems. Diminished cellular concentration of SMN is associated with the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA. How nuclear body architecture and its structural components influence neuronal differentiation remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed the effects of SMN and two of its interaction partners in cellular models of neuronal differentiation. The nuclear 23 kDa isoform of Fibroblast Growth Factor - 2 (FGF-2(23 is one of these interacting proteins - and was previously observed to influence nuclear bodies by destabilizing nuclear gems and mobilizing SMN from Cajal bodies (CBs. Here we demonstrate that FGF-2(23 blocks SMN-promoted neurite outgrowth, and also show that SMN disrupts FGF-2(23-dependent transcription. Our results indicate that FGF-2(23 and SMN form an inactive complex that interferes with neuronal differentiation by mutually antagonizing nuclear functions. Coilin is another nuclear SMN binding partner and a marker protein for Cajal bodies (CBs. In addition, coilin is essential for CB function in maturation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs. The role of coilin outside of Cajal bodies and its putative impacts in tissue differentiation are poorly defined. The present study shows that protein levels of nucleoplasmic coilin outside of CBs decrease during neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of coilin has an inhibitory effect on neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, we find that nucleoplasmic coilin inhibits neurite outgrowth independent of SMN binding revealing a new function for coilin in neuronal differentiation.

  17. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  18. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  19. Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2014-06-01

    Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.

  20. Ionization signals from electrons and alpha-particles in mixtures of liquid Argon and Nitrogen - perspectives on protons for Gamma Resonant Nuclear Absorption applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zeller, M; Delaquis, S; Ereditato, A; Janos, S; Kreslo, I; Messina, M; Moser, U; Rossi, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a detailed study of ionization signals produced by Compton electrons and alpha-particles in a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) flled with different mixtures of liquid Argon and Nitrogen. The measurements were carried out with Nitrogen concentrations up to 15% and a drift electric feld in the range 0-50 kV/cm. A prediction for proton ionization signals is made by means of interpolation. This study has been conducted in view of the possible use of liquid Ar-N2 TPCs for the detection of gamma-rays in the resonant band of the Nitrogen absorption spectrum, a promising technology for security and medical applications.

  1. An introduction to nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Yatramohan

    2015-01-01

    AN INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR PHYSICS explores the nucleus - its size, shape and structure, its static and dynamic properties, its interaction with external system (particles and radiation), and above all the nuclear interaction in the two-nucleon and many-nucleon systems. It covers all aspects of the nucleus, divided into five Parts and nineteen Chapters. Part-1 introduces nuclear binding energy, separation energy and nuclear stability. Part-2 explores the two-nucleon potential through the study of the deuteron problem, nucleon-nucleon scattering, and also presents a meson theoretical description of the nuclear potential. Part-3 deals with the nuclear structure through different models, e.g., liquid-drop model, Fermi gas model, nuclear shell model, collective model. Part-4 develops different theoretical models for nuclear reactions, e.g., compound nucleus, statistical model, continuum model, optical model, direct reaction mechanism.

  2. Nuclear ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue but not nuclear factor-kappaB activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is an independent determinant of insulin resistance in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; de Courten, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) predicts type 2 diabetes via a decrease in insulin sensitivity. Our study investigated potential relationships between nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways-two pathways proposed as the link between...... CLAIS and insulin resistance....

  5. Particle Correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Particle correlations are extensively studied to obtain information about the dynamics of hadron production. From 1989 to 2000 the four LEP collaborations recorded more than 16 million hadronic Z0 decays and several thousand W+W- events. In Z0 decays, two-particle correlations were analysed in detail to study Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations for various particle species. In fully-hadronic W+W- decays, particle correlations were used to study whether the two W bosons decay independently. A review of selected results is presented.

  6. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and