WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear hazard mapping

  1. A mobile gamma ray spectrometer system for nuclear hazard mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Smethurst, M A

    2000-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway has developed a system for mobile gamma ray spectrometer surveying suitable for use in nuclear emergencies where potentially dangerous radioactive materials have been released into the environment. The measuring system has been designed for use with different kinds of transportation platforms. These include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters and vans. The choice of transportation platform depends on the nature of the nuclear emergency. Widespread fallout from a distant source can be mapped quickly from the air while local sources of radiation can be delineated by a car-borne system. The measuring system processes gamma ray spectra in real time. The operator of the system is therefore able to guide surveying in accordance with meaningful data values and immediately report these values to decision making The operator is presented with a number of different displays suited to different kinds of nuclear emergencies that lead to more efficient surveying. Real time processing of data m...

  2. A mobile gamma ray spectrometer system for nuclear hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smethurst, Mark A.

    2000-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway has developed a system for mobile gamma ray spectrometer surveying suitable for use in nuclear emergencies where potentially dangerous radioactive materials have been released into the environment. The measuring system has been designed for use with different kinds of transportation platforms. These include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters and vans. The choice of transportation platform depends on the nature of the nuclear emergency. Widespread fallout from a distant source can be mapped quickly from the air while local sources of radiation can be delineated by a car-borne system. The measuring system processes gamma ray spectra in real time. The operator of the system is therefore able to guide surveying in accordance with meaningful data values and immediately report these values to decision making authorities. The operator is presented with a number of different displays suited to different kinds of nuclear emergencies that lead to more efficient surveying. Real time processing of data means that the results of a survey can be delivered to decision makers immediately upon return to base. It is also possible to deliver data via a live mobile telephone link while surveying is underway. The measuring system can be adjusted to make measurements lasting between 1 second and 5 seconds. The spatial density of measuring positions depends on the duration of each measurement and the speed of travel of the measuring system. Measuring with 1 s intervals while travelling at 50 km/h in a car results in a measurement every 14 m along the road. Measuring with 1 s intervals in an aeroplane travelling at 250 km/h produces a measurement for every 70 m travelled. Eight hours surveying can produce up to 30000 measurements over a region hundreds of kilometres across. (Author)

  3. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  4. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  5. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  6. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  7. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  8. Nuclear war hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazov, E.I.; Il'in, L.A.; Gus'kova, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast medical and bilogical and aftereffects of nuclear weapons application in a number of situations. In particular, the effects of a single high-yield air or surface nuclear explosion on a city with 1 mln population are considered as well as the aftereffects of the exposure of human beings to local radioactive fallouts outside the ground zero of a surface nuclear explosion. The aftereffects for the population of local and global radioactive fallouts caused by the realization of one of the adopted in the West variants of mass nuclear strives exchange between the hostile sides are estimated. Certain aspects of medical and biological aftereffects of neutron weapons application are discussed

  9. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  10. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicken, J C

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated.

  11. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated. (author)

  12. Benefits and hazards of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1979-09-01

    Compilation of a seminar at the KFA Juelich on topical problems of nuclear power. Subjects: Energy demand, its expected development and possibilities of coverage; physical fundamentals and technical realisation of power generation by nuclear fission; fuel cycle problems and solutions; effects of radioactive radiation; safety of nuclear power plants and the nuclear hazard as compared with other hazards. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Working towards a clearer and more helpful hazard map: investigating the influence of hazard map design on hazard communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Gaillard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, geological hazards are communicated using maps. In traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map for stakeholder and public use. However, this one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication is not necessarily effective or reliable. The messages which people take away will be dependent on the way in which they read, interpret, and understand the map, a facet of hazard communication which has been relatively unexplored. Decades of cartographic studies suggest that variables in the visual representation of data on maps, such as colour and symbology, can have a powerful effect on how people understand map content. In practice, however, there is little guidance or consistency in how hazard information is expressed and represented on maps. Accordingly, decisions are often made based on subjective preference, rather than research-backed principles. Here we present the results of a study in which we explore how hazard map design features can influence hazard map interpretation, and we propose a number of considerations for hazard map design. A series of hazard maps were generated, with each one showing the same probabilistic volcanic ashfall dataset, but using different verbal and visual variables (e.g., different colour schemes, data classifications, probabilistic formats). Following a short pilot study, these maps were used in an online survey of 110 stakeholders and scientists in New Zealand. Participants answered 30 open-ended and multiple choice questions about ashfall hazard based on the different maps. Results suggest that hazard map design can have a significant influence on the messages readers take away. For example, diverging colour schemes were associated with concepts of "risk" and decision-making more than sequential schemes, and participants made more precise estimates of hazard with isarithmic data classifications compared to binned or gradational shading. Based on such

  14. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-04-01

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  15. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-01-01

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography

  16. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif, Haunan, E-mail: afif@vsi.esdm.go.id [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Cipta, Athanasius [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  17. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  18. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  19. Mapping flood hazards under uncertainty through probabilistic flood inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Miller, A. J.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changing precipitation, rapid urbanization, and population growth interact to create unprecedented challenges for flood mitigation and management. Standard methods for estimating risk from flood inundation maps generally involve simulations of floodplain hydraulics for an established regulatory discharge of specified frequency. Hydraulic model results are then geospatially mapped and depicted as a discrete boundary of flood extents and a binary representation of the probability of inundation (in or out) that is assumed constant over a project's lifetime. Consequently, existing methods utilized to define flood hazards and assess risk management are hindered by deterministic approaches that assume stationarity in a nonstationary world, failing to account for spatio-temporal variability of climate and land use as they translate to hydraulic models. This presentation outlines novel techniques for portraying flood hazards and the results of multiple flood inundation maps spanning hydroclimatic regions. Flood inundation maps generated through modeling of floodplain hydraulics are probabilistic reflecting uncertainty quantified through Monte-Carlo analyses of model inputs and parameters under current and future scenarios. The likelihood of inundation and range of variability in flood extents resulting from Monte-Carlo simulations are then compared with deterministic evaluations of flood hazards from current regulatory flood hazard maps. By facilitating alternative approaches of portraying flood hazards, the novel techniques described in this presentation can contribute to a shifting paradigm in flood management that acknowledges the inherent uncertainty in model estimates and the nonstationary behavior of land use and climate.

  20. Nuclear hazard/fire hazard: an elusive and important linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Brown's Ferry Fire signaled a yellow alert for nuclear safety related fire protection and showed that fire protection engineering must be regarded as a bona fide nuclear discipline. A single-failure design criteria violation resulted in fire damage to plant systems and plant instrumentation. Localized damage lead to significant consequences. Although the linkage between fire and nuclear hazard is termed subtle, effective standards and criteria development must be aimed to future plants. Combined fire protection and nuclear engineering inspections are planned

  1. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  2. Geological hazards investigation - relative slope stability map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Won Young; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Lee, Sa Ro; Choi, Young Sup [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Korea is a mountainous country; the mountains occupy about three quarters of her land area, an increasing urban development being taken place along the mountainside. For the reason, planners as well as developers and others must realize that some of the urban areas may be threaten by geologic hazards such as landslides and accelerated soil and rock creeps. For the purpose of environmental land-use planning, a mapping project on relative slope-stability was established in 1996. The selected area encompasses about 5,900 km{sup 2} including the topographic maps of Ulsan, Yongchon, Kyongju, Pulguksa, and Kampo, all at a scale of 1:50,000. Many disturbed and undisturbed soil samples, which were collected from the ares of the landslides and unstable slopes, were tested for their physical properties and shear strength. They were classified as GC, SP, SC, SM, SP-SM, SC-SM, CL, ML, and MH according to the Unified Soil Classification System, their liquid limit and plasticity index ranging from 25.3% to as high as 81.3% and from 4.1% to 41.5%, respectively. X-ray analysis revealed that many of the soils contained a certain amount of montmorillonite. Based on the available information as well as both field and laboratory investigation, it was found out that the most common types of slope failures in the study area were both debris and mud flows induced by the heavy rainfalls during the period of rainy season; the flows mostly occurred in the colluvial deposits at the middle and foot of mountains. Thus the deposits generally appear to be the most unstable slope forming materials in the study area. Produced for the study area were six different maps consisting of slope classification map, soil classification map, lineament density map, landslide distribution map, zonal map of rainfall, and geology map, most of them being stored as data base. Using the first four maps and GIS, two sheets of relative slope-stability maps were constructed, each at a scale of 1

  3. Seismic hazard maps for earthquake-resistant construction designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Izuru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the idea that seismic phenomena in Japan varying in different localities are to be reflected in designing specific nuclear facilities in specific site, the present research program started to make seismic hazard maps representing geographical distribution of seismic load factors. First, recent research data on historical earthquakes and materials on active faults in Japan have been documented. Differences in character due to different localities are expressed by dynamic load in consideration of specific building properties. Next, hazard evaluation corresponding to seismic-resistance factor is given as response index (spectrum) of an adequately selected building, for example a nuclear power station, with the help of investigation results of statistical analysis. (S. Ohno)

  4. Flood hazards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Flooding hazards for nuclear power plants may be caused by various external geophysical events. In this paper the hydrologic hazards from flash floods, river floods and heavy rain at the plant site are considered. Depending on the mode of analysis, two types of hazard evaluation are identified: 1) design hazard which is the probability of flooding over an expected service period, and 2) operational hazard which deals with real-time forecasting of the probability of flooding of an incoming event. Hazard evaluation techniques using flood frequency analysis can only be used for type 1) design hazard. Evaluation techniques using rainfall-runoff simulation or multi-station correlation can be used for both types of hazard prediction. (orig.)

  5. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  6. The hazards of nuclear exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maherou, J.; Norest, S.; Ferrer, L.

    2013-01-01

    After an indication of the five categories of radioactive wastes generated by nuclear electric power production in France, the authors outline the impact of the dose level on health effects (a table gives the relationship between dose levels and exposure types). In the next part, they present the French nuclear reactor fleet (location, age, seismic risk level), indicate the quantity of stored nuclear wastes, evoke nuclear incidents which have occurred in France since 1969, and more particularly those of 2009, 2011 and 2012. They also evoke the request made by the European Commission for a control of all nuclear reactors in the EU. Then, while noticing the introduction of a severity scale, they address the main nuclear disasters: Chernobyl and its consequences (radioactive deposits in Europe, food contamination, health consequences, construction of a new sarcophagus), Fukushima and its consequences (impacts on health, on the environment)

  7. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-01-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  8. Radiation hazards of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, H.

    1981-01-01

    The basic mechanisms and principles of nuclear power plants are discussed, since their knowledge is mandatory for the understanding of the true risk associated with nuclear technology. Differences between predictable and catastrophic accidents are compared, terms which have been frequently confused to the extent that the public has become unjustifiably and irresponsibly alarmed. A description of the jobs and their responsibilities is also given. Known accidents are reported and the role of the physician in the care of accidents and the scheduling of emergency situations is described. Finally, the usefullness, necessity and risk associated with nuclear power are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Real hazards of nuclear fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses an article by Carl Sagan entitled ''On minimizing the consequences of nuclear war'' (Nature 317 485 Oct 1985), in the light of the authors' own work on global fallout. Consequences of local fallout, human impact of local fallout, and global fallout calculations using computer models, are all described. (U.K.).

  10. Possible health hazards of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    In considering the possible health hazards of nuclear power, evidence is examined that official estimates of risks, on which governments may be supposed to base their decisions as to the acceptibility of a nuclear power programme, may be understated. In particular the case that the Hanford survey is more appropriate as a basis of risk estimation than the survey of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan, The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study, is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Agriculture protected against nuclear power hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, J.

    1982-01-01

    Near the Koeberg-1 reactor agriculture is being protected against nuclear power hazards. Radioactivity is frequently tested in e.g. milk and soils. This article discusses the tests and the measurements of radioactivity in the vicinity of the Koeberg-1 reactor

  12. Flood Hazard Mapping by Applying Fuzzy TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Keum, H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    There are lots of technical methods to integrate various factors for flood hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to suggest the methodology of integrated flood hazard mapping using MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making). MCDM problems involve a set of alternatives that are evaluated on the basis of conflicting and incommensurate criteria. In this study, to apply MCDM to assessing flood risk, maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time are considered as criterion, and each applied elements are considered as alternatives. The scheme to find the efficient alternative closest to a ideal value is appropriate way to assess flood risk of a lot of element units(alternatives) based on various flood indices. Therefore, TOPSIS which is most commonly used MCDM scheme is adopted to create flood hazard map. The indices for flood hazard mapping(maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time) have uncertainty concerning simulation results due to various values according to flood scenario and topographical condition. These kind of ambiguity of indices can cause uncertainty of flood hazard map. To consider ambiguity and uncertainty of criterion, fuzzy logic is introduced which is able to handle ambiguous expression. In this paper, we made Flood Hazard Map according to levee breach overflow using the Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique. We confirmed the areas where the highest grade of hazard was recorded through the drawn-up integrated flood hazard map, and then produced flood hazard map can be compared them with those indicated in the existing flood risk maps. Also, we expect that if we can apply the flood hazard map methodology suggested in this paper even to manufacturing the current flood risk maps, we will be able to make a new flood hazard map to even consider the priorities for hazard areas, including more varied and important information than ever before. Keywords : Flood hazard map; levee break analysis; 2D analysis; MCDM; Fuzzy TOPSIS

  13. Nuclear power stations and their environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.

    1975-01-01

    Starting from a consideration of the energy demand up to the year 2000, the author points out the necessity of nuclear power plant operation for electricity generation and discusses the possible danger to human populations. An assessment of the emission rate of radionuclides in nuclear power plant operation and the possible health hazards to the total population is based on a survey of the U.S. EPA of February 1972. The discussion of the accident risk is based on the results of Rasmussen's study of reactor safety. (ORU/AK) [de

  14. 2014 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Haller, K.M.; Moschetti, M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Field, E.H.; Rukstales, K.S.; Zeng, Y.; Perkins, D.M.; Powers, P.; Rezaeian, S.; Luco, N.; Olsen, A.; Williams, R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps are revised every six years, corresponding with the update cycle of the International Building Code. These maps cover the conterminous U.S. and will be updated in 2014 using the best-available science that is obtained from colleagues at regional and topical workshops, which are convened in 2012-2013. Maps for Alaska and Hawaii will be updated shortly following this update. Alternative seismic hazard models discussed at the workshops will be implemented in a logic tree framework and will be used to develop the seismic hazard maps and associated products. In this paper we describe the plan to update the hazard maps, the issues raised in workshops up to March 2012, and topics that will be discussed at future workshops. An advisory panel will guide the development of the hazard maps and ensure that the maps are acceptable to a broad segment of the science and engineering communities. These updated maps will then be considered by end-users for inclusion in building codes, risk models, and public policy documents.

  15. Transportation of hazardous and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Shaver, D.

    1989-01-01

    Transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials is a vital part of the nation's economy. In recent years public concern over the relative safety of transporting hazardous materials has risen sharply. The United States has a long history of transporting hazardous and radioactive material; rocket propellants, commercial spent fuel, low-level and high-level radioactive waste has been shipped for years. While the track record for shipping these materials is excellent, the knowledge that hazardous materials are passing through communities raises the ire of citizens and local governments. Public outcry over shipments containing hazardous cargo has been especially prominent when shippers have attempted to transport rocket propellants or spent nuclear fuel. Studies of recent shipments have provided insight into the difficulties of shipping in a politically charged environment, the major issues of concern to citizens, and some of the more successful methods of dealing with public concerns. This paper focuses on lessons learned from these studies which include interviews with shippers, carriers, and regulators

  16. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Glossary References About Us Search Hazardous Agents Occupational Diseases High Risk Jobs Non-Occupational Activities Industries Job ... Findings Haz-Map®: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases by Jay A. Brown, M.D., M.P. ...

  17. Ensemble of ground subsidence hazard maps using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inhye; Lee, Jiyeong; Saro, Lee

    2014-06-01

    Hazard maps of ground subsidence around abandoned underground coal mines (AUCMs) in Samcheok, Korea, were constructed using fuzzy ensemble techniques and a geographical information system (GIS). To evaluate the factors related to ground subsidence, a spatial database was constructed from topographic, geologic, mine tunnel, land use, groundwater, and ground subsidence maps. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 70/30 for training and validation of the models. The relationships between the detected ground-subsidence area and the factors were identified and quantified by frequency ratio (FR), logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models. The relationships were used as factor ratings in the overlay analysis to create ground-subsidence hazard indexes and maps. The three GSH maps were then used as new input factors and integrated using fuzzy-ensemble methods to make better hazard maps. All of the hazard maps were validated by comparison with known subsidence areas that were not used directly in the analysis. As the result, the ensemble model was found to be more effective in terms of prediction accuracy than the individual model.

  18. Insights into earthquake hazard map performance from shaking history simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Vanneste, K.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vleminckx, B.

    2017-12-01

    Why recent large earthquakes caused shaking stronger than predicted by earthquake hazard maps is under debate. This issue has two parts. Verification involves how well maps implement probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) ("have we built the map right?"). Validation asks how well maps forecast shaking ("have we built the right map?"). We explore how well a map can ideally perform by simulating an area's shaking history and comparing "observed" shaking to that predicted by a map generated for the same parameters. The simulations yield shaking distributions whose mean is consistent with the map, but individual shaking histories show large scatter. Infrequent large earthquakes cause shaking much stronger than mapped, as observed. Hence, PSHA seems internally consistent and can be regarded as verified. Validation is harder because an earthquake history can yield shaking higher or lower than that predicted while being consistent with the hazard map. The scatter decreases for longer observation times because the largest earthquakes and resulting shaking are increasingly likely to have occurred. For the same reason, scatter is much less for the more active plate boundary than for a continental interior. For a continental interior, where the mapped hazard is low, even an M4 event produces exceedances at some sites. Larger earthquakes produce exceedances at more sites. Thus many exceedances result from small earthquakes, but infrequent large ones may cause very large exceedances. However, for a plate boundary, an M6 event produces exceedance at only a few sites, and an M7 produces them in a larger, but still relatively small, portion of the study area. As reality gives only one history, and a real map involves assumptions about more complicated source geometries and occurrence rates, which are unlikely to be exactly correct and thus will contribute additional scatter, it is hard to assess whether misfit between actual shaking and a map — notably higher-than-mapped

  19. Nuclear power and low level radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1979-03-01

    Even in the future, nuclear power is expected to contribute less than 1/10th of the present total population exposure to man-made radiation. By the best estimates available, the current health risks of nuclear power generation appear to be much less than those associated with the major alternative sources of energy, with the exception of natural gas which is about equally safe. Uncertainties concerning the radiation risks from nuclear power, from medical x-rays and from the effects of reduced ventillation to conserve heat appear to be less than those associated with estimates of risks from the use of coal and various other sources of energy. This is in part because of the large amount of effort devoted to studies of radiation effects. The benefits in terms of current life expectancy associated with any of the conventional or unconventional methods of power production appear to greatly outweigh the associated current health hazards. (author)

  20. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1 legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2 flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1 standing water depths following the flood, (2 the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3 pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating

  1. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Adam; Sanders, Brett F.; Goodrich, Kristen A.; Feldman, David L.; Boudreau, Danielle; Eguiarte, Ana; Serrano, Kimberly; Reyes, Abigail; Schubert, Jochen E.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Basolo, Victoria; Matthew, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US) is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM) such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1) legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2) flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1) standing water depths following the flood, (2) the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3) pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating pluvial flood hazards

  2. Geomorphological hazards and environmental impact: Assessment and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    In five sections the author develops the methods for the integration of geomorphological concepts into Environmental Impact and Mapping. The first section introduces the concepts of Impact and Risk through the relationships between Geomorphological Environment and Anthropical Element. The second section proposes a methodology for the determination of Geomorphological Hazard and the identification of Geomorphological Risk. The third section synthesizes the procedure for the compilation of a Geomorphological Hazards Map. The fourth section outlines the concepts of Geomorphological Resource Assessment for the analysis of the Environmental Impact. The fifth section considers the contribution of geomorphological studies and mapping in the procedure for Environmental Impact Assessment.

  3. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear energy hazards... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When so... documents or actions: Nuclear Energy Hazards and Nuclear Incidents (Applicable only to contracts for goods...

  4. Geologic mapping as a prerequisite to hazardous waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The nation's welfare is based on its capability to develop the mineral, water, and energy resources of the land. In addition, these resources must be developed with adequate consideration of environmental impact and the future welfare of the country. Geologic maps are an absolute necessity in the discovery and development of natural resources; for managing radioactive, toxic, and hazardous wastes; and for the assessment of hazards and risks such as those associated with volcanic action, earthquakes, landslides, and subsidence. Geologic maps are the basis for depicting rocks and rock materials, minerals, coal, oil, and water at or near the earth's surface. Hazardous waste facility projects require the preparation of detailed geologic maps. Throughout most of the USA, this type of mapping detail is not available. If these maps were available, it is estimated that the duration of an individual project could be reduced by at least one-fourth (1/4). Therefore, adequate site-specific mapping is required if one is to eliminate environmental problems associated with hazardous, toxic, radioactive, and municipal waste sites

  5. Hazard Map of the Poás Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Barrantes Castillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Poás volcano presents a series of hazards to the lives and activities of the communities in its surroundings; these hazards include ash fall, volcanic gases, ballistic projection, pyroclastic flows, lahars and lava flows. In the study described in this article, risks were zoned and integrated to form combined hazard maps for later use in territorial planning processes. With respect to methodology, the study was based on a heuristic approximation, which was supported with cartographic, geomorphological, and historical impact criteria to achieve a suitable product in terms of scale and ease of interpretation. These maps present greater detail and integration than other works and cartographies of volcanic hazards in Costa Rica.

  6. THE USAGE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN TERRESTRIAL MEASUREMENTS FOR HAZARD MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELE Dan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of natural phenomena (earthquakes, floods, landslides etc. bring economical and social prejudices year by year, watching on them and taking decisions becomes mandatory for reducing the material and human lives loss. Making hazard maps represents a tool used on wide global scale but also particularly in our country. This paper work has the purpose to reveal the interests of certain authors related to the usage of the new technologies of terrestrial measurements (GPS technologies, photogrammetry, cartography and of remote sensing in order to make these hazard maps.

  7. Radon hazard map in Bas-Rhin, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of radon (geochemical properties, origin, emanation and transfer to surface, related health hazard, exposure factor, modalities for the struggle against radon), of the study context, framework and objective, and of the Bas-Rhin geological context, this report presents the exploited data: definition of the geological uranium potential, direct measurements and geochemical analysis, indicators (lithologic characterization, surface radioactivity, drifting alluvial deposits), factors promoting inhalation, measurements in buildings. It presents and comments maps of the radon geological potential and of radon hazard. It proposes an assessment of radon potential hazard for different areas of the district, and reports measurements performed in Strasbourg, Eckbolsheim, Bischeim and Haguenau

  8. Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of

  9. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  10. Hazards and hazard combinations relevant for the safety of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The potential of the contemporaneous impact of different, yet causally related, hazardous events and event cascades on nuclear power plants is a major contributor to the overall risk of nuclear installations. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, which was caused by a combination of severe ground shaking by an earthquake, an earthquake-triggered tsunami and the disruption of the plants from the electrical grid by a seismically induced landslide, hazard combinations and hazard cascades moved into the focus of nuclear safety research. We therefore developed an exhaustive list of external hazards and hazard combinations which pose potential threats to nuclear installations in the framework of the European project ASAMPSAE (Advanced Safety Assessment: Extended PSA). The project gathers 31 partners from Europe, North Amerika and Japan. The list comprises of exhaustive lists of natural hazards, external man-made hazards, and a cross-correlation matrix of these hazards. The hazard list is regarded comprehensive by including all types of hazards that were previously cited in documents by IAEA, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), and others. 73 natural hazards and 24 man-made external hazards are included. Natural hazards are grouped into seismotectonic hazards, flooding and hydrological hazards, extreme values of meteorological phenomena, rare meteorological phenomena, biological hazards / infestation, geological hazards, and forest fire / wild fire. The list of external man-made hazards includes industry accidents, military accidents, transportation accidents, pipeline accidents and other man-made external events. The large number of different hazards results in the extremely large number of 5.151 theoretically possible hazard combinations (not considering hazard cascades). In principle all of these combinations are possible to occur by random coincidence except for 82 hazard combinations that - depending on the time scale - are mutually

  11. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Cumberland County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Cumberland County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Cumberland County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Cumberland County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Cumberland County, Maine is 21 years. Most of these studies were in the early to mid 1980s. However, in the ensuing 20-25 years, development has occurred in many of the

  12. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Kennebec County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Kennebec County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Kennebec County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Kennebec County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Kennebec County, Maine is 16 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980s

  13. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Somerset County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Somerset County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Somerset County, Maine is 18.1 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980

  14. A mobile mapping system for hazardous facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.E.; Jones, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Mobile Mapping System (MMS) is a completely self-contained vehicle with omnidirectional capability and extremely good odometry, capable of operation up to 12 hours between battery charges. The platform itself is based on a dual differential drive system with a compliant linkage between the two drive systems. This compliant linkage allows for low-level controller errors to be absorbed by the system and their navigational effects to be compensated for, yielding an extremely accurate navigational capability. Vehicle design also allows for a considerable payload (250 lb) and a large surface area for auxiliary equipment mounting (2 by 6 ft). The vehicle supports remote operation by reading commands and writing replies through its serial communications port. Use of a radio-ethernet and a radio-video channel allow for remote video and communications links to be maintained with the vehicle in many remote operation environments. The MMS uses a structured light system to quickly acquire coarse range images of the environment and a coherent laser radar (CLR) to acquire finer resolution range images. The coherent laser radar can also be used to determine platform position and orientation to millimeter accuracies if targets of known. Sensor range image data as well as video are off loaded to a remote computer for postprocessing, display, and archiving. Diagrams and images below include an image of the MMS vehicle before addition of sensors, diagram of vehicle with sensors, and computer system connections

  15. Volcanic hazard maps of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Eduardo; Cepeda, Hector

    1990-07-01

    Although the potential hazards associated with an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano were known to civil authorities before the catastrophic eruption there in November 1985, their low perception of risk and the long quiescent period since the last eruption (140 years), caused them to wait for stronger activity before developing an eruption alert system. Unfortunately, the eruption occurred suddenly after a period of relative quiet, and as a result more than 25,000 people were killed. Although it was accurate and reasonably comprehensive, the hazard map that existed before the eruption was poorly understood by the authorities and even less so by the general population, because the scientific terminology and probabilistic approach to natural hazards were unfamiliar to many of them. This confusion was shared by the communication media, which at critical times placed undue emphasis on the possibility of lava flows rather than on the more imminent threat from mudflows, in keeping with the popular but often inaccurate perception of volcanic eruptions. This work presents an updated hazard map of Nevado del Ruiz that combines information on various hazardous phenomena with their relative probability of occurrence in order to depict numerical "hazard levels" that are easily comprehensible to nonspecialists and therefore less susceptible to misinterpretation. The scale of relative risk is arbitrary, ranging from five to one, and is intended to provide an intuitive indication of danger to people, property and crops. The map is meant to facilitate emergency preparedness and management by political and civil authorities, to educate the public concerning volcanic hazards and to assist in land-use planning decisions.

  16. Up-to-date Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard Maps for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Hanan; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Badawy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    An up-to-date earthquake hazard analysis has been performed in Egypt using a probabilistic seismic hazard approach. Through the current study, we use a complete and homogenous earthquake catalog covering the time period between 2200 BC and 2015 AD. Three seismotectonic models representing the seismic activity in and around Egypt are used. A logic-tree framework is applied to allow for the epistemic uncertainty in the declustering parameters, minimum magnitude, seismotectonic setting and ground-motion prediction equations. The hazard analysis is performed for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° in terms of types of rock site for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2-, 0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-s periods. The hazard is estimated for three return periods (72, 475 and 2475 years) corresponding to 50, 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The uniform hazard spectra for the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan and Nuwbia are constructed. The hazard maps show that the highest ground acceleration values are expected in the northeastern part of Egypt around the Gulf of Aqaba (PGA up to 0.4 g for return period 475 years) and in south Egypt around the city of Aswan (PGA up to 0.2 g for return period 475 years). The Western Desert of Egypt is characterized by the lowest level of hazard (PGA lower than 0.1 g for return period 475 years).

  17. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  18. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping hydraulic hazard is a ticklish procedure as it involves technical and socio-economic aspects. On the one hand no dangerous areas should be excluded, on the other hand it is important not to exceed, beyond the necessary, with the surface assigned to some use limitations. The availability of a high resolution topographic survey allows nowadays to face this task with innovative procedures, both in the planning (mapping) and in the map validation phases. The latter is the object of the present work. It should be stressed that the described procedure is proposed purely as a preliminary analysis based on topography only, and therefore does not intend in any way to replace more sophisticated analysis methods requiring based on hydraulic modelling. The reference elevation model is a combination of the digital terrain model and the digital building model (DTM+DBM). The option of using the standard surface model (DSM) is not viable, as the DSM represents the vegetation canopy as a solid volume. This has the consequence of unrealistically considering the vegetation as a geometric obstacle to water flow. In some cases the topographic model construction requires the identification and digitization of the principal breaklines, such as river banks, ditches and similar natural or artificial structures. The geometrical and topological procedure for the validation of the hydraulic hazard maps is made of two steps. In the first step the whole area is subdivided into fluvial segments, with length chosen as a reasonable trade-off between the need to keep the hydrographical unit as complete as possible, and the need to separate sections of the river bed with significantly different morphology. Each of these segments is made of a single elongated polygon, whose shape can be quite complex, especially for meandering river sections, where the flow direction (i.e. the potential energy gradient associated to the talweg) is often inverted. In the second step the segments are analysed

  19. Flood Impacts on People: from Hazard to Risk Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, C.; Castelli, F.

    2017-12-01

    The mitigation of adverse consequences of floods on people is crucial for civil protection and public authorities. According to several studies, in the developed countries the majority of flood-related fatalities occurs due to inappropriate high risk behaviours such as driving and walking in floodwaters. In this work both the loss of stability of vehicles and pedestrians in floodwaters are analysed. Flood hazard is evaluated, based on (i) a 2D inundation model of an urban area, (ii) 3D hydrodynamic simulations of water flows around vehicles and human body and (iii) a dimensional analysis of experimental activity. Exposure and vulnerability of vehicles and population are assessed exploiting several sources of open GIS data in order to produce risk maps for a testing case study. The results show that a significant hazard to vehicles and pedestrians exists in the study area. Particularly high is the hazard to vehicles, which are likely to be swept away by flood flow, possibly aggravate damages to structures and infrastructures and locally alter the flood propagation. Exposure and vulnerability analysis identifies some structures such as schools and public facilities, which may attract several people. Moreover, some shopping facilities in the area, which attract both vehicular and pedestrians' circulation are located in the highest flood hazard zone.The application of the method demonstrates that, at municipal level, such risk maps can support civil defence strategies and education to active citizenship, thus contributing to flood impact reduction to population.

  20. Landslide Hazard Mapping in Rwanda Using Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, A.; Anderson, E.; Ballard, H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides in the United States cause more than $1 billion in damages and 50 deaths per year (USGS 2014). Globally, figures are much more grave, yet monitoring, mapping and forecasting of these hazards are less than adequate. Seventy-five percent of the population of Rwanda earns a living from farming, mostly subsistence. Loss of farmland, housing, or life, to landslides is a very real hazard. Landslides in Rwanda have an impact at the economic, social, and environmental level. In a developing nation that faces challenges in tracking, cataloging, and predicting the numerous landslides that occur each year, satellite imagery and spatial analysis allow for remote study. We have focused on the development of a landslide inventory and a statistical methodology for assessing landslide hazards. Using logistic regression on approximately 30 test variables (i.e. slope, soil type, land cover, etc.) and a sample of over 200 landslides, we determine which variables are statistically most relevant to landslide occurrence in Rwanda. A preliminary predictive hazard map for Rwanda has been produced, using the variables selected from the logistic regression analysis.

  1. Intensity Based Seismic Hazard Map of Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojcinovski, Dragi; Dimiskovska, Biserka; Stojmanovska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The territory of the Republic of Macedonia and the border terrains are among the most seismically active parts of the Balkan Peninsula belonging to the Mediterranean-Trans-Asian seismic belt. The seismological data on the R. Macedonia from the past 16 centuries point to occurrence of very strong catastrophic earthquakes. The hypocenters of the occurred earthquakes are located above the Mohorovicic discontinuity, most frequently, at a depth of 10-20 km. Accurate short -term prognosis of earthquake occurrence, i.e., simultaneous prognosis of time, place and intensity of their occurrence is still not possible. The present methods of seismic zoning have advanced to such an extent that it is with a great probability that they enable efficient protection against earthquake effects. The seismic hazard maps of the Republic of Macedonia are the result of analysis and synthesis of data from seismological, seismotectonic and other corresponding investigations necessary for definition of the expected level of seismic hazard for certain time periods. These should be amended, from time to time, with new data and scientific knowledge. The elaboration of this map does not completely solve all issues related to earthquakes, but it provides basic empirical data necessary for updating the existing regulations for construction of engineering structures in seismically active areas regulated by legal regulations and technical norms whose constituent part is the seismic hazard map. The map has been elaborated based on complex seismological and geophysical investigations of the considered area and synthesis of the results from these investigations. There were two phases of elaboration of the map. In the first phase, the map of focal zones characterized by maximum magnitudes of possible earthquakes has been elaborated. In the second phase, the intensities of expected earthquakes have been computed according to the MCS scale. The map is prognostic, i.e., it provides assessment of the

  2. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the

  3. Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

  4. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Dochat, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    During the summer of 1996, the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and ICERVS was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  5. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gary A.; Dochat, G. R.

    1997-09-01

    During the summer of 1996, the topographical mapping system (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the interactive computer-enhanced remote-viewing system (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  6. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.11 Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will consider...

  7. Updating the USGS seismic hazard maps for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Briggs, Richard; Wesson, Robert L.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey makes probabilistic seismic hazard maps and engineering design maps for building codes, emergency planning, risk management, and many other applications. The methodology considers all known earthquake sources with their associated magnitude and rate distributions. Specific faults can be modeled if slip-rate or recurrence information is available. Otherwise, areal sources are developed from earthquake catalogs or GPS data. Sources are combined with ground-motion estimates to compute the hazard. The current maps for Alaska were developed in 2007, and included modeled sources for the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust, a few crustal faults, and areal seismicity sources. The megathrust was modeled as a segmented dipping plane with segmentation largely derived from the slip patches of past earthquakes. Some megathrust deformation is aseismic, so recurrence was estimated from seismic history rather than plate rates. Crustal faults included the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte system, the Denali–Totschunda system, the Castle Mountain fault, two faults on Kodiak Island, and the Transition fault, with recurrence estimated from geologic data. Areal seismicity sources were developed for Benioff-zone earthquakes and for crustal earthquakes not associated with modeled faults. We review the current state of knowledge in Alaska from a seismic-hazard perspective, in anticipation of future updates of the maps. Updated source models will consider revised seismicity catalogs, new information on crustal faults, new GPS data, and new thinking on megathrust recurrence, segmentation, and geometry. Revised ground-motion models will provide up-to-date shaking estimates for crustal earthquakes and subduction earthquakes in Alaska.

  8. Uncertainty on shallow landslide hazard assessment: from field data to hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefolini, Emanuele; Tolo, Silvia; Patelli, Eduardo; Broggi, Matteo; Disperati, Leonardo; Le Tuan, Hai

    2015-04-01

    empirical relations with geotechnical index properties. Site specific information was regionalized at map scale by (hard and fuzzy) clustering analysis taking into account spatial variables such as: geology, geomorphology and hillslope morphometric variables (longitudinal and transverse curvature, flow accumulation and slope), the latter derived by a DEM with 10 m cell size. In order to map shallow landslide hazard, Monte Carlo simulation was performed for some common physically based models available in literature (eg. SINMAP, SHALSTAB, TRIGRS). Furthermore, a new approach based on the use of Bayesian Network was proposed and validated. Different models, such as Intervals, Convex Models and Fuzzy Sets, were adopted for the modelling of input parameters. Finally, an accuracy assessment was carried out on the resulting maps and the propagation of uncertainty of input parameters into the final shallow landslide hazard estimation was estimated. The outcomes of the analysis are compared and discussed in term of discrepancy among map pixel values and related estimated error. The novelty of the proposed method is on estimation of the confidence of the shallow landslides hazard mapping at regional level. This allows i) to discriminate regions where hazard assessment is robust from areas where more data are necessary to increase the confidence level and ii) to assess the reliability of the procedure used for hazard assessment.

  9. Geologic Maps as the Foundation of Mineral-Hazards Maps in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Downey, C. I.; Clinkenbeard, J. P.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    The basic geologic map is essential to the development of products that help planners, engineers, government officials, and the general public make decisions concerning natural hazards. Such maps are the primary foundation that the California Geological Survey (CGS) uses to prepare maps that show potential for mineral-hazards. Examples of clients that request these maps are the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Largely because of their non-catastrophic nature, mineral hazards have received much less public attention compared to earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods. Nonetheless, mineral hazards can be a major concern locally when considering human health and safety and potential contamination of the environment by human activities such as disposal of earth materials. To address some of these concerns, the CGS has focused its mineral-hazards maps on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), radon, and various potentially toxic metals as well as certain artificial features such as mines and oil and gas wells. The maps range in scope from statewide to counties and Caltrans districts to segments of selected highways. To develop the hazard maps, the CGS begins with traditional paper and digital versions of basic geologic maps, which are obtained from many sources such as its own files, the USGS, USDA Forest Service, California Department of Water Resources, and counties. For each study area, these maps present many challenges of compilation related to vintage, scale, definition of units, and edge-matching across map boundaries. The result of each CGS compilation is a digital geologic layer that is subsequently reinterpreted and transformed into new digital layers (e.g., lithologic) that focus on the geochemical and mineralogical properties of the area’s earth materials and structures. These intermediate layers are then integrated with other technical data to derive final digital layers

  10. Revised seismic hazard map for the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin; Ullah, Shahid; Parolai, Stefano; Walker, Richard; Pittore, Massimiliano; Free, Matthew; Fourniadis, Yannis; Villiani, Manuela; Sousa, Luis; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Moldobekov, Bolot; Takeuchi, Ko

    2017-04-01

    As part of a seismic risk study sponsored by the World Bank, a revised seismic hazard map for the Kyrgyz Republic has been produced, using the OpenQuake-engine developed by the Global Earthquake Model Foundation (GEM). In this project, an earthquake catalogue spanning a period from 250 BCE to 2014 was compiled and processed through spatial and temporal declustering tools. The territory of the Kyrgyz Republic was divided into 31 area sources defined based on local seismicity, including a total area covering 200 km from the border. The results are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). In addition, macroseismic intensity estimates, making use of recent intensity prediction equations, were also provided, given that this measure is still widely used in Central Asia. In order to accommodate the associated epistemic uncertainty, three ground motion prediction equations were used in a logic tree structure. A set of representative earthquake scenarios were further identified based on historical data and the nature of the considered faults. The resulting hazard map, as expected, follows the country's seismicity, with the highest levels of hazard in the northeast, south and southwest of the country, with an elevated part around the centre. When considering PGA, the hazard is slightly greater for major urban centres than in previous works (e.g., Abdrakhmatov et al., 2003), although the macroseismic intensity estimates are less than previous studies, e.g., Ulomov (1999). For the scenario assessments, the examples that most affect the urban centres assessed are the Issyk Ata fault (in particular for Bishkek), the Chilik and Kemin faults (in particular Balykchy and Karakol), the Ferghana Valley fault system (in particular Osh, Jalah-Abad and Uzgen), the Oinik Djar fault (Naryn) and the central and western Talas-Ferghanafaukt (Talas). Finally, while site effects (in particular, those dependent on the upper-most geological structure) have an obvious effect on the

  11. A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano

    2001-09-01

    A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete of all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogue. The synthetic seismograms have been generated by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (DMAX), maximum velocity (VMAX), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid of 0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg. over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and found in good agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have the DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. (author)

  12. Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This publication provides comprehensive and updated guidance for site evaluation in relation to volcanic hazards. It includes recommendations on assessing the volcanic hazards at a nuclear installation site, in order to identify and characterize, in a comprehensive manner, all potentially hazardous phenomena that may be associated with future volcanic events. It describes how some of these volcanic phenomena may affect the acceptability of the selected site, resulting in exclusion of a site or determining the corresponding design basis parameters for the installation. This Safety Guide is applicable to both existing and new sites, and a graded approach is recommended to cater for all types of nuclear installations. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Overview of volcanic hazard assessment; 3. General recommendations; 4. Necessary information and investigations (database); 5. Screening of volcanic hazards; 6. Site specific volcanic hazard assessment; 7. Nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants; 8. Monitoring and preparation for response; 9. Management system for volcanic hazard assessment; Annex I: Volcanic hazard scenarios; Annex II: Worldwide sources of information.

