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Sample records for nuclear genomic responses

  1. Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairaj Ahmed Ansari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1β and type I interferon-β (IFN-β molecules are important inflammatory cytokines elicited by the eukaryotic host as innate immune responses against invading pathogens and danger signals. Recently, a predominantly nuclear gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16 involved in transcriptional regulation has emerged as an innate DNA sensor which induced IL-1β and IFN-β production through inflammasome and STING activation, respectively. Herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1 episomal dsDNA genome recognition by IFI16 leads to IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome association, cytoplasmic translocation and IL-1β production. Independent of ASC, HSV-1 genome recognition results in IFI16 interaction with STING in the cytoplasm to induce interferon-β production. However, the mechanisms of IFI16-inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic redistribution and STING activation are not known. Our studies here demonstrate that recognition of herpesvirus genomes in the nucleus by IFI16 leads into its interaction with histone acetyltransferase p300 and IFI16 acetylation resulting in IFI16-ASC interaction, inflammasome assembly, increased interaction with Ran-GTPase, cytoplasmic redistribution, caspase-1 activation, IL-1β production, and interaction with STING which results in IRF-3 phosphorylation, nuclear pIRF-3 localization and interferon-β production. ASC and STING knockdowns did not affect IFI16 acetylation indicating that this modification is upstream of inflammasome-assembly and STING-activation. Vaccinia virus replicating in the cytoplasm did not induce nuclear IFI16 acetylation and cytoplasmic translocation. IFI16 physically associates with KSHV and HSV-1 genomes as revealed by proximity ligation microscopy and chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies which is not hampered by the inhibition of acetylation, thus suggesting that acetylation of IFI16 is not required for its innate sensing of nuclear viral genomes. Collectively, these studies identify the

  2. Responsability of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz Deleito, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear industry, civil responsibility with damages to the public health and properties was a critical problem, because the special conditions of this industry (nuclear accident, damages could be very high but probability of these events is very low). Legal precepts, universally accepted, in the first 60 years for all countries interested in nuclear energy are being revised, then 20 years of experience. The civil responsibility limited is being questioned and indemnities updated. (author)

  3. The nuclear response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    These lectures present the theory of the nuclear response in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA). In the first lecture, various relations are derived between densities and currents which give rise to the well-known sum rules. Then RPA is derived via the time-dependent Hartree theory. The various formulations of RPA are shown: the configuration space representation, the coordinate space representation, the Landau theory of infinite systems and the RPA for separable interactions constrained by consistency. The remarkable success of RPA in describing the collective density oscillations of closed shell nuclei is illustrated with a few examples. In the final lecture, the σtau response is discussed with the application of simple theoretical considerations to the empirical data. Finally, we point out several problems which remain in the response theory. (author)

  4. Imaging analysis of nuclear antiviral factors through direct detection of incoming adenovirus genome complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro [Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, MFP CNRS UMR 5234, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076 (France); Department of Infection Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Will, Hans [Department of Tumor Biology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Nagata, Kyosuke [Department of Infection Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Wodrich, Harald, E-mail: harald.wodrich@u-bordeaux.fr [Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, MFP CNRS UMR 5234, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076 (France)

    2016-04-22

    Recent studies involving several viral systems have highlighted the importance of cellular intrinsic defense mechanisms through nuclear antiviral proteins that restrict viral propagation. These factors include among others components of PML nuclear bodies, the nuclear DNA sensor IFI16, and a potential restriction factor PHF13/SPOC1. For several nuclear replicating DNA viruses, it was shown that these factors sense and target viral genomes immediately upon nuclear import. In contrast to the anticipated view, we recently found that incoming adenoviral genomes are not targeted by PML nuclear bodies. Here we further explored cellular responses against adenoviral infection by focusing on specific conditions as well as additional nuclear antiviral factors. In line with our previous findings, we show that neither interferon treatment nor the use of specific isoforms of PML nuclear body components results in co-localization between incoming adenoviral genomes and the subnuclear domains. Furthermore, our imaging analyses indicated that neither IFI16 nor PHF13/SPOC1 are likely to target incoming adenoviral genomes. Thus our findings suggest that incoming adenoviral genomes may be able to escape from a large repertoire of nuclear antiviral mechanisms, providing a rationale for the efficient initiation of lytic replication cycle. - Highlights: • Host nuclear antiviral factors were analyzed upon adenovirus genome delivery. • Interferon treatments fail to permit PML nuclear bodies to target adenoviral genomes. • Neither Sp100A nor B targets adenoviral genomes despite potentially opposite roles. • The nuclear DNA sensor IFI16 does not target incoming adenoviral genomes. • PHF13/SPOC1 targets neither incoming adenoviral genomes nor genome-bound protein VII.