  13. The assessment of tornado missile hazard to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.; Koch, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical methods and computer codes for assessing tornado missile hazards to nuclear power plants are developed. Due to the uncertainty and randomness of tornado and tornado-generated missiles' characteristics, the damage probability of targets has a highly spread distribution. The proposed method is useful for assessing the risk of not providing protection to some nonsafety-related targets whose failure can create a hazard to the safe operation of nuclear power plants

  14. Integrating Volcanic Hazard Data in a Systematic Approach to Develop Volcanic Hazard Maps in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lindsay

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the process of generating the first suite of integrated volcanic hazard zonation maps for the islands of Dominica, Grenada (including Kick ‘em Jenny and Ronde/Caille, Nevis, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Saint Lucia, and St Vincent in the Lesser Antilles. We developed a systematic approach that accommodated the range in prior knowledge of the volcanoes in the region. A first-order hazard assessment for each island was used to develop one or more scenario(s of likely future activity, for which scenario-based hazard maps were generated. For the most-likely scenario on each island we also produced a poster-sized integrated volcanic hazard zonation map, which combined the individual hazardous phenomena depicted in the scenario-based hazard maps into integrated hazard zones. We document the philosophy behind the generation of this suite of maps, and the method by which hazard information was combined to create integrated hazard zonation maps, and illustrate our approach through a case study of St. Vincent. We also outline some of the challenges we faced using this approach, and the lessons we have learned by observing how stakeholders have interacted with the maps over the past ~10 years. Based on our experience, we recommend that future map makers involve stakeholders in the entire map generation process, especially when making design choices such as type of base map, use of colour and gradational boundaries, and indeed what to depict on the map. We also recommend careful consideration of how to evaluate and depict offshore hazard of island volcanoes, and recommend computer-assisted modelling of all phenomena to generate more realistic hazard footprints. Finally, although our systematic approach to integrating individual hazard data into zones generally worked well, we suggest that a better approach might be to treat the integration of hazards on a case-by-case basis to ensure the final product meets map users' needs. We hope that

  15. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985 incorporating more faults, improving MCE's estimation method, and using new ground motion attenuation relationships from the latest published

  16. Inception horizon concept as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Kopp, L.; Chantry, R.

    2012-04-01

    The office for natural hazards of the Vaud canton (Switzerland) is interested for a pragmatic approach to map sinkhole hazard in karst areas. A team was created by merging resources from a geoengineering company (CSD) and a karst specialist (SISKA). Large areas in Vaud territory are limestone karst in which the collapse hazard is essentially related to the collapse of soft-rocks covering underground cavities, rather than the collapse of limestone roofs or underground chambers. This statement is probably not valid for cases in gypsum and salt. Thus, for limestone areas, zones of highest danger are voids covered by a thin layer of soft-sediments. The spatial distributions of void and cover-thickness should therefore be used for the hazard assessment. VOID ASSESSMENT Inception features (IF) are millimetre to decimetre thick planes (mainly bedding but also fractures) showing a mineralogical, a granulometrical or a physical contrast with the surrounding formation that make them especially susceptible to karst development (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2009). The analysis of more than 1500 km of cave passage showed that karst conduits are mainly developed along such discrete layers within a limestone series. The so-called Karst-ALEA method (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2011) is based on this concept and aims at assessing the probability of karst conduit occurrences in the drilling of a tunnel. This approach requires as entries the identification of inception features (IF), the recognition of paleo-water-table (PWT), and their respective spatial distribution in a 3D geological model. We suggest the Karst-ALEA method to be adjusted in order to assess the void distribution in subsurface as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping. Inception features (horizons or fractures) and paleo-water-tables (PWT) have to be first identified using visible caves and dolines. These features should then be introduced into a 3D geological model. Intersections of HI and PWT located close to landsurface are areas with a

  17. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

  18. Evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to determine the ground motion hazards for a plant at a particular site and the potential for surface faulting, which could affect the feasibility of construction and safe operation of a plant at that site. The guidelines and procedures presented in this Safety Guide can appropriately be used in evaluations of site suitability and seismic hazards for nuclear power plants in any seismotectonic environment. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis recommended in this Safety Guide also addresses the needs for seismic hazard analysis of external event PSAs conducted for nuclear power plants. Many of the methods and processes described may also be applicable to nuclear facilities other than power plants. Other phenomena of permanent ground displacement (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) as well as the topic of seismically induced flooding are treated in Safety Guides relating to foundation safety and coastal flooding. Recommendations of a general nature are given in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the acquisition of a database containing the information needed to evaluate and address all hazards associated with earthquakes. Section 4 covers the use of this database for construction of a seismotectonic model. Sections 5 and 6 review ground motion hazards and evaluations of the potential for surface faulting, respectively. Section 7 addresses quality assurance in the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants

  19. National Nuclear Technology Map Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. I.; Lee, T. J.; Yoon, S. W.

    2005-03-01

    The objective of NuTRM is to prepare a plan of nuclear R and D and technological innovations which is very likely to make nuclear technology a promising power source for future national developments. The NuTRM finds out systematically the nuclear R and D vision and the high-value-added strategic technologies to be developed by the efficient cooperation of actors including government, industry, academy and research institute by 2020. In other words, NuTRM aims at a long-term strategic planning of nuclear R and D and technological innovation in order to promote the socio-economic contributions of nuclear science and technology for the nation's future competitiveness and sustainable development and to raise the global status of the Korean nuclear R and D and Industry

  20. Reactivation hazard mapping for ancient landslides in West Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Dewitte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several examples in western Europe have shown that, at least for deep-seated rotational slides, reactivation of formerly slipped masses is a more frequent phenomenon than the occurrence of new landslides, therefore representing a higher hazard. We selected a study area comprised of 13 landslides located in the Flemish Ardennes (West Belgium and predicted the hazard related to scarp retreat. The scarp reactivations were identified from the comparison of DTMs produced for 1952 and 1996. Robust results were obtained with the Gamma operator of a fuzzy set approach and a combination of geomorphic, topographic and land use data. We built first a prediction model from the relations linking the 1952–1996 retreat events to the conditioning parameters of 1952. The prediction rate of the resulting susceptibility map is estimated by a cross-validation procedure. We then applied the statistics of this model to the data of 1996 in order to produce a susceptibility map responding to the present-day conditions. Finally, we estimated the conditional probabilities of occurrence of future reactivations for the period 1996–2036.

  1. The health hazards of not going nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, L.

    1979-01-01

    The author argues that the potential danger of nuclear energy has been overemphasized in comparison with actual accidents and diseases caused by conventional sources of energy. He adduces some examples of tanker explosions and gas explosions, dam failures, and statistics of black lung disease. Radioactive and other undesirable substances in the smoke from burning coal are mentioned. Illustrations are given of the insignificance of radiation doses to the general public from the operation of nuclear power stations. Some facts and figures on oil an coal reserves are taken to show the need for nuclear energy. (N.D.H.)

  2. Environmental hazards and nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guck, R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper analyses the radiation exposure of the population during normal operation and in the wake of accidents at nuclear power plants, and discusses hypothetic accidents. It also judges the additional radiation exposure of the population from nuclear energy, investigates forest decline and radioactivity, as well as radioactive waste disposal and underground storage. In the upshot, nuclear power after and in spite of Chernobyl still remains an important option and an ecologically reasonable possibility for safeguarding the fundamental needs of the five billion people now living, and those further billions to be added in the decades to come. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. VOLCWORKS: A suite for optimization of hazards mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Granados, H.; Ramírez Guzmán, R.; Villareal Benítez, J. L.; García Sánchez, T.

    2012-04-01

    Making hazards maps is a process linking basic science, applied science and engineering for the benefit of the society. The methodologies for hazards maps' construction have evolved enormously together with the tools that allow the forecasting of the behavior of the materials produced by different eruptive processes. However, in spite of the development of tools and evolution of methodologies, the utility of hazards maps has not changed: prevention and mitigation of volcanic disasters. Integration of different tools for simulation of different processes for a single volcano is a challenge to be solved using software tools including processing, simulation and visualization techniques, and data structures in order to build up a suit that helps in the construction process starting from the integration of the geological data, simulations and simplification of the output to design a hazards/scenario map. Scientific visualization is a powerful tool to explore and gain insight into complex data from instruments and simulations. The workflow from data collection, quality control and preparation for simulations, to achieve visual and appropriate presentation is a process that is usually disconnected, using in most of the cases different applications for each of the needed processes, because it requires many tools that are not built for the solution of a specific problem, or were developed by research groups to solve particular tasks, but disconnected. In volcanology, due to its complexity, groups typically examine only one aspect of the phenomenon: ash dispersal, laharic flows, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and ballistic projectile ejection, among others. However, when studying the hazards associated to the activity of a volcano, it is important to analyze all the processes comprehensively, especially for communication of results to the end users: decision makers and planners. In order to solve this problem and connect different parts of a workflow we are developing the

  4. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  5. Hazard and safety in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1978-01-01

    Although the number of victims in the nuclear industry has been extremely low as compared with the number of victims in other spheres of human activity society has been willing to put up with a high number of accidents resulting in few victims per accident but refuses to accept an extremely rare accident resulting in a high number of victims. The U.S. nuclear industry is spending almost 2000 dollars for each reduction of a man x rem unit and this investment raises the ''man-life value'' in the nuclear industry to 10 million dollars as compared with 10,000 to 20,000 dollars spent in other activities (roentgen, early cancer detection, etc.). To reduce the exaggerated burden placed on the nuclear industry the safety expenditures should be spread over a maximum possible range of human activities. (B.G.)

  6. Radiation hazards in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roo, M.J.K. de

    1981-01-01

    After a survey of the actual situation of nuclear medicine in Belgium, the evolution of nuclear medicine is studied with regard to quantitative aspects (tracerquantities, number of radioisotopic explorations, number of certified doctors) and qualitative aspects (use of short living isotopes emitting low energy radiation, introduction of in vitro tests). Taking these data into consideration, the exposure of nuclear medicine staff by external or internal radiation is evaluated. From this study it appears that the radiation exposure of the personnel of nuclear medicine departments remains low if proper manipulation methods and simple protective devices are used and if there is an efficient collaboration with an active health physics department or radiation control organism. (author)

  7. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  8. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  9. Potential health hazard of nuclear fuel waste and uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Sherman, G.R.; King, S.G.

    1991-06-01

    The variation of the radioactivity of nuclear fuel waste (used fuel and fuel reprocessing waste) with time, and the potential health hazard (or inherent radiotoxicity) resulting from its ingestion are estimated for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) natural-uranium reactors. Four groups of radionuclides in the nuclear fuel waste are considered: actinides, fission products, activation products of zircaloy, and activation products of fuel impurities. Contributions from each of these groups to the radioactivity and to the potential health hazard are compared and discussed. The potential health hazard resulting from used fuel is then compared with that of uranium ore, mine tailings and refined uranium (fresh fuel) on the basis of equivalent amounts of uranium. The computer code HAZARD, specifically developed for these computations, is described

  10. Keeping nuclear hazards at arm's length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As national and international regulations are tightened, the permitted radiation dose limits for nuclear workers are being lowered. But sharing the same dose among more people is raising nuclear industry costs. At the same time tasks such as refurbishment and decommissioning are multiplying as the nuclear industry matures. As a result of these trends, work in the nuclear power sector is increasingly having to be done under remote control. European and American progress in the technology was reported recently at a two-day international conference held in London and is reported here. In France 'Frastar' carries out tours of inspection inside reactor buildings under remote control and 'Suzy' is a finger walker robot carrying an arm which is a 3-actuator manipulator. Anglo-American advances are reported; robots with manipulator, cameras, audio signalling and the ability to climb stairs and ramps. A European Community research programme called Teleman was started in 1989 to develop advanced teleoperators for the nuclear industry. The projects underway in this programme are listed. (UK)

  11. Using hazard maps to identify and eliminate workplace hazards: a union-led health and safety training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joe; Collins, Michele; Devlin, John; Renner, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for Sustainable Work and Environment and the Utility Workers Union of America worked with a professional evaluator to design, implement, and evaluate the results of a union-led system of safety-based hazard identification program that trained workers to use hazard maps to identify workplace hazards and target them for elimination. The evaluation documented program implementation and impact using data collected from both qualitative interviews and an on-line survey from worker trainers, plant managers, and health and safety staff. Managers and workers reported that not only were many dangerous hazards eliminated as a result of hazard mapping, some of which were long-standing, difficult-to-resolve issues, but the evaluation also documented improved communication between union members and management that both workers and managers agreed resulted in better, more sustainable hazard elimination.

  12. A physically based criterion for hydraulic hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Petrucci, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Hydraulic hazard maps are widely used for land use and emergency planning. Due to their practical consequences, it is important that their meaning is effectively transferred and shared by the stakeholders; to this purpose maps should communicate hazard levels moving from the potential consequences on specified targets. For these reasons flood maps showing only the extension of the inundated areas or flow features as depth and/or velocity may reveal themselves as ineffective instruments. The selection of the specific target to analyse must, in our opinion, be site-specific and reflect land use and/or the hydraulics features of the phenomenon. In case of sudden processes, such as torrential floods or debris flows, hazard levels should be referred to human life, because emergency plans may not mitigate risk; on the contrary, when the time scale of the flood wave propagation is sufficiently larger than the warning system one, the focus might move to the economic value of properties, since human-focused criteria may result in too severe land planning restrictions. This contribution starts exploring, from a theoretical point of view, human hazard levels as drowning, toppling and friction stability limits, which are the main failure mechanisms of human stability in flows. The proposed approach considers the human body, set on a slope and hit by a current of known density, as a combination of cylinders with different dimensions. The drowning threshold is identified through a limiting water depth, while toppling and translation are studied respectively through a moment and momentum balance. The involved forces are the friction at the bottom, the destabilizing drag force exerted by the current, the human weight and buoyancy. Several threshold curves on the velocity-depth plane can be identified as a function of different masses and heights for children and adults. Because of its dependence from the fluid density, this methodology may be applied also to define hazard

  13. Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.

  14. COMPARISON of FUZZY-BASED MODELS in LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mijani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the main geomorphic processes which effects on the development of prospect in mountainous areas and causes disastrous accidents. Landslide is an event which has different uncertain criteria such as altitude, slope, aspect, land use, vegetation density, precipitation, distance from the river and distance from the road network. This research aims to compare and evaluate different fuzzy-based models including Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy-AHP, Fuzzy Gamma and Fuzzy-OR. The main contribution of this paper reveals to the comprehensive criteria causing landslide hazard considering their uncertainties and comparison of different fuzzy-based models. The quantify of evaluation process are calculated by Density Ratio (DR and Quality Sum (QS. The proposed methodology implemented in Sari, one of the city of Iran which has faced multiple landslide accidents in recent years due to the particular environmental conditions. The achieved results of accuracy assessment based on the quantifier strated that Fuzzy-AHP model has higher accuracy compared to other two models in landslide hazard zonation. Accuracy of zoning obtained from Fuzzy-AHP model is respectively 0.92 and 0.45 based on method Precision (P and QS indicators. Based on obtained landslide hazard maps, Fuzzy-AHP, Fuzzy Gamma and Fuzzy-OR respectively cover 13, 26 and 35 percent of the study area with a very high risk level. Based on these findings, fuzzy-AHP model has been selected as the most appropriate method of zoning landslide in the city of Sari and the Fuzzy-gamma method with a minor difference is in the second order.

  15. The real hazards of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses an article by Carl Sagan entitled ''On minimizing the consequences of nuclear war'' [Nature 317 485 Oct 1985], in the light of the authors' own work on global fallout. Consequences of local fallout, human impact of local fallout, and global fallout calculations using computer models, are all described. (U.K.)

  16. Modern tornado design of nuclear and other potentially hazardous facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Tornado wind loads and other tornado phenomena, including tornado missiles and differential pressure effects, have not usually been considered in the design of conventional industrial, commercial, or residential facilities in the United States; however, tornado resistance has often become a design requirement for certain hazardous facilities, such as large nuclear power plants and nuclear materials and waste storage facilities, as well as large liquefied natural gas storage facilities. This article provides a review of current procedures for the design of hazardous industrial facilities to resist tornado effects. 23 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Hazards of nuclear power: myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, N

    1985-10-01

    The author gave the 1984 Sir Harold Hartley Memorial Lecture in December. The full text appears in Measurements and Control, April, 1985; here is a summary of its main features. The lecture focuses on three main issues: uncertainties such as those inherent in the body's response to radiation or in the diffusion of buried radioactive materials over thousands of years are seen by rational analysis as constituting negligible risks by comparison with those of everyday affairs, but they may be perceived by the public in interaction with the media as substantial and as a cause for immediate concern; guided by public perception, investment in hospital life-care is about one hundredth and in traffic life-care about one tenth of what is already spent in the nuclear industry. The prospects are for an increase in these ratios in the future; some Western governments have attempted to distance themselves from direct responsibility for decisions on nuclear power by referendum and public inquires or by legislating in terms of criteria embodied in phrases such as ''as low as reasonably achievable'' which are then the subject of interpretation by the Courts as in the recent jury-trial of British Nuclear Fuels Limited at Carlisle. The nuclear industry has features which can lead to public anxieties in an acute form but these features are not totally different from potential concerns about chemical plant accidents and long term effects of low levels of chemical products. If the safety criteria now being applied to the nuclear industry were widely applied in other industries in the UK we should run the risk of further impoverishments of the industrial and social infrastructure through lack of resources to spend upon them and through the uncompetitiveness of these industries.

  18. Possible hazard reduction by using distributed phased nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Frank [Theoretical Physics Program, Stanford Research Institute, Menio Park, CA (United States); [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cheney, James A [Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The use of two or more nuclear devices, phased together in order to constructively add their respective particle velocities, is proposed herein. By directing the seismic waves of the nuclear explosions to make them more efficient in accomplishing the intended construction, we hope to be able to reduce the radioactivity, seismic, and airblast hazards substantially. Experiments are being performed with one gram charges of PETN. (author)

  19. Map of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A pull-out wall chart is presented showing on a coloured map the locations of the world's nuclear power plants and indicating the type of reactor and number of units. The information is also included in an accompanying table which lists the stations alphabetically. (U.K.)

  20. Hazards to nuclear plants from surface traffic accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed for evaluating hazards to nuclear plants from hazardous-materials accidents in the vicinity of the plant. In particular, these models permit the evaluation of hazards from such accidents occurring on surface traffic routes near the plant. The analysis uses statistical information on accident rates, traffic frequency, and cargo-size distribution along with parameters describing properties of the hazardous cargo, plant design, and atmospheric conditions, to arrive at a conservative estimate of the annual probability of a catastrophic event. Two of the major effects associated with hazardous-materials accidents, explosion and release of toxic vapors, are treated by a common formalism which can be readily applied to any given case by means of a graphic procedure. As an example, for a typical case it is found that railroad shipments of chlorine in 55-ton tank cars constitute a greater hazard to a nearby nuclear plant than equally frequent rail shipments of explosives in amounts of 10 tons. 11 references. (U.S.)

  1. Hazard classification criteria for non-nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Walker, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' Integrated Risk Management Department has developed a process for establishing the appropriate hazard classification of a new facility or operation, and thus the level of rigor required for the associated authorization basis safety documentation. This process is referred to as the Preliminary Hazard Screen. DOE Order 5481.1B contains the following hazard classification for non-nuclear facilities: high--having the potential for onsite or offsite impacts to large numbers of persons or for major impacts to the environment; moderate--having the potential for considerable onsite impacts but only minor offsite impacts to people or the environment; low--having the potential for only minor onsite and negligible offsite impacts to people or the environment. It is apparent that the application of such generic criteria is more than likely to be fraught with subjective judgment. One way to remove the subjectivity is to define health and safety classification thresholds for specific hazards that are based on the magnitude of the hazard, rather than on a qualitative assessment of possible accident consequences. This paper presents the results of such an approach to establishing a readily usable set of non-nuclear facility hazard classifications

  2. Estimation of Typhoon Wind Hazard Curves for Nuclear Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The intensity of such typhoons, which can influence the Korean Peninsula, is on an increasing trend owing to a rapid change of climate of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, nuclear facilities should be prepared against future super-typhoons. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that a new NPP should be designed to endure the design-basis hurricane wind speeds corresponding to an annual exceedance frequency of 10{sup -7} (return period of 10 million years). A typical technique used to estimate typhoon wind speeds is based on a sampling of the key parameters of typhoon wind models from the distribution functions fitting statistical distributions to the observation data. Thus, the estimated wind speeds for long return periods include an unavoidable uncertainty owing to a limited observation. This study estimates the typhoon wind speeds for nuclear sites using a Monte Carlo simulation, and derives wind hazard curves using a logic-tree framework to reduce the epistemic uncertainty. Typhoon wind speeds were estimated for different return periods through a Monte-Carlo simulation using the typhoon observation data, and the wind hazard curves were derived using a logic-tree framework for three nuclear sites. The hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds were obtained. The mean hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds can be used for the design and risk assessment of an NPP.

  3. Mapping and Mitigating the International Rip Current Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rip currents are concentrated seaward flows of water originating in the surf zones of beaches. Rips cause hundreds of international drownings each year. Calculating exact numbers is barred by logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports, but annual rip current fatalities are estimated at 100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Notably, Australia's lifeguards rescue 17,600 swimmers from rips each year. This project addresses the geophysical, social, and systematic causes of fatalities in hopes of decreasing the global number of rip-related deaths. We demonstrate a novel method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep or less), specifically within rip channels (topographic low spots in the nearshore that result from feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry). We calculate bathymetry using 8-band multispectral imagery from the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) satellite and field measurements of depth, generating maps of the changing nearshore at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including `yellow' (585-625 nm) and `coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Methods are tested for consistency amongst dates and locations. Previous research shows drownings result from a combination of the physical environment with personal and group behaviors; for this reason we build on rip-detection by evaluating tourists' and locals' knowledge and understanding of their beach's rip behavior. By combining the geomorphologic maps developed from WV2 with interview data, we evaluate how the physical environment dictates the exposure of certain swimmers. Controls include rip channel location, beach access points, and environmental factors favored by swimmers. The project serves as an evaluation of the landscape's creation of a physical feature that becomes a hazard when vulnerable humans

  4. Nuclear waste disposal: Technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, F.K.; Aikin, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have arrived at what appears to be a comforting conclusion--that the ultimate disposal of nuclear wastes should be technically feasible and very safe. They find that the environment and health impacts will be negligible in the short-term, being due to the steps that precede the emplacement of the wastes in the repository. Disposal itself, once achieved, offers no short-term threat--unless an unforseen catastrophe of very low probability occurs. The risks appear negligible by comparison with those associated with earlier stages of the fuel cycle. Ultimately -- millinnia hence -- a slow leaching of radionuclides to the surface might begin. But it would be so slow that great dilution of each nuclide will occur. This phase is likely to be researched somewhere in the period 100,000 to 1,000,000 years hence

  5. Probability analysis of nuclear power plant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The probability analysis of risk is described used for quantifying the risk of complex technological systems, especially of nuclear power plants. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous event and the significance of its consequences. The process of the analysis may be divided into the stage of power plant analysis to the point of release of harmful material into the environment (reliability analysis) and the stage of the analysis of the consequences of this release and the assessment of the risk. The sequence of operations is characterized in the individual stages. The tasks are listed which Czechoslovakia faces in the development of the probability analysis of risk, and the composition is recommended of the work team for coping with the task. (J.C.)

  6. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  7. Hazards and control of ruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of present information on the possible hazards of radioruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle and its behaviour in nuclear operations and in the environment. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: basic chemical and nuclear properties of ruthenium; chemistry (including the ruthenium-nitric acid system, electrochemistry, extraction processes); ruthenium toxicity; generation of radioruthenium (fallout sources, reactor sources, fuel reprocessing operations); waste treatment (cementation and bitumenization, calcining processes, vitrification); movement in the environment (movement of airborne effluents, liquid effluents and the freshwater environment, marine environment, bottom sediments, marine organisms, terrestrial environments, uptake in vegetation and animals); conclusion. (U.K.)

  8. Estimating inhalation hazards for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Seiler, F.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Minimizing inhalation hazards is a major consideration in the design, development, transportation, handling, testing, storage, launch, use, and ultimate disposition of nuclear space power systems (NSPSs). An accidental dispersion of 238 Pu is of concern for missions involving the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) or lightweight radioisotope heater units. Materials of concern for missions involving a nuclear reactor might include other radionuclides, such as uranium, or chemically toxic materials, such as beryllium or lithium. This paper provides an overview of some of the current approaches and uncertainties associated with estimating inhalation hazards from potential NSPS accidents. The question of whether inhalation risks can be acceptable for nuclear space power systems is still open and active. The inherently low toxicity of the uranium fuel of a space nuclear reactor is a desirable feature of that option. The extensive engineering and testing that have contributed to the current generation of plutonium RTGs provide a measure of confidence that dispersion of the RTG fuel would be unlikely in an accident. The use of nuclear reactors or RTGs in space, however, requires society to assume a risk (albeit low) for dispersion of the fuel material. It can be argued that any additional risks from the use of nuclear power in space are far less than the risks we face daily

  9. Harmonizing seismic hazard assessments for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallard, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Even a cursory comparison between maps of global seismicity and NPP earthquake design levels reveals many inconsistencies. While, in part, this situation reflects the evolution in understanding of seismic hazards, mismatches can also be due to ongoing differences in the way the hazards are assessed and in local regulatory requirements. So far, formal international consensus has only been able to encompass broad principles, such as those recently recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and even these can raise many technical issues, particularly relating to zones of diffuse seismicity. In the future, greater harmonisation in hazard assessments and, to some extent, in earthquake design levels could emerge through the more widespread use of probabilistic methods. International collaborative ventures and joint projects will be important for resolving anomalies in the existing databases and their interpretations, and for acquiring new data, but to achieve their ideal objectives, they will need to proceed in clearly defined stages. (author)

  10. Issues of tsunami hazard maps revealed by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunami scientists are imposed responsibilities of selection for people's tsunami evacuation place after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Japan. A lot of matured people died out of tsunami hazard zone based on tsunami hazard map though students made a miracle by evacuation on their own judgment in Kamaishi city. Tsunami hazard maps were based on numerical model smaller than actual magnitude 9. How can we bridge the gap between hazard map and future disasters? We have to discuss about using tsunami numerical model better enough to contribute tsunami hazard map. How do we have to improve tsunami hazard map? Tsunami hazard map should be revised included possibility of upthrust or downthrust after earthquakes and social information. Ground sank 1.14m below sea level in Ayukawa town, Tohoku. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's research shows around 10% people know about tsunami hazard map in Japan. However, people know about their evacuation places (buildings) through experienced drills once a year even though most people did not know about tsunami hazard map. We need wider spread of tsunami hazard with contingency of science (See the botom disaster handbook material's URL). California Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) team practically shows one good practice and solution to me. I followed their field trip in Catalina Island, California in Sep 2011. A team members are multidisciplinary specialists: A geologist, a GIS specialist, oceanographers in USC (tsunami numerical modeler) and a private company, a local policeman, a disaster manager, a local authority and so on. They check field based on their own specialties. They conduct an on-the-spot inspection of ambiguous locations between tsunami numerical model and real field conditions today. The data always become older. They pay attention not only to topographical conditions but also to social conditions: vulnerable people, elementary schools and so on. It takes a long time to check such field

  11. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  12. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Assessment of the fire hazard in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liemersdorf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The fire protection for conventional buildings and in the industrial area is essentially an empirical discipline. But, for nuclear facilities, the objectives of fire protection are higher than those used in the conventional field. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods to strengthen or to supplement the empirical evaluation methods on a scientific basis. This paper describes the method for fire hazard analysis developed for this purpose and presents some important results of its application to nuclear power plants. The analysis has the objective, on the one hand, of quantifying the risk contribution of a fire to the overall risk of a nuclear power plant and, on the other, to gain a balanced concept of individual fire protection measures. The results show that the fire risk contribution is relatively small in comparison with the contribution of other events and does not dominate the overall risk of the plant. This justifies the fire protection concepts of the facilities which have been examined. Additionally, it can be shown that further optimization is possible. The analysis method, which has been developed to evaluate the fire hazards of nuclear power plants is also expected to be applied to other nuclear facilities in future. In principal, though, the method may also be applied to the conventional field. (orig.) [de

  14. Prospects and pitfalls of occupational hazard mapping: 'between these lines there be dragons'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Volckens, John

    2011-10-01

    Hazard data mapping is a promising new technique that can enhance the process of occupational exposure assessment and risk communication. Hazard maps have the potential to improve worker health by providing key input for the design of hazard intervention and control strategies. Hazard maps are developed with aid from direct-reading instruments, which can collect highly spatially and temporally resolved data in a relatively short period of time. However, quantifying spatial-temporal variability in the occupational environment is not a straightforward process, and our lack of understanding of how to ascertain and model spatial and temporal variability is a limiting factor in the use and interpretation of workplace hazard maps. We provide an example of how sources of and exposures to workplace hazards may be mischaracterized in a hazard map due to a lack of completeness and representativeness of collected measurement data. Based on this example, we believe that a major priority for research in this emerging area should focus on the development of a statistical framework to quantify uncertainty in spatially and temporally varying data. In conjunction with this need is one for the development of guidelines and procedures for the proper sampling, generation, and evaluation of workplace hazard maps.

  15. Setting the scenario - potential hazards of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.; McPhail, N.

    1989-01-01

    The range of nuclear fuel cycle services provided by the various plants belonging to BNFL throughout the UK are described. The Sellafield Reprocessing Plant as the site which has the greatest potential for radiological hazard is then considered in more detail. In particular the safety cycle designed to prevent radiological accidents at Sellafield, emergency planning, the consequences of a major accident at Sellafield and the medical arrangements in the event of an accident are all discussed. (UK)

  16. Radiological hazards from nuclear explosions and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockcroft, J D

    1955-01-01

    The level of radioactive contamination in the world produced by all the nuclear bomb explosions and peaceful atomic energy activities is at present so low that it should not cause any anxiety. The radiation level which gives rise to serious harmful effects is probably at least a thousand times the present level of contamination. We do not at present know this figure with any accuracy, and long-term genetic studies are required to determine this.

  17. Modelling Inland Flood Events for Hazard Maps in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Nzerem, K.; Sassi, M.; Hilberts, A.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Mathur, P.; Mitas, C.; Rafique, F.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan experiences significant inland flooding, driven by torrential rainfall from plum rain storms and typhoons during summer and fall. From last 13 to 16 years data, 3,000 buildings were damaged by such floods annually with a loss US$0.41 billion (Water Resources Agency). This long, narrow island nation with mostly hilly/mountainous topography is located at tropical-subtropical zone with annual average typhoon-hit-frequency of 3-4 (Central Weather Bureau) and annual average precipitation of 2502mm (WRA) - 2.5 times of the world's average. Spatial and temporal distributions of countrywide precipitation are uneven, with very high local extreme rainfall intensities. Annual average precipitation is 3000-5000mm in the mountainous regions, 78% of it falls in May-October, and the 1-hour to 3-day maximum rainfall are about 85 to 93% of the world records (WRA). Rivers in Taiwan are short with small upstream areas and high runoff coefficients of watersheds. These rivers have the steepest slopes, the shortest response time with rapid flows, and the largest peak flows as well as specific flood peak discharge (WRA) in the world. RMS has recently developed a countrywide inland flood model for Taiwan, producing hazard return period maps at 1arcsec grid resolution. These can be the basis for evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses. The model is initiated with sub-daily historical meteorological forcings and calibrated to daily discharge observations at about 50 river gauges over the period 2003-2013. Simulations of hydrologic processes, via rainfall-runoff and routing models, are subsequently performed based on a 10000 year set of stochastic forcing. The rainfall-runoff model is physically based continuous, semi-distributed model for catchment hydrology. The 1-D wave propagation hydraulic model considers catchment runoff in routing and describes large-scale transport processes along the river. It also accounts for reservoir storage

  18. Buying time: Franchising hazardous and nuclear waste cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup`s net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations. Hazardous waste sites are enduring legacies of energy development. Abandoned mines, closed refineries, underground storage tanks and nuclear facilities have often become threats to human health and water quality. The policy of the United States government is that such sites should quickly be made nonpolluting and safe for unrestricted use. That is, the policy of the United States is prompt cleanup. Orphaned commercial hazardous waste sites are addressed by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Superfund program. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Coos County, New Hampshire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Coos County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA...

  20. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA...

  1. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Merrimack County, New Hampshire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/VermontWater Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Merrimack County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA...

  2. geomorphological mapping and geophysical profiling for the evaluation of natural hazards in an alpine catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2006-01-01

    Liechtenstein has faced an increasing number of natural hazards over recent decades: debris flows, slides, snow avalanches and floods repeatedly endanger the local infrastructure. Geomorphological field mapping and geo-electrical profiling was used to assess hazards near Malbun, a village

  3. Modelling Multi Hazard Mapping in Semarang City Using GIS-Fuzzy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. L.; Awaluddin, M.; Sasmito, B.

    2018-02-01

    One important aspect of disaster mitigation planning is hazard mapping. Hazard mapping can provide spatial information on the distribution of locations that are threatened by disaster. Semarang City as the capital of Central Java Province is one of the cities with high natural disaster intensity. Frequent natural disasters Semarang city is tidal flood, floods, landslides, and droughts. Therefore, Semarang City needs spatial information by doing multi hazard mapping to support disaster mitigation planning in Semarang City. Multi Hazards map modelling can be derived from parameters such as slope maps, rainfall, land use, and soil types. This modelling is done by using GIS method with scoring and overlay technique. However, the accuracy of modelling would be better if the GIS method is combined with Fuzzy Logic techniques to provide a good classification in determining disaster threats. The Fuzzy-GIS method will build a multi hazards map of Semarang city can deliver results with good accuracy and with appropriate threat class spread so as to provide disaster information for disaster mitigation planning of Semarang city. from the multi-hazard modelling using GIS-Fuzzy can be known type of membership that has a good accuracy is the type of membership Gauss with RMSE of 0.404 the smallest of the other membership and VAF value of 72.909% of the largest of the other membership.

  4. Hazards of nuclear reactors and other major industrial complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the problems of quantified risk analysis of the hazards of nuclear reactors and other major industrial complexes are raised particularly as seen by the proponents and opponents of atomic energy. These are exemplified by discussing the chemical accidents at Flixborough and Canvey Island and the Light Water Reactor Studies. The role of risk analysis in improving knowledge of the systems studies, improving methods of analysis, identifying weaknesses in systems and in improving engineering/maintenance/operation is also stressed. (U.K.)

  5. Hazards of radiation from continuous nuclear bomb tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipunskii, O I

    1958-01-01

    The hazards from radioactive fallout due to continuous nuclear bomb tests equivalent in intensity to 11 megatons of TNT are studied. Concentrations of /sup 90/Sr in the bones, the rate of leukemia, and the number of the victims of genetic damage are evaluated. The calculations show that towards the end of the century the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in the spine in large groups of the population could exceed the officially permissible dose and each year of continuous tests would result in the birth of 44,000 persons burdened by hereditary sickness, and 29,000 cases of leukemia.

  6. Nuclear spectrometry for environmental analysis and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Aliz

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) helps countries to mobilize peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The three main pillars of the activities are: safety and security; science and technology; and safeguards and verification. As part of the science and technology pillar, the Physics Section supports Member States regarding utilization of particle accelerators and research reactors, applications of nuclear instrumentation, and controlled nuclear fusion research. Support is provided to the Member States in the form of capacity building, knowledge transfer and networking. The IAEA's coordinated research activities are designed to contribute to this mandate, by stimulating and coordinating research in IAEA Member States in selected nuclear fields. These coordinated research activities are normally implemented through Coordinated Research Projects that bring together research institutes from both developing and developed Member States to collaborate on the research topic of interest. The establishment of sustainable education and training programmes is fundamental for the safe, secure and efficient development of the nuclear field. The lAEA offers a wide spectrum of activities in support of education, training, human resource development and capacity building including interregional, regional and national training courses and workshops; assists visits and reviews services; initiates, formulates and runs programmes; networks managers and specialists for sharing good practices; assists in publications that compile the best international practices; supplies training materials and training tools; and supports internship programmes for the young generations of scientists and fellows. For the developing countries, the Technical Cooperation Programme provides the necessary skills and equipment to establish sustainable technology in the counterpart country or region through training courses, expert missions, fellowships, scientific

  7. Nuclear spectrometry for environmental analysis and mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Aliz, E-mail: Aliz.Simon@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) helps countries to mobilize peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The three main pillars of the activities are: safety and security; science and technology; and safeguards and verification. As part of the science and technology pillar, the Physics Section supports Member States regarding utilization of particle accelerators and research reactors, applications of nuclear instrumentation, and controlled nuclear fusion research. Support is provided to the Member States in the form of capacity building, knowledge transfer and networking. The IAEA's coordinated research activities are designed to contribute to this mandate, by stimulating and coordinating research in IAEA Member States in selected nuclear fields. These coordinated research activities are normally implemented through Coordinated Research Projects that bring together research institutes from both developing and developed Member States to collaborate on the research topic of interest. The establishment of sustainable education and training programmes is fundamental for the safe, secure and efficient development of the nuclear field. The lAEA offers a wide spectrum of activities in support of education, training, human resource development and capacity building including interregional, regional and national training courses and workshops; assists visits and reviews services; initiates, formulates and runs programmes; networks managers and specialists for sharing good practices; assists in publications that compile the best international practices; supplies training materials and training tools; and supports internship programmes for the young generations of scientists and fellows. For the developing countries, the Technical Cooperation Programme provides the necessary skills and equipment to establish sustainable technology in the counterpart country or region through training courses, expert missions, fellowships, scientific

  8. Some Recent Technology Developments From The Uk's National Nuclear Laboratory To Enable Hazard Characterisation For Nuclear Decommissioning Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-01-01

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR and D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  9. A research on threat (hazard) categorization method for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Rongyao; Xu Xiaoxiao; Zhang Jiangang; Zhao Bin; Wang Xuexin

    2011-01-01

    The threat categorization method suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hazard categorization standard by the Department of Energy of United States (USDOE) for nuclear facilities are compared and discussed in this paper. The research shows the two types of categorization method for nuclear facilities are similar, though each has its own specialty. The categorization method suggested by IAEA for the purpose of emergency planning is quite completed and updated. The categorization method of DOE is advanced in its operability, and fits for safety surveillance. But the dispersible radioactive material thresholds used for categorization need to be updated. The threshold of category 3 is somewhat disputable for many reasons. The recommended categorization method for China is also given in this paper. (author)

  10. Protection against fire hazards in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapus, J.

    2000-01-01

    The prevention of fire in French nuclear power plants has followed the evolution of safety regulations. Today fire hazards are no longer considered as classical industrial risks but as specific risks that deserve to be studied thoroughly and in a more formalized form. In the beginning of the eighties EDF was committed to the redaction of a technical referential against fire gathering all the directives applicable to the N4-type plant (1450 MW). In 1994 this technical referential was reconsidered and enlarged in order to involve 900 MW and 1300 MW units. In each nuclear power plant a PAI (plan against fire) has been elaborated so that the installation can be progressively upgraded according to the last standard defined by the technical referential. (A.C.)

  11. Mapping of hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides in developing countries: Examples from Honduras and Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of life and property caused by landslides triggered by extreme rainfall events demonstrates the need for landslide-hazard assessment in developing countries where recovery from such events often exceeds the country's resources. Mapping landslide hazards in developing countries where the need for landslide-hazard mitigation is great but the resources are few is a challenging, but not intractable problem. The minimum requirements for constructing a physically based landslide-hazard map from a landslide-triggering storm, using the simple methods we discuss, are: (1) an accurate mapped landslide inventory, (2) a slope map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic map, and (3) material strength properties of the slopes involved. Provided that the landslide distribution from a triggering event can be documented and mapped, it is often possible to glean enough topographic and geologic information from existing databases to produce a reliable map that depicts landslide hazards from an extreme event. Most areas of the world have enough topographic information to provide digital elevation models from which to construct slope maps. In the likely event that engineering properties of slope materials are not available, reasonable estimates can be made with detailed field examination by engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers. Resulting landslide hazard maps can be used as tools to guide relocation and redevelopment, or, more likely, temporary relocation efforts during severe storm events such as hurricanes/typhoons to minimize loss of life and property. We illustrate these methods in two case studies of lethal landslides in developing countries: Tegucigalpa, Honduras (during Hurricane Mitch in 1998) and the Chuuk Islands, Micronesia (during Typhoon Chata'an in 2002).

  12. Probabilistic landslide hazards and risk mapping on Penang Island ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with landslide hazards and risk analysis of Penang Island, Malaysia using Geo- .... require a priori knowledge of the main causes of landslides .... Soil. Rengam-bukit. 289450. 10.03. 96. 20.73. 2.07 temiang association. Selangor-kangkong. 34197. 1.18. 0. 0.00. 0.00 association. Local alluvium-. 373655.

  13. Sustainability-Based Flood Hazard Mapping of the Swannanoa River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ahmadisharaf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated framework is presented for sustainability-based flood hazard mapping of the Swannanoa River watershed in the state of North Carolina, U.S. The framework uses a hydrologic model for rainfall–runoff transformation, a two-dimensional unsteady hydraulic model flood simulation and a GIS-based multi-criteria decision-making technique for flood hazard mapping. Economic, social, and environmental flood hazards are taken into account. The importance of each hazard is quantified through a survey to the experts. Utilizing the proposed framework, sustainability-based flood hazard mapping is performed for the 100-year design event. As a result, the overall flood hazard is provided in each geographic location. The sensitivity of the overall hazard with respect to the weights of the three hazard components were also investigated. While the conventional flood management approach is to assess the environmental impacts of mitigation measures after a set of feasible options are selected, the presented framework incorporates the environmental impacts into the analysis concurrently with the economic and social influences. Thereby, it provides a more sustainable perspective of flood management and can greatly help the decision makers to make better-informed decisions by clearly understanding the impacts of flooding on economy, society and environment.

  14. Application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to ground subsidence hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inhye; Choi, Jaewon; Jin Lee, Moung; Lee, Saro

    2012-11-01

    We constructed hazard maps of ground subsidence around abandoned underground coal mines (AUCMs) in Samcheok City, Korea, using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a geographical information system (GIS). To evaluate the factors related to ground subsidence, a spatial database was constructed from topographic, geologic, mine tunnel, land use, and ground subsidence maps. An attribute database was also constructed from field investigations and reports on existing ground subsidence areas at the study site. Five major factors causing ground subsidence were extracted: (1) depth of drift; (2) distance from drift; (3) slope gradient; (4) geology; and (5) land use. The adaptive ANFIS model with different types of membership functions (MFs) was then applied for ground subsidence hazard mapping in the study area. Two ground subsidence hazard maps were prepared using the different MFs. Finally, the resulting ground subsidence hazard maps were validated using the ground subsidence test data which were not used for training the ANFIS. The validation results showed 95.12% accuracy using the generalized bell-shaped MF model and 94.94% accuracy using the Sigmoidal2 MF model. These accuracy results show that an ANFIS can be an effective tool in ground subsidence hazard mapping. Analysis of ground subsidence with the ANFIS model suggests that quantitative analysis of ground subsidence near AUCMs is possible.

  15. Engineering Applications Using Probabilistic Aftershock Hazard Analyses: Aftershock Hazard Map and Load Combination of Aftershocks and Tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghyun Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Tohoku earthquake in 2011, we observed that aftershocks tended to occur in a wide region after such a large earthquake. These aftershocks resulted in secondary damage or delayed rescue and recovery activities. In addition, it has been reported that there are regions where the intensity of the vibrations owing to the aftershocks was much stronger than those associated with the main shock. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the seismic risk associated with aftershocks. We used the data regarding aftershocks that was obtained from the Tohoku earthquake and various other historically large earthquakes. We investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of the aftershocks using the Gutenberg–Richter law and the modified Omori law. Subsequently, we previously proposed a probabilistic aftershock occurrence model that is expected to be useful to develop plans for recovery activities after future large earthquakes. In this study, the probabilistic aftershock hazard analysis is used to create aftershock hazard maps. We propose a hazard map focusing on the probability of aftershocks on the scale of the main shock for use with a recovery activity plan. Following the lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we focus on the simultaneous occurrence of tsunamis and aftershocks just after a great subduction earthquake. The probabilistic aftershock hazard analysis is used to derive load combination equations of the load and resistance factor design. This design is intended to simultaneously consider tsunamis and aftershocks for tsunami-resistant designs of tsunami evacuation buildings.

  16. Topographical mapping system for hazardous and radiological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Pardini, A.

    1995-01-01

    This report focuses on the results of the acceptance test of the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) delivered to the Hanford site. The TMS was tested for accuracy over the specified range of 45 feet. The TMS was also tested to ensure that the unit could be deployed through multiple risers and maintain accuracy and registration of the surface mapping data. In addition, the TMS was disassembled and reassembled and redeployed to test field replacement of modules that make up the sensor head that is deployed in the vapor space of Underground Storage Tanks such as those located at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. The results from these tests along with temperature testing on the complete system and radiation testing of selected susceptible components are covered in this report. The primary purpose of the TMS is to generate reliable and accurate three-dimensional maps of the internal surfaces of storage tank. One use for these mapping systems is in creating and maintaining a current map of the tank interior as input to a robotic ''world model'' that is used to test remediation strategies or plan robot trajectories. Another use is tracking the movement of the waste surface as it responds to expanding bubbles of trapped Gas. A third use of the TMS is to perform a volumetric analysis of the amount of waste removed from the tanks during remediation

  17. Developing International Guidelines on Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide, tremendous progress has been made in recent decades in forecasting volcanic events, such as episodes of volcanic unrest, eruptions, and the potential impacts of eruptions. Generally these forecasts are divided into two categories. Short-term forecasts are prepared in response to unrest at volcanoes, rely on geophysical monitoring and related observations, and have the goal of forecasting events on timescales of hours to weeks to provide time for evacuation of people, shutdown of facilities, and implementation of related safety measures. Long-term forecasts are prepared to better understand the potential impacts of volcanism in the future and to plan for potential volcanic activity. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful to better understand and communicate the potential consequences of volcanic events for populated areas around volcanoes and for siting critical infrastructure, such as nuclear facilities. Recent work by an international team, through the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, has focused on developing guidelines for long-term volcanic hazard assessments. These guidelines have now been implemented for hazard assessment for nuclear facilities in nations including Indonesia, the Philippines, Armenia, Chile, and the United States. One any time scale, all volcanic hazard assessments rely on a geologically reasonable conceptual model of volcanism. Such conceptual models are usually built upon years or decades of geological studies of specific volcanic systems, analogous systems, and development of a process-level understanding of volcanic activity. Conceptual models are used to bound potential rates of volcanic activity, potential magnitudes of eruptions, and to understand temporal and spatial trends in volcanic activity. It is these conceptual models that provide essential justification for assumptions made in statistical model development and the application of numerical models to generate quantitative forecasts. It is a

  18. Ground motion models used in the 2014 U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHMs) are an important component of seismic design regulations in the United States. This paper compares hazard using the new suite of ground motion models (GMMs) relative to hazard using the suite of GMMs applied in the previous version of the maps. The new source characterization models are used for both cases. A previous paper (Rezaeian et al. 2014) discussed the five NGA-West2 GMMs used for shallow crustal earthquakes in the Western United States (WUS), which are also summarized here. Our focus in this paper is on GMMs for earthquakes in stable continental regions in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS), as well as subduction interface and deep intraslab earthquakes. We consider building code hazard levels for peak ground acceleration (PGA), 0.2-s, and 1.0-s spectral accelerations (SAs) on uniform firm-rock site conditions. The GMM modifications in the updated version of the maps created changes in hazard within 5% to 20% in WUS; decreases within 5% to 20% in CEUS; changes within 5% to 15% for subduction interface earthquakes; and changes involving decreases of up to 50% and increases of up to 30% for deep intraslab earthquakes for most U.S. sites. These modifications were combined with changes resulting from modifications in the source characterization models to obtain the new hazard maps.

  19. Seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shedlock

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings. The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.

  20. Stochastic Urban Pluvial Flood Hazard Maps Based upon a Spatial-Temporal Rainfall Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Eduardo Simões

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a common practice to assign the return period of a given storm event to the urban pluvial flood event that such storm generates. However, this approach may be inappropriate as rainfall events with the same return period can produce different urban pluvial flooding events, i.e., with different associated flood extent, water levels and return periods. This depends on the characteristics of the rainfall events, such as spatial variability, and on other characteristics of the sewer system and the catchment. To address this, the paper presents an innovative contribution to produce stochastic urban pluvial flood hazard maps. A stochastic rainfall generator for urban-scale applications was employed to generate an ensemble of spatially—and temporally—variable design storms with similar return period. These were used as input to the urban drainage model of a pilot urban catchment (~9 km2 located in London, UK. Stochastic flood hazard maps were generated through a frequency analysis of the flooding generated by the various storm events. The stochastic flood hazard maps obtained show that rainfall spatial-temporal variability is an important factor in the estimation of flood likelihood in urban areas. Moreover, as compared to the flood hazard maps obtained by using a single spatially-uniform storm event, the stochastic maps generated in this study provide a more comprehensive assessment of flood hazard which enables better informed flood risk management decisions.

  1. Retrospective validation of a lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a retrospective methodology to validate a long-term hazard map related to lava-flow invasion at Mount Etna, the most active volcano in Europe. A lava-flow hazard map provides the probability that a specific point will be affected by potential destructive volcanic processes over the time period considered. We constructed this lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano through the identification of the emission regions with the highest probabilities of eruptive vents and through characterization of the event types for the numerical simulations and the computation of the eruptive probabilities. Numerical simulations of lava-flow paths were carried out using the MAGFLOW cellular automata model. To validate the methodology developed, a hazard map was built by considering only the eruptions that occurred at Mount Etna before 1981. On the basis of the probability of coverage by lava flows, the map was divided into ten classes, and two fitting scores were calculated to measure the overlap between the hazard classes and the actual shapes of the lava flows that occurred after 1981.

  2. The application of geostatistics in erosion hazard mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, S.A.H.A. van; Riezebos, H.Th.

    1988-01-01

    Geostatistical interpolation or kriging of soil and vegetation variables has become an important alternative to other mapping techniques. Although a reconnaissance sampling is necessary and basic requirements of geostatistics have to be met, kriging has the advantage of giving estimates with a

  3. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier-Klose, M.; Wagner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey. The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths) which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  4. New approach on seismic hazard isoseismal map for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Cioflan, Carmen Ortanza; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The seismicity of Romania comes from the energy that is released by crustal earthquakes, which have a depth not more than 40 km, and by the intermediate earthquakes coming from Vrancea region (unique case in Europe) with a depth between 60 and 200 km. The authors developed the concept of 'control earthquake' and equations to obtain the banana shape of the attenuations curves of the macroseimic intensity I (along the directions defined by azimuth Az), in the case of a Vrancea earthquake at a depth 80 < x < 160 km. There were used deterministic and probabilistic approaches, linear and nonlinear ones. The final map is in MMI intensity (isoseismal map) for maximum possible Vrancea earthquake with Richter magnitude, MGR 7.5. This will avoid any drawbacks to civil structural designers and to insurance companies which are paying all damages and life loses in function of earthquake intensity. (authors)

  5. A fire hazard analysis at the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerud, F.; Magnusson, T.

    1998-01-01

    The fire hazard analysis (FHA) of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) Unit no.1 was initiated during 1997 and is estimated to finalise in summer 1998. The reason for starting a FHA was a recommendation in the Safety Analysis Report and its review to prioritise a systematic FHA. Fire protection improvements had earlier been based on engineering assessments, but further improvements required a systematic FHA. It is also required by the regulator for licensing of unit no.1. In preparation of the analysis it was decided to perform a deterministic FHA to fulfil the requirements in the IAEA draft of a Safety Practice ''Preparation of Fire Hazard Analyses for Nuclear Power Plants''. As a supporting document the United States Department of Energy Reactor Core Protection Evaluation Methodology for Fires at RBMK and WWER Nuclear Power Plants (RCPEM) was agreed to be used. The assistance of the project is performed as a bilateral activity between Sweden and UK. The project management is the responsibility of the INPP. In order to transfer knowledge to the INPP project group, training activities are arranged by the western team. The project will be documented as a safety case. The project consists of parties from INPP, Sweden, UK and Russia which makes the project very dependent of good communication procedures. The most difficult problems is except from the problems with translation, the problems with different standards and lack of testing protocols of the fire protection installations and problems to set the right level of screening criteria. There is also the new dimension of making it possible to take credit for the fire brigade in the safety case, which can bring the project into difficulties. The most interesting challenges for the project are to set the most sensible safety levels in the screening phase, to handle the huge volume of rooms for survey and screening, to maintain the good exchange of fire- and nuclear safety information between all the parties involved

  6. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  7. Extreme-event geoelectric hazard maps: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Maps of geoelectric amplitude covering about half the continental United States are presented that will be exceeded, on average, once per century in response to an extreme-intensity geomagnetic disturbance. These maps are constructed using an empirical parameterization of induction: convolving latitude-dependent statistical maps of extreme-value geomagnetic disturbances, obtained from decades of 1-minute magnetic observatory data, with local estimates of Earth-surface impedance obtained at discrete geographic sites from magnetotelluric surveys. Geoelectric amplitudes are estimated for geomagnetic waveforms having a 240-s (and 1200-s) sinusoidal period and amplitudes over 10 min (1 h) that exceed a once-per-century threshold. As a result of the combination of geographic differences in geomagnetic variation and Earth-surface impedance, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes span more than two orders of magnitude and are a highly granular function of location. Specifically for north-south 240-s induction, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes across large parts of the United States have a median value of 0.34 V/km; for east-west variation, they have a median value of 0.23 V/km. In Northern Minnesota, amplitudes exceed 14.00 V/km for north-south geomagnetic variation (23.34 V/km for east-west variation), while just over 100 km away, amplitudes are only 0.08 V/km (0.02 V/km). At some sites in the northern-central United States, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes exceed the 2 V/km realized in Québec during the March 1989 storm.

  8. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activities near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Gobert, T.

    1980-01-01

    Among the potential hazards which could arise from industrial activity near nuclear power plants, fires and explosions of dangerous products are of particular concern. Indeed, thermal radiation from an adjacent fire could endanger the resistance of a plant's structures. Likewise, an accident explosion would induce an overpressure wave which could affect buildings' integrity. This paper presents the methodology developed by Electricite de France to evaluate the consequences of accidents affecting: - Industrial facilities: refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, storage areas, pipelines of gaseous, liquid and liquefied materials. - Transportation routes (roads, railways, inland waterways) used to carry dangerous substances (solid explosives, liquid, gaseous or liquefied hydrocarbons). Probabilistic methods have been developed by analysis of actual accident statistics (e.g. risks induced by transportation routes) and realistic and representative accident scenarios have been set up. Five sequences have been identified: Formation of a fluid jet at a breach. Evaporation and possible formation of a liquid layer. Atmospheric dispersion and drift of a gaseous cloud. Heat radiation from fire. Unconfined explosion of a gaseous cloud. This paper gives an overview of the methods and the main assumptions used to deal with each sequence. Those methods, presently applied by Electricite de France, provide a coherent and realistic approach for the evaluation of the risks at nuclear power plants induced by industrial activity. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard mapping in Perlis and to evaluate flood hazard using frequency ratio, statistical index and Poisson method. The six factors affecting the occurrence of flood including elevation, distance from the drainage network, rainfall, soil texture, geology and erosion were created using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Flood location map in this study has been generated based on flooded area in year 2010 from DID. These parameters and flood location map were analysed to prepare flood hazard mapping in representing the probability of flood area. The results of the analysis were verified using flood location data in year 2013, 2014, 2015. The comparison result showed statistical index method is better in prediction of flood area rather than frequency ratio and Poisson method.

  10. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  11. Hazards Analysis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel L-Experimental Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Hazard Analysis (HA) is to identify and assess potential hazards associated with the operations of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Treatment and Storage Facility LEF. Additionally, this HA will be used for identifying and assessing potential hazards and specifying functional attributes of SSCs for the LEF project

  12. Near real-time aftershock hazard maps for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Stress interaction modelling is routinely used to explain the spatial relationships between earthquakes and their aftershocks. On 28 October 2008 a M6.4 earthquake occurred near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border killing several hundred and causing widespread devastation. A second M6.4 event occurred 12 hours later 20km to the south east. By making some well supported assumptions concerning the source event and the geometry of any likely triggered event it was possible to map those areas most likely to experience further activity. Using Google earth, it would further have been possible to identify particular settlements in the source area which were particularly at risk and to publish their locations globally within about 3 hours of the first earthquake. Such actions could have significantly focused the initial emergency response management. We argue for routine prospective testing of such forecasts and dialogue between social and physical scientists and emergency response professionals around the practical application of these techniques.

  13. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  14. How do Japanese escape from TSUNAMI? - Disaster Prevention Education through using Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by

  15. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  16. Proceedings of the international topical meeting on nuclear and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Topical Meeting on Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management. Included are the following articles: Defense radioactive waste management: status and challenges, Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, A generic hazardous waste management training program, Status of industry standards for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  17. Landscape Hazards in Yukon Communities: Geological Mapping for Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K.; Kinnear, L.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is considered to be a significant challenge for northern communities where the effects of increased temperature and climate variability are beginning to affect infrastructure and livelihoods (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004). Planning for and adapting to ongoing and future changes in climate will require the identification and characterization of social, economic, cultural, political and biophysical vulnerabilities. This pilot project addresses physical landscape vulnerabilities in two communities in the Yukon Territory through community-scale landscape hazard mapping and focused investigations of community permafrost conditions. Landscape hazards are identified by combining pre-existing data from public utilities and private-sector consultants with new geophysical techniques (ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity), shallow drilling, surficial geological mapping, and permafrost characterization. Existing landscape vulnerabilities are evaluated based on their potential for hazard (low, medium or high) under current climate conditions, as well as under future climate scenarios. Detailed hazard maps and landscape characterizations for both communities will contribute to overall adaptation plans and allow for informed development, planning and mitigation of potentially threatening hazards in and around the communities.

  18. Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Installations: Methods and Examples in Site Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    To provide guidance on the protection of nuclear installations against the effects of volcanoes, the IAEA published in 2012 IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-21, Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. SSG-21 addresses hazards relating to volcanic phenomena, and provides recommendations and general guidance for evaluation of these hazards. Unlike seismic hazard assessments, models for volcanic hazard assessment have not undergone decades of review, evaluation and testing for suitability in evaluating hazards at proposed nuclear installations. Currently in volcanology, scientific developments and detailed methodologies to model volcanic phenomena are evolving rapidly.This publication provides information on detailed methodologies and examples in the application of volcanic hazard assessment to site evaluation for nuclear installations, thereby addressing the recommendations in SSG-21. Although SSG-21 develops a logical framework for conducting a volcanic hazard assessment, this publication demonstrates the practicability of evaluating the recommendations in SSG-21 through a systematic volcanic hazard assessment and examples from Member States. The results of this hazard assessment can be used to derive the appropriate design bases and operational considerations for specific nuclear installations

  19. Technical strategy map to employing nuclear power plant aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Kanno, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Stated in this report are back ground of technical strategy map for nuclear power plant aging management, result of the first road map, significance of technical strategy map, introduction scenario, technology map, road map, upgrade in every year, three groups of academia, industry and government, plan of technical strategy map, upgrade system, comprehensive introduction scenario, measures of nuclear power plant aging management in Japan and the world, new inspection system, outline of 'technical strategy map 2008', preparation of technical information bases in industry, academia and government, collaboration of them, safety researches of neutron radiation damage, stress corrosion crack, fatigue, piping thinning, insulation degradation, concrete degradation, thermal aging, evaluation technologies of earthquake resistance, preparation of rules and standards, ideal maintenance, and training talent. (S.Y.)

  20. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-01-01

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  1. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Lateh, Habibah [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  2. Mapping local knowledge of hazards to inform research, practice and policy in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Ashley; Eosco, Gina; Norton, Todd; Ruiz, Jorge; Tate, Eric; Weathers, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Hazards are fundamentally understood and experienced spatially; therefore, it is not surprising that hazards research, management, communication, and policy have relied heavily on spatial representations using geomatics tools such as remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). As powerful and useful as these tools have been, they tend to privilege the collection and utilization of quantifiable data at the expense of qualitative data (e.g., experiential local knowledge). Local knowledge has been increasingly used both to challenge and to supplement mapping strategies, although less so in the realm of hazards than in other areas such as natural resource management. In this paper, we propose a unique framework for taking these approaches one-step further through the development of a knowledge management system that integrates local knowledge of hazards with spatial visualization tools. First, we discuss relevant literature related to current tools and practices for visualizing hazard information. Next we propose a methodology for mapping mental models of individuals. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of such a framework for hazards research, practice, and policy, as well as discuss the challenges associated with this framework.

  3. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  4. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  5. Nationwide high-resolution mapping of hazards in the Philippines (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2015-04-01

    The Philippines being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Situated in a region where severe weather and geophysical unrest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. Recently, the Philippines put in place a responsive program called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (NOAH) for disaster prevention and mitigation. The efforts of Project NOAH are an offshoot of lessons learned from previous disasters that have inflicted massive loss of lives and costly damage to property. Several components of the NOAH program focus on mapping of landslide, riverine flood and storm surge inundation hazards. By simulating hazards phenomena over IFSAR- and LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs) using high-performance computers, multi-hazards maps of 1:10,000 scale, have been produced and disseminated to local government units through a variety of platforms. These detailed village-level (barangay-level) maps are useful to identify safe evacuation sites, planning emergency access routes and prepositioning of search and rescue and relief supplies during times of crises. They are also essential for long-term development planning of communities. In the past two years, NOAH was instrumental in providing timely, site-specific, and understandable hazards information to the public, considered as best practice in disaster risk reduction management (DRR). The use of advanced science and technology in the country's disaster prevention efforts is imperative to successfully mitigate the adverse impacts of natural hazards and should be a continuous quest - to find the best products, put forth in the forefront of battle against

  6. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hagemeier-Klose

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey.

    The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  7. Nuclear power for energy production and hazardous waste regulations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Goel, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Before installing any nuclear power- generation plants in India, it is important to implement stringent regulations for the health and safety of the people and for protection of the environment, soil and water from the nuclear and hazardous waste produced in the power plants. Although some initiatives have been taken for radioactive waste disposal in India, the current hazardous and nuclear waste storage/disposal regulations are still too soft and are not being implemented properly in the country

  8. Regional analysis assessment of landslide hazard and zoning map for transmission line route selection using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, I N Z; Omar, R C; Usman, F; Mejan, M A; Halim, M K Abd; Zainol, M A; Zulkarnain, M S

    2013-01-01

    The stability of ground as foundation for infrastructure development is always associated with geology and geomorphology aspects. Failure to carefully analyze these aspects may induce ground instability such subsidence and landslide which eventually can cause catastrophe to the infrastructure i.e. instability of transmission tower. However, in some cases such as the study area this is unavoidable. A GIS system for analysis of route was favoured to perform optimal route predictions based selection by incorporating multiple influence factors into its analysis by incorporating the Landslide Hazard Map (LHM) that was produced on basis of slope map, aspect map, land use map and geological map with the help of ArcGIS using weighted overlay method. Based on LHM it is safe to conclude that the proposed route for Ulu Jelai- Neggiri-Lebir-LILO transmission line has very low risk in term of landslides.

  9. Field Courses for Volcanic Hazards Mapping at Parícutinand Jorullo Volcanoes (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Morales, A.; Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Linares López, C.

    2007-05-01

    During the last decades, Mexico has suffered several geologic phenomena-related disasters. The eruption of El Chichón volcano in 1982 killed >2000 people and left a large number of homeless populations and severe economic damages. The best way to avoid and mitigate disasters and their effects is by making geologic hazards maps. In volcanic areas these maps should show in a simplified fashion, but based on the largest geologic background possible, the probable (or likely) distribution in time and space of the products related to a variety of volcanic processes and events, according to likely magnitude scenarios documented on actual events at a particular volcano or a different one with similar features to the volcano used for calibration and weighing geologic background. Construction of hazards maps requires compilation and acquisition of a large amount of geological data in order to obtain the physical parameters needed to calibrate and perform controlled simulation of volcanic events under different magnitude-scenarios in order to establish forecasts. These forecasts are needed by the authorities to plan human settlements, infrastructure, and economic development. The problem is that needs are overwhelmingly faster than the adjustments of university programs to include courses. At the Earth Science División of the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the students have a good background that permits to learn the methodologies for hazards map construction but no courses on hazards evaluations. Therefore, under the support of the university's Program to Support Innovation and Improvement of Teaching (PAPIME, Programa de Apoyo para la Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza) a series of field-based intensive courses allow the Earth science students to learn what kind of data to acquire, how to record, and process in order to carry out hazards evaluations. This training ends with hazards maps that can be used immediately by the

  10. A method for mapping fire hazard and risk across multiple scales and its application in fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Stacy A. Drury; Eva C. Karau; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents modeling methods for mapping fire hazard and fire risk using a research model called FIREHARM (FIRE Hazard and Risk Model) that computes common measures of fire behavior, fire danger, and fire effects to spatially portray fire hazard over space. FIREHARM can compute a measure of risk associated with the distribution of these measures over time using...

  11. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Isotopic Mapping of Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah S.; McNabb, Dennis P.

    2009-03-01

    National security programs have expressed interest in developing systems to isotopically map shipping containers, fuel assemblies, and waste barrels for various materials including special nuclear material (SNM). Current radiographic systems offer little more than an ambiguous density silhouette of a container's contents. In this paper we will present a system being developed at LLNL to isotopically map containers using the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method. Recent experimental measurements on NRF strengths in SNM are discussed.

  12. Flood hazard mapping of Palembang City by using 2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Marlina, Ayu; Kusuma, Muhammad Syahril Badri

    2017-11-01

    Palembang as the capital city of South Sumatera Province is one of the metropolitan cities in Indonesia that flooded almost every year. Flood in the city is highly related to Musi River Basin. Based on Indonesia National Agency of Disaster Management (BNPB), the level of flood hazard is high. Many natural factors caused flood in the city such as high intensity of rainfall, inadequate drainage capacity, and also backwater flow due to spring tide. Furthermore, anthropogenic factors such as population increase, land cover/use change, and garbage problem make flood problem become worse. The objective of this study is to develop flood hazard map of Palembang City by using two dimensional model. HEC-RAS 5.0 is used as modelling tool which is verified with field observation data. There are 21 sub catchments of Musi River Basin in the flood simulation. The level of flood hazard refers to Head Regulation of BNPB number 2 in 2012 regarding general guideline of disaster risk assessment. The result for 25 year return per iod of flood shows that with 112.47 km2 area of inundation, 14 sub catchments are categorized in high hazard level. It is expected that the hazard map can be used for risk assessment.

  13. A national scale flood hazard mapping methodology: The case of Greece - Protection and adaptation policy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2017-12-01

    The present work introduces a national scale flood hazard assessment methodology, using multi-criteria analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques in a GIS environment. The proposed methodology was applied in Greece, where flash floods are a relatively frequent phenomenon and it has become more intense over the last decades, causing significant damages in rural and urban sectors. In order the most prone flooding areas to be identified, seven factor-maps (that are directly related to flood generation) were combined in a GIS environment. These factor-maps are: a) the Flow accumulation (F), b) the Land use (L), c) the Altitude (A), b) the Slope (S), e) the soil Erodibility (E), f) the Rainfall intensity (R), and g) the available water Capacity (C). The name to the proposed method is "FLASERC". The flood hazard for each one of these factors is classified into five categories: Very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The above factors are combined and processed using the appropriate ANN algorithm tool. For the ANN training process spatial distribution of historical flooded points in Greece within the five different flood hazard categories of the aforementioned seven factor-maps were combined. In this way, the overall flood hazard map for Greece was determined. The final results are verified using additional historical flood events that have occurred in Greece over the last 100years. In addition, an overview of flood protection measures and adaptation policy approaches were proposed for agricultural and urban areas located at very high flood hazard areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of physical modelling to climate-driven landslide hazard mapping: an alpine test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandromme, R.; Desramaut, N.; Baills, A.; Hohmann, A.; Grandjean, G.; Sedan, O.; Mallet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a methodology for integrating climate change scenarios into quantitative hazard assessment and especially their precipitation component. The effects of climate change will be different depending on both the location of the site and the type of landslide considered. Indeed, mass movements can be triggered by different factors. This paper describes a methodology to address this issue and shows an application on an alpine test site. Mechanical approaches represent a solution for quantitative landslide susceptibility and hazard modeling. However, as the quantity and the quality of data are generally very heterogeneous at a regional scale, it is necessary to take into account the uncertainty in the analysis. In this perspective, a new hazard modeling method is developed and integrated in a program named ALICE. This program integrates mechanical stability analysis through a GIS software taking into account data uncertainty. This method proposes a quantitative classification of landslide hazard and offers a useful tool to gain time and efficiency in hazard mapping. However, an expertise approach is still necessary to finalize the maps. Indeed it is the only way to take into account some influent factors in slope stability such as heterogeneity of the geological formations or effects of anthropic interventions. To go further, the alpine test site (Barcelonnette area, France) is being used to integrate climate change scenarios into ALICE program, and especially their precipitation component with the help of a hydrological model (GARDENIA) and the regional climate model REMO (Jacob, 2001). From a DEM, land-cover map, geology, geotechnical data and so forth the program classifies hazard zones depending on geotechnics and different hydrological contexts varying in time. This communication, realized within the framework of Safeland project, is supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological

  15. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hydrology Analysis and Modelling for Klang River Basin Flood Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Rostam, N. E.; Hidayah, B.; Roseli, ZA; Majid, W. H. A. W. A.; Zahari, N. Z.; Salleh, S. H. M.; Ahmad, R. D. R.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    Flooding, a common environmental hazard worldwide has in recent times, increased as a result of climate change and urbanization with the effects felt more in developing countries. As a result, the explosive of flooding to Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) substation is increased rapidly due to existing substations are located in flood prone area. By understanding the impact of flood to their substation, TNB has provided the non-structure mitigation with the integration of Flood Hazard Map with their substation. Hydrology analysis is the important part in providing runoff as the input for the hydraulic part.

  17. Geoethical and socio-political aspects of seismic and tsunami hazard assessment, quantification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Seismic hazard and, more recently, tsunami hazard assessments have been undertaken in several countries of the world and globally for the whole Earth planet with the aim of providing a scientifically sound basis to the engineers, technicians, urban and industrial planners, politicians, civil protection operators and in general to the authorities for devising rational risk mitigation strategies and corresponding adequate policies. The main point of this presentation is that the chief-value of all seismic and tsunami hazard studies (including theory, concept, quantification and mapping) resides in the social and political values of the provided products, which is a standpoint entailing a number of relevant geoethical implications. The most relevant implication regards geoscientists who are the subjects mainly involved in carrying out hazard evaluations. Viewed from the classical perspective, the main ethical obligations of geoscientists are restricted to performing hazard estimations in the best possible way from a scientific point of view, which means selecting the "best" available data, adopting sound theoretical models, making use of rigorous methods… What is outlined here, is that this is an insufficient minimalistic position, since it overlooks the basic socio-political and therefore practical value of the hazard-analysis final products. In other words, if one views hazard assessment as a production process leading from data and theories (raw data and production means) to hazard maps (products), the criterion to judge whether it is good or bad needs also to include the usability factor. Seismic and tsunami hazard reports and maps are products that should be usable, which means that they should meet user needs and requirements, and therefore they should be evaluated according to how much they are clearly understandable to, and appropriate for, making-decision users. In the traditional view of a science serving the society, one could represent the interaction

  18. Arguing for a multi-hazard mapping program in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, Martin; Neil, Stapleton

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes efforts to implement a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program, and will explore the challenges associated with this process. Newfoundland and Labrador is on the eastern edge of North America, has a large land area (405,212 km2) and a small population (510,000; 2009 estimate). The province currently has no legislative framework to control development in hazardous areas, but recent landslides in the communities of Daniel's Harbour and Trout River, both of which forced the relocation of residents, emphasize the need for action. There are two factors which confirm the need for a natural hazard mapping program: the documented history of natural disasters, and the future potential impacts of climate change. Despite being relatively far removed from the impacts of earthquake and volcanic activity, Newfoundland and Labrador has a long history of natural disasters. Rockfall, landslide, avalanche and flood events have killed at least 176 people over the past 225 years, many in their own homes. Some of the fatalities resulted from the adjacency of homes to places of employment, and of communities and roads to steep slopes. Others were likely the result of chance, and were thus unavoidable. Still others were the result of poor planning, albeit unwitting. Increasingly however, aesthetics have replaced pragmatism as a selection criterion for housing developments, with residential construction being contemplated for many coastal areas. The issue is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, which while not a universal bane for the Province, will likely result in rising sea level and enhanced coastal erosion. Much of the Province's coastline is receding at up to 30 cm (and locally higher) per year. Sea level is anticipated to rise by 70cm to over 100 cm by 2099, based on IPCC predictions, plus the effects of enhanced ice sheet melting, plus (or minus) continued local isostatic adjustment. The history of geological disasters, coupled with pressures on

  19. Implementation of numerical simulations for rockfall hazard mapping in the Norddal municipality, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugsi Molina, Freddy Xavier; Oppikofer, Thierry; Otterå, Solveig; Hermanns, Reginald; Taurisano, Andrea; Wasrud, Jaran; Are Jensen, Odd; Rødseth Kvakland, Marte

    2013-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) are implementing a nationwide program to systematically produce hazard maps for rockfalls, debris flows and snow avalanches in steep terrains. Activities during this program mapping are being carried out by both institutions, and for some areas, outsourced to the private sector. The results presented in this contribution focus on the rockfall component only, and are part of the hazard mapping activities carried out by NGU. Results from all parties involved will further lead in future, in combination with the components on debris flows and snow avalanches, to the preparation of guidelines for landslide hazard mapping. Those will be presented and recommended for the use of private consultants that work on municipality level. The first goal of the project is the preparation of hazard maps for critical areas where a large number of people are exposed to the threat of such type of mass movements. Results from a pilot area in Sylte (Norddal municipality) were presented in the EGU general assembly in 2012. The main objective of this contribution is to present the first finished rockfall hazard maps generated by NGU during the execution of the program. The results presented in this contribution were obtained for the Norddal municipality (Møre og Romsdal county). The area was selected based on the hazard mapping plan of Norway published in 2011, where Norddal is considered a priority area. The area is located in a valley over-steepened by glacial erosion that is characterized by high cliffs of medium to coarse-grained quartz-dioritic to granitic gneisses of Proterozoic age. Multiple scree deposits product of older and recent rockfall activity can be seen along the bottom at both valley flanks. Sylte, the main locality in the Norddal municipality, is located at the valley outlet to the fjord. Several other smaller localities are found along the valley. A

  20. Land subsidence susceptibility and hazard mapping: the case of Amyntaio Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzampoglou, P.; Loupasakis, C.

    2017-09-01

    Landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping has been applying for more than 20 years succeeding the assessment of the landslide risk and the mitigation the phenomena. On the contrary, equivalent maps aiming to study and mitigate land subsidence phenomena caused by the overexploitation of the aquifers are absent from the international literature. The current study focuses at the Amyntaio basin, located in West Macedonia at Florina prefecture. As proved by numerous studies the wider area has been severely affected by the overexploitation of the aquifers, caused by the mining and the agricultural activities. The intensive ground water level drop has triggered extensive land subsidence phenomena, especially at the perimeter of the open pit coal mine operating at the site, causing damages to settlements and infrastructure. The land subsidence susceptibility and risk maps were produced by applying the semi-quantitative WLC (Weighted Linear Combination) method, especially calibrated for this particular catastrophic event. The results were evaluated by using detailed field mapping data referring to the spatial distribution of the surface ruptures caused by the subsidence. The high correlation between the produced maps and the field mapping data, have proved the great value of the maps and of the applied technique on the management and the mitigation of the phenomena. Obviously, these maps can be safely used by decision-making authorities for the future urban safety development.

  1. Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear installations. It supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The present publication provides guidance and recommends procedures for the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. It supersedes Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3 (2002). In this publication, the following was taken into account: the need for seismic hazard curves and ground motion spectra for the probabilistic safety assessment of external events for new and existing nuclear installations; feedback of information from IAEA reviews of seismic safety studies for nuclear installations performed over the previous decade; collective knowledge gained from recent significant earthquakes; and new approaches in methods of analysis, particularly in the areas of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and strong motion simulation. In the evaluation of a site for a nuclear installation, engineering solutions will generally be available to mitigate, by means of certain design features, the potential vibratory effects of earthquakes. However, such solutions cannot always be demonstrated to be adequate for mitigating the effects of phenomena of significant permanent ground displacement such as surface faulting, subsidence, ground collapse or fault creep. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on evaluating seismic hazards at a nuclear installation site and, in particular, on how to determine: (a) the vibratory ground motion hazards, in order to establish the design basis ground motions and other relevant parameters for both new and existing nuclear installations; and (b) the potential for fault displacement and the rate of fault displacement that could affect the feasibility of the site or the safe operation of the installation at

  2. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

  3. Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near

  4. 2014 Update of the Pacific Northwest portion of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Petersen, Mark; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Sherrod, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the earthquake characterization were changed for the Pacific Northwest portion of the 2014 update of the national seismic hazard maps, reflecting recent scientific findings. New logic trees were developed for the recurrence parameters of M8-9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and for the eastern edge of their rupture zones. These logic trees reflect recent findings of additional M8 CSZ earthquakes using offshore deposits of turbidity flows and onshore tsunami deposits and subsidence. These M8 earthquakes each rupture a portion of the CSZ and occur in the time periods between M9 earthquakes that have an average recurrence interval of about 500 years. The maximum magnitude was increased for deep intraslab earthquakes. An areal source zone to account for the possibility of deep earthquakes under western Oregon was expanded. The western portion of the Tacoma fault was added to the hazard maps.

  5. Update of map the volcanic hazard in the Ceboruco volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Camarena-Garcia, M. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Ceboruco Volcano (21° 7.688 N, 104° 30.773 W) is located in the northwestern part of the Tepic-Zacoalco graben. Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their VEI and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed during the first cycle. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome built up in the interior of the caldera. The dome collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by the andesitic lava flows of the nineteenth century located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. Actually, moderate fumarolic activity occurs in the upper part of the volcano showing temperatures ranging between 20° and 120°C. Some volcanic high frequency tremors have also been registered near the edifice. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 1998, where we identify with SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east sides of the Ceboruco volcano. The population inhabiting the area is 70,224 people in 2010, concentrated in 107 localities and growing at an annual rate of 0.37%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by highway, high road, railroad, and the construction of new highway to Puerto Vallarta, which is built in the southeast sector of the volcano and electrical infrastructure that connect the Cajon and Yesca Dams to Guadalajara city. The most important economic activity in the area is agriculture, with crops of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), corn, and jamaica

  6. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at El Chichón volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel; Ramos-Hernández, Silvia; Jiménez-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-05-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichón Volcano in southeastern Mexico had a strong social and environmental impact. The eruption resulted in the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico, causing about 2,000 casualties, displacing thousands, and producing severe economic losses. Even when some villages were relocated after the 1982 eruption, many people still live and work in the vicinities of the volcano and may be affected in the case of a new eruption. The hazard map of El Chichón volcano (Macías et al., 2008) comprises pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic surges, lahars and ash fall but not ballistic projectiles, which represent an important threat to people, infrastructure and vegetation in the case of an eruption. In fact, the fatalities reported in the first stage of the 1982 eruption were caused by roof collapse induced by ashfall and lithic ballistic projectiles. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for volcanic ballistic projectiles during volcanic eruptions is applied to El Chichón volcano. Different scenarios are defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with ballistic projectiles ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of the projectiles observed in the field. The maximum ranges expected for the ballistics in the different explosive scenarios defined for El Chichón volcano are presented in a ballistic hazard map which complements the published hazard map. These maps assist the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  7. Fault specific GIS based seismic hazard maps for the Attica region, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannakis, G.; Papanikolaou, I. D.; Roberts, G.

    2018-04-01

    Traditional seismic hazard assessment methods are based on the historical seismic records for the calculation of an annual probability of exceedance for a particular ground motion level. A new fault-specific seismic hazard assessment method is presented, in order to address problems related to the incompleteness and the inhomogeneity of the historical records and to obtain higher spatial resolution of hazard. This method is applied to the region of Attica, which is the most densely populated area in Greece, as nearly half of the country's population lives in Athens and its surrounding suburbs, in the Greater Athens area. The methodology is based on a database of 24 active faults that could cause damage to Attica in case of seismic rupture. This database provides information about the faults slip rates, lengths and expected magnitudes. The final output of the method is four fault-specific seismic hazard maps, showing the recurrence of expected intensities for each locality. These maps offer a high spatial resolution, as they consider the surface geology. Despite the fact that almost half of the Attica region lies on the lowest seismic risk zone according to the official seismic hazard zonation of Greece, different localities have repeatedly experienced strong ground motions during the last 15 kyrs. Moreover, the maximum recurrence for each intensity occurs in different localities across Attica. Highest recurrence for intensity VII (151-156 times over 15 kyrs, or up to a 96 year return period) is observed in the central part of the Athens basin. The maximum intensity VIII recurrence (115 times over 15 kyrs, or up to a 130 year return period) is observed in the western part of Attica, while the maximum intensity IX (73-77/15 kyrs, or a 195 year return period) and X (25-29/15 kyrs, or a 517 year return period) recurrences are observed near the South Alkyonides fault system, which dominates the strong ground motions hazard in the western part of the Attica mainland.

  8. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  9. Probabilistic assessment of the seismic hazard for eastern United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.; Bernreuter, D.; Mensing, R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the seismic hazard characterization of the Eastern US project, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was to develop a methodology and data bases to estimate the seismic hazard at all the plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains. A summary of important conclusions reached in this multi year study is presented in this paper. The magnitude and role of the uncertainty in the hazard estimates is emphasized in regard of the intended final use of the results

  10. Sealed magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance probe and process for spectroscopy of hazardous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Herman M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Townsend, Mark R.; Ewing, James R.

    2016-06-14

    A magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is described that includes double containment enclosures configured to seal and contain hazardous samples for analysis. The probe is of a modular design that ensures containment of hazardous samples during sample analysis while preserving spin speeds for superior NMR performance and convenience of operation.

  11. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear and...

  12. Global river flood hazard maps: hydraulic modelling methods and appropriate uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Samuel; Smith, Helen; Molloy, James

    2014-05-01

    Flood hazard is not well understood or documented in many parts of the world. Consequently, the (re-)insurance sector now needs to better understand where the potential for considerable river flooding aligns with significant exposure. For example, international manufacturing companies are often attracted to countries with emerging economies, meaning that events such as the 2011 Thailand floods have resulted in many multinational businesses with assets in these regions incurring large, unexpected losses. This contribution addresses and critically evaluates the hydraulic methods employed to develop a consistent global scale set of river flood hazard maps, used to fill the knowledge gap outlined above. The basis of the modelling approach is an innovative, bespoke 1D/2D hydraulic model (RFlow) which has been used to model a global river network of over 5.3 million kilometres. Estimated flood peaks at each of these model nodes are determined using an empirically based rainfall-runoff approach linking design rainfall to design river flood magnitudes. The hydraulic model is used to determine extents and depths of floodplain inundation following river bank overflow. From this, deterministic flood hazard maps are calculated for several design return periods between 20-years and 1,500-years. Firstly, we will discuss the rationale behind the appropriate hydraulic modelling methods and inputs chosen to produce a consistent global scaled river flood hazard map. This will highlight how a model designed to work with global datasets can be more favourable for hydraulic modelling at the global scale and why using innovative techniques customised for broad scale use are preferable to modifying existing hydraulic models. Similarly, the advantages and disadvantages of both 1D and 2D modelling will be explored and balanced against the time, computer and human resources available, particularly when using a Digital Surface Model at 30m resolution. Finally, we will suggest some

  13. Developing a scientific procedure for community based hazard mapping and risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, M.

    2011-12-01

    As an international exchange student from the Geological Sciences Department at San Diego State University (SDSU), I joined the KKN-PPM program at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in July 2011 for 12 days (July 4th to July 16th) of its two month duration (July 4th to August 25th). The KKN-PPM group I was attached was designated 154 and was focused in Plosorejo Village, Karanganyar, Kerjo, Central Java, Indonesia. The mission of KKN-PPM 154 was to survey Plosorejo village for existing landslides, to generate a simple hazard susceptibility map that can be understood by local villagers, and then to begin dissemination of that map into the community. To generate our susceptibility map we first conducted a geological survey of the existing landslides in the field study area, with a focus on determining landslide triggers and gauging areas for susceptibility for future landslides. The methods for gauging susceptibility included lithological observation, the presence of linear cracking, visible loss of structural integrity in structures such as villager homes, as well as collaboration with local residents and with the local rescue and response team. There were three color distinctions used in representing susceptibility which were green, where there is no immediate danger of landslide damage; orange, where transportation routes are at risk of being disrupted by landslides; and red, where imminent landslide potential puts a home in direct danger. The landslide inventory and susceptibility data was compiled into digital mediums such as CorelDraw, ArcGIS and Google Earth. Once a technical map was generated, we presented it to the village leadership for confirmation and modification based on their experience. Finally, we began to use the technical susceptibility map to draft evacuation routes and meeting points in the event of landslides, as well as simple susceptibility maps that can be understood and utilized by local villagers. Landslide mitigation

  14. Terrain classification and land hazard mapping in Kalsi-Chakrata area (Garhwal Himalaya), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Vishnu D.; Litoria, Pradeep K.