  5. Imaging analysis of nuclear antiviral factors through direct detection of incoming adenovirus genome complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Will, Hans; Nagata, Kyosuke; Wodrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies involving several viral systems have highlighted the importance of cellular intrinsic defense mechanisms through nuclear antiviral proteins that restrict viral propagation. These factors include among others components of PML nuclear bodies, the nuclear DNA sensor IFI16, and a potential restriction factor PHF13/SPOC1. For several nuclear replicating DNA viruses, it was shown that these factors sense and target viral genomes immediately upon nuclear import. In contrast to the anticipated view, we recently found that incoming adenoviral genomes are not targeted by PML nuclear bodies. Here we further explored cellular responses against adenoviral infection by focusing on specific conditions as well as additional nuclear antiviral factors. In line with our previous findings, we show that neither interferon treatment nor the use of specific isoforms of PML nuclear body components results in co-localization between incoming adenoviral genomes and the subnuclear domains. Furthermore, our imaging analyses indicated that neither IFI16 nor PHF13/SPOC1 are likely to target incoming adenoviral genomes. Thus our findings suggest that incoming adenoviral genomes may be able to escape from a large repertoire of nuclear antiviral mechanisms, providing a rationale for the efficient initiation of lytic replication cycle. - Highlights: • Host nuclear antiviral factors were analyzed upon adenovirus genome delivery. • Interferon treatments fail to permit PML nuclear bodies to target adenoviral genomes. • Neither Sp100A nor B targets adenoviral genomes despite potentially opposite roles. • The nuclear DNA sensor IFI16 does not target incoming adenoviral genomes. • PHF13/SPOC1 targets neither incoming adenoviral genomes nor genome-bound protein VII.

  6. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, and subsequent gain of regulatory elements for expression, is an ongoing evolutionary process in plants. Many examples have been characterized, which in some cases have revealed sources of mitochondrial targeting sequences and cis-regulatory elements. In contrast, there have been no reports of a nuclear gene that has undergone intracellular transfer to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed. Here we show that the orf164 gene in the mitochondrial genome of several Brassicaceae species, including Arabidopsis, is derived from the nuclear ARF17 gene that codes for an auxin responsive protein and is present across flowering plants. Orf164 corresponds to a portion of ARF17, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are 79% and 81% identical, respectively. Orf164 is transcribed in several organ types of Arabidopsis thaliana, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, orf164 is transcribed in five other Brassicaceae within the tribes Camelineae, Erysimeae and Cardamineae, but the gene is not present in Brassica or Raphanus. This study shows that nuclear genes can be transferred to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed, providing a new perspective on the movement of genes between the genomes of subcellular compartments.

  7. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniaga, Anthony E; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S

    2016-06-03

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Actomyosin drives cancer cell nuclear dysmorphia and threatens genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Tohru; Montagner, Marco; Serres, Murielle P; Le Berre, Maël; Russell, Matt; Collinson, Lucy; Szuhai, Karoly; Howell, Michael; Boulton, Simon J; Sahai, Erik; Petronczki, Mark

    2017-07-24

    Altered nuclear shape is a defining feature of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying nuclear dysmorphia in cancer remain poorly understood. Here we identify PPP1R12A and PPP1CB, two subunits of the myosin phosphatase complex that antagonizes actomyosin contractility, as proteins safeguarding nuclear integrity. Loss of PPP1R12A or PPP1CB causes nuclear fragmentation, nuclear envelope rupture, nuclear compartment breakdown and genome instability. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of actomyosin contractility restores nuclear architecture and genome integrity in cells lacking PPP1R12A or PPP1CB. We detect actin filaments at nuclear envelope rupture sites and define the Rho-ROCK pathway as the driver of nuclear damage. Lamin A protects nuclei from the impact of actomyosin activity. Blocking contractility increases nuclear circularity in cultured cancer cells and suppresses deformations of xenograft nuclei in vivo. We conclude that actomyosin contractility is a major determinant of nuclear shape and that unrestrained contractility causes nuclear dysmorphia, nuclear envelope rupture and genome instability.

  9. Genome inventory and analysis of nuclear hormone receptors in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-12-20

    Dec 20, 2006 ... progestins, as well as lipids, cholesterol metabolites, and. Genome ... Gene structure analysis shows strong conservation of exon structures among orthologoues. ..... earlier subfamily classification of NRs (Nuclear Receptors.