    Terrain classification and land system mapping of a part of the Garhwal Himalaya (India) have been used to provide a base map for land hazard evaluation, with special reference to landslides and other mass movements. The study was based on MSS images, aerial photographs and 1:50,000 scale maps, followed by detailed field-work. The area is composed of two groups of rocks: well exposed sedimentary Precambrian formations in the Himalayan Main Boundary Thrust Belt and the Tertiary molasse deposits of the Siwaliks. Major tectonic boundaries were taken as the natural boundaries of land systems. A physiographic terrain classification included slope category, forest cover, occurrence of landslides, seismicity and tectonic activity in the area.

  15. Public distrust and hazard management success at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenemser, C.

    1987-01-01

    Based on experience gained while serving a public oversight commission appointed by the governor of Colorado, hazard management at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is reviewed. Specific reference is made to the plant's history of controversy, its defense-in-depth strategy of hazard control, occupational health issues, public exposure to plutonium, and the assessment of low-probability, high-consequence risks. This leads to the conclusion that Rocky flats is, by any objective standard, a hazard management success. It follows that public distrust of Rocky Flats arises as much from fear and loathing of nuclear weapons themselves as from the manufacturing process by which they are made

  16. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  17. 48 CFR 952.250-70 - Nuclear hazards indemnity agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any subcontractor or suppliers thereto) for activities associated with Princeton Plasma Physics... language, for those contracts: “() This indemnity agreement shall be applicable with respect to nuclear...

  18. Boson mapping and the microscopic collective nuclear Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobes, J.; Ivanova, S.P.; Dzholos, R.V.; Pedrosa, R.

    1990-01-01

    Starting with the mapping of the quadrupole collective states in the fermion space onto the boson space, the fermion nuclear problem is transformed into the boson one. The boson images of the bifermion operators and of the fermion Hamiltonian are found. Recurrence relations are used to obtain approximately the norm matrix which appears in the boson-fermion mapping. The resulting boson Hamiltonian contains terms which go beyond the ordinary SU(6) symmetry Hamiltonian of the interacting boson model. Calculations, however, suggest that on the phenomenological level the differences between the mapped Hamiltonian and the SU(6) Hamiltonian are not too important. 18 refs.; 2 figs

  19. Landslides in Nicaragua - Mapping, Inventory, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Reduction, and Forecasting Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.; Muñoz, A.; Kjekstad, O.

    2009-04-01

    access, manage, update and distribute in a short time to all sectors and users; and finally, the need of a comprehensive understanding of landslide processes. Many efforts have been made in the last 10 years to gain a more comprehensive and predictive understanding of landslide processes in Nicaragua. Since 1998, landslide inventory GIS based maps have been produced in different areas of the country, as part of international and multidisciplinary development projects. Landslide susceptibility and hazard maps are available now at INETEŔs Website for all municipalities of the country. The insights on landslide hazard have been transmitted to governmental agencies, local authorities, NGÓs, international agencies to be used in measures for risk reduction. A massive application example was the integration of hazard assessment studies in a large house building program in Nicaragua. Hazards of landslides, and other dangerous phenomena, were evaluated in more than 90 house building projects, each with 50 - 200 houses to be build, sited mainly in rural areas of the country. For more than 7000 families, this program could finally assure that their new houses were build in safe areas. Attempts have been made to develop a strategy for early warning of landslides in Nicaragua. First approaches relied on precipitation gauges with satellite based telemetry which were installed in some Nicaraguan volcanoes where lahars occur frequently. The occurrence of lahars in certain gullies could be detected by seismic stations. A software system gave acoustic alarm at INETEŔs Monitoring Centre when certain trigger levels of the accumulated precipitation were reached. The monitoring and early warning for all areas under risk would have required many rain gauges. A new concept is tested which uses near real time precipitation estimates from NOAA meteorological satellite data. A software system sends out alarm messages if strong or long lasting rains are observed over certain landslide "hot spots

  20. Internet map of the Hungarian nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenyei, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The increasing role of Internet in the dissemination of information cannot be questioned. The organisations dealing with public information have to face with this challenge. New methods and ways are needed in order to effectively use this opportunity. An effective communication requires certain knowledge on the characteristics of the target group. The present situation on the Internet use in Hungary has been studied by a number of public opinion polls. In Europe Hungary is the eleventh in the row concerning the population percentage of Internet users. At the same time it is hard to define the exact number as it is continuously increasing. From the public opinion polls it can be seen that about 49 % of active Internet users, about 37 percent seek for information on the Internet. The organisations playing role in nuclear field includes nuclear facilities, research institutes, regulatory bodies as well as civil associations. Almost all of them realised the importance of the appearance on the Internet and have their web site. Among the web-sites of the Hungarian nuclear facilities the new home page of the Paks NPP (www.npp.hu) is especially well designed and worth to visit. The Atomic Energy Research Institute operates the 10 MW Budapest Research Reactor. The main features of the reactor can be found on the web site of the institute (www.kfki.hu/~aekihp/). Information about the research possibilities of the training reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Technical University of Budapest is provided on the web site (www.reak.bme.hu). The web site of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (www.haea.gov.hu) has been renewed recently. Certainly, the list of the web sites of the Hungarian organisations active in nuclear field cannot be complete as it is a continuously evolving area. Nevertheless one can see that the players realised the importance of the challenge given by the Internet. While considerable effort is needed to maintain and refresh the web site

  1. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  2. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  3. Combination of UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry to assess rapid glacier evolution and map glacier hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Davide; Scaioni, Marco; Corti, Manuel; D'Agata, Carlo; Azzoni, Roberto Sergio; Cernuschi, Massimo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina Adele

    2018-04-01

    Tourists and hikers visiting glaciers all year round face hazards such as sudden terminus collapses, typical of such a dynamically evolving environment. In this study, we analyzed the potential of different survey techniques to analyze hazards of the Forni Glacier, an important geosite located in Stelvio Park (Italian Alps). We carried out surveys in the 2016 ablation season and compared point clouds generated from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) survey, close-range photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). To investigate the evolution of glacier hazards and evaluate the glacier thinning rate, we also used UAV data collected in 2014 and a digital elevation model (DEM) created from an aerial photogrammetric survey of 2007. We found that the integration between terrestrial and UAV photogrammetry is ideal for mapping hazards related to the glacier collapse, while TLS is affected by occlusions and is logistically complex in glacial terrain. Photogrammetric techniques can therefore replace TLS for glacier studies and UAV-based DEMs hold potential for becoming a standard tool in the investigation of glacier thickness changes. Based on our data sets, an increase in the size of collapses was found over the study period, and the glacier thinning rates went from 4.55 ± 0.24 m a-1 between 2007 and 2014 to 5.20 ± 1.11 m a-1 between 2014 and 2016.

  4. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  5. Documentation for the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter M.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Field, Edward; Chen, Rui; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Luco, Nico; Wheeler, Russell L.; Williams, Robert A.; Olsen, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    The national seismic hazard maps for the conterminous United States have been updated to account for new methods, models, and data that have been obtained since the 2008 maps were released (Petersen and others, 2008). The input models are improved from those implemented in 2008 by using new ground motion models that have incorporated about twice as many earthquake strong ground shaking data and by incorporating many additional scientific studies that indicate broader ranges of earthquake source and ground motion models. These time-independent maps are shown for 2-percent and 10-percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for peak horizontal ground acceleration as well as 5-hertz and 1-hertz spectral accelerations with 5-percent damping on a uniform firm rock site condition (760 meters per second shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m, VS30). In this report, the 2014 updated maps are compared with the 2008 version of the maps and indicate changes of plus or minus 20 percent over wide areas, with larger changes locally, caused by the modifications to the seismic source and ground motion inputs.

  6. The municipal districts and the hazardous and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    The contamination of soil, water, air and flora due to increasing of hazardous wastes and population is discussed; the classification of wastes is analysed; the partition of competence in environmental area according to the constitution is explained; solutions to adjust industrial development with preservation of environment are suggested [pt

  7. Multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods research of nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Handing; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Weidong; Lei, Dina

    2017-01-01

    2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant severe accident was caused by both earthquake and tsunami, which results in large amount of radioactive nuclides release. That accident has caused the radioactive contamination on the surrounding environment. Although this accident probability is extremely small, once such an accident happens that is likely to release a lot of radioactive materials into the environment, and cause radiation contamination. Therefore, studying accidents consequences is important and essential to improve nuclear power plant design and management. Level 3 PSA methods of nuclear power plant can be used to analyze radiological consequences, and quantify risk to the public health effects around nuclear power plants. Based on multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods studies of nuclear power plant, and the description of the multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA technology roadmap and important technical elements, as well as taking a coastal nuclear power plant as the reference site, we analyzed the impact of off-site consequences of nuclear power plant severe accidents caused by multiple external hazards. At last we discussed the impact of off-site consequences probabilistic risk studies and its applications under multiple external hazards compound conditions, and explained feasibility and reasonableness of emergency plans implementation.

  8. Compositions of nuclear maps with vector measures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of the compositions of nuclear maps, between two locally convex spaces, with vector measures and measurable functions are investigated. The composition with a vector measure has improved variational properties and a precompact range. The measurability and integrability properties of the composition of ...

  9. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  10. The hazards of nuclear power: myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (social problems of modern large scale technology); anxieties concerning nuclear power (biological radiation effects; background radiation; correlation between dose and cancer mortality; difficulty of arriving at reliable conclusions); discharge policy at Sellafield reprocessing plant (radioactive waste discharged to the sea - 'critical groups' - reduction of discharge and cost); reactor accidents (coolant failure and effects; protective systems; discussion of cases; improving safety, and the cost); proliferation of nuclear weapons (U235 - description of enrichment methods; tritium for thermonuclear weapons; Pu; attempts to prevent proliferation); consequences (uncertainties; activities against nuclear power; radioactive waste disposal; social and political aspects). (U.K.)

  11. Layout of nuclear power plants against external hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetterlin, L.

    1975-03-01

    The present paper has the purpose to show the risk of operating a nuclear power plant that is not protected against an airplane crash. At first, considerations of probabilities are made and numerical data for various categories of air traffic are given. A general consideration of the possible extent of damage after an airplane impact upon an unprotected nuclear power plant is followed by a discussion of the risk philosophy which is based upon the Farmer-diagrams. Furthermore the facts are specified which led to the decision that nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany must be protected against an airplane crash. (orig.) [de

  12. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment on nuclear power plant site evaluation accordance on DS 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant site evaluation should conduct the hazard evaluation on tsunami. Global climate changes and particularly extreme meteorology and hydrology phenomena have an impact on the structure, systems and important components related to safety. Therefore, IAEA makes efforts to revise the IAEA Safety Standard Series NS-G 3.4, Meteorological Events in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants and IAEA safety standard series NS-G 3.5 Flood Hazard For Nuclear Power Plants On Coastal And River Sites, in order to provide protection against the public and the environment safety due to operation of nuclear power plants. There are two methods used in assessing tsunami hazard, probabilistic and deterministic methods. In the tsunami hazard assessment, some necessary information and data should be obtained to determine the basic design of tsunami hazard during designing nuclear power plants, especially the cooling system design. Flooding caused tsunami must be evaluated to determine the site protection system. Furthermore, There must be an evaluation on either coincident event or meteorological simultaneously tsunami event that caused the worst effect on the site. Therefore, the protection of the site from extreme tsunami can be planned. (author)

  14. Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, John C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations. Mapping with a high degree of precision at scales as large as 1:1500 required corrections that often are not considered in marine mapping. Corrections were applied to the bathymetric data for location of the echo- sounding transducer relative to the navigation transponder on the ship and for transducer depth, speed of sound, and tidal variations. Sidescan sonar, single-channel seismic reflection, and scuba and submersible data were correlated in depth and map position with the bathymetric data to provide a precise, internally consistent data set. The multichannel and refraction surveys were conducted independently but compared well with bathymetry. Examples drawn from processing the bathymetric, sidescan sonar, and single- channel reflection data help illustrate problems and procedures in precision mapping.

  15. Mapping liquid hazardous waste migration in ground water with electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic conductivity measurements were used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements were obtained to prepare a conductivity map of the site which includes an area of 12 ha (30 acres). Conductivity measurements in the area correlate with specific conductance measurements of surface and ground water samples. Contouring of the conductivity data located contaminant migration pathways in the subsurface. A complex contaminant plume was defined by the conductivity survey. Conductivity values obtained reflected anisotropic characteristics related to local bedrock structure. Anisotropic characteristics of measurements and the use of different instrument configurations indicated semiquantitatively the depth of the high conductivity zone and the direction of flow. 4 references, 2 figures

  16. Use of electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements to map liquid hazardous waste migration in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.

    1983-11-01

    Electromagnetic conductivity measurements have been used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. An area of approximately 12 ha (30 acres) was surveyed. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements were obtained to prepare a conductivity map of the site. Conductivity measurments in the area correlate with specific conductance measurements of surface and groundwater samples. Contouring of the conductivity data showed the precise location of contaminant migration pathways in the subsurface. A complex contaminant plume was defined by the conductivity survey. Conductivity values obtained reflected anisotropic characteristics related to local bedrock structure. Anisotropy characteristics and the use of different instrument configurations indicated semiquantitatively the depth of the high conductivity zone and the direction of flow

  17. Technology Road-map - Nuclear Energy. 2015 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssin, Didier; Dujardin, Thierry; Cameron, Ron; Tam, Cecilia; Paillere, Henri; Baroni, Marco; Bromhead, Amos; Baritaud, Manual; Cometto, Marco; Gaghen, Rebecca; Herzog, Antoine; Remme, Uwe; Urso, Maria-Elena; Vance, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Since the release in 2010 of Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy (IEA/NEA, 2010), a number of events have had a significant impact on the global energy sector and on the outlook for nuclear energy. They include the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March 2011, the global financial and economic crises that hit many industrialised countries during the period 2008-10 and failings in both electricity and CO 2 markets. Despite these additional challenges, nuclear energy still remains a proven low-carbon source of base-load electricity, and many countries have reaffirmed the importance of nuclear energy within their countries' energy strategies. To achieve the goal of limiting global temperature increases to just 2 deg. C by the end of the century, a halving of global energy-related emissions by 2050 will be needed. A wide range of low-carbon energy technologies will be needed to support this transition, including nuclear energy. This edition of the nuclear road-map prepared jointly by the IEA and NEA take into account recent challenges facing the development of this technology. The 2015 edition of the Nuclear Energy Technology Road-map aims to: Outline the current status of nuclear technology development and the need for additional R and D to address increased safety requirements and improved economics. Provide an updated vision of the role that nuclear energy could play in a low-carbon energy system, taking into account changes in nuclear policy in various countries, as well as the current economics of nuclear and other low-carbon electricity technologies. Identify barriers and actions needed to accelerate the development of nuclear technologies to meet the Road-map vision. Share lessons learnt and good practices in nuclear safety and regulation, front- and back-end fuel cycle practices, construction, decommissioning, financing, training, capacity building and communication. Key findings: Nuclear power is the largest source of low

  18. Irrigation salinity hazard assessment and risk mapping in the lower Macintyre Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyi; Prochazka, Melissa J; Triantafilis, John

    2016-05-01

    In the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia, secondary soil salinization occurs due to excessive deep drainage and the presence of shallow saline water tables. In order to understand the cause and best management, soil and vadose zone information is necessary. This type of information has been generated in the Toobeah district but owing to the state border an inconsistent methodology was used. This has led to much confusion from stakeholders who are unable to understand the ambiguity of the results in terms of final overall risk of salinization. In this research, a digital soil mapping method that employs various ancillary data is presented. Firstly, an electromagnetic induction survey using a Geonics EM34 and EM38 was used to characterise soil and vadose zone stratigraphy. From the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) collected, soil sampling locations were selected and with laboratory analysis carried out to determine average (2-12m) clay and EC of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe). EM34 ECa, land surface parameters derived from a digital elevation model and measured soil data were used to establish multiple linear regression models, which allowed for mapping of various hazard factors, including clay and ECe. EM38 ECa data were calibrated to deep drainage obtained from Salt and Leaching Fraction (SaLF) modelling of soil data. Expert knowledge and indicator kriging were used to determine critical values where the salinity hazard factors were likely to contribute to a shallow saline water table (i.e., clay ≤35%; ECe>2.5dS/m, and deep drainage >100mm/year). This information was combined to produce an overall salinity risk map for the Toobeah district using indicator kriging. The risk map shows potential salinization areas and where detailed information is required and where targeted research can be conducted to monitor soil conditions and water table heights and determine best management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining Coastal Hazards Risk Perception to Enhance Local Mitigation Planning through a Participatory Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, M.; Braud, D.; Lambeth, T.; Biber, P.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal community leaders, government officials, and natural resource managers must be able to accurately assess and predict a given coastal landscape's sustainability and/or vulnerability as coastal habitat continues to undergo rapid and dramatic changes associated with natural and anthropogenic activities such as accelerated relative sea level rise (SLR). To help address this information need, a multi-disciplinary project team conducted Sea Grant sponsored research in Louisiana and Mississippi with traditional ecosystem users and natural resource managers to determine a method for producing localized vulnerability and sustainability maps for projected SLR and storm surge impacts, and determine how and whether the results of such an approach can provide more useful information to enhance hazard mitigation planning. The goals of the project are to develop and refine SLR visualization tools for local implementation in areas experiencing subsidence and erosion, and discover the different ways stakeholder groups evaluate risk and plan mitigation strategies associated with projected SLR and storm surge. Results from physical information derived from data and modeling of subsidence, erosion, engineered restoration and coastal protection features, historical land loss, and future land projections under SLR are integrated with complimentary traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) offered by the collaborating local ecosystem users for these assessments. The data analysis involves interviewing stakeholders, coding the interviews for themes, and then converting the themes into vulnerability and sustainability factors. Each factor is weighted according to emphasis by the TEK experts and number of experts who mention it to determine which factors are the highest priority. The priority factors are then mapped with emphasis on the perception of contributing to local community vulnerability or sustainability to SLR and storm surge. The maps are used by the collaborators to benefit

  20. French practice in the area of seismic hazard assessment on nuclear facility sites and related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1986-06-01

    The methodology put into practice in the analysis of seismic hazard on the site of a nuclear facility relies upon a deterministic approach and endeavors to account for the particularities of every site considered insofar as available data and techniques allow. The calculation of a seismic reference motion for use in the facilities' design calls upon two basic sets of data. Regional seismicity over the past millennium, from historical sources, revised while preparing the seismotectonic map of France, is fundamental to this analysis. It is completed by instrumental data from the last quarter century. A collection of strong-motion accelerograph data from seismic areas worldwide reflects a variety of source characteristics and site conditions. A critical overview of current practice in France and elsewhere highlights shortcomings and areas of particular need both in experimental data and in methodology, and namely the scarcity of near-field data, the predominance of California records, and inaccurate approaches to integrating soil effects into ground-motion calculations. 16 refs

  1. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  2. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  3. SOME RECENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE UK'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY TO ENABLE HAZARD CHARACTERISATION FOR NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-11

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR&D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  4. Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Kyu Sein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of flood frequency analysis integrating with 1D Hydraulic model (HECRAS and Geographic Information System (GIS to prepare flood hazard maps of different return periods in Ayeyarwady River at Mandalay City in Myanmar. Gumbel’s distribution was used to calculate the flood peak of different return periods, namely, 10 years, 20 years, 50 years, and 100 years. The flood peak from frequency analysis were input into HEC-RAS model to find the corresponding flood level and extents in the study area. The model results were used in integrating with ArcGIS to generate flood plain maps. Flood depths and extents have been identified through flood plain maps. Analysis of 100 years return period flood plain map indicated that 157.88 km2 with the percentage of 17.54% is likely to be inundated. The predicted flood depth ranges varies from greater than 0 to 24 m in the flood plains and on the river. The range between 3 to 5 m were identified in the urban area of Chanayetharzan, Patheingyi, and Amarapua Townships. The highest inundated area was 85 km2 in the Amarapura Township.

  5. Collaborative community hazard exposure mapping: Distant Early Warning radar sites in Alaska's North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M.

    2015-12-01

    A method to produce hazard exposure maps that are developed in collaboration with local coastal communities is the focus of this research. Typically efforts to map community exposure to climate threats over large areas have limited consideration of local perspectives about associated risks, constraining their utility for local management. This problem is especially acute in remote locations such as the Arctic where there are unique vulnerabilities to coastal threats that can be fully understood only through inclusion of community stakeholders. Through collaboration with community members, this study identifies important coastal assets and places and surveys local perspectives of exposure to climate threats along Alaska's vast North Slope coastline spanning multiple municipalities. To model physical exposure, the study adapts the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) coastal vulnerability index (CVI) to the Arctic context by incorporating the effects of open water distance determined by sea ice extent, and assigning CVI values to coastal assets and places according to direction and proximity. The study found that in addition to concerns about exposed municipal and industrial assets, North Slope communities viewed exposure of traditional activity sites as presenting a particular risk for communities. Highly exposed legacy Cold War Distant Early Warning Line sites are of particular concern with impacts ranging from financial risk to contamination of sensitive coastal marine environments. This research demonstrates a method to collaboratively map community exposure to coastal climate threats to better understand local risks and produce locally usable exposure maps.

  6. Distributed GIS for automated natural hazard zonation mapping Internet-SMS warning towards sustainable society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanjan Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, open systems are needed for real time analysis and warnings on geo-hazards and over time can be achieved using Open Source Geographical Information System (GIS-based platform such as GeoNode which is being contributed to by developers around the world. To develop on an open source platform is a very vital component for better disaster information management as far as spatial data infrastructures are concerned and this would be extremely vital when huge databases are to be created and consulted regularly for city planning at different scales, particularly satellite images and maps of locations. There is a big need for spatially referenced data creation, analysis, and management. Some of the salient points that this research would be able to definitely contribute with GeoNode, being an open source platform, are facilitating the creation, sharing, and collaborative use of geospatial data. The objective is development of an automated natural hazard zonation system with Internet-short message service (SMS warning utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. A concept of developing an internet-resident geospatial geohazard warning system has been put forward in this research, which can communicate alerts via SMS. There has been a need to develop an automated integrated system to categorize hazard and issue warning that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled warning system exists which can disseminate warning after hazard evaluation at one go and in real time. The objective of this research work has been to formalize a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-hazard warning system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. In this paper, a model of an automated geo-spatial hazard warning system has been elaborated. The functionality is to be modular in architecture having GIS-graphical user interface (GUI, input, understanding, rainfall prediction, expert, output, and warning modules. A

  7. Provenance of nuclear radioactivity radiation and hazardous health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhuja, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    This assessment has an important consideration for nuclear energy upon the creation of radioactivity being generated and mobilized through various energy agencies. The term 'Radioactivity' or the rate of nuclear decay is measured in units called 'Becquerel' (Bq), where 1 Bq= 1 event (disintegration) per second. Another commonly used unit of radioactivity is the Curie (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.70 x 10"1"0 Bq. Radiation is all around us. It is in our environment and has been since the earth was formed. As a result, life has evolved in the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation. It comes from outer space (cosmic), ground (terrestrial) and even from within our own bodies. It is in the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the state of our wellbeing. However, the entire system is related to human and human-health issues. This paper examines the empirical evidence incorporated with human-made nuclear radioactivity from nuclear energy sources, especially while maintaining the viability of radioactive mechanisms, which may cause the uncontrolled highly dangerous harmful effects of radionuclides in human body and these radiations can even damage the DNA in the cells of people when exposed to it, because it is the DNA that passes on instructions for growth and development to the next generation. This, in turn, is the paradigm for the health risks of various sources of nuclear radioactivity. (author)

  8. An Offline-Online Android Application for Hazard Event Mapping Using WebGIS Open Source Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Derron, Marc-Henri; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) plays an important role in better understanding and managing disaster risk reduction around the world. National and local government, NGOs and other stakeholders are increasingly seeking and producing data on hazards. Most of the hazard event inventories and land use mapping are based on remote sensing data, with little ground truthing, creating difficulties depending on the terrain and accessibility. Open Source WebGIS tools offer an opportunity for quicker and easier ground truthing of critical areas in order to analyse hazard patterns and triggering factors. This study presents a secure mobile-map application for hazard event mapping using Open Source WebGIS technologies such as Postgres database, Postgis, Leaflet, Cordova and Phonegap. The objectives of this prototype are: 1. An Offline-Online android mobile application with advanced Geospatial visualisation; 2. Easy Collection and storage of events information applied services; 3. Centralized data storage with accessibility by all the service (smartphone, standard web browser); 4. Improving data management by using active participation in hazard event mapping and storage. This application has been implemented as a low-cost, rapid and participatory method for recording impacts from hazard events and includes geolocation (GPS data and Internet), visualizing maps with overlay of satellite images, viewing uploaded images and events as cluster points, drawing and adding event information. The data can be recorded in offline (Android device) or online version (all browsers) and consequently uploaded through the server whenever internet is available. All the events and records can be visualized by an administrator and made public after approval. Different user levels can be defined to access the data for communicating the information. This application was tested for landslides in post-earthquake Nepal but can be used for any other type of hazards such as flood, avalanche

  9. Evaluation of fire hazard analyses for nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire safety of nuclear power plants. The publication supplements the broad concepts of Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, by providing a detailed list of the issues, and some of the limitations, to be considered when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire hazard analysis of a nuclear power plant. The publication is intended for assessors of fire hazard analyses, including regulators, independent assessors or plant assessors, and gives a broad description of the methodology to be used by operators in preparing a fire hazard analysis for their own plant. 1 fig

  10. Relative radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    1983-04-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides. However, low concentrations may become important if large quantities of coal are burnt in thermal power plants. Therefore a study was performed to determine the radioactivity in coal, in fly-ash and slag and assess the importance of radioactive emissions from thermal power plants. The results were compared to the radiological impact of nuclear power stations. Based on these data, theoretical estimates for the population living within 80km from power stations indicate that the collective dose commitments of coal-fired plants are one order of magnitude higher than those for BWR-type nuclear plants. Measurements taken in the vicinity of coal-fired plants were comparable to those for nuclear plants, i.e. within the range of variation of natural background radiation in India

  11. Analysis and GIS Mapping of Flooding Hazards on 10 May 2016, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Min Lyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10 May 2016, Guangdong Province, China, suffered a heavy rainstorm. This rainstorm flooded the whole city of Guangzhou. More than 100,000 people were affected by the flooding, in which eight people lost their lives. Subway stations, cars, and buses were submerged. In order to analyse the influential factors of this flooding, topographical characteristics were mapped using Digital Elevation Model (DEM by the Geographical Information System (GIS and meteorological conditions were statistically summarised at both the whole city level and the district level. To analyse the relationship between flood risk and urbanization, GIS was also adopted to map the effect of the subway system using the Multiple Buffer operator over the flooding distribution area. Based on the analyses, one of the significant influential factors of flooding was identified as the urbanization degree, e.g., construction of a subway system, which forms along flood-prone areas. The total economic loss due to flooding in city centers with high urbanization has become very serious. Based on the analyses, the traditional standard of severity of flooding hazards (rainfall intensity grade was modified. Rainfall intensity for severity flooding was decreased from 50 mm to 30 mm in urbanized city centers. In order to protect cities from flooding, a “Sponge City” planning approach is recommended to increase the temporary water storage capacity during heavy rainstorms. In addition, for future city management, the combined use of GIS and Building Information Modelling (BIM is recommended to evaluate flooding hazards.

  12. External hazards in reliability and risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    It is current practice in the design of nuclear power generating stations to protect against the effects of significant natural and man-made external hazards which can occur at the plant site in excess of those hazards normally considered for conventional facilities. This paper is meant to identify those postulated external hazards typically considered in nuclear facility design. The paper also attempts to fulfill the following four objectives: (1) Define the current state of the art in applying reliability and risk analysis to determine external hazard design requirements. (2) Provide a ready source of literature references applicable to probabilistic design for extreme loads. (3) Provide some quantitative probability assessment estimates of external hazards. (4) Develop exclusion criteria by which postulated external hazards can be eliminated as a design basis. Rigorous evaluation of the design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities based on principles of probability and risk analysis is just beginning. It is hoped these techniques will be used more extensively in the future to provide a more rational basis for developing design requirements. (orig.) [de

  13. Evaluation of probability and hazard in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.Ya.; Romanov, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods of evaluation of accident probability on NPP are proposed because of NPP security statistic evaluation unreliability. The conception of subjective probability for quantitative analysis of security and hazard are described. Intrepretation of probability as real faith of an expert is assumed as a basis of the conception. It is suggested to study the event uncertainty in the framework of subjective probability theory which not only permits but demands to take into account expert opinions when evaluating the probability. These subjective expert evaluations effect to a certain extent the calculation of the usual mathematical event probability. The above technique is advantageous to use for consideration of a separate experiment or random event

  14. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  15. Probabilistic tephra hazard maps for the Neapolitan area: Quantitative volcanological study of Campi Flegrei eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Troise, C.; Panizza, A.; de Natale, G.

    2008-07-01

    Tephra fall is a relevant hazard of Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy), due to the high vulnerability of Naples metropolitan area to such an event. Here, tephra derive from magmatic as well as phreatomagmatic activity. On the basis of both new and literature data on known, past eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), grain size parameters, velocity at the vent, column heights and erupted mass), and factors controlling tephra dispersion (wind velocity and direction), 2D numerical simulations of fallout dispersion and deposition have been performed for a large number of case events. A bayesian inversion has been applied to retrieve the best values of critical parameters (e.g., vertical mass distribution, diffusion coefficients, velocity at the vent), not directly inferable by volcanological study. Simulations are run in parallel on multiple processors to allow a fully probabilistic analysis, on a very large catalogue preserving the statistical proprieties of past eruptive history. Using simulation results, hazard maps have been computed for different scenarios: upper limit scenario (worst-expected scenario), eruption-range scenario, and whole-eruption scenario. Results indicate that although high hazard characterizes the Campi Flegrei caldera, the territory to the east of the caldera center, including the whole district of Naples, is exposed to high hazard values due to the dominant westerly winds. Consistently with the stratigraphic evidence of nature of past eruptions, our numerical simulations reveal that even in the case of a subplinian eruption (VEI = 3), Naples is exposed to tephra fall thicknesses of some decimeters, thereby exceeding the critical limit for roof collapse. Because of the total number of people living in Campi Flegrei and the city of Naples (ca. two million of inhabitants), the tephra fallout risk related to a plinian eruption of Campi Flegrei largely matches or exceeds the risk related to a similar eruption at Vesuvius.

  16. Considerable hazards to be expected by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1980-01-01

    The author examines the military aspects of Pu production. As reactor-Pu is applicable for nuclear weapons the civil utilization of nuclear power provides plutonium concentrations apt for military use for the goverments when closing the fuel cycle by commercial fuel reprocessing. Whether the last threshold shall be trespassed shall depend on how the political intentions of the authorities cooperate with the developments in the international area. After having illustrated the effects on the most important formations of the conflict the author concludes that a radical - utopian - solution alone can grant safety: If the whole fuel cycle is internationalized and controlled by an international authority supported by power of police. In fact, it must be expected that diplomatic and institutional solutions shall have a slower development than political risks. (HSCH) [de

  17. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: vasconv@cdtn.br; reissc@cdtn.br; aclc@cdtn.br; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: bete@feq.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  18. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Jordao, Elizabete

    2008-01-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  19. Management and deposition of nuclear, toxic and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalston, Regina Celia Reboucas; Montalvao, Renata; Nascimento, Igor; Oliveira, Maristela Aparecida de; Motta, Rondineli; Morais, Magda de; Dantas, Alberto Pinheiro

    2005-01-01

    the main guidelines of the management program of toxic, radioactive and hazardous wastes which are applicable to the graduation laboratories at the Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB) are presented. The main advantages and possibilities of applications of processes for inertization of salts of heavy metals by precipitation with sodium metasilicate solution and methods of adsorption of toxic wastes in minerals such as bentonites and silicates are discussed. In the treatment of waste, the use of effective technologies enables solid wastes to be processed and prepared in accordance with the existing rules and resolutions. The applicability of supports of polymeric resins catalyzed for moulding and final disposal of toxic wastes, previously treated and converted in the form of insoluble salts is presented. It is also suggested the use of polymeric supports for the containment of radioactive wastes

  20. High resolution global flood hazard map from physically-based hydrologic and hydraulic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnudelli, L.; Kaheil, Y.; McCollum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global flood map published online at http://www.fmglobal.com/research-and-resources/global-flood-map at 90m resolution is being used worldwide to understand flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual risk financially through flood insurance programs. The modeling system is based on a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model can be applied to large-scale flood hazard mapping thanks to several solutions that maximize its efficiency and the use of parallel computing. The hydrologic component of the modeling system is the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model. HRR simulates hydrological processes using a Green-Ampt parameterization, and is calibrated against observed discharge data from several publicly-available datasets. For inundation mapping, we use a 2D Finite-Volume Shallow-Water model with wetting/drying. We introduce here a grid Up-Scaling Technique (UST) for hydraulic modeling to perform simulations at higher resolution at global scale with relatively short computational times. A 30m SRTM is now available worldwide along with higher accuracy and/or resolution local Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in many countries and regions. UST consists of aggregating computational cells, thus forming a coarser grid, while retaining the topographic information from the original full-resolution mesh. The full-resolution topography is used for building relationships between volume and free surface elevation inside cells and computing inter-cell fluxes. This approach almost achieves computational speed typical of the coarse grids while preserving, to a significant extent, the accuracy offered by the much higher resolution available DEM. The simulations are carried out along each river of the network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs generated by HRR. Hydrographs are scaled so that the peak

  1. Fault Specific Seismic Hazard Maps as Input to Loss Reserves Calculation for Attica Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannakis, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Zimbidis, Alexandros; Roberts, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    Greece is prone to various natural disasters, such as wildfires, floods, landslides and earthquakes, due to the special environmental and geological conditions dominating in tectonic plate boundaries. Seismic is the predominant risk, in terms of damages and casualties in the Greek territory. The historical record of earthquakes in Greece has been published from various researchers, providing useful data in seismic hazard assessment of Greece. However, the completeness of the historical record in Greece, despite being one of the longest worldwide, reaches only 500 years for M ≥ 7.3 and less than 200 years for M ≥ 6.5. Considering that active faults in the area have recurrence intervals of a few hundred to several thousands of years, it is clear that many active faults have not been activated during the completeness period covered by the historical records. New Seismic Hazard Assessment methodologies tend to follow fault specific approaches where seismic sources are geologically constrained active faults, in order to address problems related to the historical records incompleteness, obtain higher spatial resolution and calculate realistic source locality distances, since seismic sources are very accurately located. Fault specific approaches provide quantitative assessments as they measure fault slip rates from geological data, providing a more reliable estimate of seismic hazard. We used a fault specific seismic hazard assessment approach for the region of Attica. The method of seismic hazard mapping from geological fault throw-rate data combined three major factors: Empirical data which combine fault rupture lengths, earthquake magnitudes and coseismic slip relationships. The radiuses of VI, VII, VIII and IX isoseismals on the Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity scale. Attenuation - amplification functions for seismic shaking on bedrock compared to basin filling sediments. We explicitly modeled 22 active faults that could affect the region of Attica, including

  2. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  3. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The practical implementation of integrated safety management for nuclear safety analysis and fire hazards analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOPY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 Mr. Joseph DiNunno of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued an approach to describe the concept of an integrated safety management program which incorporates hazard and safety analysis to address a multitude of hazards affecting the public, worker, property, and the environment. Since then the U S . Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a policy to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions can be completed while protecting the public, worker, and the environment. While the DOE and its contractors possessed a variety of processes for analyzing fire hazards at a facility, activity, and job; the outcome and assumptions of these processes have not always been consistent for similar types of hazards within the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis. Although the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis are driven by different DOE Orders and requirements, these analyses should not be entirely independent and their preparation should be integrated to ensure consistency of assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and other controls. Under the DOE policy to implement an integrated safety management system, identification of hazards must be evaluated and agreed upon to ensure that the public. the workers. and the environment are protected from adverse consequences. The DOE program and contractor management need a uniform, up-to-date reference with which to plan. budget, and manage nuclear programs. It is crucial that DOE understand the hazards and risks necessarily to authorize the work needed to be performed. If integrated safety management is not incorporated into the preparation of the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis, inconsistencies between assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and controls may occur that affect safety. Furthermore, confusion created by inconsistencies may occur in the DOE process to grant authorization of the work. In accordance with

  5. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  6. FLOOD HAZARD MAP IN THE CITY OF BATNA (ALGERIA BY HYDRAULIC MODELING APPROCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guellouh SAMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the global climatic changes that appear to influence the frequency and the intensity of floods, and whose damages are still growing; understanding the hydrological processes, their spatiotemporal setting and their extreme shape, became a paramount concern to local communities in forecasting terms. The aim of this study is to map the floods hazard using a hydraulic modeling method. In fact, using the operating Geographic Information System (GIS, would allow us to perform a more detailed spatial analysis about the extent of the flooding risk, through the approval of the hydraulic modeling programs in different frequencies. Based on the results of this analysis, decision makers can implement a strategy of risk management related to rivers overflowing through the city of Batna.

  7. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kjellgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address – in research as well as in practice – since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  8. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  9. Seismic hazard in Hawaii: High rate of large earthquakes and probabilistics ground-motion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, F.W.; Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Wesson, R.L.; Okubo, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    The seismic hazard and earthquake occurrence rates in Hawaii are locally as high as that near the most hazardous faults elsewhere in the United States. We have generated maps of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) (at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 sec, 5% critical damping) at 2% and 10% exceedance probabilities in 50 years. The highest hazard is on the south side of Hawaii Island, as indicated by the MI 7.0, MS 7.2, and MI 7.9 earthquakes, which occurred there since 1868. Probabilistic values of horizontal PGA (2% in 50 years) on Hawaii's south coast exceed 1.75g. Because some large earthquake aftershock zones and the geometry of flank blocks slipping on subhorizontal decollement faults are known, we use a combination of spatially uniform sources in active flank blocks and smoothed seismicity in other areas to model seismicity. Rates of earthquakes are derived from magnitude distributions of the modem (1959-1997) catalog of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's seismic network supplemented by the historic (1868-1959) catalog. Modern magnitudes are ML measured on a Wood-Anderson seismograph or MS. Historic magnitudes may add ML measured on a Milne-Shaw or Bosch-Omori seismograph or MI derived from calibrated areas of MM intensities. Active flank areas, which by far account for the highest hazard, are characterized by distributions with b slopes of about 1.0 below M 5.0 and about 0.6 above M 5.0. The kinked distribution means that large earthquake rates would be grossly under-estimated by extrapolating small earthquake rates, and that longer catalogs are essential for estimating or verifying the rates of large earthquakes. Flank earthquakes thus follow a semicharacteristic model, which is a combination of background seismicity and an excess number of large earthquakes. Flank earthquakes are geometrically confined to rupture zones on the volcano flanks by barriers such as rift zones and the seaward edge of the volcano, which may be expressed by a magnitude

  10. Biological hazards of radioactivity and the biological consequences of radionuclide emissions from routine operation of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stendig-Lindberg, G.

    1978-01-01

    The biological hazards of radioactivity and the biological consequences of radionuclide emissions from the routine operation of nuclear power reactors are reviewed. ICRP and Scandinavian recommendations for the limitation of annual radiation doses are presented. The contribution of environmental conditions to radiation hazard is also discussed. It is concluded that a review of the justification of nuclear power is urgently needed. (H.K.)

  11. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  12. Data assimilation of citizen collected information for real-time flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, T.; Takara, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies in data assimilation in hydrology have focused on the integration of satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data into hydrologic or land surface models. For flood predictions also, recent studies have demonstrated to assimilate remotely sensed inundation information with flood inundation models. In actual flood disaster situations, citizen collected information including local reports by residents and rescue teams and more recently tweets via social media also contain valuable information. The main interest of this study is how to effectively use such citizen collected information for real-time flood hazard mapping. Here we propose a new data assimilation technique based on pre-conducted ensemble inundation simulations and update inundation depth distributions sequentially when local data becomes available. The propose method is composed by the following two-steps. The first step is based on weighting average of preliminary ensemble simulations, whose weights are updated by Bayesian approach. The second step is based on an optimal interpolation, where the covariance matrix is calculated from the ensemble simulations. The proposed method was applied to case studies including an actual flood event occurred. It considers two situations with more idealized one by assuming continuous flood inundation depth information is available at multiple locations. The other one, which is more realistic case during such a severe flood disaster, assumes uncertain and non-continuous information is available to be assimilated. The results show that, in the first idealized situation, the large scale inundation during the flooding was estimated reasonably with RMSE effective. Nevertheless, the applications of the proposed data assimilation method demonstrated a high potential of this method for assimilating citizen collected information for real-time flood hazard mapping in the future.

  13. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Leys, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000–2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition

  14. The Making of a Tsunami Hazard Map: Lessons Learned from the TSUMAPS-NEAM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.

    2017-12-01

    Following the worldwide surge of awareness toward tsunami hazard and risk in the last decade, Europe has promoted a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon through research projects (e.g. TRANSFER, ASTARTE) and started programs for preventing the tsunami impact along the coastlines of the North-East Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected Seas (NEAM) region (e.g. the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System, NEAMTWS, coordinated by IOC/UNESCO). An indispensable tool toward long-term coastal planning and an effective design and subsequent use of TWS is the availability of a comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA). The TSUMAPS-NEAM project took the pledge of producing the first region-wide long-term homogenous PTHA map from earthquake sources. The hazard assessment was built upon state-of-the-art procedures and standards, enriched by some rather innovative/experimental approaches such as: (1) the statistical treatment of potential seismic sources, combining all the available information (seismicity, moment tensors, tectonics), and considering earthquakes occurring on major crustal faults and subduction interfaces; (2) an intensive computational approach to tsunami generation and linear propagation across the sea up to an offshore fixed depth; (3) the use of approximations for shoaling and inundation, based on local bathymetry, and for tidal stages; and (4) the exploration of several alternatives for the basic input data and their parameters which produces a number of models that are treated through an ensemble uncertainty quantification. This presentation will summarize the TSUMAPS-NEAM project goals, implementation, and achieved results, as well as the humps and bumps we run into during its development. The TSUMAPS-NEAM Project (http://www.tsumaps-neam.eu/) is co-financed by the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism, Agreement Number: ECHO/SUB/2015/718568/PREV26.

  15. Development of hydrogeological modelling approaches for assessment of consequences of hazardous accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pereverzeva, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper introduces some modeling approaches for predicting the influence of hazardous accidents at nuclear reactors on groundwater quality. Possible pathways for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants were considered to conceptualize boundary conditions for solving the subsurface radionuclides transport problems. Some approaches to incorporate physical-and-chemical interactions into transport simulators have been developed. The hydrogeological forecasts were based on numerical and semi-analytical scale-dependent models. They have been applied to assess the possible impact of the nuclear power plants designed in Russia on groundwater reservoirs

  16. Learning from Nature - Mapping of Complex Hydrological and Geomorphological Process Systems for More Realistic Modelling of Hazard-related Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Tilch, Nils

    2010-05-01

    Introduction Hydrological or geomorphological processes in nature are often very diverse and complex. This is partly due to the regional characteristics which vary over time and space, as well as changeable process-initiating and -controlling factors. Despite being aware of this complexity, such aspects are usually neglected in the modelling of hazard-related maps due to several reasons. But particularly when it comes to creating more realistic maps, this would be an essential component to consider. The first important step towards solving this problem would be to collect data relating to regional conditions which vary over time and geographical location, along with indicators of complex processes. Data should be acquired promptly during and after events, and subsequently digitally combined and analysed. Study area In June 2009, considerable damage occurred in the residential area of Klingfurth (Lower Austria) as a result of great pre-event wetness and repeatedly heavy rainfall, leading to flooding, debris flow deposit and gravitational mass movement. One of the causes is the fact that the meso-scale watershed (16 km²) of the Klingfurth stream is characterised by adverse geological and hydrological conditions. Additionally, the river system network with its discharge concentration within the residential zone contributes considerably to flooding, particularly during excessive rainfall across the entire region, as the flood peaks from different parts of the catchment area are superposed. First results of mapping Hydro(geo)logical surveys across the entire catchment area have shown that - over 600 gravitational mass movements of various type and stage have occurred. 516 of those have acted as a bed load source, while 325 mass movements had not reached the final stage yet and could thus supply bed load in the future. It should be noted that large mass movements in the initial or intermediate stage were predominately found in clayey-silty areas and weathered material

  17. Tsunami hazard maps of spanish coast at national scale from seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; González, Mauricio; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; García, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Tsunamis are a moderately frequent phenomenon in the NEAM (North East Atlantic and Mediterranean) region, and consequently in Spain, as historic and recent events have affected this area. I.e., the 1755 earthquake and tsunami affected the Spanish Atlantic coasts of Huelva and Cadiz and the 2003 Boumerdés earthquake triggered a tsunami that reached Balearic island coast in less than 45 minutes. The risk in Spain is real and, its population and tourism rate makes it vulnerable to this kind of catastrophic events. The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and the tsunami in Japan in 2011 launched the worldwide development and application of tsunami risk reduction measures that have been taken as a priority in this field. On November 20th 2015 the directive of the Spanish civil protection agency on planning under the emergency of tsunami was presented. As part of the Spanish National Security strategy, this document specifies the structure of the action plans at different levels: National, regional and local. In this sense, the first step is the proper evaluation of the tsunami hazard at National scale. This work deals with the assessment of the tsunami hazard in Spain, by means of numerical simulations, focused on the elaboration of tsunami hazard maps at National scale. To get this, following a deterministic approach, the seismic structures whose earthquakes could generate the worst tsunamis affecting the coast of Spain have been compiled and characterized. These worst sources have been propagated numerically along a reconstructed bathymetry, built from the best resolution available data. This high-resolution bathymetry was joined with a 25-m resolution DTM, to generate continuous offshore-onshore space, allowing the calculation of the flooded areas prompted by each selected source. The numerical model applied for the calculation of the tsunami propagations was COMCOT. The maps resulting from the numerical simulations show not only the tsunami amplitude at coastal areas but

  18. Methods of quantitative analysis of nuclear energy hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Caldarola, L.; Helm, F.; Jansen, P.; McGrath, P.; Weber, G.

    1975-03-01

    Risk can be defined as the sum of all possible damage types weighted with their associated cumulative probability distributions of occurrence. Risk defined in this manner is not very suitable for comparison purposes. In order to be able to synthetically express the risk by means of a single parameter, two problems must be solved: 1) For each damage type an average value must be calculated which accounts not only for the occurence probability distribution but also for the degree and importance of the damage to human society. 2) The total average value (the risk) must be calculated by weighting each average damage type with a corresponding second importance function which represents the importance and acceptability of the particular damage type to human society. Here it must be pointed out that the above mentioned problems are directly connected to the problem of 'risk acceptance', which will be as well discussed as the risk associated with the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Finally, recommendations for further research work are given in section V which are thought to be needed in order to render these methods in the near future more generally applicable and accepted than they are today. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Study on integrated approach of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling System based on GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijuan; Huang Shunxiang; Wang Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The issue of nuclear safety becomes the attention focus of international society after the nuclear accident happened in Fukushima. Aiming at the requirements of the prevention and controlling of Nuclear Accident establishment of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning and optimized Controlling System (NAPWS) is a imperative project that our country and army are desiderating, which includes multiple fields of subject as nuclear physics, atmospheric science, security science, computer science and geographical information technology, etc. Multiplatform, multi-system and multi-mode are integrated effectively based on GIS, accordingly the Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling technology System of Nuclear Accident Hazard is established. (authors)

  20. The use of remote sensing imagery for environmental land use and flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Foster, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flood hazard maps have been constructed for Graham, Yuma, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona using remote sensing techniques. Watershed maps of priority areas were selected on the basis of their interest to the county planning staff and represented areas of imminent or ongoing development and those known to be subject to inundation by storm runoff. Landsat color infrared imagery at scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:500,000, and 1:250,000 was used together with high-altitude aerial photography at scales of 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 to determine drainage patterns and erosional features, soil type, and the extent and type of ground cover. The satellite imagery was used in the form of 70 mm chips for enhancement in a color additive viewer and in all available enlargement modes. Field checking served as the main backup to the interpretations. Areas with high susceptibility to flooding were determined with a high level of confidence from the remotely sensed imagery.

  1. USGS Online Short-term Hazard Maps: Experiences in the First Year of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenberger, M. C.; Jones, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    In May of 2005, following review by the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, the USGS launched a website that displays the probability of experiencing Modified Mercalli Intensity VI in the next 24 hours. With a forecast based on a relatively simple application of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship and the modified Omori law, the maps are primarily aimed at providing information related to aftershock hazard. Initial response to the system has been mostly positive but has required an effort toward public education. Particularly, it has been difficult to communicate the important difference between a probabilistic forecast and a binary earthquake "prediction". Even with the familiar use of probabilities in weather maps and recent use of terms such as Modified Mercalli Intensity, these, and other terms, are often misunderstood by the media and public. Additionally, the fact that our methodology is not targeted at large independent events has sometimes been difficult to convey to scientists as well as the public. Initial interest in the webpages has been high with greater than 700,000 individual visits between going live in late May, 2005 and the end of June, 2005. This accounts for more than 1/3 of the visits to the USGS-Pasadena webpages in that period. Visits have declined through July and August, but individual daily visits average around 3,000/day.

  2. Development of Storm Surge Hazard Maps and Advisory System for the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagymay, Alfredo; Caro, Carl Vincent; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Garnet Goting, Prince

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, located in the most active region of cyclogenesis in the world, experiences an average of 20 tropical cyclones annually. Strong winds brought by tropical cyclones, among other factors, cause storm surges that inundate the coastal areas of the country. As an archipelago with the fourth longest coastline in the world, the country is expose to the threats of storm surges. This was manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013, which devastated the country and left 6,293 deaths and approximately USD 2 billion worth of damages. To prevent such disaster from happening again, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) developed a Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) that aims to warn communities in coastal areas against impending floods due to storm surges. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate 721 tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility from 1951-2013. The resulting storm surge time series from the simulations were added to the maximum tide levels from the WXTide software for the 4,996 observation points placed nearshore in the entire country. The storm tide levels were categorized into four groups based on their peak height to create the SSA - SSA 1 (0.01m to 2m), SSA 2 (2.01m to 3m), SSA 3 (3.01m to 4m), and SSA 4 (4m and above). The time series for each advisory level was used in inundation modelling using FLO-2D, a two-dimensional flood modeling software that uses continuity and dynamic wave momentum equation. The model produced probable extent, depth of inundation, and hazard level for each advisory level. The SSA hazard maps are used as reference to warn communities that are likely to be affected by storm surges. Advisory is released 24 hours in advance and is updated every six hours in the Project NOAH website. It is also being utilized in the pre-disaster risk assessment of the national government agencies and local government units in designing appropriate response to

  3. On the activities and perspective works of Soviet Scientist Committee for peace against nuclear hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Activities of Soviet Scientists' Committee for peace against nuclear hazard established in May 1983 was considered. Committee efforts are directed at struggle for nuclear weapon destruction, for stopping of all kinds of its tests against disposition of nuclear waepon in space. Soviet scientist report on SDI says that such system may serve not only as defensive means but also as means of destruction of earth, air and other objects and represents the most serious danger. Together with american scientists the Committee investigated ecological consequencies of nuclear war which results strongly impressed all over the world. Attention is paid to prospects in the Committee work related to the development of nuclear weapon destribution procedures as well as procedures and means of controls for destruction and limitation of weapons

  4. Safety hazard Iran? Between nuclear thread and peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    The volume on Iran between nuclear thread and peaceful use of nuclear energy covers the following contributions: Iran versus USA: labor pains of a new world order; certainties, speculations and lack of knowledge; The nuclear conflict as symptom of deeper conflicts of the Middle East; Peaceful use of nuclear energy? The Iranian nuclear conflict; Satellite broadcast in Iranian backyards; An American invention becoming a doom for the Iran.

  5. Nuclear safety: operational aspects. 3. Hazard Analysis of Passive Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano

    2001-01-01

    Interest has been aroused in recent years regarding the reliability assessment of passive systems being developed by suppliers, industries, utilities, and research organizations that aim at plant safety improvement and substantial simplification in its implementation. The approach to passive systems reliability assessment entails first a detailed system and safety analysis, and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) methodology has been chosen to perform the safety analysis at the system level. The FMEA technique allows identification of all potential failure modes in a system to evaluate their effects on the system and to classify them according to their severity; this technique identifies the reliability-critical areas in the system where modifications to the design are required to reduce the probability of failure. The present study concerns passive systems designed for decay heat removal relying on natural circulation that foresee, for the most part, a condenser immersed in a cooling pool. This is to identify and rank by importance the potential hazards related to passive-system equipment and operation that may critically affect the safety or availability of the plant. More specifically, the content of the paper analyzes the isolation condenser (IC) system foreseen for advanced boiling water reactors for removal of excess sensible and core decay heat by natural circulation during isolation transients. This FMEA analysis is the initial step to be accomplished as support for the development of a methodology aimed at the reliability assessment of thermal-hydraulic passive safety systems, providing important input to more detailed quantitative studies employing, for instance, event trees and fault trees or other reliability/availability models. Main purposes of the work are to identify important accident initiators, find out the possible consequences on the plant deriving from component failures, individuate possible causes, identify mitigating features and

  6. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  7. Software hazard analysis for nuclear digital protection system by Colored Petri Net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Tao; Chen, Wei-Hua; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A dynamic hazard analysis method is proposed for the safety-critical software. •The mechanism relies on Colored Petri Net. •Complex interactions between software and hardware are captured properly. •Common failure mode in software are identified effectively. -- Abstract: The software safety of a nuclear digital protection system is critical for the safety of nuclear power plants as any software defect may result in severe damage. In order to ensure the safety and reliability of safety-critical digital system products and their applications, software hazard analysis is required to be performed during the lifecycle of software development. The dynamic software hazard modeling and analysis method based on Colored Petri Net is proposed and applied to the safety-critical control software of the nuclear digital protection system in this paper. The analysis results show that the proposed method can explain the complex interactions between software and hardware and identify the potential common cause failure in software properly and effectively. Moreover, the method can find the dominant software induced hazard to safety control actions, which aids in increasing software quality.

  8. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia; Estudio y cartografia de los peligros naturales costeros de la region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisdedos, J.; Mulas, J.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L. I.; Rodriguez Franco, J. A.; Garcia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Garrote, J.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  9. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  10. Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility

  11. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  12. Earthquake Scenarios Based Upon the Data and Methodologies of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukstales, K. S.; Petersen, M. D.; Frankel, A. D.; Harmsen, S. C.; Wald, D. J.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Haller, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) utilizes a database of over 500 faults across the conterminous United States to constrain earthquake source models for probabilistic seismic hazard maps. Additionally, the fault database is now being used to produce a suite of deterministic ground motions for earthquake scenarios that are based on the same fault source parameters and empirical ground motion prediction equations used for the probabilistic hazard maps. Unlike the calculated hazard map ground motions, local soil amplification is applied to the scenario calculations based on the best available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity down to 30 meters) mapping, or in some cases using topographic slope as a proxy. Systematic outputs include all standard USGS ShakeMap products, including GIS, KML, XML, and HAZUS input files. These data are available from the ShakeMap web pages with a searchable archive. The scenarios are being produced within the framework of a geographic information system (GIS) so that alternative scenarios can readily be produced by altering fault source parameters, Vs30 soil amplification, as well as the weighting of ground motion prediction equations used in the calculations. The alternative scenarios can then be used for sensitivity analysis studies to better characterize uncertainty in the source model and convey this information to decision makers. By providing a comprehensive collection of earthquake scenarios based upon the established data and methods of the USGS NSHMP, we hope to provide a well-documented source of data which can be used for visualization, planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and research purposes.

  13. GIS-based pollution hazard mapping and assessment framework of shallow lakes: southeastern Pampean lakes (Argentina) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, A; Esquius, K S; Massone, H E; Escalante, A H

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of water vulnerability and pollution hazard traditionally places particular emphasis on the study on groundwaters more than on surface waters. Consequently, a GIS-based Lake Pollution Hazard Index (LPHI) was proposed for assessing and mapping the potential pollution hazard for shallow lakes due to the interaction between the Potential Pollutant Load and the Lake Vulnerability. It includes easily measurable and commonly used parameters: land cover, terrain slope and direction, and soil media. Three shallow lake ecosystems of the southeastern Pampa Plain (Argentina) were chosen to test the usefulness and applicability of this suggested index. Moreover, anthropogenic and natural medium influence on biophysical parameters in these three ecosystems was examined. The evaluation of the LPHI map shows for La Brava and Los Padres lakes the highest pollution hazard (≈30 % with high to very high category) while Nahuel Rucá Lake seems to be the less hazardous water body (just 9.33 % with high LPHI). The increase in LPHI value is attributed to a different loading of pollutants governed by land cover category and/or the exposure to high slopes and influence of slope direction. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand values indicate a moderately polluted and eutrophized condition of shallow lake waters, mainly related to moderate agricultural activities and/or cattle production. Obtained information by means of LPHI calculation result useful to perform a local diagnosis of the potential pollution hazard to a freshwater ecosystem in order to implement basic guidelines to improve lake sustainability.

  14. ANCRE alliance: Road-map for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F.; Carre, F.

    2013-01-01

    Created in 2009 by the Higher Education and Research ministry and by the Ecology ministry, ANCRE, the National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination aims at enhancing the efficiency of French research in the field of energy by promoting partnerships and synergies between public and private sectors (research organizations, universities and companies). ANCRE aims to propose a coordinated strategy for research and innovation projects. Beyond its four founding members, CEA, CNRS, IFPEN and CPU, ANCRE brings together all the French public research organizations concerned with energy issues, and has strong links with the industrial sector. Among the 10 programmatic groups of ANCRE, one is specifically dedicated to Nuclear Energies (fission and fusion). This group has proposed road-maps in five scientific fields, considered as strategic for R and D, in relation to industrial objectives and scientific bottlenecks: nuclear materials, nuclear chemistry, reactor physics, instrumentation and fusion. For twenty to thirty years, R and D on nuclear materials has evolved from the heavy metallurgy of the first generation of power reactors to the nano-materials science under extreme conditions for present and future needs. Nuclear systems are characterized by extreme operating conditions: high temperatures, mechanical stresses, radiations, corrosive environment, and long durations. In order to deal with these extreme conditions, it is necessary to have a sound knowledge of the materials, to the finest scale. R and D development was made possible by advances in materials science, in relation to more efficient observation means (now reaching the atom scale) and deeper control of the microstructure. Development of simulation methods at the atomic level (ab initio, classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, etc.) have also allowed a better understanding of phenomena at their most fundamental level. Material performance issues, however, remain significant, as the performance

  15. Uses of probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard and nuclear power plants in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of probabilistic estimates is playing an increased role in the review of seismic hazard at nuclear power plants. The NRC Geosciences Branch emphasis has been on using these estimates in a relative rather than absolute manner and to gain insight on other approaches. Examples of this use include estimates to determine design levels, to determine equivalent hazard at different sites, to help define more realistic seismotectonic provinces, and to assess implied levels of acceptable risk using deterministic methods. Increased use of probabilistic estimates is expected. Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard have a potential for misuse, however, and their successful integration into decision making requires they not be divorced from physical insight and scientific intuition

  16. Numerical modeling of debris avalanches at Nevado de Toluca (Mexico): implications for hazard evaluation and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2007-05-01

    The present study concerns the numerical modeling of debris avalanches on the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico) using TITAN2D simulation software, and its application to create hazard maps. Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age, located in central México near to the cities of Toluca and México City; its past activity has endangered an area with more than 25 million inhabitants today. The present work is based upon the data collected during extensive field work finalized to the realization of the geological map of Nevado de Toluca at 1:25,000 scale. The activity of the volcano has developed from 2.6 Ma until 10.5 ka with both effusive and explosive events; the Nevado de Toluca has presented long phases of inactivity characterized by erosion and emplacement of debris flow and debris avalanche deposits on its flanks. The largest epiclastic events in the history of the volcano are wide debris flows and debris avalanches, occurred between 1 Ma and 50 ka, during a prolonged hiatus in eruptive activity. Other minor events happened mainly during the most recent volcanic activity (less than 50 ka), characterized by magmatic and tectonic-induced instability of the summit dome complex. According to the most recent tectonic analysis, the active transtensive kinematics of the E-W Tenango Fault System had a strong influence on the preferential directions of the last three documented lateral collapses, which generated the Arroyo Grande and Zaguàn debris avalanche deposits towards E and Nopal debris avalanche deposit towards W. The analysis of the data collected during the field work permitted to create a detailed GIS database of the spatial and temporal distribution of debris avalanche deposits on the volcano. Flow models, that have been performed with the software TITAN2D, developed by GMFG at Buffalo, were entirely based upon the information stored in the geological database. The modeling software is built upon equations

  17. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States: Other external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1989-02-01

    In support of implementation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to ''other external events.'' The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether ''other external events'' (the hazards not covered by previous reports) are among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. The ''other external events'' covered in this report are nearby industrial/military facility accidents, on site hazardous material storage accidents, severe temperature transients, severe weather storms, lightning strikes, external fires, extraterrestrial activity, volcanic activity, earth movement, and abrasive windstorms. The analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. 37 refs., 8 tabs

  18. Robotics in nuclear engineering: Computer assisted teleoperation in hazardous environments with particular reference to radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcombe, M.H.E.

    1984-01-01

    A report which examines the potential of robot devices in hazardous environments in nuclear engineering, such as: Fuel processing; Reactor maintenance; Reactor decommissioning; Transportation of active material; Waste handling; Incident management. The book reviews the present state of the art in remote controlled robots, and gives total system predictions for possible future applications within the nuclear industry. It examines the planning aspects of a programme of development for the technology, and highlights the priorities. Detailed descriptions are provided of the hardware and techniques which already contribute, or should contribute in the future, to the development of useable remote controlled robotics systems

  19. Analysis of the matrix structure of the Nuclear Weapons Complex waste minimization and hazard reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two of the primary goals of this program in waste minimization that the major waste problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) are being addressed systematically and to prevent duplication of effort by forming an integrated approach across the complex. Production, disposal, and the hazards of both the wastes and the in-process chemicals used were to be studied. The eight waste streams chosen (electroplating, miscellaneous, mixed, plutonium, polymers, solvents, tritium, and uranium) were deemed to be the most serious problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex

  20. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex

  1. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  2. Hazard, Vulnerability and Capacity Mapping for Landslides Risk Analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. A. P.; Innaqa, S.; Safrilah

    2017-06-01

    This research analyzed the levels of disaster risk in the Citeureup sub-District, Bogor Regency, West Java, based on its potential hazard, vulnerability and capacity, using map to represent the results, then Miles and Huberman analytical techniques was used to analyze the qualitative interviews. The analysis conducted in this study is based on the concept of disaster risk by Wisner. The result shows that the Citeureup sub-District has medium-low risk of landslides. Of the 14 villages, three villages have a moderate risk level, namely Hambalang, Tajur, and Tangkil, or 49.58% of the total land area. Eleven villages have a low level of risk, namely Pasir Mukti, Sanja, Tarikolot, Gunung Sari, Puspasari, East Karang Asem, Citeureup, Leuwinutug, Sukahati, West Karang Asem West and Puspanegara, or 48.68% of the total land area, for high-risk areas only around 1.74%, which is part of Hambalang village. The analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) prove that areas with a high risk potential does not necessarily have a high level of risk. The capacity of the community plays an important role to minimize the risk of a region. Disaster risk reduction strategy is done by creating a safe condition, which intensified the movement of disaster risk reduction.

  3. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard risk maps in Mexico City and Morelia, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Hernández-Espriu, J.; Cigna, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.; Colombo, D.

    2012-12-01

    Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task. We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico: Morelia and Mexico City. Our analysis in Mexico City and Morelia is based on a risk matrix using the horizontal subsidence gradient from a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (Morelia) and SqueeSAR (Mexico City) analysis and 2010 census population distribution data from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. Our Morelia analysis (597,000 inhabitants with localized subsidence rates up to 80 mm/yr) shows that 7% of the urbanized area is under a high to very high risk level, and 14% of its population (11.7% and 2.3% respectively) lives within these areas. In the case of the Mexico City (15'490,000 inhabitants for the

  4. Concept of a spatial data infrastructure for web-mapping, processing and service provision for geo-hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinke, Elisabeth; Hölbling, Daniel; Albrecht, Florian; Friedl, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Geo-hazards and their effects are distributed geographically over wide regions. The effective mapping and monitoring is essential for hazard assessment and mitigation. It is often best achieved using satellite imagery and new object-based image analysis approaches to identify and delineate geo-hazard objects (landslides, floods, forest fires, storm damages, etc.). At the moment, several local/national databases and platforms provide and publish data of different types of geo-hazards as well as web-based risk maps and decision support systems. Also, the European commission implemented the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) in 2015 that publishes information about natural and man-made disasters and risks. Currently, no platform for landslides or geo-hazards as such exists that enables the integration of the user in the mapping and monitoring process. In this study we introduce the concept of a spatial data infrastructure for object delineation, web-processing and service provision of landslide information with the focus on user interaction in all processes. A first prototype for the processing and mapping of landslides in Austria and Italy has been developed within the project Land@Slide, funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG in the Austrian Space Applications Program ASAP. The spatial data infrastructure and its services for the mapping, processing and analysis of landslides can be extended to other regions and to all types of geo-hazards for analysis and delineation based on Earth Observation (EO) data. The architecture of the first prototypical spatial data infrastructure includes four main areas of technical components. The data tier consists of a file storage system and the spatial data catalogue for the management of EO-data, other geospatial data on geo-hazards, as well as descriptions and protocols for the data processing and analysis. An interface to extend the data integration from external sources (e.g. Sentinel-2 data) is planned

  5. Mitigation of Hydrogen Hazards in Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    Consideration of severe accidents in nuclear power plants is an essential component of the defence in depth approach in nuclear safety. Severe accidents have very low probabilities of occurring, but may have significant consequences resulting from the degradation of nuclear fuel. The generation of hydrogen and the risk of hydrogen combustion, as well as other phenomena leading to overpressurization of the reactor containment in case of severe accidents, represent complex safety issues in relation to accident management. The combustion of hydrogen, produced primarily as a result of heated zirconium metal reacting with steam, can create short term overpressure or detonation forces that may exceed the strength of the containment structure. An understanding of these phenomena is crucial for planning and implementing effective accident management measures. Analysis of all the issues relating to hydrogen risk is an important step for any measure that is aimed at the prevention or mitigation of hydrogen combustion in reactor containments. The main objective of this publication is to contribute to the implementation of IAEA Safety Standards, in particular, two IAEA Safety Requirements: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. These Requirements publications discuss computational analysis of severe accidents and accident management programmes in nuclear power plants. Specifically with regard to the risk posed by hydrogen in nuclear power reactors, computational analysis of severe accidents considers hydrogen sources, hydrogen distribution, hydrogen combustion and control and mitigation measures for hydrogen, while accident management programmes are aimed at mitigating hydrogen hazards in reactor containments.

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-86-381-1934, Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, M.J.; Schober, S.

    1988-10-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a study was made of excessive kidney disease at Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee. This facility was the sole producer of nuclear fuel rods for the United States Navy. The major operations involved the production of highly enriched uranium fuel for naval nuclear reactors and the recovery from scrap of low enriched uranium for commercial light water reactors. Highly enriched uranium-hexafluoride was converted to oxides and ultimately into finished nuclear fuel. A medical questionnaire revealed more frequent kidney stones (19%) and urinary tract infections (28%) among the workers than among the guards used as a comparison group, 7 and 12%, respectively. Dairy farmers from a nearby town used as an additional comparison group reported kidney stones more frequently (26 versus 21%) and infections less frequently (20 versus 30%) than the current and former senior workers at the nuclear facility. Kidney function was similar in both groups. Workers in both groups had frequent risk factors for kidney stones, particularly high calcium, oxalate, sodium, uric-acid, phosphorus and low urinary volume on testing. The authors conclude that the urinary tract disorders in the nuclear workers were not the result of occupational hazards at this site

  7. Educational Approach to Seismic Risk Mitigation in Indian Himalayas -Hazard Map Making Workshops at High Schools-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Oki, S.; Kimura, M.; Chadha, R. K.; Davuluri, S.

    2014-12-01

    How can we encourage people to take preventive measures against damage risks and empower them to take the right actions in emergencies to save their lives? The conventional approach taken by scientists had been disseminating intelligible information on up-to-date seismological knowledge. However, it has been proven that knowledge alone does not have enough impact to modify people's behaviors in emergencies (Oki and Nakayachi, 2012). On the other hand, the conventional approach taken by practitioners had been to conduct emergency drills at schools or workplaces. The loss of many lives from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has proven that these emergency drills were not enough to save people's lives, unless they were empowered to assess the given situation on their own and react flexibly. Our challenge is to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. With reference to best practices observed in Tohoku, such as The Miracles of Kamaishi, our endeavor is to design an effective Disaster Preparedness Education Program that is applicable to other disaster-prone regions in the world, even with different geological, socio-economical and cultural backgrounds. The key concepts for this new approach are 1) empowering individuals to take preventive actions to save their lives, 2) granting community-based understanding of disaster risks and 3) building a sense of reality and relevancy to disasters. With these in mind, we held workshops at some high schools in the Lesser Himalayan Region, combining lectures with an activity called "Hazard Map Making" where students proactively identify and assess the hazards around their living areas and learn practical strategies on how to manage risks. We observed the change of awareness of the students by conducting a preliminary questionnaire survey and interviews after each session. Results strongly implied that the significant change of students' attitudes towards disaster preparedness occurred not by the lectures of scientific knowledge, but

  8. The atomic power state and national security - the hazardous nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, W.; Daniels, W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have chosen the uranium/plutonium cycle, the problems involved in safety engineering of power plant, and the power industry's structural pattern in order to show and to prove the doubtfulness of safety philosophies developed for nuclear energy which in fact is not mastered by the country's technological, social, or economic capabilities. The party 'The Greens' considers nuclear energy to be a hazard to national security and therefore demands prompt abandonment of nuclear power in order to save man and the natural environment. Surplus power supply is to be replaced by the concept of demand-tailored power generation, which is to be placed on the following footing: (1) purposeful and intelligent utilisation of energy allowing dramatic reduction of energy consumption; (2) Use and promotion of renewable energy sources; (3) Abandonment of monopolistic and undemocratic structures in the energy sector of the economy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  10. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, Angela

    2013-01-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Now operated by Sellafield Ltd, under the management of Parent Body Organisation Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), a consortium of URS Washington Division, AMEC and AREVA is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of a company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme. The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM) and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress. Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. (authors)

  11. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, Angela [Change Manager, Decommissioning, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Now operated by Sellafield Ltd, under the management of Parent Body Organisation Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), a consortium of URS Washington Division, AMEC and AREVA is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of a company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme. The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM) and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress. Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. (authors)

  12. Assessing Landslide Characteristics and Developing a Landslide Potential Hazard Map in Rwanda and Uganda Using NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L.; Conner, P.; le Roux, J.; Finley, T.

    2015-12-01

    The International Emergency Disasters Database indicates that a total of 482 people have been killed and another 27,530 have been affected by landslides in Rwanda and Uganda, although the actual numbers are thought to be much higher. Data for individual countries are poorly tracked, but hotspots for devastating landslides occur throughout Rwanda and Uganda due to the local topography and soil type, intense rainfall events, and deforestation. In spite of this, there has been little research in this region that utilizes satellite imagery to estimate areas susceptible to landslides. This project utilized Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and Google Earth to identify landslides that occurred within the study area. These landslides were then added to SERVIR's Global Landslide Catalog (GLC). Next, Landsat 8 OLI, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 2 (SRTM V2) data were used to create a Landslide Susceptibility Map. This was combined with population data from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) to create a Landslide Hazard map. A preliminary assessment of the relative performance of GPM and TRMM in identifying landslide conditions was also performed. The additions to the GLC, the Landslide Susceptibility Map, the Landslide Hazard Map, and the preliminary assessment of satellite rainfall performance will be used by SERVIR and the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) for disaster risk management, land use planning, and determining landslide conditions and moisture thresholds.

  13. Mapping of transuranic elements in soil by nuclear track methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative method is presented to map the distribution of transuranic elements, which is characterized by its simplicity in both implementation and instrumentation. The method is based on the interaction of alpha particles in polymeric materials and the formation of tracks, which become visible after chemical etching. Nuclear track detectors are placed on the soil in order to evaluate the distribution of the radioactive material and its relative intensity for transuranic contaminants. CR-39 polycarbonate was used as a nuclear track detector in this study. Chemical etching was done with a 6.25M KOH solution in a closed system for 16 hours. The readings were performed in an automatic system using digital image analysis. The results show the distribution of the contaminants and their location, identifying the zones with large intensities. This method is attractive for use in areas contaminated with alpha particles, and specially transuranic elements, because it involves in situ measurements, generates very low amounts of radioactive waste, and the detectors are easily handled. (author)

  14. Treatment of external hazards in probabilistic safety assessment for nuclear power plants. A Safety Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Practice provides guidance on conducting a PSA for external hazards in nuclear power plants. Emphasis is placed on the procedural steps of the PSA rather then on the details of corresponding methods. The publication is intended to assist technical persons managing or performing PSAs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for external hazards PSA so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. For those specialists who are already involved in related studies, such as a Level 1 PSA dealing only with internal events, this publication provides an indication of how additional external events could be integrated into an existing PSA. 16 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Seismic hazard analysis of nuclear installations in France. Current practice and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadioun, B [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    The methodology put into practice in France for the evaluation of seismic hazard on the sites of nuclear facilities is founded on data assembled country-wide over the past 15 years, in geology, geophysics and seismology. It is appropriate to the regional seismotectonic context (interplate), characterized notably by diffuse seismicity. Extensive use is made of information drawn from historical seismicity. The regulatory practice described in the RFS I.2.c is reexamined periodically and is subject to up-dating so as to take advantage of new earthquake data and of the results gained from research work. Acquisition of the basic data, such as the identification of active faults and the quantification of site effect, which will be needed to achieve improved preparedness versus severe earthquake hazard in the 21st century, will necessarily be the fruit of close international cooperation and collaboration, which should accordingly be actively promoted. (J.P.N.)

  16. Seismic hazard analysis of nuclear installations in France. Current practice and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    The methodology put into practice in France for the evaluation of seismic hazard on the sites of nuclear facilities is founded on data assembled country-wide over the past 15 years, in geology, geophysics and seismology. It is appropriate to the regional seismotectonic context (interplate), characterized notably by diffuse seismicity. Extensive use is made of information drawn from historical seismicity. The regulatory practice described in the RFS I.2.c is reexamined periodically and is subject to up-dating so as to take advantage of new earthquake data and of the results gained from research work. Acquisition of the basic data, such as the identification of active faults and the quantification of site effect, which will be needed to achieve improved preparedness versus severe earthquake hazard in the 21st century, will necessarily be the fruit of close international cooperation and collaboration, which should accordingly be actively promoted. (J.P.N.)

  17. Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Thomas M.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Scott, Bradley J.; Keys, Harry J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Wardman, Johnny B.; Cronin, Shane J.; McBride, Sara K.

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand's Tongariro National Park volcanoes produce hazardous eruptions every few years to decades. On 6 August 2012 the Te Maari vent of Tongariro Volcano erupted, producing a series of explosions and a fine ash of minor volume which was dispersed rapidly to the east. This manuscript presents a summary of the eruption impacts and the way these supported science communication during the crisis, particularly in terms of hazard map development. The most significant proximal impact was damage from pyroclastic surges and ballistics to the popular and economically-important Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. The only hazard to affect the medial impact zone was a few mms of ashfall with minor impacts. Field testing indicated that the Te Maari ash had extremely low resistivity when wetted, implying a very high potential to cause disruption to nationally-important power transmission networks via the mechanism of insulator flashover. This was not observed, presumably due to insufficient ash accumulation on insulators. Virtually no impacts from distal ashfall were reported. Post-event analysis of PM10 data demonstrates the additional value of regional air quality monitoring networks in quantifying population exposure to airborne respirable ash. While the eruption was minor, it generated a high level of public interest and a demand for information on volcanic hazards and impacts from emergency managers, the public, critical infrastructure managers, health officials, and the agriculture sector. Meeting this demand fully taxed available resources. We present here aspects of the New Zealand experience which may have wider applicability in moving towards improved integration of hazard impact information, mapping, and communication. These include wide use of a wiki technical clearinghouse and email listservs, a focus on multi-agency consistent messages, and a recently developed environment of collaboration and alignment of both research funding and technical science advice

  18. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, L.

    1986-03-01

    This report presents information for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains background material which outlines tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire hazards. Volume 2 presents criteria for evaluating fire hazard reports. The criteria are consistent with the existing AECB regulatory approach in Canada and cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis. This volume also provides details of each topic so that the quality of an analysis may be evaluated

  19. Assessing inundation hazards to nuclear powerplant sites using geologically extended histories of riverine floods, tsunamis, and storm surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Most nuclear powerplants in the United States are near rivers, large lakes, or oceans. As evident from the Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, disaster of 2011, these water bodies pose inundation threats. Geologic records can extend knowledge of rare hazards from flooding, storm surges, and tsunamis. This knowledge can aid in assessing the safety of critical structures such as dams and energy plants, for which even remotely possible hazards are pertinent. Quantitative analysis of inundation from geologic records perhaps is most developed for and applied to riverine flood hazards, but because of recent natural disasters, geologic investigations also are now used widely for understanding tsunami hazards and coastal storm surges.

  20. Hazards of ionizing radiations for human beings and environment with respect to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, nuclear fission is used to produce electricity. On the one hand, the low emission of CO_2 is often mentioned as an advantage of this technology. On the other hand, warnings about the dangers of nuclear fission are mentioned. Consequently, an overview about the dangers of ionizing radiation to human beings as well as animals and the environment is important. However, the focus will be on possible health effects for humans with regards to nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, both natural types of radiation and artificially produced radiation occur. During normal operation, it is possible that small quantities of this ionizing radiation are released to the environment. In case of nuclear disasters or faults during decommissioning and dismantling processes the consequences of thereby emitted quantities can be even more severe. Reference nuclides vary by reactor type, operating stage and respective incident. At the beginning, different types of radiation and their characteristics and effects on the affected organism are explained. Sensitive organs are emphasized in this context. The individual risk is determined by numerous factors and therefore cannot be predicted. Based on scientific studies and medical publications the hazards of ionizing radiation are compiled. Effects of high exposure of ionizing radiation are well-investigated. Scientists are still divided over the connection between several diseases and the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. For this reason, the positions of different international organizations are critically contrasted in this study.

  1. Development of a Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) for the nuclear safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Daoued, Amine; Guimier, Laurent; Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to lay the basis for a probabilistic evaluation of flood hazard (PFHA). Probabilistic assessment of external floods has become a current topic of interest to the nuclear scientific community. Probabilistic approaches complement deterministic approaches by exploring a set of scenarios and associating a probability to each of them. These approaches aim to identify all possible failure scenarios, combining their probability, in order to cover all possible sources of risk. They are based on the distributions of initiators and/or the variables caracterizing these initiators. The PFHA can characterize the water level for example at defined point of interest in the nuclear site. This probabilistic flood hazard characterization takes into account all the phenomena that can contribute to the flooding of the site. The main steps of the PFHA are: i) identification of flooding phenomena (rains, sea water level, etc.) and screening of relevant phenomena to the nuclear site, ii) identification and probabilization of parameters associated to selected flooding phenomena, iii) spreading of the probabilized parameters from the source to the point of interest in the site, v) obtaining hazard curves and aggregation of flooding phenomena contributions at the point of interest taking into account the uncertainties. Within this framework, the methodology of the PFHA has been developed for several flooding phenomena (rain and/or sea water level, etc.) and then implemented and tested with a simplified case study. In the same logic, our study is still in progress to take into account other flooding phenomena and to carry out more case studies.

  2. A DOE-STD-3009 hazard and accident analysis methodology for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAHN, JEFFREY A.; WALKER, SHARON ANN

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of appropriate consequence evaluation criteria in conjunction with generic likelihood of occurrence data to produce consistent hazard analysis results for nonreactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). An additional objective is to demonstrate the use of generic likelihood of occurrence data as a means for deriving defendable accident sequence frequencies, thereby enabling the screening of potentially incredible events ( -6 per year) from the design basis accident envelope. Generic likelihood of occurrence data has been used successfully in performing SAR hazard and accident analyses for two nonreactor nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. DOE-STD-3009-94 addresses and even encourages use of a qualitative binning technique for deriving and ranking nonreactor nuclear facility risks. However, qualitative techniques invariably lead to reviewer requests for more details associated with consequence or likelihood of occurrence bin assignments in the test of the SAR. Hazard analysis data displayed in simple worksheet format generally elicits questions about not only the assumptions behind the data, but also the quantitative bases for the assumptions themselves (engineering judgment may not be considered sufficient by some reviewers). This is especially true where the criteria for qualitative binning of likelihood of occurrence involves numerical ranges. Oftentimes reviewers want to see calculations or at least a discussion of event frequencies or failure probabilities to support likelihood of occurrence bin assignments. This may become a significant point of contention for events that have been binned as incredible. This paper will show how the use of readily available generic data can avoid many of the reviewer questions that will inevitably arise from strictly qualitative analyses, while not significantly increasing the overall burden on the analyst

  3. System of radiation monitoring of nuclear hazardous facilities in Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.A.; Meshin, M.M.; Shuklin, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    Issues of radiation monitoring (RM) at reactor complex of Inst. of Atomic Energy (IAE) are discussed in report. The National Nuclear Centre's reactor base consists of 2 complexes situated in 2 different locations: Bajkal-1 and IGR. So far as IAE has common mythology for RM at all hazardous nuclear facilities the issues of RM for Baikal-1 and IGR Radiation monitoring system includes: - personal dosimetric control of personnel, maintaining the reactor systems and research laboratories; RM of industrial buildings; - RM of technical areas of technical area of the facility; sanitary system of dosimetry control (DC); etc. The description of stationary DC system of the complex based on 'System' facility are given. Baikal is surround by sanitary area with radius of 5 km and with its centre in the reactor location. Complexity of studying the radiation status on the territory of Baikal-1 and its surroundings is the result of nuclear testing conducted at the test site in the past, reactor operation with open exhaust of coolant into atmosphere while testing on Nuclear Rocket Engines program as well as global fall out of radionuclides

  4. Disseminating near-real-time hazards information and flood maps in the Philippines through Web-GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco; Racoma, Bernard Alan; Aracan, Ken Adrian; Alconis-Ayco, Jenalyn; Saddi, Ivan Lester

    2017-09-01

    The Philippines being a locus of tropical cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. These natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property. Situated in a region where climate and geophysical tempest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. In 2012, the Philippines launched a responsive program for disaster prevention and mitigation called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH), specifically for government warning agencies to be able to provide a 6hr lead-time warning to vulnerable communities against impending floods and to use advanced technology to enhance current geo-hazard vulnerability maps. To disseminate such critical information to as wide an audience as possible, a Web-GIS using mashups of freely available source codes and application program interface (APIs) was developed and can be found in the URLs http://noah.dost.gov.ph and http://noah.up.edu.ph/. This Web-GIS tool is now heavily used by local government units in the Philippines in their disaster prevention and mitigation efforts and can be replicated in countries that have a proactive approach to address the impacts of natural hazards but lack sufficient funds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Atomic and nuclear hazards to man and the protection aspects against them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kanawi, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials is increasing these days and their applications find diverse channels. The needs of technology in the human life tends to be a significant factor. Creation of a nuclear reactor enables to use the different type of fission products in a variety of medical, industrial and research applications. But, the protective measures against the hazards resulting from different types of radiation are also important factors. Therefore, adequate protection to man is ensured by adequate protection to the environment. Protective steps are recommended. 10 refs

  6. The assessment of risk in relation to major hazards, with particular reference to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    The article concentrates mainly on the developing pattern of safety thinking and safety practices which have been brought about by, and in turn have influenced, the growth of modern industrial technology, particularly in the nuclear field. The need to minimize the chance of accidents with serious consequences led to pursuit of safety by siting, by containment and by automatic built-in safety mechanisms; these are discussed. Codes of practice and safety guidelines are becoming linked with more quantitative goals to achieve desired objectives in safety and reliability. This is particularly important in the assessment of major hazards. (author)

  7. Implementation of NGA-West2 ground motion models in the 2014 U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHMs) have been an important component of seismic design regulations in the United States for the past several decades. These maps present earthquake ground shaking intensities at specified probabilities of being exceeded over a 50-year time period. The previous version of the NSHMs was developed in 2008; during 2012 and 2013, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have been updating the maps based on their assessment of the “best available science,” resulting in the 2014 NSHMs. The update includes modifications to the seismic source models and the ground motion models (GMMs) for sites across the conterminous United States. This paper focuses on updates in the Western United States (WUS) due to the use of new GMMs for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions developed by the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA-West2) project. Individual GMMs, their weighted combination, and their impact on the hazard maps relative to 2008 are discussed. In general, the combined effects of lower medians and increased standard deviations in the new GMMs have caused only small changes, within 5–20%, in the probabilistic ground motions for most sites across the WUS compared to the 2008 NSHMs.

  8. Financial protection against nuclear hazards: thirty years' experience under the Price-Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Supplementing earlier reports on ways to provide financial protection against the potential hazards involved in the production of nuclear energy by analyzing the issues raised in the Silkwood v. Kerr-McGee Corporation decision, the author explores the impact of the case on the availability of funds to compensate the public and any increased exposure of the nuclear industry or the federal government to public liability. She concludes that the decision will have a significant impact on the day-to-day administration of claims, and could lead to higher premiums. The court would have to determine the priority given to claims in the event of a catastrophic accident, in which case the only significant impact would be under amendments to the Price-Anderson Act which resulted in elimination of its coverage or a substantial increase in or elimination of the limitation on liability

  9. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  10. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for El-Awali River Catchment-Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hdeib, Rouya; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Hijazi, Samar

    2016-04-01

    River flooding prediction and flood forecasting has become an essential stage in the major flood mitigation plans worldwide. Delineation of floodplains resulting from a river flooding event requires coupling between a Hydrological rainfall-runoff model to calculate the resulting outflows of the catchment and a hydraulic model to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along the river main course. In this study several methods were applied to predict the flood discharge of El-Awali River using the available historical data and gauging records and by conducting several site visits. The HEC-HMS Rainfall-Runoff model was built and applied to calculate the flood hydrographs along several outlets on El-Awali River and calibrated using the storm that took place on January 2013 and caused flooding of the major Lebanese rivers and by conducting additional site visits to calculate proper river sections and record witnesses of the locals. The Hydraulic HEC-RAS model was then applied to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along El-Awali River main reach. Floodplain delineation and Hazard mapping for 10,50 and 100 years return periods was performed using the Watershed Modeling System WMS. The results first show an underestimation of the flood discharge recorded by the operating gauge stations on El-Awali River, whereas, the discharge of the 100 years flood may reach up to 506 m3/s compared by lower values calculated using the traditional discharge estimation methods. Second any flooding of El-Awali River may be catastrophic especially to the coastal part of the catchment and can cause tragic losses in agricultural lands and properties. Last a major floodplain was noticed in Marj Bisri village this floodplain can reach more than 200 meters in width. Overall, performance was good and the Rainfall-Runoff model can provide valuable information about flows especially on ungauged points and can perform a great aid for the floodplain delineation and flood

  11. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Rdiation Protection with regard to serious cases of prevention of nuclear hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    For the defence against the threats through radioactive substances, a general concept is presently being elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards through radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For serious cases of prevention of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. This concept is presented in the following. (author)

  12. Analysis of factors related to man-induced hazard for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Soon; Jung, Jea Hee; Lee, Keun O; Son, Ki Sang; Wang, Sang Chul; Lee, Chang Jin; Ku, Min Ho; Park, Nam Young

    2003-03-01

    This study is to show a guide for installing hazardous facilities adjoined atomic power plant after finding out how much these facilities could impact to the atomic plant. Nuclear power plant is an important facility which is closely connected with public life, industrial activity, and the conduct of public business, so it should not be damaged. Therefore, if there are hazardous and harmful facilities near the plant, then they must be evaluated by the size, the type, and the shape. First of all, any factors that could cause man induced accident must be investigated. And they must be exactly evaluated from how much it will damage the plant facilities. The purpose of this study is to set a technical standard for the installation of these facilities by evaluating the man induced accident. Also, it is to make out the evaluation methods by investigating the hazardous facilities which are placed near the plant. Our country is now using CFR standard : reg. guide and IAEA safety series. However, not only the standard of technology which is related to man induced accident but also the evaluation methods for facilities are not yet layed down. As It was mentioned above, we should evaluate these facilities adequately, and these methods must be made out

  13. Analysis of factors related to man-induced hazard for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Soon; Jung, Jea Hee; Lee, Keun O; Son, Ki Sang; Wang, Sang Chul; Lee, Chang Jin; Ku, Min Ho; Park, Nam Young [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    This study is to show a guide for installing hazardous facilities adjoined atomic power plant after finding out how much these facilities could impact to the atomic plant. Nuclear power plant is an important facility which is closely connected with public life, industrial activity, and the conduct of public business, so it should not be damaged. Therefore, if there are hazardous and harmful facilities near the plant, then they must be evaluated by the size, the type, and the shape. First of all, any factors that could cause man induced accident must be investigated. And they must be exactly evaluated from how much it will damage the plant facilities. The purpose of this study is to set a technical standard for the installation of these facilities by evaluating the man induced accident. Also, it is to make out the evaluation methods by investigating the hazardous facilities which are placed near the plant. Our country is now using CFR standard : reg. guide and IAEA safety series. However, not only the standard of technology which is related to man induced accident but also the evaluation methods for facilities are not yet layed down. As It was mentioned above, we should evaluate these facilities adequately, and these methods must be made out.

  14. Comparison and discussion of two types of threat (Hazard) categorization method for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rongyao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Jiangang; Zhao, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The emergency threat categorization method suggested by international atomic energy agency (IAEA) and hazard categorization standard by the Department of Energy of United States (USDOE) for nuclear facilities are compared and discussed in this paper. The research shows the two types of categorization method for nuclear facility are similar, though each has its own speciality. The categorization method suggested by IAEA is quite completed and sound in scientific basis. The thresholds of radioactive material are connected with the quantity of dangerous source, and the latest radiobiological effect research results are taken in setting the thresholds. While the main purpose is put on emergency management, some of the categorization criteria do not fit for safety surveillance of nuclear facilities. The categorization method of DOE is advanced in its operability, and it fits for safety surveillance. The disadvantage is that the thresholds of radioactive material need to be updated because the parameters used in calculation is outdated, and also the threshold of category 3 is somewhat disputable for many reasons. We should take advantage of both methods and adjust the standards according to the application purpose while establishing the categorization standard of nuclear facilities in China. (author)

  15. Assessment of radiological and non-radiological hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle - The Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamony, S.; Gopinath, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    Design and operational aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities have several features that distinguish them from nuclear power plants. These are related to (i) the nature of operations which are chiefly mining, metallurgical and chemical; (ii) the nature and type of radio-active materials handled, their specific activities and inventories; and (iii) the physical and chemical processes involved and the associated containment provisions. Generally the radioactive materials are present in an already highly dispersible or mobile form, in the form of solutions, slurries and powders, often associated with a wide variety of reactive and corrosive chemicals. There are further marked differences between the front-end and back-end of the fuel cycle. Whereas the front-end is characterized by the presence of large quantities of low specific activity naturally occurring radioactive materials, the back-end is characterized by high specific activities and concentrations of fission products and actinides. Radioactive characteristics of waste arisings are also different in different phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. Potential for internal exposure in the occupational environment is another distinguishing feature as compared with the more common designs of nuclear power reactors. Potential for accidents, their phenomenology and the resulting consequences are also markedly different in fuel cycle operations. The non-radiological hazards in fuel cycle operations are also of significance, since the operations are mostly mining, metallurgical and chemical in nature. These aspects are examined and evaluated in this paper, based on the Indian experience. (author). 12 refs, 10 tabs

  16. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to externally initiated events. The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether or not each external initiator is among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. Four external hazards were investigated in this report. These external hazards are internal fires, high winds/tornadoes, external floods, and transportation accidents. Analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. Using these two figures-of-merit as evaluation criteria, it has been feasible to ascertain whether the risk from externally initiated accidents is, or is not, an important contributor to overall risk for the US nuclear power plants studied. This has been accomplished for each initiator separately. 208 refs., 17 figs., 45 tabs

  17. Conformal maps and group contractions in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatsos, D.

    2011-01-01

    In mathematics, a conformal map is a function which preserves angles. We show how this procedure can be used in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian, leading to a Hamiltonian in a curved space, in which the mass depends on the nuclear deformation β, while it remains independent of the collective variable γ and the three Euler angles. This Hamiltonian is proved to be equivalent to that obtained using techniques of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. Group contraction is a procedure in which a symmetry group is reduced into a group of lower symmetry in a certain limiting case. Examples are provided in the large boson number limit of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model by a) the contraction of the SU(3) algebra into the [R 5 ]SO(3) algebra of the rigid rotator, consisting of the angular momentum operators forming SO(3), plus 5 mutually commuting quantities, the quadrupole operators, b) the contraction of the O(6) algebra into the [R 5 ]SO(5) algebra of the γ-unstable rotator. We show how contractions can be used for constructing symmetry lines in the interior of the symmetry triangle of the IBA model. (author)

  18. Mapping the radioactive contamination in urban environments after nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Proehl, Gerhard; Woda, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the event of a nuclear emergency in an urban environment a reliable overview on the radioactive contamination is crucial for decision making. To assess the radiological situation both measurements of the gamma dose or dose rate (GDR) and results from urban dispersion and deposition models are used. Measurements may arrive from various sources like car-borne detectors or man-borne radiation-sensitive materials embedded in cell phones, flash memory devices or RFID chips. The measurements depend strongly on the detector environment. To account for this dependence each signal is multiplied by a location factor, which quantifies the deviation of the recorded signal from the hypothetical signal of a reference surface of infinitely extended lawn. Furthermore, the data originate from geo-referenced points or lines but do not provide full spatial information. We present here two approaches to produce maps of the reference GDR or surface contamination in urban areas, which are implemented in the Inhabited Areas Monitoring Module (IAMM) as part of the European decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS. Immediately after the accident, a few measurements are combined with the predictions of urban models using data assimilation. If enough measurements are available they are regionalised with geo-statistical interpolation algorithms like inverse distance weighting or kriging. Both approaches are demonstrated in hypothetical scenarios based on the explosion of a radioactive dispersion device. (author)

  19. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  20. Karst groundwater protection: First application of a Pan-European Approach to vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping in the Sierra de Libar (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreo, Bartolome [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: Andreo@uma.es; Goldscheider, Nico [Centre of Hydrogeology, University of Neuchatel, 11 rue Emile-Argand, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Vadillo, Inaki [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Vias, Jesus Maria [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Neukum, Christoph [Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse, 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sinreich, Michael [Centre of Hydrogeology, University of Neuchatel, 11 rue Emile-Argand, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jimenez, Pablo [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Brechenmacher, Julia [Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse, 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Carrasco, Francisco [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Hoetzl, Heinz [Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse, 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Perles, Maria Jesus [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Zwahlen, Francois [Centre of Hydrogeology, University of Neuchatel, 11 rue Emile-Argand, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-03-15

    The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, validation of vulnerability maps, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this Pan-European Approach to the Sierra de Libar, a karst hydrogeology system in Andalusia, Spain. The intrinsic vulnerability maps take into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the area but are independent from specific contaminant properties. Two specific vulnerability maps were prepared for faecal coliforms and BTEX. These maps take into account the specific properties of these two groups of contaminants and their interaction with the karst hydrogeological system. The vulnerability assessment was validated by means of tracing tests, hydrological, hydrochemical and isotope methods. The hazard map shows the localization of potential contamination sources resulting from human activities, and evaluates those according to their dangerousness. The risk of groundwater contamination depends on the hazards and the vulnerability of the aquifer system. The risk map for the Sierra de Libar was thus created by overlaying the hazard and vulnerability maps.

  1. Karst groundwater protection: First application of a Pan-European Approach to vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping in the Sierra de Libar (Southern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, Bartolome; Goldscheider, Nico; Vadillo, Inaki; Vias, Jesus Maria; Neukum, Christoph; Sinreich, Michael; Jimenez, Pablo; Brechenmacher, Julia; Carrasco, Francisco; Hoetzl, Heinz; Perles, Maria Jesus; Zwahlen, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, validation of vulnerability maps, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this Pan-European Approach to the Sierra de Libar, a karst hydrogeology system in Andalusia, Spain. The intrinsic vulnerability maps take into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the area but are independent from specific contaminant properties. Two specific vulnerability maps were prepared for faecal coliforms and BTEX. These maps take into account the specific properties of these two groups of contaminants and their interaction with the karst hydrogeological system. The vulnerability assessment was validated by means of tracing tests, hydrological, hydrochemical and isotope methods. The hazard map shows the localization of potential contamination sources resulting from human activities, and evaluates those according to their dangerousness. The risk of groundwater contamination depends on the hazards and the vulnerability of the aquifer system. The risk map for the Sierra de Libar was thus created by overlaying the hazard and vulnerability maps

  2. The theory-based influence of map features on risk beliefs: self-reports of what is seen and understood for maps depicting an environmental health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dolores J; Vatovec, Christine

    2012-08-01

    Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. The authors report results from 13 cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw and the meaning of what they saw as they viewed 3 formats of water test results for private wells (choropleth map, dot map, and a table). The unit of perception, color, proximity to hazards, geographic distribution, and visual salience had substantial influences on what participants saw and their resulting risk beliefs. These influences are explained by theoretical factors that shape what is seen, properties of features that shape cognition (preattentive, symbolic, visual salience), information processing (top-down and bottom-up), and the strength of concrete compared with abstract information. Personal relevance guided top-down attention to proximal and larger hazards that shaped stronger risk beliefs. Meaning was more local for small perceptual units and global for large units. Three aspects of color were important: preattentive "incremental risk" meaning of sequential shading, symbolic safety meaning of stoplight colors, and visual salience that drew attention. The lack of imagery, geographic information, and color diminished interest in table information. Numeracy and prior beliefs influenced comprehension for some participants. Results guided the creation of an integrated conceptual framework for application to future studies. Ethics should guide the selection of map features that support appropriate communication goals.

  3. Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Man-Made Hazards, Vulnerability Factors, and Risk to Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Christopher; Sase, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to examine the environmental health implications of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster from an all-hazards perspective. The authors performed a literature review that included Japanese and international nuclear guidance and policy, scientific papers, and reports on the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island disasters while also considering all-hazards preparedness rubrics in the U.S. The examination of the literature resulted in the following: a) the authors' "All-Hazards Planning Reference Model" that distinguishes three planning categories-Disaster Trigger Event, Man-Made Hazards, and Vulnerability Factors; b) the generalization of their model to other countries; and c) advocacy for environmental health end fate to be considered in planning phases to minimize risk to environmental health. This article discusses inconsistencies in disaster planning and nomenclature existing in the studied materials and international guidance and proposes new opportunity for developing predisaster risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention capacity building.

  4. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban-hazard risk analysis: mapping of heat-related risks in the elderly in major Italian cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    Full Text Available Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks.Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥ 65.A long time-series (2001-2013 of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST. LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1 the Linear Regression Model (LRM; 2 the Generalized Additive Model (GAM. Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m from the 2001 census (Eurostat source, and processed together using "Crichton's Risk Triangle" hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI.The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities.This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public health operators and facilitate coordination for heat

  6. Urban-hazard risk analysis: mapping of heat-related risks in the elderly in major Italian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥ 65). A long time-series (2001-2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using "Crichton's Risk Triangle" hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public health operators and facilitate coordination for heat

  7. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with regard to prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.E. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    For the defence against the threats caused by radioactive substances, a general concept was elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards caused by radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For the prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety, and waste management - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. The field of prevention of nuclear hazards ranges from combatting illegal trade with radioactive test sources up to the defence of nuclear fuels with the possibility to construct critical assemblies or the threatening by the distribution of airborne material which might enter the lungs. The latter are considered as serious cases of nuclear hazards. Since the expenditures for devices and personal to be trained would be inadequately high, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is prepared to support the Federal States if it becomes necessary. The concept includes a stand-by service, the search for radioactive material by helicopter or a ground team, analysis of the activity and the type of nuclides, risk assessment, and also measures to steam the risk. This concept will be presented. (author)

  8. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with regard to prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    For the defence against the threats caused by radioactive substances, a general concept was elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards caused by radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For the prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety, and waste management - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. The field of prevention of nuclear hazards ranges from combatting illegal trade with radioactive test sources up to the defence of nuclear fuels with the possibility to construct critical assemblies or the threatening by the distribution of airborne material which might enter the lungs. The latter are considered as serious cases of nuclear hazards. Since the expenditures for devices and personal to be trained would be inadequately high, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is prepared to support the Federal States if it becomes necessary. The concept includes a stand-by service, the search for radioactive material by helicopter or a ground team, analysis of the activity and the type of nuclides, risk assessment, and also measures to steam the risk. This concept will be presented. (author)

  9. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Luke

    1986-03-01

    This report presents criteria for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report presents criteria that are consistent with the existing regulatory approach in Canada, and outlines engineering tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire. The criteria presented cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis and provide details of each topic so that the accuracy of an analysis may be evaluated

  10. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo; Diaz-Castellon, Rodolfo; Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 “bald-earth” topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results.

  11. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  12. Criteria for siting of nuclear power plants with regard for radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevts, I; Kunz, Eh.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed are different approaches to a problem of the nuclear power plant construction expediency from the point of view of earlier and remote consequencies of ionizing radiation in the case of accident releases of radioactive products. The method of a risk and benefit comparison is considered the most expedient approach to decide on the nuclear power plant construction as well as to minimize the accident risk. As at present the probabilities of different accident types are not known or there are only approximate estimates, it is necessary to choose a modified approach, but so that it approximates to the main approach, recommended by ICRP. It is assumed, that the requirements can be met by the following design criteria: Limitation of maximum risk separate persons most subjected to irradiation hazard; introduction of dose limits which is not to be exceeded even in the case of maximum permissible desighned accident (MPDA); application of principle of minimizing the accident risk when estimating the engineering protective buildings at least from the point of view of MPDA or those accident types, which probabilities can be estimated; application of a tentative limit of a collective dose in such a way not to exceed the cumulative collective population dose by a collective dose due to MPDA, under normal operation during all the nuclear power plant operating period [ru

  13. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types--based on BGO, NaI and LaBr 3 crystals is presented.

  14. Is lead dust within nuclear medicine departments a hazard to pediatric patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Shannon M; Carlson, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    Because of the penetrating ability of the radiation used in nuclear medicine, metallic lead is widely used as radiation shielding. However, this shielding may present an insidious health hazard because of the dust that is readily removed from the surfaces of lead objects. The lead dust may become airborne, contaminate floors and other nearby surfaces, and be inadvertently inhaled or ingested by patients. We determined if the quantity of lead dust encountered within nuclear medicine departments exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. For lead dust quantification, professional lead test kits were used to sample fifteen 1-ft(2) sections of different surfaces within the department. Four samples were collected once per week from each site. The samples were then submitted to a National Lead Laboratory-accredited program for a total lead measurement. Lead contamination (mug/ft(2)) for each of the 60 samples was compared with the EPA standards for lead dust. Lead contamination was present at 6 of the 15 sites, and of 60 samples, 18 exceeded the EPA standard of 50 mug/ft(2). Lead contamination is present within nuclear medicine departments, and corrective measures should be considered when dealing with pediatric patients. A larger series needs to be conducted to confirm these findings.

  15. Proceedings of the NEA International Workshop on the Nuclear Innovation road-map (NI2050)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jaejoo HA; Deffrennes, Marc; ); Tromm, Walter; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Speranzini, Robert; Jeong, Ik; Lee, Gye Seok; Castelao Lopez, Carlos; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Puska, Eija Karita; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Horvath, Akos; Agostini, Pietro; Kamide, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Toru; Roelofs, Ferry; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zezula, Lubor; Rayment, Fiona; Cizelj, Leon; Zimmermann, Martin A.; Schmitz, Bruno; Martin-Ramos, Manuel; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, Lyudmila N.; Monti, Stefano; ); Paillere, Henri; ); Caron-Charles, Marylise; Gulliford, Jim; ); Breest, Axel; ); McGrath, Margaret; Bignan, Gilles

    2015-07-01

    The two-day workshop held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on 7-8 July 2015, brought together some of the leading experts in the field of nuclear fission research, development and demonstration. The purpose was to launch the NEA Nuclear Innovation 2050 Initiative, aiming, after a first survey phase, at producing a road-map of main priority research programmes and infrastructures necessary to support the role nuclear energy may play in the low carbon power sector of the future. This might then further lead to some ad-hoc cooperation frameworks that help to effectively implement key priorities coming out of the road-mapping. The workshop was organised into the following five sessions: 1 - Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives; 2 - National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programmes, infrastructures, budgets); 3 - Presentations on some existing international nuclear fission road-maps and co-operation frameworks; 4 - Defining the way forward for NI2050: survey, road-mapping and priorities and co-operation; 5 - Open discussion. These proceedings bring together the available presentations (slides) given during the workshop: 1. Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives: Setting the scene: NEA/IEA Nuclear Energy road-map 2050 (Jaejoo Ha); Proposed scope and organisation of the NI2050 project launching, taking stock of the IEA Energy RD and D survey and going further (Marc Deffrennes); 2. National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programmes, infrastructures, budgets): Overview of German Situation with focus on HGF NUSAFE - HELMHOLTZ (W. Tromm); Investing in Nuclear Innovation in Belgium - SCKCEN (Hamid Ait Abderrahim and Alberto Fernandez); Canadian Nuclear Laboratories: Nuclear S and T and Innovation (R. Speranzini); ROK's Nuclear Policies and R and D Programs - KAERI (Ik Jeong and Lee Gye Seok); R and D Spanish Nuclear Platform (C. Castelao); NOE-NE Programs and

  16. Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smethurst, Mark Andrew; Strand, Terje; Sundal, Aud Venke; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2008-01-01

    We test whether airborne gamma ray spectrometer measurements can be used to estimate levels of radon hazard in the Oslofjord region of Norway. We compile 43,000 line kilometres of gamma ray spectrometer data from 8 airborne surveys covering 10,000 km 2 and compare them with 6326 indoor radon measurements. We find a clear spatial correlation between areas with elevated concentrations of uranium daughters in the near surface of the ground and regions with high incidence of elevated radon concentrations in dwellings. This correlation permits cautious use of the airborne data in radon hazard evaluation where direct measurements of indoor radon concentrations are few or absent. In radon hazard evaluation there is a natural synergy between the mapping of radon in indoor air, bedrock and drift geology mapping and airborne gamma ray surveying. We produce radon hazard forecast maps for the Oslofjord region based on a spatial union of hazard indicators from all four of these data sources. Indication of elevated radon hazard in any one of the data sets leads to the classification of a region as having an elevated radon hazard potential. This approach is inclusive in nature and we find that the majority of actual radon hazards lie in the assumed elevated risk regions

  17. First Volcanological-Probabilistic Pyroclastic Density Current and Fallout Hazard Map for Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Troise, C.; Panizza, A.; de Natale, G.

    2005-05-01

    Integrated volcanological-probabilistic approaches has been used in order to simulate pyroclastic density currents and fallout and produce hazard maps for Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius areas. On the basis of the analyses of all types of pyroclastic flows, surges, secondary pyroclastic density currents and fallout events occurred in the volcanological history of the two volcanic areas and the evaluation of probability for each type of events, matrixs of input parameters for a numerical simulation have been performed. The multi-dimensional input matrixs include the main controlling parameters of the pyroclasts transport and deposition dispersion, as well as the set of possible eruptive vents used in the simulation program. Probabilistic hazard maps provide of each points of campanian area, the yearly probability to be interested by a given event with a given intensity and resulting demage. Probability of a few events in one thousand years are typical of most areas around the volcanoes whitin a range of ca 10 km, including Neaples. Results provide constrains for the emergency plans in Neapolitan area.

  18. Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mapping in the Guil Catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps): From Landslide Inventory to Susceptibility Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Louise; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoît; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are common natural hazards in the Southern French Alps, where they may affect human lives and cause severe damages to infrastructures. As a part of the SAMCO research project dedicated to risk evaluation in mountain areas, this study focuses on the Guil river catchment (317 km2), Queyras, to assess landslide hazard poorly studied until now. In that area, landslides are mainly occasional, low amplitude phenomena, with limited direct impacts when compared to other hazards such as floods or snow avalanches. However, when interacting with floods during extreme rainfall events, landslides may have indirect consequences of greater importance because of strong hillslope-channel connectivity along the Guil River and its tributaries (i.e. positive feedbacks). This specific morphodynamic functioning reinforces the need to have a better understanding of landslide hazards and their spatial distribution at the catchment scale to prevent local population from disasters with multi-hazard origin. The aim of this study is to produce a landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:50 000 scale as a first step towards global estimation of landslide hazard and risk. The three main methodologies used for assessing landslide susceptibility are qualitative (i.e. expert opinion), deterministic (i.e. physics-based models) and statistical methods (i.e. probabilistic models). Due to the rapid development of geographical information systems (GIS) during the last two decades, statistical methods are today widely used because they offer a greater objectivity and reproducibility at large scales. Among them, multivariate analyses are considered as the most robust techniques, especially the logistic regression method commonly used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, this method like others is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the input data to avoid significant errors in the final results. In particular, a complete and accurate landslide inventory is required before the modelling

  19. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012 we have carried out extensive multibeam bathymetric and backscatter surveys in coastal waters of eastern Baffin Island, supplemented by sub-bottom imaging and coring. Shore-zone surveys have been undertaken in proximity to the communities of Iqaluit and Qikiqtarjuaq, following earlier work in Clyde River. These support benthic habitat mapping, geological exploration, analysis of past and present sea-level trends, and assessment of coastal hazards relating to climate change and seabed instability. Outputs include a seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) of extensive boulder-strewn tidal flats in the large tidal-range setting at Iqaluit, supporting analysis of coastal flooding, wave run-up, and sea-ice impacts on a rapidly developing urban waterfront in the context of climate change. Seabed mapping of inner Frobisher Bay seaward of Iqaluit reveals a potential local tsunami hazard in widespread submarine slope failures, the triggers, magnitudes, and ages of which are the subject of ongoing research. In fjords of the Cumberland Peninsula, this project has mapped numerous submerged delta terraces at 19 to 45 m present water depth. These attest to an early postglacial submerged shoreline, displaced by glacial-isostatic adjustment. It rises linearly over a distance of 100 km east to west, where a submerged boulder barricade on a -16 m shoreline was discovered at a proposed port site in Broughton Channel near Qikiqtarjuaq. Palaeotopographic mapping using the multibeam data revealed an enclosed estuarine environment quite different from the present-day open passage swept by tidal currents. At Clyde River, combined seabed and onshore DEMs with geohazard mapping provided foundation data for community assessment and planning under a local knowledge co-production initiative. The geohazard work identified portions of the town-site more vulnerable to both coastal flooding and potential thaw subsidence, while the shallow delta terrace suggested a

  20. Hazard curve evaluation method development for a forest fire as an external hazard on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2016-01-01

    A method to obtain a hazard curve of a forest fire was developed. The method has four steps: a logic tree formulation, a response surface evaluation, a Monte Carlo simulation, and an annual exceedance frequency calculation. The logic tree consists domains of 'forest fire breakout and spread conditions', 'weather conditions', 'vegetation conditions', and 'forest fire simulation conditions.' Condition parameters of the logic boxes are static if stable during a forest fire or not sensitive to a forest fire intensity, and non-static parameters are variables whose frequency/probability is given based on existing databases or evaluations. Response surfaces of a reaction intensity and a fireline intensity were prepared by interpolating outputs from a number of forest fire propagation simulations by fire area simulator (FARSITE). The Monte Carlo simulation was performed where one sample represented a set of variable parameters of the logic boxes and a corresponding intensity was evaluated from the response surface. The hazard curve, i.e. an annual exceedance frequency of the intensity, was therefore calculated from the histogram of the Monte Carlo simulation outputs. The new method was applied to evaluate hazard curves of a reaction intensity and a fireline intensity for a typical location around a sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. (author)

  1. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials; Strahlende Geschaefte. Gefahren des internationalen Atomschmuggels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges berichten die Medien immer haeufiger ueber Schmuggel von Atomtechnologie und spaltbarem Material. Bis heute ist uns eine Katastrophe erspart geblieben. Was geschieht aber, wenn Uran oder Plutonium in die Haende von Terroristen, Fanatikern oder mafiaaehnlichen Kartellen faellt? Der Autor ist im Auftrag des Generalsekretaers der Vereinten Nationen dieser Frage nachgegangen. Rund um die Welt fuehrten ihn seine Nachforschungen und Gespraeche. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seinem brisanten Bericht enthuellt er in diesem Buch. (orig./HP)

  2. Flow-R, a model for susceptibility mapping of debris flows and other gravitational hazards at a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of susceptibility maps for debris flows is of primary importance due to population pressure in hazardous zones. However, hazard assessment by process-based modelling at a regional scale is difficult due to the complex nature of the phenomenon, the variability of local controlling factors, and the uncertainty in modelling parameters. A regional assessment must consider a simplified approach that is not highly parameter dependant and that can provide zonation with minimum data requirements. A distributed empirical model has thus been developed for regional susceptibility assessments using essentially a digital elevation model (DEM. The model is called Flow-R for Flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a Regional scale (available free of charge under http://www.flow-r.org and has been successfully applied to different case studies in various countries with variable data quality. It provides a substantial basis for a preliminary susceptibility assessment at a regional scale. The model was also found relevant to assess other natural hazards such as rockfall, snow avalanches and floods. The model allows for automatic source area delineation, given user criteria, and for the assessment of the propagation extent based on various spreading algorithms and simple frictional laws. We developed a new spreading algorithm, an improved version of Holmgren's direction algorithm, that is less sensitive to small variations of the DEM and that is avoiding over-channelization, and so produces more realistic extents. The choices of the datasets and the algorithms are open to the user, which makes it compliant for various applications and dataset availability. Amongst the possible datasets, the DEM is the only one that is really needed for both the source area delineation and the propagation assessment; its quality is of major importance for the results accuracy. We consider a 10 m DEM resolution as a good compromise between processing time

  3. Differences in Approach between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards with regard to Hazard Definition - CSNI Integrity And Ageing Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoudi, Ali; Labbe, Pierre; Murphy, Andrew; Kitada, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on the safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD-NEA co-ordinates the NEA activities related to maintaining and advancing the scientific and technological knowledge base of the safety of nuclear installations. The Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures Working Group of the CSNI is responsible for work related to the development and use of methods, data and information to assess the behaviour of materials and structures. It has three sub-groups, dealing with the integrity of metal components and structures, ageing of concrete structures, and the seismic behaviour of structures. The CSNI, at its meeting in June 2003, agreed to initiate an activity aimed to identify any difference between nuclear and non-nuclear conventional standards and their potential significance with regard to seismic hazards and design methods. There was a perception, mainly in some of the European countries that nuclear seismic hazard and design standards may be lagging behind developments in similar standards for conventional facilities. Adequate answer to such perception, need the examination of the following aspects and their significance on the seismic assessment of structures and components: - The safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. - The differences in approach regarding the seismic hazard definition. - The difference in approach regarding the design and the methods of analysis. These topics are examined in this report. Appendices A to H of this report contain a brief description of the conventional and the nuclear approaches in the NEA member countries: Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Spain,and USA. The following general conclusions can be drawn: - The approach adopted by the nuclear seismic standards is more conservative and more reliable (in particular for meeting the continued operation criteria) than the recommended by the currently applicable force based conventional seismic codes

  4. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  5. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam(trademark) (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam(trademark) system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas

  6. Inundation mapping – a study based on December 2004 Tsunami Hazard along Chennai coast, Southeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Satheesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami impact study has been undertaken along Chennai coast starting from Pulicat to Kovalam. The study area Chennai coast is mainly devoted to prepare large scale action plan maps on tsunami inundation incorporating land use details derived from satellite data along with cadastral data using a GIS tool. Under tsunami inundation mapping along Chennai coast an integrated approach was adopted to prepare thematic maps on land use/land cover and coastal geomorphology using multispectral remote sensing data. The RTK dGPS instruments are used to collect elevation contour data at 0.5 m intervals for the Chennai coast. The GIS tool has been used to incorporate the elevation data, tsunami inundation markings obtained immediately after tsunami and thematic maps derived from remote sensing data. The outcome of this study provides an important clue on variations in tsunami inundation along Chennai coast, which is mainly controlled by local geomorphologic set-up, coastal zone elevation including coastal erosion protection measures and near shore bathymetry. This study highlights the information regarding most vulnerable areas of tsunami and also provides indication to demarcate suitable sites for rehabilitation.

  7. Flood inundation modeling and hazard mapping under uncertainty in the Sungai Johor basin, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Md. Ali, A.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding can have devastating impacts on people’s livelihood, economy and the environment. An important instrument in flood management is floodplain maps, which assist land planners and local authorities in identifying flood-prone areas, and provide useful information for rescue and relief agencies

  8. APPLICATION OF PALSAR-2 REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPPING IN KELANTAN RIVER BASIN, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, several landslides ensued during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan river basin, peninsular Malaysia, which are obviously connected to geological structures and topographical features of the region. In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2 onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, remote sensing data were used to map geological structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulated drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, structural and topographical geology maps were produced for Kelantan river basin using PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard mapping.

  9. Geoelectric hazard maps for the Mid-Atlantic United States: 100 year extreme values and the 1989 magnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Lucas, Greg M.; Kelbert, Anna; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Maps of extreme value geoelectric field amplitude are constructed for the Mid‐Atlantic United States, a region with high population density and critically important power grid infrastructure. Geoelectric field time series for the years 1983–2014 are estimated by convolving Earth surface impedances obtained from 61 magnetotelluric survey sites across the Mid‐Atlantic with historical 1 min (2 min Nyquist) measurements of geomagnetic variation obtained from a nearby observatory. Statistical models are fitted to the maximum geoelectric amplitudes occurring during magnetic storms, and extrapolations made to estimate threshold amplitudes only exceeded, on average, once per century. For the Mid‐Atlantic region, 100 year geoelectric exceedance amplitudes have a range of almost 3 orders of magnitude (from 0.04 V/km at a site in southern Pennsylvania to 24.29 V/km at a site in central Virginia), and they have significant geographic granularity, all of which is due to site‐to‐site differences in magnetotelluric impedance. Maps of these 100 year exceedance amplitudes resemble those of the estimated geoelectric amplitudes attained during the March 1989 magnetic storm, and, in that sense, the March 1989 storm resembles what might be loosely called a “100 year” event. The geoelectric hazard maps reported here stand in stark contrast with the 100 year geoelectric benchmarks developed for the North American Electric Reliability Corporation.

  10. Application of PALSAR-2 Remote Sensing Data for Landslide Hazard Mapping in Kelantan River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Yearly, several landslides ensued during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan river basin, peninsular Malaysia, which are obviously connected to geological structures and topographical features of the region. In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), remote sensing data were used to map geological structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulated drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, structural and topographical geology maps were produced for Kelantan river basin using PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard mapping.

  11. Application of fuzzy logic approach for wind erosion hazard mapping in Laghouat region (Algeria) using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoud, Djouher; Hassani, Mohamed; Martin Peinado, Francisco José; Guettouche, Mohamed Saïd

    2018-06-01

    Wind erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Algeria that threatens human activities and socio-economic development. The main goal of this study is to apply a fuzzy logic approach to wind erosion sensitivity mapping in the Laghouat region, Algeria. Six causative factors, obtained by applying fuzzy membership functions to each used parameter, are considered: soil, vegetation cover, wind factor, soil dryness, land topography and land cover sensitivity. Different fuzzy operators (AND, OR, SUM, PRODUCT, and GAMMA) are applied to generate wind-erosion hazard map. Success rate curves reveal that the fuzzy gamma (γ) operator, with γ equal to 0.9, gives the best prediction accuracy with an area under curve of 85.2%. The resulting wind-erosion sensitivity map delineates the area into different zones of five relative sensitivity classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The estimated result was verified by field measurements and the high statistically significant value of a chi-square test.

  12. Geoelectric Hazard Maps for the Mid-Atlantic United States: 100 Year Extreme Values and the 1989 Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Lucas, Greg M.; Kelbert, Anna; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Maps of extreme value geoelectric field amplitude are constructed for the Mid-Atlantic United States, a region with high population density and critically important power grid infrastructure. Geoelectric field time series for the years 1983-2014 are estimated by convolving Earth surface impedances obtained from 61 magnetotelluric survey sites across the Mid-Atlantic with historical 1 min (2 min Nyquist) measurements of geomagnetic variation obtained from a nearby observatory. Statistical models are fitted to the maximum geoelectric amplitudes occurring during magnetic storms, and extrapolations made to estimate threshold amplitudes only exceeded, on average, once per century. For the Mid-Atlantic region, 100 year geoelectric exceedance amplitudes have a range of almost 3 orders of magnitude (from 0.04 V/km at a site in southern Pennsylvania to 24.29 V/km at a site in central Virginia), and they have significant geographic granularity, all of which is due to site-to-site differences in magnetotelluric impedance. Maps of these 100 year exceedance amplitudes resemble those of the estimated geoelectric amplitudes attained during the March 1989 magnetic storm, and, in that sense, the March 1989 storm resembles what might be loosely called a "100 year" event. The geoelectric hazard maps reported here stand in stark contrast with the 100 year geoelectric benchmarks developed for the North American Electric Reliability Corporation.

  13. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala [Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Glas, Rickard, E-mail: rickard.glas@ki.se [Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  14. Application of Landsat-8 and ALOS-2 data for structural and landslide hazard mapping in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2017-07-01

    Identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for natural hazards of geological origin is one of the most important applications of advanced remote sensing technology. Yearly, several landslides occur during heavy monsoon rainfall in Kelantan River basin, Peninsular Malaysia. Flooding and subsequent landslide occurrences generated significant damage to livestock, agricultural produce, homes and businesses in the Kelantan River basin. In this study, remote sensing data from the recently launched Landsat-8 and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) on board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan River basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. The data were processed for a comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach was used for landslide susceptibility mapping. Several factors such as slope, aspect, soil, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault and distance to the road were extracted from remote sensing satellite data and fieldwork to apply the AHP approach. Directional convolution filters were applied to ALOS-2 data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. The combination of different polarization channels produced image maps that contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends and

  15. Nuclear energy in a low carbon future: updating the IEA/NEA nuclear technology road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, H.; Cameron, R.; ); Tam, C.; )

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology road-map is one of 20 technology road-maps which the International Energy Agency (IEA) has published. The 2010 road-map, produced jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), came out in a year which saw 16 new construction starts, a number that had not been reached since 1985. The IEA's Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) 'Blue Map' scenario, also published in 2010, projected at that time that the installed world nuclear capacity would need to reach 1200 GW (gross) by 2050 as part of a global effort to de-carbonise the electricity sector assuming least cost optimisation. The 'nuclear renaissance' then stalled for a number of reasons which include the consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 on public acceptance and energy policies. The economic crisis that was already looming in 2010, as well as delays and cost overruns in the first Generation III new build projects in Europe also played a role in the significant drop in new projects. Finally, the US shale gas revolution and the potential role that unconventional oil and gas could play have also changed the prospects for nuclear development in many countries. Four years after the publication of the first road-map, the IEA and the NEA are updating the nuclear energy road-map, taking into account the recent challenges facing the development of this technology. The presentation of this paper will explain the process followed to update the road-map, through stakeholder engagement workshops that took place between January and April 2014. It will most importantly provide some insight into its contents and preliminary milestones and recommendations. The draft of the road-map will be peer-reviewed over the summer and will be published at the end of 2014. The vision developed in the road-map still relates to the contribution that nuclear energy can make to the de-carbonisation of the power system, described in

  16. An investigation on unintended reactor trip events in terms of human error hazards of Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Kwang Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to identify human error hazards has been established. • The proposed methodology is a preventive approach to identify not only human error causes but also its hazards. • Using the HFACS framework we tried to find out not causations but all of the hazards and relationships among them. • We determined countermeasures against human errors through dealing with latent factors such as organizational influences. - Abstract: A new approach for finding the hazards of human errors, and not just their causes, in the nuclear industry is currently required. This is because finding causes of human errors is really impossible owing to the multiplicity of causes in each case. Thus, this study aims at identifying the relationships among human error hazards and determining the strategies for preventing human error events by means of a reanalysis of the reactor trip events in Korea NPPs. We investigated human errors to find latent factors such as decisions and conditions in all of the unintended reactor trip events during the last dozen years. In this study, we applied the HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System), which is a commonly utilized tool for investigating human contributions to aviation accidents under a widespread evaluation scheme. Using the HFACS framework, we tried to find out not the causations but all of the hazards and their relationships in terms of organizational factors. Through the trial, we proposed not only meaningful frequencies of each hazards also correlations of them. Also, considering the correlations of each hazards, we suggested useful strategies to prevent human error event. A method to investigate unintended nuclear reactor trips by human errors and the results will be discussed in more detail

  17. On-site transportation and handling of uranium-233 special nuclear material: Preliminary hazards and accident analysis. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solack, T.; West, D.; Ullman, D.; Coppock, G.; Cox, C.

    1995-01-01

    U-233 Special Nuclear Material (SNM) currently stored at the T-Building Storage Areas A and B must be transported to the SW/R Tritium Complex for repackaging. This SNM is in the form of oxide powder contained in glass jars which in turn are contained in heat sealed double polyethylene bags. These doubled-bagged glass jars have been primarily stored in structural steel casks and birdcages for approximately 20 years. The three casks, eight birdcages, and one pail/pressure vessel will be loaded onto a transport truck and moved over an eight day period. The Preliminary Hazards and Accident Analysis for the on-site transportation and handling of Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Material, documented herein, was performed in accordance with the format and content guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, dated July 1994, specifically Chapter Three, Hazard and Accident Analysis. The Preliminary Hazards Analysis involved detailed walkdowns of all areas of the U-233 SNM movement route, including the T-Building Storage Area A and B, T-Building truck tunnel, and the roadway route. Extensive discussions were held with operations personnel from the Nuclear Material Control Group, Nuclear Materials Accountability Group, EG and G Mound Security and the Material Handling Systems Transportation Group. Existing documentation related to the on-site transportation of hazardous materials, T-Building and SW/R Tritium Complex SARs, and emergency preparedness/response documentation were also reviewed and analyzed to identify and develop the complete spectrum of energy source hazards

  18. Geospatial Approach on Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis: A Study on Coonoor and Ooty, Part of Kallar Watershed, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamana, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are one of the critical natural phenomena that frequently lead to serious problems in hilly area, resulting to loss of human life and property, as well as causing severe damage to natural resources. The local geology with high degree of slope coupled with high intensity of rainfall along with unplanned human activities of the study area causes many landslides in this region. The present study area is more attracted by tourist throughout the year, so this area must be considered for preventive measures. Geospatial based Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique is increasingly used for landslide vulnerability and hazard zonation mapping. It enables the integration of different data layers with different levels of uncertainty. In this present study, it is used analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to prepare landslide hazard zones of the Coonoor and Ooty, part of Kallar watershed, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out using remote sensing data, field surveys and geographic information system (GIS) tools. The ten factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope aspect, slope angle, drainage density, lineament density, soil, precipitation, land use/land cover (LULC), distance from road and NDVI were considered. These factors layers were extracted from the various related spatial data's. These factors were evaluated, and then, the individual factor weight and class weight were assigned to each of the related factors. The Landslide Hazard Zone Index (LHZI) was calculated using Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) the technique based on the assigned weight and the rating is given by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The final cumulative map of the study area was categorized into four hazard zones and classified as zone I to IV. There are 3.56% of the area comes under the hazard zone IV fallowed by 48.19% of the area comes under zone III, 43.63 % of the area in zone II and 4.61% of the area comes hazard

  19. Urban-Hazard Risk Analysis: Mapping of Heat-Related Risks in the Elderly in Major Italian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Objectives Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥65). Methods A long time-series (2001–2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using “Crichton’s Risk Triangle” hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). Results The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. Conclusions This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public

  20. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: reporting on nuclear and other hazards in six Swedish newspapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aasa; Sjoeberg, L.; Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-07-01

    A European Commission sponsored study (RISKPERCOM) involving France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK, is concerned with surveying public perceptions of radiation related and other risks. This was partly done by distributing a questionnaire in each country at three different times in 1996: before, during and after the expected media attention given to the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A selection of print media were analyzed, during a period of eight weeks - four weeks before the anniversary, and four weeks after - making it possible to contrast any changes between the three waves of the questionnaire with the results of the media study. The present report aims at providing a picture of the Swedish media coverage of different kinds of risks during the period referred to above. The purpose of the analysis is thus primarily of a descriptive nature; explanatory factors are only considered in an ad hoc manner while discussing the results and their possible implications. Naturally, the findings arising from this study cannot alone serve as a basis for making statements about the effects of risk related content on the Swedish newspaper readers. The risk stories included in the analysis were those dealing with one or more of the twenty different hazard items referred to in several of the questions in the RISKPERCOM questionnaire. Radiation and nuclear power energy were not the only issues of concern. The selection covered a wide range of other hazards as well, in order to provide for a wide risk panorama, thus making it possible to compare specific risk qualities etc., as these were presented in the media 70 refs, 40 refs

  1. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: reporting on nuclear and other hazards in six Swedish newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Aasa; Sjoeberg, L.; Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-07-01

    A European Commission sponsored study (RISKPERCOM) involving France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK, is concerned with surveying public perceptions of radiation related and other risks. This was partly done by distributing a questionnaire in each country at three different times in 1996: before, during and after the expected media attention given to the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A selection of print media were analyzed, during a period of eight weeks - four weeks before the anniversary, and four weeks after - making it possible to contrast any changes between the three waves of the questionnaire with the results of the media study. The present report aims at providing a picture of the Swedish media coverage of different kinds of risks during the period referred to above. The purpose of the analysis is thus primarily of a descriptive nature; explanatory factors are only considered in an ad hoc manner while discussing the results and their possible implications. Naturally, the findings arising from this study cannot alone serve as a basis for making statements about the effects of risk related content on the Swedish newspaper readers. The risk stories included in the analysis were those dealing with one or more of the twenty different hazard items referred to in several of the questions in the RISKPERCOM questionnaire. Radiation and nuclear power energy were not the only issues of concern. The selection covered a wide range of other hazards as well, in order to provide for a wide risk panorama, thus making it possible to compare specific risk qualities etc., as these were presented in the media

  2. The probabilistic risk analysis of external hazards of an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukka, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Due to natural disasters occurred in the world and the experiences perceived of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the particular knowledge of the role and influence of external hazards in the safety of interim storage of spent nuclear fuel has been emphasized. For that reason it is substantial that they are included in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the interim storage facility. This is also required by the Regulatory Guides issued by The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. To enhance safety culture and nuclear safety in Olkiluoto, The Finnish utility Teollisuuden Voima Oyj has recently completed an analysis of external natural (seismic events are studied as a separate analysis) and unintentional human-induced risks associated with the spent fuel pool cooling and decay heat removal systems as part of the full-scope PRA study for the interim storage of spent fuel (KPA store). The analysis had four goals to achieve: (1) to determine the definition of an initiating event in the context of the KPA store, (2) to identify all potential external hazards and hazard combinations, (3) to perform a qualitative screening analysis based on frequency-strength analysis and detailed plant responses analysis and (4) to model the hazards passed the screening analysis so that model can be used as a risk analysis tool in the risk informed decision making and operating procedures. The assessment carried out included the analysis of operation procedures of decay heat removal, the study of external hazards related initiating events included in the PRA of the OL1 and OL2 nuclear power plants and their dependencies on the initiating events of the KPA store. All external hazards related initiating events were modeled using fault tree linking method. The main result and conclusion of this study was that using the screening analysis, initiating events caused by external hazards that could lead to leakage of the spent fuel pools or that could pose a threat to the

  3. Seismic fragility analysis of a nuclear building based on probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and soil-structure interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Ni, S.; Chen, R.; Han, X.M. [CANDU Energy Inc, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power, Point Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Seismic fragility analyses are conducted as part of seismic probabilistic safety assessment (SPSA) for nuclear facilities. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) has been undertaken for a nuclear power plant in eastern Canada. Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS), obtained from the PSHA, is characterized by high frequency content which differs from the original plant design basis earthquake spectral shape. Seismic fragility calculations for the service building of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant suggests that the high frequency effects of the UHS can be mitigated through site response analysis with site specific geological conditions and state-of-the-art soil-structure interaction analysis. In this paper, it is shown that by performing a detailed seismic analysis using the latest technology, the conservatism embedded in the original seismic design can be quantified and the seismic capacity of the building in terms of High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) can be improved. (author)

  4. The reproductive function state of women working at the Smolensk nuclear power plant in shops with hazard working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyaginskaya, A.M.; Osipov, V.A.; Bugrova, T.I.; Kreusheva, I.F.; Plitkina, V.M.; Karepanova, L.A.; Afanas'eva, R.V.

    2001-01-01

    The reproductive function state of female workers at the Smolensk nuclear power plant in shops with hazardous working conditions is estimated. Female workers occupied in major shops of the Smolensk nuclear power plant are interviewed and subjected to a questionnaire. Individual medical care records of pregnant women and newborns are analyzed. Health statistics data for the town of Desnogorsk are used for comparison. Indicators of the reproductive function among female workers occupied from 1984 up to 1998 at the Smolensk nuclear power plant in workplaces with hazardous working conditions have not been shown to differ from those among the general female population in the town of Desnogorsk: neither these indicators deteriorated during the 14 year period of work as compared with the initial level [ru

  5. Effect of high frequency content of uniform hazard response spectra on nuclear power plant structures, systems and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmani, A. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Baughman, P.D. [Paul D. Baughman Consulting, Exeter, NH (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) is developed from a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and represents a response spectrum for which the amplitude at each frequency has a specified and uniform (equal) probability of exceedance. The high spectral acceleration at high frequencies in the UHS can result mainly from small non-damaging low energy earthquakes. Historically Canadian and U.S. nuclear power plants have been designed using the standard shape spectrum given in CSA N289.3 or USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60, which have maximum spectral accelerations in the lower (2-10 Hz.) frequency range. The impact of the high frequency content of UHS on the nuclear power plant SSCs is required to be assessed. This paper briefly describes the methodologies used for screening and evaluation of the effects of UHS high frequency content on the nuclear power SSCs that have been designed using the CSA N289.3 standard shape spectrum. (author)

  6. Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge Inundation and Velocity Hazard Mapping of the State of Andhra Pradesh (India) using ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackins, J. T.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal region, including parts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka, is the largest bay in the world and is structured in such a manner as to produce the world's largest tropical cyclone (TC) storm surges (SS), with approximately five surge events greater than 5 meters in magnitude each decade. (Needham et al. 2015). Although some studies have been performed to attempt to capture the magnitude and location of historical surges (Shaji et al. 2014) and to model surges in the immediate sense, there is a notable lack of application to the effects on coastal infrastructure in these areas. Given that these areas are some of the most densely populated and least economically able to prepare and recover, it is important to consider the potential effects of storm surge to discover areas where improvements can be made with the limited resources available to these areas. To this end, an ADvanced-CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model (Luettich and Westerink 2004) was created for the Bay of Bengal, using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2014) as bathymetric and topographic data, and a combination of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) records for storm tracks. For the state of Andhra Pradesh, several major TC events ranging from 1977 to 2014 were selected to be modeled with the goal of creating hazard maps of storm surge inundation and velocity for the state. These hazard maps would be used to identify high-vulnerability areas with the goal of implementing land-use planning and coastal development practices that will aid in ameliorating both the loss of life and economic damages sustained as a result of these TCs.

  7. Spatial variability and potential impacts of climate change on flood and debris flow hazard zone mapping and implications for risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staffler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of this study were to identify the alpine torrent catchments that are sensitive to climatic changes and to assess the robustness of the methods for the elaboration of flood and debris flow hazard zone maps to specific effects of climate changes. In this study, a procedure for the identification and localization of torrent catchments in which the climate scenarios will modify the hazard situation was developed. In two case studies, the impacts of a potential increase of precipitation intensities to the delimited hazard zones were studied.

    The identification and localization of the torrent and river catchments, where unfavourable changes in the hazard situation occur, could eliminate speculative and unnecessary measures against the impacts of climate changes like a general enlargement of hazard zones or a general over dimensioning of protection structures for the whole territory. The results showed a high spatial variability of the sensitivity of catchments to climate changes. In sensitive catchments, the sediment management in alpine torrents will meet future challenges due to a higher rate for sediment removal from retention basins. The case studies showed a remarkable increase of the areas affected by floods and debris flow when considering possible future precipitation intensities in hazard mapping. But, the calculated increase in extent of future hazard zones lay within the uncertainty of the methods used today for the delimitation of the hazard zones. Thus, the consideration of the uncertainties laying in the methods for the elaboration of hazard zone maps in the torrent and river catchments sensitive to climate changes would provide a useful instrument for the consideration of potential future climate conditions. The study demonstrated that weak points in protection structures in future will become more important in risk management activities.

  8. Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios.

  9. IEA-NEA Nuclear Technology Road-map Update - Asia Stakeholder Engagement Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Cecilia; ); Paillere, Henri; ); Guoxing, Gu; Tianmin, Xin; Autebert, Remy; Murphy, Paul; Barkatullah, Nadira; Nkong-Njock, Vincent; Dubinsky, Melissa; Cordero, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) released a Nuclear Energy Technology Road-map which outlined the steps needed to accelerate the development of nuclear power and its role in achieve deep greenhouse-gas emissions reduction. Both the global energy sector and the outlook for nuclear have changed significantly since then and an update of this Road-map is currently underway. The IEA and NEA held a stakeholder dialogue meeting focused on nuclear develop in Asia on 25 February 2014 in Hong Kong. The meeting brought together key stakeholders from industry, government, finance and other relevant organisations from Asia and beyond to help define and prioritise key items to be discussed in the IEA/NEA's Nuclear Road-map Update. One of the expected outcomes of this intensive brainstorming and Road-map development session was to discus key targets, milestones, policy measures and other actions needed to support the development and deployment of nuclear power. The workshop was organized in 3 sessions dealing with: Session 1 - Technology development needs for nuclear (Reactor technology, Fuel cycle and decommissioning); Session 2 - Breakout Discussion: - Group I: Financing nuclear. This session focussed on today's reality for financing nuclear and the current economics of nuclear. Mechanisms such as government loan guarantees, vendor financing and role of export credit agencies were discussed. Participants were asked to share lessons learnt and current practices on financing nuclear as well as recommendations (if needed) for additional policy support or changes in technology development (e.g. SMR) which would facilitate greater deployment of nuclear technologies. - Group II: Nuclear regulation and safety. This session focussed on regulatory needs for enhanced security and regulation for new build programmes, institutional development requirements for new nuclear countries. Safety research following the Fukushima Daiichi accident

  10. Proceedings of the national conference on nuclear applications, hazards and safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The conference focuses on nuclear power plants in India, particle accelerators, environmental radiation and detection, nuclear accidents, nuclear disaster management, nuclear energy applications, nuclear medicine, social and economic impact of nuclear energy, bioleaching of radioactive ores, high energy particles physics etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Long-term α-hazard of high activity waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.

    1974-01-01

    The concentration and decay of α-emitters in high activity waste arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing was calculated under specified reference conditions. An attempt to evaluate the long-term hazard of such waste is being made by applying the ''barrier'' approach derived from reactor safety studies. Four barriers were identified, which could be evaluated in a probabilistic way by taking into account the great uncertainties present in each of them. The barriers are: 1) quality of the segregation afforded by deep geological formations, 2) stability of conditioned waste (chemical and physical), 3) retention by immediate surrounding, 4) distribution pattern of actinides in the environment. The analysis of a fictional accident showed that the uncertainties connected with the evaluation of the barriers' value are rather large. Additional studies particularly on the stability of conditioned waste and ecological properties of the environment towards actinides, would considerably improve our knowledge of the value of the barrier system. Chemical separation of actinides from high activity waste would be an additional option of undoubted value for the disposal of high activity waste. Its value for the overall safety of the entire waste inventory depends on many factors which need better evaluation, such as safety of the disposal of the separated actinides and the amount and quality of the additional waste generated by the separation process. An analysis of various levels of possible separations suggests that a reasonable target might be: Pu, Am and Cm, decontamination factor 10 3 ; Np, coextraction with U and Pu with a 90% yield

  12. Routing and scheduling of hazardous materials shipments: algorithmic approaches to managing spent nuclear fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds government regulation of routing and scheduling of Hazardous Materials Transportation (HMT). Increases in operating costs must be balanced against expected benefits from local HMT bans and curfews when promulgating or preempting HMT regulations. Algorithmic approaches for evaluating HMT routing and scheduling regulatory policy are described. A review of current US HMT regulatory policy is presented to provide a context for the analysis. Next, a multiobjective shortest path algorithm to find the set of efficient routes under conflicting objectives is presented. This algorithm generates all efficient routes under any partial ordering in a single pass through the network. Also, scheduling algorithms are presented to estimate the travel time delay due to HMT curfews along a route. Algorithms are presented assuming either deterministic or stochastic travel times between curfew cities and also possible rerouting to avoid such cities. These algorithms are applied to the case study of US highway transport of spent nuclear fuel from reactors to permanent repositories. Two data sets were used. One data set included the US Interstate Highway System (IHS) network with reactor locations, possible repository sites, and 150 heavily populated areas (HPAs). The other data set contained estimates of the population residing with 0.5 miles of the IHS and the Eastern US. Curfew delay is dramatically reduced by optimally scheduling departure times unless inter-HPA travel times are highly uncertain. Rerouting shipments to avoid HPAs is a less efficient approach to reducing delay

  13. Overview of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission collaborative research program to assess tsunami hazard for nuclear power plants on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A.M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Titov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear facilities in the United States. For this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with a goal of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Necessarily, the US NRC research program includes both seismic- and landslide-based tsunamigenic sources in both the near and the far fields. The inclusion of tsunamigenic landslides, an important category of sources that impact tsunami hazard levels for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts is a key difference between this program and most other tsunami hazard assessment programs. The initial phase of this work consisted of collection, interpretation, and analysis of available offshore data, with significant effort focused on characterizing offshore near-field landslides and analyzing their tsunamigenic potential and properties. In the next phase of research, additional field investigations will be conducted in key locations of interest and additional analysis will be undertaken. Simultaneously, the MOST tsunami generation and propagation model used by NOAA will first be enhanced to include landslide-based initiation mechanisms and then will be used to investigate the impact of the tsunamigenic sources identified and characterized by the USGS. The potential for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment will also be explore in the final phases of the program.

  14. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999

  15. Mapping basin-wide subaquatic slope failure susceptibility as a tool to assess regional seismic and tsunami hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2010-05-01

    With increasing awareness of oceanic geohazards, submarine landslides are gaining wide attention because of their catastrophic impacts on both offshore infrastructures (e.g. pipelines, cables and platforms) and coastal areas (e.g. landslide-induced tsunamis). They also are of great interest because they can be directly related to primary trigger mechanisms including earthquakes, rapid sedimentation, gas release, glacial and tidal loading, wave action, or clathrate dissociation, many of which represent potential geohazards themselves. In active tectonic environments, for instance, subaquatic landslide deposits can be used to make inferences regarding the hazard derived from seismic activity. Enormous scientific and economic efforts are thus being undertaken to better determine and quantify causes and effects of natural hazards related to subaquatic landslides. In order to achieve this fundamental goal, the detailed study of past events, the assessment of their recurrence intervals and the quantitative reconstruction of magnitudes and intensities of both causal and subsequent processes and impacts are key requirements. Here we present data and results from a study using fjord-type Lake Lucerne in central Switzerland as a "model ocean" to test a new concept for the assessment of regional seismic and tsunami hazard by basin-wide mapping of critical slope stability conditions for subaquatic landslide initiation. Previously acquired high-resolution bathymetry and reflection seismic data as well as sedimentological and in situ geotechnical data, provide a comprehensive data base to investigate subaquatic landslides and related geohazards. Available data are implemented into a basin-wide slope model. In a Geographic Information System (GIS)-framework, a pseudo-static limit equilibrium infinite slope stability equation is solved for each model point representing reconstructed slope conditions at different times in the past, during which earthquake-triggered landslides

  16. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard Zonation Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry and Horizontal Gradient Mapping in Mexican Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Cigna, F.; Osmanoglu, B.; Dixon, T.; Wdowinski, S.

    2011-12-01

    Subsidence and faulting have affected Mexico city for more than a century and the process is becoming widespread throughout larger urban areas in central Mexico. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and will certainly become a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. In all studied cases stratigraphy of the uppermost sediment strata and the structure of the underlying volcanic rocks impose a much different subsidence pattern which is most suitable for imaging through satellite geodetic techniques. We present examples from several cities in central Mexico: a) Mexico-Chalco. Very high rates of subsidence, up to 370 mm/yr are observed within this lacustrine environment surrounded by Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic structures. b) Aguascalientes where rates up to 90 mm/yr in the past decade are observed, is controlled by a stair stepped N-S trending graben that induces nucleation of faults along the edges of contrasting sediment package thicknesses. c) Morelia presents subsidence rates as high as 80 mm/yr. Differential deformation is observed across major basin-bounding E-W trending faults and with higher subsidence rates on their hanging walls, where the thickest sequences of compressible Quaternary sediments crop out. Our subsidence and faulting study in urban areas of central Mexico is based on a horizontal gradient analysis using displacement maps from Persistent Scatterer InSAR that allows definition of areas with high vulnerability to surface faulting. Correlation of the surface subsidence pattern

  17. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical relationships: Implications for seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-04-01

    Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a special nuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve as a source of seismic amplification that may enhance the seismic shaking of many folds. Determination of the thickness of the soft sediments is therefore crucial in seismic hazard analysis. A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency and amplitude spectrum obtained from the noise measurements during the recording of natural seismicity can be used to obtain thickness of soft sediments covering the bedrock. Nakamura (1989) presented a technique to determine such spectrum using ratio of horizontal to vertical components of the Rayleigh waves. The present study is based on an extensive set of microtremor measurements carried out in the Islamabad city, Pakistan. Fundamental frequencies were obtained from weak motion sensors and Tromino Engy Plus instruments to show that the correlation is clearly valid for a wide range of sediment thickness. A simple formula was derived for the investigated area to determine directly the thickness of sediments from the main peaks in the H/ V spectrum for seismometer and Tromino data separately. A comparison is made between sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study with those given in literature to demonstrate a positive correlation. The correlation of instrumental resonant frequencies with calculated resonant frequencies (theoretical) suggests that the relation derived from the noise measurements mostly depends on the velocity depth function of the shear wave. The fundamental frequency of the main peak of spectral ratio of H/ V using the both instruments correlates well with the thickness of sediments at the site obtained from the

  18. GIS-based hazard and risk maps of the Douro river basin (north-eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gomes Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Douro river basin, in north-eastern Portugal, is a very complex region in terms of its geomorphological structure and morphodynamics. More specifically, the region – the Port Wine-growing region, a UNESCO heritage site – is a landslide-prone area resulting from several factors intrinsic to the bedrock and its detritic cover, combined with factors capable of triggering slope instability mechanisms, such as intense rainfall and human activities. Recently, due to intense rainfall and human activities, frequent rock and mud slides occurred, some of them catastrophic, killing people and damaging property. In the last decade (2000–2010, an accurate inventory of these catastrophic events was made, showing that these events occurred near local small towns, Peso da Régua (2001, Armamar (2003 and Carrazeda de Ansiães (2007. In this paper, we present a case study using field data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools to evaluate landslide hazard and risk assessment following multicriteria evaluation techniques.

  19. Mapping drought risk in Indonesia related to El-Niño hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supari, Muharsyah, R.; Sopaheluwakan, A.

    2016-05-01

    This work is aimed to identify areas in the country that are at high propensity to the impact of global climate phenomenon i.e. El-Nino. An affected area is recognized when rainfall decreases up to below normal condition which frequently leads drought event. For this purpose, two packages of gridded rainfall data at monthly basis with 0.5 spatial resolutions for 1950 2010 period were used, e.g. GPCC Full Data Reanalysis V.6 (product of Global Precipitation Climatology Centre) and CRU TS3.22 (product of Climatic Research Unit). El-Nino years were labelled based on Oceanic Nino Index, ONI. We applied frequency analysis to quantify the chance of El-Nino impact. GPCC data was found more accurate in representing rainfall observation than CRU data based on correlation test against station data. The results indicate the strong spatial and temporal dependencies of El-Nino impact. During peak of rainy and first transitional season (DJF and MAM), the probability to be affected by El-Nino is mostly less than 20% over whole country In contrast, July-October are months where areas with high and very high risk were observed over many regions such as Southern part of Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua. Further investigation at province level found that the timing of El-Nino impact starts in June. These results are potential to improve national capacity in risk management related to weather-climate hazards.

  20. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  1. Seniority mappings for probing phenomenological nuclear boson models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kock, E.A.

    1988-12-01

    The interacting boson model (IBM) and interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM) are discussed. The main ideas of boson mapping of fermion systems are introduced using Holstein-Primakoff and Dyson-Maleev mappings of angular momentum operators. Generalized Dyson-Maleev (GDM) and Holstein-Primakoff (GHP) mappings are included. In fermoin problems, the degrees of freedom of collective motion are described by a collective subalgebra of the complete bifermion subalgebra. GDM mapping of Sp(6) generators, the transformation to collect bosons and truncation to these bosons led to collective sd-boson realization of Sp(6) algebra. This resulted in an IBM-like description of the collective subspace. Non-hermitian and existing hermitian forms are indicated in the assumed structure of an IBM Hamiltonian Boson mapping based on seniority considerations and involving single-j shell approximations of the shell model are examined. One method utilized truncation of a shell model space to a space spanned by monopole (S) and quadrupole (D) pairs. The association between states in truncated fermion and sd-boson spaces constructs boson images of fermion operators by equating boson and fermion matrix elements. To obtain boson images with IBM-like structures, a zero-order approximation was adopted. This approximation retains only N-body terms in the images of N-body fermion operators. A similarity transformation re-expressing GDM images of single-j shell fermion operators in seniority bosons was applied to the GDM image of a general shell model Hamiltonian. Numerical results for the surface-delta interaction show that truncation to s- and d-bosons in the seniority image of a two-body operator is not allowed if N≥2. This transformation was extended to odd fermion systems and applied to the image of the quadrupole pairing interaction. 79 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Mapping the nuclear landscape. 50 years of the Karlsruher Nuklidkarte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, C.; Pfennig, G.; Magill, J.; Dreher, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity has been known for more than a hundred years. Nuclear data compilations through nuclide charts began in the 1920s with the work of Soddy, and were later rationalized in the Karlsruher Nuklidkarte. For 50 years, it has depicted the status of our nuclear knowledge in an easy reading form. It was born as an educational and scientific tool that gives access to the basic bricks that the nuclear Physics community needs to build the physics knowledge at the femtometer (10 -15 m) level. Nuclide data is a bridge between research and development. On the one hand, the nucleus can be regarded as a vast laboratory with, the possibility to test from fundamental concepts of the Standard Model to the genesis of the elements in the Universe. On the other hand, this data is also leading to applications in many areas of everyday life such as health care or environmental monitoring. (author)

  3. Public acceptability of the use of gamma rays from spent nuclear fuel as a hazardous waste treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Wells, R.P.; Reilly, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods were used to estimate public reaction to the use of gamma irradiation of hazardous wastes as a hazardous waste treatment process. The gamma source of interest is spent nuclear fuel. The first method is Benefit-Risk Decision Making, where the benefits of the proposed technology are compared to its risks. The second analysis compares the proposed technology to the other, currently used nuclear technologies and estimates public reaction based on that comparison. The third analysis is called Analysis of Public Consent, and is based on the professional methods of the Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. The conclusion of all three methods is that the proposed technology should not result in negative public reaction sufficient to prevent implementation

  4. The role of Quality Oversight in nuclear and hazardous waste management and environmental restoration at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, H.Y.

    1994-05-01

    The historical factors that led to the waste at Hanford are outlined. Westinghouse Hanford Company mission and organization are described. The role of the Quality Oversight organization in nuclear hazardous waste management and environmental restoration at Westinghouse Hanford Company is delineated. Tank Waste Remediation Systems activities and the role of the Quality Oversight organization are described as they apply to typical projects. Quality Oversight's role as the foundation for implementation of systems engineering and operation research principles is pointed out

  5. NEA International Workshop on the Nuclear Innovation Road-map - NI2050. Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Van Walle, Eric; Speranzini, Robert; Zezula, Lubor; Puska, Eija Karita; Tuomisto, Harri; Al Mazouzi, Abderrahim; Bazile, Fanny; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Wahide, Carole; Tromm, Th. Walter; Horvath, Akos; Agostini, Pietro; Ambrosini, Walter; Kamide, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Toru; Sagayama, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Jeong, Ik; LEE, Gye Seok; Roelofs, Ferry; Van Der Lugt, Hermen; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Alekseev, Pavel; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, Lyudmila N.; Liska, Peter; Cizelj, Leon; Castelao Lopez, Carlos; Zimmermann, Martin; Rayment, Fiona; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Martin Ramos, Manuel; Schmitz, Bruno; Monti, Stefano; Bignan, Gilles; Mcgrath, Margaret; Caron-Charles, Marylise; Magwood, William IV; Ha, Jaejoo; Deffrennes, Marc; Paillere, Henri; Noh, Jae Man; Gulliford, Jim; Breest, Axel; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    The two-day workshop held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on 7-8 July 2015, brought together some of the leading experts in the field of nuclear fission research, development and demonstration. The purpose was to launch the NEA Nuclear Innovation 2050 Initiative, aiming, after a first survey phase, at producing a road-map of main priority research programs and infrastructures necessary to support the role nuclear energy may play in the low carbon power sector of the future. This might then further lead to some ad-hoc co-operation frameworks that help to effectively implement key priorities coming out of the road-mapping. The workshop was organised into the following five sessions: 1 - Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives; 2 - National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programs, infrastructures, budgets); 3 - Presentations on some existing international nuclear fission road-maps and co-operation frameworks; 4 - Defining the way forward for NI2050: survey, road-mapping and priorities and co-operation; 5 - Open discussion. This document gathers the available presentations given at this workshop

  6. A case study of desertification hazard mapping using the MEDALUS (ESAs methodology in southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Taghipour-Javi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs prone to desertification can lead to substantial gains in the efficiency of land use planning and partly avoid negative outcomes. The main objectives of this research were the monitoring and mapping of ESAs to desertification in the agro-ecosystem of the Khanmirza plain, Iran, during two time series (2000 and 2013. In the current study, an adjusted “Mediterranean desertification and land use (MEDALUS” approach was applied to identify the most ESAs to desertification in the study area and monitorchanges inthe environmental sensitivity area indicator (ESAIbetween 2000 and 2013 over the studied area.Fivemain thematic indicators have been evaluated including, Soil quality indicator (SQI, Management quality indicator (MQI, Climate quality indicator (CQI, Vegetation quality indicator (VQI, and Irrigation water quality indicator (IWQI. Results show that the areas affected by the critical desertification status covered approximately 7% of the farmlands and the meadowlands in this agro-ecosystem region in the year 2000. Likewise, in 2013, almost 24% of the study area was sensitive to and affected by desertification, giving a rate of increase of approximately 1.3% per year.More than half of the land used for agriculture has been moderately to severely degraded. The results also show that the central places intheregionwere affected by farmlands and meadowlands degradingto barrenlands due to mismanagement and a lack ofeffective planning withland and water resources. However, rehabilitation of irreversibly degraded land requires serious measures that aim torestore the capability of those areas and increase resistance to degradation through effective planning in water and land in the region.

  7. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drought is a recurring extreme climate event characterized by a temporary deficit of precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow, or any combination of the three taking place at the same time. The immediate consequences of short-term (i.e. a few weeks duration) droughts are, for example, a fall in crop production, poor pasture growth and a decline in fodder supplies from crop residues, whereas prolonged water shortages (e.g. of several months or years duration) may, amongst others, lead to a reduction in hydro-electrical power production and an increase of forest fires. As a result, comprehensive drought risk management is nowadays critical for many regions in the world. Examples are many African and South-and Central American countries that strongly depend on rain-fed agriculture for economic development with hydroelectricity and biomass as main sources of energy. Drought risk is the probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses resulting from interactions between drought hazard, i.e. the physical nature of droughts, and the degree to which a population or activity is vulnerable to its effects. As vulnerability to drought is increasing globally and certain tasks, such as distributive policies (e.g. relief aid, regulatory exemptions, or preparedness investments), require information on drought severity that is comparable across different climatic regions, greater attention has recently been directed to the development of methods for a standardized quantification of drought hazard. In this study we, therefore, concentrate on a methodology for assessing the severity of historical droughts and on mapping the frequency of their occurrence. To achieve these goals, we use a new Meteorological Drought Severity Index (MDSI). The motivation is twofold: 1) the observation that primitive indices of drought severity directly measure local precipitation shortages and cannot be compared geographically; and that 2) standardized indices of drought do not take into account

  8. Apparatus and method for nuclear magnetic resonance scanning and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damadian, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method is disclosed for analyzing the chemical and structural composition of a specimen including whole-body specimens which may include, for example, living mammals, utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A magnetic field space necessary to obtain an NMR signal characteristic of the chemical structure of the specimen is focused to provide a resonance domain of selectable size, which may then be moved in a pattern with respect to the specimen to scan the specimen

  9. International nuclear reactor hazard study. Design and operational features, and hazards of commercial nuclear power reactors in the world. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.; Benecke, J.; Donderer, R.; Etemad, S.; Hirsch, H.; Kjellstroem, B.; Large, J.; Scheer, J.; Schneider, M.; Schumacher, H.; Schumacher, O.; Scott, M.; Takagi, J.; Thompson, G.; Torrie, R.; Ziggel, H.

    1986-09-01

    Project management and scientific coordination was performed by Gruppe Oekologie Hannover. The experts from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, Sweden, USA, and Japan represented an annulated experience of work on nuclear safety. The panel members analyzed the reactor types of their respective countries. The draft reports on the individual reactor types were discussed. Also included are brief descriptions of the different reactor types with simple drawing, evolution of reactor types and a brief report on nuclear power plants in the world. (DG)

  10. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS)-a Multiplatform Remote Sensing Approach to Fire and Smoke Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, J.; Ruminski, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    The HMS is a multiplatform remote sensing approach to detecting fires and smoke over the US and adjacent areas of Canada and Mexico that has been in place since June 2002. This system is an integral part of the National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service (NESDIS) near realtime hazard detection and mitigation efforts. The system utilizes NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Automated detection algorithms are employed for each of the satellites for the fire detects while smoke is added by a satellite image analyst. In June 2003 the HMS underwent an upgrade. A number of features were added for users of the products generated on the HMS. Sectors covering Alaska and Hawaii were added. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) shape files for smoke analysis is a new feature. Shape files show the progression and time of a single smoke plume as each analysis is drawn and then updated. The analyst now has the ability to view GOES, POES, and MODIS data in a single loop. This allows the fire analyst the ability to easily confirm a fire in three different data sets. The upgraded HMS has faster satellite looping and gives the analyst the ability to design a false color image for a particular region. The GOES satellites provide a relatively coarse 4 km infrared resolution at satellite subpoint for thermal fire detection but provide the advantage of a rapid update cycle. GOES imagery is updated every 15 minutes utilizing both GOES-10 and GOES-12. POES imagery from NOAA-15, NOAA-16 and NOAA-17 and MODIS from Terra and Aqua are employed with each satellite providing twice per day coverage (more frequent over Alaska). While the frequency of imagery is much less than with GOES the higher resolution of these satellites (1 km along the suborbital track) allows for detection of

  11. Application of mapping crossover genetic algorithm in nuclear power equipment optimization design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guijiang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Liu Chengyang

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) has been widely applied in nuclear engineering. An improved method, named the mapping crossover genetic algorithm (MCGA), was developed aiming at improving the shortcomings of traditional genetic algorithm (TGA). The optimal results of benchmark problems show that MCGA has better optimizing performance than TGA. MCGA was applied to the reactor coolant pump optimization design. (authors)

  12. Use of Advanced Tsunami Hazard Assessment Techniques and Tsunami Source Characterizations in U.S. and International Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A. M.; Godoy, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, as well as the anticipation of the submission of license applications for new nuclear facilities, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear power plants and other coastal facilities in the United States. To undertake this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program jointly undertaken with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the purpose of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. This study identified and modeled both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources in the near- and far-field. The results from this work are now being used directly as the basis for the review of tsunami hazard at potential nuclear plant sites. This application once again shows the importance that the earth sciences can play in addressing issues of importance to society. Because the Indian Ocean Tsunami was a global event, a number of cooperative international activities have also been initiated within the nuclear community. The results of US efforts are being incorporated into updated regulatory guidance for both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United Nation’s International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Coordinated efforts are underway to integrate state-of-the art tsunami warning tools developed by NOAA into NRC and IAEA activities. The goal of the warning systems project is to develop automated protocols that allow scientists at these agencies to have up-to-the minute user-specific information in hand shortly after a potential tsunami has been identified by the US Tsunami Warning System. Lastly, USGS and NOAA scientists are assisting the NRC and IAEA in a special Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP) on tsunami being coordinated by the IAEA’s International Seismic Safety

  13. Environmental hazard mapping using GIS and AHP - A case study of Dong Trieu District in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Phonekeo, V.; My, V. C.; Duong, N. D.; Dat, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Vietnamese economy has been growing up rapidly and caused serious environmental quality plunging, especially in industrial and mining areas. It brings an enormous threat to a socially sustainable development and the health of human beings. Environmental quality assessment and protection are complex and dynamic processes, since it involves spatial information from multi-sector, multi-region and multi-field sources and needs complicated data processing. Therefore, an effective environmental protection information system is needed, in which considerable factors hidden in the complex relationships will become clear and visible. In this paper, the authors present the methodology which was used to generate environmental hazard maps which are applied to the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographical Information system (GIS). We demonstrate the results that were obtained from the study area in Dong Trieu district. This research study has contributed an overall perspective of environmental quality and identified the devastated areas where the administration urgently needs to establish an appropriate policy to improve and protect the environment.

  14. Environmental hazard mapping using GIS and AHP – A case study of Dong Trieu District in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, N K; Duong, N D; Phonekeo, V; My, V C; Dat, P T

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Vietnamese economy has been growing up rapidly and caused serious environmental quality plunging, especially in industrial and mining areas. It brings an enormous threat to a socially sustainable development and the health of human beings. Environmental quality assessment and protection are complex and dynamic processes, since it involves spatial information from multi-sector, multi-region and multi-field sources and needs complicated data processing. Therefore, an effective environmental protection information system is needed, in which considerable factors hidden in the complex relationships will become clear and visible. In this paper, the authors present the methodology which was used to generate environmental hazard maps which are applied to the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographical Information system (GIS). We demonstrate the results that were obtained from the study area in Dong Trieu district. This research study has contributed an overall perspective of environmental quality and identified the devastated areas where the administration urgently needs to establish an appropriate policy to improve and protect the environment

  15. World hazards and nuclear weapons: right and wrong answers. To reach a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons is possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Daniel; Nivet, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A first article notices that modernisation of nuclear weapons are resumed with the emergence of new nuclear temptations: ambitious modernisation programme in the USA, catching-up race by Russia to be able to pierce antimissile defences, Chinese modernisation, renewal of the British Trident programme, doubling of nuclear military budgets in France, developments in India and Pakistan. However, the author discusses the possible emergence of new opportunities for a nuclear disarmament: humanitarian ICAN campaign for a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons. He highlights the need of a debate in France on these issues even though no politician dares to take a strong position in favour of nuclear disarmament. In a third article, a member of an activist association shows that, after the adoption of a U N resolution on favour of the elaboration of a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of civil society seems necessary

  16. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürpinar, Aybars, E-mail: aybarsgurpinar2007@yahoo.com [Nuclear & Risk Consultancy, Anisgasse 4, 1221 Vienna (Austria); Serva, Leonello, E-mail: lserva@alice.it [Independent Consultant, Via dei Dauni 1, 00185 Rome (Italy); Livio, Franz, E-mail: franz.livio@uninsubria.it [Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Velleggio, 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Rizzo, Paul C., E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoasoc.com [RIZZO Associates, 500 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  17. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürpinar, Aybars; Serva, Leonello; Livio, Franz; Rizzo, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  18. Analytical chemistry in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kademani, B.S.; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vijai

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Analytical Chemistry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005 a total of 8224 papers were published. There were only seven papers published in 1970. Thereafter, a tremendous explosion of literature was observed in this area. The highest number of papers (636) were published in 1985. The average number of publications published per year was 228.44. United States topped the list with 1811 publications followed by USSR with 1688 publications, Germany with 777 publications, India with 730 publications and Hungary with 519 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 80.3 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: B. F. Myasoedov, AN SSSR Moscow Inst. Geokhimii I Analitisheskoi Khimii, Russian Federation with 84 publications, M. Sudersanan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 67 publications, P.Vanura and V. Jedinakova Krizova both from Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic with 54 publications each, S. Gangadharan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 47 publications, V.M. Ivanova , M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 45 publications and Yu. A Zolotov Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 40 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were : Zhurnal Analiticheskoj Khimii with 713 papers, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry with 409 papers, Analytical Chemistry Washington with 364 papers, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry with 324 papers, Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A with 251 papers, and Journal of Analytical Chemistry of the USSR with 145 papers. The high

  19. Genetic k-means clustering approach for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city: a case study of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weifang; Zeng, Weihua

    2013-06-20

    Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  20. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  1. Advanced Safeguards Technology Road-map for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Tobin, S.; Smith, L.E.; Ehinger, M.; Dougan, A.; Cipiti, B.; Bakel, A.; Bean, R.

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening the nonproliferation regime, including advanced safeguards, is a cornerstone of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To meet these challenges, the Safeguards Campaign was formed, whose mission is to provide research and technology development for the foundation of next generation safeguards systems for implementation in U.S. GNEP facilities. The Safeguards Campaign works closely with the Nuclear Nonproliferation and International Security department (NA-24) of NNSA (National Nuclear Safety Administration) to ensure that technology developed for domestic safeguards applications are optimum with respect to international safeguards use. A major milestone of the program this year has been the development of the advanced safeguards technology road-map. This paper will broadly describe the road-map, which provides a path to next generation safeguards systems including advanced instrumentation; process monitoring; data integration, protection, and analysis; and system level evaluation and knowledge extraction for real time applications. (authors)

  2. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  3. Economic assessment of coal-fired and nuclear power generation in the year 2000 -Equal health hazard risk basis-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ki Bong; Lee, Byong Whi

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of equal health hazard risk, economic assessment of nuclear was compared with that of coal for the expansion planning of electric power generation in the year 2000. In comparing health risks, the risk of coal was roughly ten times higher than that of nuclear according to various previous risk assessments of energy system. The zero risk condition can never be achievable. Therefore, only excess relative health risk of coal over nuclear was considered as social cost. The social cost of health risk was estimated by calculation of mortality and morbidity costs. Mortality cost was $250,000 and morbidity cost was $90,000 in the year 2000.(1986US$) Through Cost/Benefit Analysis, the optimal emission standards of coal-fired power generation were predicted. These were obtained at the point of least social cost for power generation. In the year 2000, the optimal emission standard of SO x was analyzed as 165ppm for coal-fired power plants in Korea. From this assessment, economic comparison of nuclear and coal in the year 2000 showed that nuclear would be more economical than coal, whereas uncertainty of future power generation cost of nuclear would be larger than that of coal. (Author)

  4. Performance of USGS one-year earthquake hazard map for natural and induced seismicity in the central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.; Salditch, L.; Petersen, M. D.; McNamara, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in the central United States has dramatically increased since 2008 due to the injection of wastewater produced by oil and gas extraction. In response, the USGS created a one-year probabilistic hazard model and map for 2016 to describe the increased hazard posed to the central and eastern United States. Using the intensity of shaking reported to the "Did You Feel It?" system during 2016, we assess the performance of this model. Assessing the performance of earthquake hazard maps for natural and induced seismicity is conceptually similar but has practical differences. Maps that have return periods of hundreds or thousands of years— as commonly used for natural seismicity— can be assessed using historical intensity data that also span hundreds or thousands of years. Several different features stand out when assessing the USGS 2016 seismic hazard model for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes. First, the model can be assessed as a forecast in one year, because event rates are sufficiently high to permit evaluation with one year of data. Second, because these models are projections from the previous year thus implicitly assuming that fluid injection rates remain the same, misfit may reflect changes in human activity. Our results suggest that the model was very successful by the metric implicit in probabilistic hazard seismic assessment: namely, that the fraction of sites at which the maximum shaking exceeded the mapped value is comparable to that expected. The model also did well by a misfit metric that compares the spatial patterns of predicted and maximum observed shaking. This was true for both the central and eastern United States as a whole, and for the region within it with the highest amount of seismicity, Oklahoma and its surrounding area. The model performed least well in northern Texas, over-stating hazard, presumably because lower oil and gas prices and regulatory action reduced the water injection volume

  5. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  6. Practicality for Software Hazard Analysis for Nuclear Safety I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Moon, Kwon-Ki; Chang, Young-Woo; Jeong, Soo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We are using the concept of system safety in engineering. It is difficult to make any system perfectly safe and probably a complete system may not easily be achieved. The standard definition of a system from MIL-STD- 882E is: “The organization of hardware, software, material, facilities, personnel, data, and services needed to perform a designated function within a stated environment with specified results.” From the perspective of the system safety engineer and the hazard analysis process, software is considered as a subsystem. Regarding hazard analysis, to date, methods for identifying software failures and determining their effects is still a research problem. Since the success of software development is based on rigorous test of hardware and software, it is necessary to check the balance between software test and hardware test, and in terms of efficiency. Lessons learned and experience from similar systems are important for the work of hazard analysis. No major hazard has been issued for the software developed and verified in Korean NPPs. In addition to hazard analysis, software development, and verification and validation were thoroughly performed. It is reasonable that the test implementation including the development of the test case, stress and abnormal conditions, error recovery situations, and high risk hazardous situations play a key role in detecting and preventing software faults

  7. Practicality for Software Hazard Analysis for Nuclear Safety I and C System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Moon, Kwon-Ki; Chang, Young-Woo; Jeong, Soo-Hyun [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We are using the concept of system safety in engineering. It is difficult to make any system perfectly safe and probably a complete system may not easily be achieved. The standard definition of a system from MIL-STD- 882E is: “The organization of hardware, software, material, facilities, personnel, data, and services needed to perform a designated function within a stated environment with specified results.” From the perspective of the system safety engineer and the hazard analysis process, software is considered as a subsystem. Regarding hazard analysis, to date, methods for identifying software failures and determining their effects is still a research problem. Since the success of software development is based on rigorous test of hardware and software, it is necessary to check the balance between software test and hardware test, and in terms of efficiency. Lessons learned and experience from similar systems are important for the work of hazard analysis. No major hazard has been issued for the software developed and verified in Korean NPPs. In addition to hazard analysis, software development, and verification and validation were thoroughly performed. It is reasonable that the test implementation including the development of the test case, stress and abnormal conditions, error recovery situations, and high risk hazardous situations play a key role in detecting and preventing software faults.

  8. Applications of a mapping procedure to nuclear and nuclear structure problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catara, F.; Sambataro, M.

    1993-01-01

    A mapping procedure which has applied both for the deriving boson images of fermion operators and for constructing nucleon images of quark operators within the framework of nonrelativistic quark model is illustrated

  9. The hazards arising out of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.; Pelzer, N.

    1993-01-01

    The first two sections of this investigation on the concept and the basic requirements of nuclear law describe the purpose and the necessary elements of nuclear law. Those basics form the yardstick which can be used to assess whether regulations are appropriate to cope with the nuclear risk. Roughly, the basic concepts described are or ought to be the common denominator of nuclear law at both national and international level. Of course, those basic elements need to be further elaborated. For that reason it is necessary to describe and to check national legislations and international treaties and other acts to see whether and in which way the basics are implemented. This task requires a careful study and description of the entire national and international set of legal sources dealing with the peaceful use of nuclear energy. It is obvious that such a complete study is far beyond the scope of this report. Especially, a comparative study of national legislations cannot be given here. However, reference can be made to other sources which provide for the necessary information. The Nuclear Law Bulletin of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD reports on the legal development in the nuclear field twice a year; the Bulletin also publishes translations of major pieces of nuclear legislation in English and in French. Moreover, there are bibliographies which include national and international legislation. As for the international development, sections 4 and 5 will be dealing with the stages of international cooperation and especially with the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Further sections of this report will deal with the prevention of misuse of nuclear energy, with nuclear safety, nuclear liability and nuclear waste management. At the end there will be a summary which attempts to assess the existing nuclear law. 1 appendix, refs

  10. A multi-temporal analysis approach for land cover mapping in support of nuclear incident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shagan; van Aardt, Jan A. N.; McKeown, Donald M.; Messinger, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Remote sensing can be used to rapidly generate land use maps for assisting emergency response personnel with resource deployment decisions and impact assessments. In this study we focus on constructing accurate land cover maps to map the impacted area in the case of a nuclear material release. The proposed methodology involves integration of results from two different approaches to increase classification accuracy. The data used included RapidEye scenes over Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station (Oswego, NY). The first step was building a coarse-scale land cover map from freely available, high temporal resolution, MODIS data using a time-series approach. In the case of a nuclear accident, high spatial resolution commercial satellites such as RapidEye or IKONOS can acquire images of the affected area. Land use maps from the two image sources were integrated using a probability-based approach. Classification results were obtained for four land classes - forest, urban, water and vegetation - using Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances as metrics. Despite the coarse resolution of MODIS pixels, acceptable accuracies were obtained using time series features. The overall accuracies using the fusion based approach were in the neighborhood of 80%, when compared with GIS data sets from New York State. The classifications were augmented using this fused approach, with few supplementary advantages such as correction for cloud cover and independence from time of year. We concluded that this method would generate highly accurate land maps, using coarse spatial resolution time series satellite imagery and a single date, high spatial resolution, multi-spectral image.

  11. Connecting smoke plumes to sources using Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke and fire location data over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Steven J.; Ruminski, Mark; Atwood, Samuel A.; Fischer, Emily V.

    2018-02-01

    Fires represent an air quality challenge because they are large, dynamic and transient sources of particulate matter and ozone precursors. Transported smoke can deteriorate air quality over large regions. Fire severity and frequency are likely to increase in the future, exacerbating an existing problem. Using the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke data for North America for the period 2007 to 2014, we examine a subset of fires that are confirmed to have produced sufficient smoke to warrant the initiation of a U.S. National Weather Service smoke forecast. We find that gridded HMS-analyzed fires are well correlated (r = 0.84) with emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Inventory Database 4s (GFED4s). We define a new metric, smoke hours, by linking observed smoke plumes to active fires using ensembles of forward trajectories. This work shows that the Southwest, Northwest, and Northwest Territories initiate the most air quality forecasts and produce more smoke than any other North American region by measure of the number of HYSPLIT points analyzed, the duration of those HYSPLIT points, and the total number of smoke hours produced. The average number of days with smoke plumes overhead is largest over the north-central United States. Only Alaska, the Northwest, the Southwest, and Southeast United States regions produce the majority of smoke plumes observed over their own borders. This work moves a new dataset from a daily operational setting to a research context, and it demonstrates how changes to the frequency or intensity of fires in the western United States could impact other regions.

  12. Physical and toxic properties of hazardous chemicals regularly stored and transported in the vicinity of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    This report gives a compilation of data based on information assembled by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completed by the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the UK AEA, the Dutch Reactor Safety Commission, the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CSNI Secretariat. Data sheets for a large number of hazardous chemicals are presented (from acetaldehyde to xylene), giving details of their physical and toxic properties such as: molecular weight, boiling point, vapor density, heat of vaporization, toxic concentration in air, flammability limits, toxic effects, vapor pressure data, etc.

  13. Nuclear energy's dilemma: disposing of hazardous radioactive waste safely. Report to the congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unsolved problem of radioactive waste disposal threatens the future of nuclear power in the United States. Nuclear critics, the public, business leaders, and Government officials concur that a solution to the disposal problem is critical to the continued growth of nuclear energy. The Energy Research and Development Administration has begun a program to demonstrate by the mid-1980s the feasibility and safety of placing radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. GAO points out that not only has progress been negligible to date, but that future program goals are overly optimistic because the Energy Research and Development Administration faces many unsolved social, regulatory, and geological obstacles. GAO also discusses the progress and problems the Energy Research and Development Administration faces in managing its radioactive waste and how the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is handling the problem of large amounts of spent nuclear fuel now accumulating at nuclear power plants, and makes a number of recommendations for regulatory and program management changes

  14. Earth reencounter probabilities for aborted space disposal of hazardous nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative assessment is made of the long-term risk of earth reencounter and reentry associated with aborted disposal of hazardous material in the space environment. Numerical results are presented for 10 candidate disposal options covering a broad spectrum of disposal destinations and deployment propulsion systems. Based on representative models of system failure, the probability that a single payload will return and collide with earth within a period of 250,000 years is found to lie in the range .0002-.006. Proportionately smaller risk attaches to shorter time intervals. Risk-critical factors related to trajectory geometry and system reliability are identified as possible mechanisms of hazard reduction.

  15. Epidemiologic investigation on health hazard of potential exposure to ionizing radiation among nuclear workers and residents near nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keun Young

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the health hazard of potential exposure to ionizing radiation among nuclear workers of the KEPCO and community residents nearby nuclear power plants since 1990 in Korea. The objectives of this study encompass 1) to delineate the relationship between cancer occurrence in the target population and radiation possibly emitted from the nuclear power plant, and 2) to provide special health service for health promotion of the community residents including periodic health examinations. The phase I study has been conducted during 1990-1995, which will be followed up by the phase II study until 2003. Hereby the interim report on the phase I study will be presented. As a baseline survey, the cross-sectional comparison shows that there were no significant difference in the health status of nuclear workers and control groups. This prospective study could eventually provide a valid conclusion on the causal relationship of radiation and cancer occurrence among residents nearby nuclear power plants through the phase II study which will be launched out during 1998-2000. (Cho, G. S.)

  16. The assessment system based on virtual decommissioning environments to reduce abnormal hazards from human errors for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon; Hyun, Dong jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. So, it is necessary that before decommissioning, the exposure dose to workers has to be analyzed and assessed under the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Furthermore, to improve the proficiency of decommissioning environments, method and system need to be developed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations.

  17. Geomorphological method in the elaboration of hazard maps for flash-floods in the municipality of Jucuarán (El Salvador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lavado, C.; Furdada, G.; Marqués, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    This work deals with the elaboration of flood hazard maps. These maps reflect the areas prone to floods based on the effects of Hurricane Mitch in the Municipality of Jucuarán of El Salvador. Stream channels located in the coastal range in the SE of El Salvador flow into the Pacific Ocean and generate alluvial fans. Communities often inhabit these fans can be affected by floods. The geomorphology of these stream basins is associated with small areas, steep slopes, well developed regolite and extensive deforestation. These features play a key role in the generation of flash-floods. This zone lacks comprehensive rainfall data and gauging stations. The most detailed topographic maps are on a scale of 1:25 000. Given that the scale was not sufficiently detailed, we used aerial photographs enlarged to the scale of 1:8000. The effects of Hurricane Mitch mapped on these photographs were regarded as the reference event. Flood maps have a dual purpose (1) community emergency plans, (2) regional land use planning carried out by local authorities. The geomorphological method is based on mapping the geomorphological evidence (alluvial fans, preferential stream channels, erosion and sedimentation, man-made terraces). Following the interpretation of the photographs this information was validated on the field and complemented by eyewitness reports such as the height of water and flow typology. In addition, community workshops were organized to obtain information about the evolution and the impact of the phenomena. The superimposition of this information enables us to obtain a comprehensive geomorphological map. Another aim of the study was the calculation of the peak discharge using the Manning and the paleohydraulic methods and estimates based on geomorphologic criterion. The results were compared with those obtained using the rational method. Significant differences in the order of magnitude of the calculated discharges were noted. The rational method underestimated the

  18. Geomorphological method in the elaboration of hazard maps for flash-floods in the municipality of Jucuarán (El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fernández-Lavado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the elaboration of flood hazard maps. These maps reflect the areas prone to floods based on the effects of Hurricane Mitch in the Municipality of Jucuarán of El Salvador. Stream channels located in the coastal range in the SE of El Salvador flow into the Pacific Ocean and generate alluvial fans. Communities often inhabit these fans can be affected by floods. The geomorphology of these stream basins is associated with small areas, steep slopes, well developed regolite and extensive deforestation. These features play a key role in the generation of flash-floods. This zone lacks comprehensive rainfall data and gauging stations. The most detailed topographic maps are on a scale of 1:25 000. Given that the scale was not sufficiently detailed, we used aerial photographs enlarged to the scale of 1:8000. The effects of Hurricane Mitch mapped on these photographs were regarded as the reference event. Flood maps have a dual purpose (1 community emergency plans, (2 regional land use planning carried out by local authorities. The geomorphological method is based on mapping the geomorphological evidence (alluvial fans, preferential stream channels, erosion and sedimentation, man-made terraces. Following the interpretation of the photographs this information was validated on the field and complemented by eyewitness reports such as the height of water and flow typology. In addition, community workshops were organized to obtain information about the evolution and the impact of the phenomena. The superimposition of this information enables us to obtain a comprehensive geomorphological map. Another aim of the study was the calculation of the peak discharge using the Manning and the paleohydraulic methods and estimates based on geomorphologic criterion. The results were compared with those obtained using the rational method. Significant differences in the order of magnitude of the calculated discharges were noted. The rational method

  19. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carr, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending belt of volcanism. This belt developed about 8 Myr ago following cessation of silicic volcanism and contemporaneous with migration of basaltic activity toward the southwest margin of the Great Basin. Two types of fields are present in the belt: (1) large-volume, long-lived basalt and local rhyolite fields with numerous eruptive centers and (2) small-volume fields formed by scattered basaltic scoria cones. Late Cenozoic basalts of the NTS region belong to the second field type. Monogenetic basalt centers of this region were formed mostly by Strombolian eruptions; Surtseyean activity has been recognized at three centers. Geochemically, the basalts of the NTS region are classified as straddle A-type basalts of the alkalic suite. Petrological studies indicate a volumetric dominance of evolved hawaiite magmas. Trace- and rare-earth-element abundances of younger basalt ( - 8 to 10 - 10 as calculated for a 1-yr period. Potential disruptive and dispersal effects of magmatic penetration of a repository are controlled primarily by the geometry of basalt feeder systems, the mechanism of waste incorporation in magma, and Strombolian eruption processes

  20. 48 CFR 50.104-3 - Special procedures for unusually hazardous or nuclear risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Indemnification requests. (1) Contractor requests for the indemnification clause to cover unusually hazardous or...: (i) Identification of the contract for which the indemnification clause is requested. (ii... insurance coverage; (D) Deductibles, if any, applicable to losses under the policies; (E) Any exclusions...

  1. The application of mapping to the representation of some indicators in the use of nuclear energy and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper mapping is defined as the topography of features connected with the use of nuclear energy within geographical regions. For this purpose, proportional maps were used. As the generation of radioactive wastes, mainly the high level waste, from nuclear power plants is closely linked to the production of electricity, the power capacity of nuclear power plants in the country is directly proportional to the generation of this type of waste. Therefore, statistical data on the number of reactor units, the total nuclear electricity generating capacity or the nuclear share of electricity generation have been used in this paper in order to demonstrate the suitability of the mapping technique for visualisation of some nuclear energy and radioactive waste generation related indicators. (author)

  2. Using SAFRAN Software to Assess Radiological Hazards from Dismantling of Tammuz-2 Reactor Core at Al-tuwaitha Nuclear Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Gatea, Mezher; Ahmed, Anwar A.; jundee kadhum, Saad; Ali, Hasan Mohammed; Hussein Muheisn, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    The Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software has implemented here for radiological safety analysis; to verify that the dose acceptance criteria and safety goals are met with a high degree of confidence for dismantling of Tammuz-2 reactor core at Al-tuwaitha nuclear site. The activities characterizing, dismantling and packaging were practiced to manage the generated radioactive waste. Dose to the worker was considered an endpoint-scenario while dose to the public has neglected due to that Tammuz-2 facility is located in a restricted zone and 30m berm surrounded Al-tuwaitha site. Safety assessment for dismantling worker endpoint-scenario based on maximum external dose at component position level in the reactor pool and internal dose via airborne activity while, for characterizing and packaging worker endpoints scenarios have been done via external dose only because no evidence for airborne radioactivity hazards outside the reactor pool. The in-situ measurements approved that reactor core components are radiologically activated by Co-60 radioisotope. SAFRAN results showed that the maximum received dose for workers are (1.85, 0.64 and 1.3mSv/y) for activities dismantling, characterizing and packaging of reactor core components respectively. Hence, the radiological hazards remain below the low level hazard and within the acceptable annual dose for workers in radiation field

  3. Comparability between NQA-1 and the QA programs for analytical laboratories within the nuclear industry and EPA hazardous waste laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, S.L.; Dahl, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    There is increasing cooperation between the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the activities associated with monitoring and clean-up of hazardous wastes. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the quality assurance/quality control programs that the EPA requires of the private sector when performing routine analyses of hazardous wastes to confirm how or if the requirements correspond with PNL's QA program based upon NQA-1. This paper presents the similarities and differences between NQA-1 and the QA program identified in ASTM-C1009-83, Establishing a QA Program for Analytical Chemistry Laboratories within the Nuclear Industry; EPA QAMS-005/80, Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans, which is referenced in Statements of Work for CERCLA analytical activities; and Chapter 1 of SW-846, which is used in analyses of RCRA samples. The EPA QA programs for hazardous waste analyses are easily encompassed within an already established NQA-1 QA program. A few new terms are introduced and there is an increased emphasis upon the QC/verification, but there are many of the same basic concepts in all the programs

  4. Technology Road-map Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Technology Road-map Update provides an assessment of progress made by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) in the development of the six systems selected when the original Technology Road-map was published in 2002. More importantly, it provides an overview of the major R and D objectives and milestones for the coming decade, aiming to achieve the Generation IV goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and physical protection. Lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident are taken into account to ensure that Generation IV systems attain the highest levels of safety, with the development of specific safety design criteria that are applicable across the six systems. Accomplishing the ten-year R and D objectives set out in this new Road-map should allow the more advanced Generation IV systems to move towards the demonstration phase. (authors)

  5. A Survey on the effective role of nuclear power plants in decreasing air pollution and its relevant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays air pollution, consequent reduction of Ozone layer's thickness and increase of UV radiations are included as the hazardous phenomenon, which confronts mankind with fundamental challenges. Increase of population, use of high living standards together with the consumption of fossil fuels for generations of electrical energy have increases air pollution at the global. scale. According to the carried out studies carried out in the three latest decades, alteration of atmospheric gases such as Ozone, dioxide azoth, dioxide sulphur, dioxide carbon, Methane, monoxide carbon and hydrocarbons have caused the appearance of water and air new forms of pollutions all over the world the harmful side effects resulted from air pollution on the respiratory systems and other cordial and blood vessels are well documented. Due to the air and water uncommon pollutions resulted from fossil fuels consumptions, use of nuclear power plants as a safe option can prevent several pollutants such as gases, poisoning metals and suspended elements or downpour of acidic rains in environment. In this article, it is tried difficulties and hazardous results of air pollution and resulted from consumption of fossil fuels, and discusses the effective role of nuclear energy studies in reduction of such pollutions

  6. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoun, T; Harris, D; Lay, T; Myers, S C; Pasyanos, M E; Richards, P; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R; Zucca, J J

    2008-02-11

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes a path by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas.

  7. Mapping and monitoring nuclear waste repositories with subsurface electrical resistivity arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, T.; Morrison, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The siting and future integrity of nuclear waste repositories is critically dependent on the local ground water regime. Electrical methods seem particularly promising in mapping and monitoring this regime since the electrical conductivity of rocks depends almost entirely on the fluid saturation, salinity and distribution. The most important recent developments in resistivity include the use of numerical modeling and resistivity mapping using subsurface electrodes. The latter yields far greater accuracy and resolution than can be obtained with surface arrays. To illustrate the power of subsurface-surface arrays the authors studied an idealized two dimensional model of a nuclear repository. Since they are interested in emphasizing the anomaly caused by the repository, or subsequent changes over time in its vicinity, the authors discovered that it is very useful to express the apparent resistivity results as percentage differences from either the background (for surface arrays) or from the apparent resistivities observed at a particular depth of the current source (for subsurface arrays). Percent differencing with respect to data at the repository depth dramatically reduce near-surface and topographic effects that usually confound quantitative interpretation of surface surveys. Thus, dc resistivity appears to have great potential for nuclear waste repository mapping and monitoring

  8. Smartphones for post-event analysis: a low-cost and easily accessible approach for mapping natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    A real opportunity and challenge for the hazard mapping is offered by the use of smartphones and low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique (i.e. 'Structure-from-Motion'-SfM-). Differently from the other traditional photogrammetric methods, the SfM allows to reconstitute three-dimensional geometries (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) from randomly acquired images. The images can be acquired by standalone digital cameras (compact or reflex), or even by smartphones built-in cameras. This represents a "revolutionary" advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner TLS, airborne lidar) (Tarolli, 2014). Through fast, simple and consecutive field surveys, anyone with a smartphone can take a lot of pictures of the same study area. This way, high-resolution and multi-temporal DSMs may be obtained and used to better monitor and understand erosion and deposition processes. Furthermore, these topographic data can also facilitate to quantify volumes of eroded materials due to landslides and recognize the major critical issues that usually occur during a natural hazard (e.g. river bank erosion and/or collapse due to floods). In this work we considered different case studies located in different environmental contexts of Italy, where extensive photosets were obtained using smartphones. TLS data were also considered in the analysis as benchmark to compare with SfM data. Digital Surface Models (DSMs) derived from SfM at centimeter grid-cell resolution revealed to be effective to automatically recognize areas subject to surface instabilities, and estimate quantitatively erosion and deposition volumes, for example. Morphometric indexes such as landform curvature and surface roughness, and statistical thresholds (e.g. standard deviation) of these indices, served as the basis for the proposed analyses. The results indicate that SfM technique through smartphones really offers a fast, simple and affordable alternative to lidar

  9. Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Schnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The locations of transcription and translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells are spatially separated by the nuclear envelope (NE. Plenty of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs embedded in the NE function as the major gateway for the export of transcribed mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the NPC, perhaps one of the largest protein complexes, provides a relatively large channel for macromolecules to selectively pass through it in inherently three-dimensional (3D movements, this channel is nonetheless below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. A full understanding of the mRNA export mechanism urgently requires real-time mapping of the 3D dynamics of mRNA in the NPC of live cells with innovative imaging techniques breaking the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. Recently, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking (SPT techniques have been applied to the study of nuclear export of mRNA in live cells. In this review, we emphasize the necessity of 3D mapping techniques in the study of mRNA export, briefly summarize the feasibility of current 3D imaging approaches, and highlight the new features of mRNA nuclear export elucidated with a newly developed 3D imaging approach combining SPT-based super-resolution imaging and 2D-to-3D deconvolution algorithms.

  10. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  11. The Faustian bargain-hazards of theft and sabotage: Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that the fissionable material in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, waste storage facilities and that contained in the shipments of radioactive waste are vulnerable to sabotage and theft. (R.L.)

  12. Working in the nuclear industry - Inquiry in the heart of a hazardous site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The author, who is today professor of sociology at the Aix-Marseille university (FR), has worked in the nuclear industry as a temp, as a trainee and as a subcontracting worker successively. In this book, he presents his vision from the inside of the daily work of nuclear workers. Inside teams, he has observed the behaviours, the relations between men, the ways to deal with an unsure knowledge, the conflicts which have occurred and the risks that the personnel has had to bear with. Beyond the ideological debate, and with no pro- or anti-position with respect to nuclear energy, the author presents a field report which allows to better comprehend the risk factors threatening the nuclear industry and the workers of this industry

  13. Applications of seismic damage hazard analysis for the qualification of existing nuclear and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzurro, P.; Manfredini, G.M.; Diaz Molina, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Seismic Damage Hazard Analysis (SDHA) is a methodology which couples conventional Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) and non-linear response analysis to seismic loadings. This is a powerful tool in the retrofit process: SDHA permits the direct computation of the probability of occurrence of damage and, eventually, collapse of existing and upgraded structural systems. The SDHA methodology is a significant step towards a better understanding and quantification of structural seismic risk. SDHA incorporates and explicitly accounts for seismic load variability, seismic damage potential variability and structural resistance uncertainty. In addition, SDHA makes available a sound strategy to perform non-linear dynamic analyses. A limited number of non-linear dynamic analyses is sufficient to obtain estimates of damage and its probability of occurrence. The basic concepts of the SDHA methodology are briefly reviewed. Illustrative examples are presented, regarding a power house structure, a tubular structure and seabed slope stability problem. (author)

  14. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. Study of the variation of the nuclear transcriptional map during de initial development of Drosophyla melanogaster embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.E.V.

    1987-01-01

    The variation of nuclear transcriptional map during the initial development of Drosophyla melanogaster embryos were studied. Thermic treatment, chromatographic techniques and liquid scintilation in embryos inoculated with radioactive uridine were used. (L.J.C.)

  17. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  18. Approaches that use seismic hazard results to address topics of nuclear power plant seismic safety, with application to the Charleston earthquake issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.R.; Stepp, J.C.; Cornell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant seismic safety indicators include seismic hazard at the SSE (safe shut-down earthquake) acceleration, seismic margin, reliability against core damage, and reliability against offsite consequences. This work examines the key role of hazard analysis in evaluating these indicators and in making rational decisions regarding plant safety. The paper outlines approaches that use seismic hazard results as a basis for plant seismic safety evaluation and applies one of these approaches to the Charleston earthquake issue. This approach compares seismic hazard results that account for the Charleston tectonic interpretation, using the EPRI-Seismicity Owners Group (SOG) methodology, with hazard results that are consistent with historical tectonic interpretations accepted in regulation. Based on hazard results for a set of 21 eastern U.S. nuclear power plant sites, the comparison shows that no systematic 'plant-to-plant' increase in hazard accompanies the Charleston hypothesis; differences in mean hazards for the two interpretations are generally insignificant relative to current uncertainties in seismic hazard. (orig.)

  19. Hazards ahead: Managing cleanup worker health and safety at the nuclear weapons complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Cold War nuclear weapons production has left a legacy of environmental contamination that is unprecented in scope and complexity. The Department of Energy has begun cleaning up pollution at the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC)--an expensive, decades-long task that will require a workforce numbering tens of thousands of scientists, technicians, and laborers. Protecting their health and safety must be a major goal of the cleanup effort. Achieving the goal will require DOE to successfully confront significant technical and managerial challenges, but it also poses a unique opportunity to advance state-of-the-art occupational health and safety technologies and practices. The report provides an evaluation of environmental restoration and waste management at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. It examines risks workers might face in cleaning up contamination at the complex and evaluates the effectiveness of DOE's occupational safety and health programs for cleanup workers

  20. Assessment of environmental radiation hazards from the Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    Escom's decision to build the 2 x 922 MW (e) Koeberg nuclear power station on the coastal Duynefontein site, 28 km north of Cape Town is explained. After describing the internationally accepted basis of radiation protection, the philosophy of nuclear-installation licensing, as applied by the AEB Licensing Branch, is outlined. Pre-operational environmental investigations that have provided acceptable release rates of radioactive effluent to the sea and the atmosphere are discussed. Accidental releases are described and the sound basis of such studies is compared with normal industrial undertakings [af

  1. Urban and Rural Landslide Hazard and Exposure Mapping Using Landsat and Corona Satellite Imagery for Tehran and the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fekete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran, Karaj, Quazvin and nearby rural areas in the Alborz Mountains, Iran are prone to earthquake and landslide hazards. Risks for settlement areas, transport infrastructure and pastoralist areas exist due to a combination of natural as well as man-made factors. This study analyses data derived from satellite and airborne sensors, specifically, Landsat and declassified Corona data to identify landslide occurrence and urban sprawl. In a Geographic Information System, other data such as geology, topography, road network and river flows were integrated from various sources. A digital elevation model (DEM was computed based on contour lines that were extracted from topographic maps. The DEM allows for mapping topographic factors such as slope angle and aspect. Finally, change detection analysis has documented urban sprawl in massive dimensions since the 1970s. A multi-criteria landslide hazard and exposure zonation map was developed for a small rural area where several settlements and segments of roads were affected by landslides. The estimated risk areas were then overlaid with real landslide occurrences. The match of hypothetical and real event occurrence areas demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The main contribution of this paper is to inform about recent landslide risks in Iran and how certain factors can be derived from spatial information.

  2. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 82-361-1437, Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, E.M.; Smith, A.B.; Thun, M.J.; Hills, B.

    1984-03-01

    A health-hazard evaluation at Kerr/McGee Nuclear Corporation's uranium (7440611) mill (SIC-1094) in Grants, New Mexico was conducted in November, 1982. Evaluation was requested because of union concern about exposure and possible nephrotoxic effects of yellowcake, a concentrate of natural uranium, produced at the mill. Personnel records, company environmental and personal monitoring, and urine uranium bioassay data were reviewed. Further medical evaluation at the facility is not warranted as the longest exposure to yellowcake was only 7 years. The authors recommend that Kerr/McGee use the NRC guidelines for assessing exposure. Emission source in the drier and precipitation area should be identified and engineering controls installed to reduce the exposure

  3. Robots for hazardous duties: Military, space, and nuclear facility applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and application of robots used in place of humans where the environment could be hazardous. Military applications include autonomous land vehicles, robotic howitzers, and battlefield support operations. Space operations include docking, maintenance, mission support, and intra-vehicular and extra-vehicular activities. Nuclear applications include operations within the containment vessel, radioactive waste operations, fueling operations, and plant security. Many of the articles reference control techniques and the use of expert systems in robotic operations. Applications involving industrial manufacturing, walking robots, and robot welding are cited in other published searches in this series. (Contains a minimum of 183 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Development of a tornado wind speed hazard model for limited area (TOWLA) for nuclear power plants at a coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Nohara, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Hattori, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary for Japanese electric power companies to assess tornado risks on the nuclear power plants according to a new regulation in 2013. The new regulatory guide recommends to select a long narrow strip area along a coast line with the width of 5 km to the seaward and landward sides as a target area of tornado risk assessment, because most of Japanese tornados have been reported near the coast line, where all of Japanese nuclear power plants are located. However, it is very difficult to evaluate a tornado hazard along a coast line, because there is no available information of F-scale and damage length/width on tornadic waterspouts. The purpose of this study is to propose a new tornado wind hazard model for limited area (TOWLA), which can be apply to a long narrow strip area along a coastline. In order to consider tornadic waterspouts moved inland, we evaluate the number of waterspouts entering/passing the targeting area, and add them to the total number of the tornado occurred in the area. A characteristic of the model is to use 'segment lengths' instead of damage lengths. The segment length is a part of the tornado foot print in the long narrow strip area. We show two methods for segment length computation. One is based on tornado records; latitude and longitude of tornado genesis and dissipation locations. The other is to compute the expected segment length based on the geometrical relationship among the damage length, area width, and directional characteristics of tornado movement. The new model can also consider the variation of tornado intensity along the path length and across the path width. (author)

  5. Financial protection against nuclear hazards: implications of the Supreme Court's decision in Silkwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The study evaluates the operation of the Price-Anderson Act in the light of 10 years of experience and the changes that have occurred during the period in the law and regulations and in the nuclear and insurance industries. It provides an independent analysis of various proposals to extend or amend the Act prior to its 1987 expiration. The five chapters deal with historical background and scope, financial protection under the Act, financial protection without the Act, legislative goals and issues, and alternative proposals. The report concludes that no scheme can fully satisfy all of the criteria, bu a careful balancing will depend upon congressional decision on the extent to which federal policy should encourage continued participation by private industry in the nuclear field. Selected footnotes follow each chapter

  6. Hazards to nuclear plants from off-site release of toxic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornyik, K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the assessment of risk involved in shipping toxic compounds past nuclear power plants uses a postulated chain of events, starting with a traffic accident causing instantaneous release of the compound as vapor, and leading to incapacitation of control operators in the nuclear plant, described by deterministic and statistical models as appropriate to the respective event. Statistical treatment of relevant atmospheric conditions is a major improvement over more conservative assumptions commonly made in current analyses of this problem. Consequently, one obtains a substantial reduction in the estimated risk expressed in usual terms of the annual probability of an unacceptable event, in spite of the fact that no credit is taken for protective measures other than potential control room isolation

  7. Generation and use of process maps for hot extrusion of seamless tubes for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaibhaw, Kumar; Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Hot extrusion is known as significant bulk deformation step in manufacturing of seamless tube production. Elevated temperature deformation carried out above the recrystallization temperature would enable imposition of large strains in single step. This deformation causes a significant change in the microstructure of the material and depends on extrusion process parameters such as temperature and strain rate (Ram speed). Basic microstructure developed at this deformation stage has significant bearing on the final properties of the material fabricated with subsequent cold working steps. Zirconium alloys and special nuclear grade austenitic stainless steels are two important groups of materials used as structural and core components in thermal and fast reactors world wide respectively. The properties of former alloy are very sensitive to the thermo mechanical fabrication steps initiated with hot extrusion due to their anisotropic deformation behaviour. However, nuclear grade austenitic stainless steels have many variants from their commercial grades in terms of micro and macro alloy chemistry. Factors such as these significantly affect the workability of the materials and require proper selection of extrusion parameters especially working temperature and extrusion speed plays a key role in the quality of the product. Modern developments in processing technology envisage the application of processing maps based on dynamic material model for selection of hot extrusion parameters. The present paper is aimed at bringing out significance of the map in selection of working domain with respect to the industrial process conditions for both groups of nuclear materials mentioned earlier. Developed process maps of certain alloys suggest use of extremely slow strain rate and low temperature extrusion which can not be achieved during bulk processing due to design of equipment and heat transfer constraints in industrial scale production. Attempts are made to highlight

  8. A comparative study of health hazards and environmental impacts for electricity generation through nuclear energy hidroelectricity and coal fired thermoeletrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental impacts and health hazards were comparatively assessed in regard to electricity generation via nuclear energy, hidraulic dams and coal firing. The main aspects covered the nuclear reactor and its associated nuclear fuel cycle, coal fired thermoelectrical power plant its associated coal industry, and hidroelectrical power plant and its dam. Besides specific comparisons of impacts in the air, water, soil and health hazards an evaluation for the Brazilian case was made based on a forecast of electricity demand up to the year 2020. For the nuclear option the consequences were analysed based on American data since no data is yet available for Brazil. Coal firing option was also analised for based heavily on American data due to small Brazilian experience in this sector of energy generation. For hydroelectrical option Brazilian data were used mostly from CESP for comparative purposes. These alternatives for generation of electricity considered in this study are the most relevant for the next four decades for Brazil. (Author) [pt

  9. Investigations on human error hazards in recent unintended trip events of Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Jang, Tong Il; Lee, Yong Hee; Shin, Kwang Hyeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    According to the Operational Performance Information System (OPIS) which has been operated to improve the public understanding by the KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), unintended trip events by mainly human errors counted up to 38 cases (18.7%) from 2000 to 2011. Although the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) industry in Korea has been making efforts to reduce the human errors which have largely contributed to trip events, the human error rate might keep increasing. Interestingly, digital based I and C systems is the one of the reduction factors of unintended reactor trips. Human errors, however, have occurred due to the digital based I and C systems because those systems require new or changed behaviors to the NPP operators. Therefore, it is necessary that the investigations of human errors consider a new methodology to find not only tangible behavior but also intangible behavior such as organizational behaviors. In this study we investigated human errors to find latent factors such as decisions and conditions in the all of the unintended reactor trip events during last dozen years. To find them, we applied the HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System) which is a commonly utilized tool for investigating human contributions to aviation accidents under a widespread evaluation scheme. The objective of this study is to find latent factors behind of human errors in nuclear reactor trip events. Therefore, a method to investigate unintended trip events by human errors and the results will be discussed in more detail.

  10. Investigations on human error hazards in recent unintended trip events of Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Jang, Tong Il; Lee, Yong Hee; Shin, Kwang Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    According to the Operational Performance Information System (OPIS) which has been operated to improve the public understanding by the KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), unintended trip events by mainly human errors counted up to 38 cases (18.7%) from 2000 to 2011. Although the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) industry in Korea has been making efforts to reduce the human errors which have largely contributed to trip events, the human error rate might keep increasing. Interestingly, digital based I and C systems is the one of the reduction factors of unintended reactor trips. Human errors, however, have occurred due to the digital based I and C systems because those systems require new or changed behaviors to the NPP operators. Therefore, it is necessary that the investigations of human errors consider a new methodology to find not only tangible behavior but also intangible behavior such as organizational behaviors. In this study we investigated human errors to find latent factors such as decisions and conditions in the all of the unintended reactor trip events during last dozen years. To find them, we applied the HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System) which is a commonly utilized tool for investigating human contributions to aviation accidents under a widespread evaluation scheme. The objective of this study is to find latent factors behind of human errors in nuclear reactor trip events. Therefore, a method to investigate unintended trip events by human errors and the results will be discussed in more detail

  11. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

  12. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield - 59014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, Angela

    2012-01-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Sellafield Ltd is managed by NMP (Nuclear Management Partners), a consortium of URS, AMEC and AREVA and is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When the activity of Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of an integrated company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). This paper will describe the management approach that is being taken and the planning tools that are being applied by the Site owners in delivering an integrated change programme across the Decommissioning Directorate. The paper will explain how the management approach to change uses Peer Assist, Rapid Improvement Events, Organisational Review Self Evaluation, Value Stream Analysis and Accelerated Improvement Events as improvement tools. Use of these has enabled down-sizing of the organisation, driven out hundreds of man day efficiencies within the maintenance and asset management areas, improved the management of spares reducing annual costs by Pounds 1000's, improved Commercial practices by fast tracking the preparation of invitations to tender for critical contracts, rolled back radiological control areas and enabled quicker access to the work-face at a reduced cost. This paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Directorate Programme Office has implemented planning tools such as governance, identification of opportunities, benefit evaluation and prioritisation and sanction of the optimum improvements and how through the use of a balanced scorecard, delivery of the improvements has been measured ensuring that the targets are met. Finally, the paper will discuss how the

  13. Analysis of earthquake parameters to generate hazard maps by integrating AHP and GIS for Küçükçekmece region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erden

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Definition of an earthquake includes parameters with respect to region of interest. Each of those parameters has different weights on the earthquake ground motion and effect. This study examines the weight of common parameters that have an influence on the effects of earthquakes. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for factor weighting of each parameter and Geographic Information Systems (GIS are used for simulating the results of the AHP on a spatial environment. In this study, it is aimed to generate a hierarchical structure of the model for the simulation of an earthquake hazard map (EHM. The parameters of the EHM, which are selected by the criterion of non-correlated factors, are: topography, distance to epicenter, soil classification, liquefaction, and fault/focal mechanism. As a result of the study, weights of the parameters that affect the earthquake ground motion at the study area are determined and compared with a selected attenuation relation map.

  14. A procedure for assessing seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes and its application. III. A method for developing isoseismal and isoacceleration maps. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.; Enescu, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    A method for developing isoseismal and isoacceleration maps assumedly valid for future strong earthquakes (M GR > 6.7) is described as constituting the third stage of a procedure for assessing the seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes. The method relies on the results of the former two stages given by Enescu et al., and on further developments that are presented in this paper. Moreover, it is based on instrument recording data. Major earthquakes taking place in Vrancea (November 10, 1940 - M GR 7.4, March 4, 1977 - M GR = 7.2 and the strongest possible) were examined as a way to test the method. The method is also applied for an earthquake of magnitude M GR = 6.7. Given the successful results of the tests, the method can by used for predicting isoseismal and isoacceleration maps for future Vrancea earthquakes of various magnitudes M GR ≥ 6.7. (authors)

  15. Development of an expert analysis tool based on an interactive subsidence hazard map for urban land use in the city of Celaya, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

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