  10. Hypothesis: Gene-rich plastid genomes in red algae may be an outcome of nuclear genome reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan; Lee, Jun Mo; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2017-06-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) putatively diverged from the eukaryote tree of life >1.2 billion years ago and are the source of plastids in the ecologically important diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates. In general, red algae contain the largest plastid gene inventory among all such organelles derived from primary, secondary, or additional rounds of endosymbiosis. In contrast, their nuclear gene inventory is reduced when compared to their putative sister lineage, the Viridiplantae, and other photosynthetic lineages. The latter is thought to have resulted from a phase of genome reduction that occurred in the stem lineage of Rhodophyta. A recent comparative analysis of a taxonomically broad collection of red algal and Viridiplantae plastid genomes demonstrates that the red algal ancestor encoded ~1.5× more plastid genes than Viridiplantae. This difference is primarily explained by more extensive endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) in the stem lineage of Viridiplantae, when compared to red algae. We postulate that limited EGT in Rhodophytes resulted from the countervailing force of ancient, and likely recurrent, nuclear genome reduction. In other words, the propensity for nuclear gene loss led to the retention of red algal plastid genes that would otherwise have undergone intracellular gene transfer to the nucleus. This hypothesis recognizes the primacy of nuclear genome evolution over that of plastids, which have no inherent control of their gene inventory and can change dramatically (e.g., secondarily non-photosynthetic eukaryotes, dinoflagellates) in response to selection acting on the host lineage. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  11. An Adenovirus DNA Replication Factor, but Not Incoming Genome Complexes, Targets PML Nuclear Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke; Wodrich, Harald

    2016-02-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are subnuclear domains implicated in cellular antiviral responses. Despite the antiviral activity, several nuclear replicating DNA viruses use the domains as deposition sites for the incoming viral genomes and/or as sites for viral DNA replication, suggesting that PML-NBs are functionally relevant during early viral infection to establish productive replication. Although PML-NBs and their components have also been implicated in the adenoviral life cycle, it remains unclear whether incoming adenoviral genome complexes target PML-NBs. Here we show using immunofluorescence and live-cell imaging analyses that incoming adenovirus genome complexes neither localize at nor recruit components of PML-NBs during early phases of infection. We further show that the viral DNA binding protein (DBP), an early expressed viral gene and essential DNA replication factor, independently targets PML-NBs. We show that DBP oligomerization is required to selectively recruit the PML-NB components Sp100 and USP7. Depletion experiments suggest that the absence of one PML-NB component might not affect the recruitment of other components toward DBP oligomers. Thus, our findings suggest a model in which an adenoviral DNA replication factor, but not incoming viral genome complexes, targets and modulates PML-NBs to support a conducive state for viral DNA replication and argue against a generalized concept that PML-NBs target incoming viral genomes. The immediate fate upon nuclear delivery of genomes of incoming DNA viruses is largely unclear. Early reports suggested that incoming genomes of herpesviruses are targeted and repressed by PML-NBs immediately upon nuclear import. Genome localization and/or viral DNA replication has also been observed at PML-NBs for other DNA viruses. Thus, it was suggested that PML-NBs may immediately sense and target nuclear viral genomes and hence serve as sites for deposition of incoming viral genomes and

  12. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M; King, Adrienne L; Fetterman, Jessica L; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D; Oliva, Claudia R; Crowe, David R; Ballinger, Scott W; Bailey, Shannon M

    2014-07-15

    NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. In the present study, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, MNX (mitochondrial-nuclear exchange) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared with wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR (respiratory control ratio) when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD.

  13. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M.; King, Adrienne L.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D.; Oliva, Claudia R.; Crowe, David Ralph; Ballinger, Scott W.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. Herein, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, Mitochondrial-Nuclear eXchange (MNX) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared to wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD. PMID:24758559

  14. Instability of plastid DNA in the nuclear genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Sheppard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional gene transfer from the plastid (chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes to the nucleus has been an important driving force in eukaryotic evolution. Non-functional DNA transfer is far more frequent, and the frequency of such transfers from the plastid to the nucleus has been determined experimentally in tobacco using transplastomic lines containing, in their plastid genome, a kanamycin resistance gene (neo readymade for nuclear expression. Contrary to expectations, non-Mendelian segregation of the kanamycin resistance phenotype is seen in progeny of some lines in which neo has been transferred to the nuclear genome. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the instability of kanamycin resistance in nine of these lines, and we show that it is due to deletion of neo. Four lines showed instability with variation between progeny derived from different areas of the same plant, suggesting a loss of neo during somatic cell division. One line showed a consistent reduction in the proportion of kanamycin-resistant progeny, suggesting a loss of neo during meiosis, and the remaining four lines were relatively stable. To avoid genomic enlargement, the high frequency of plastid DNA integration into the nuclear genome necessitates a counterbalancing removal process. This is the first demonstration of such loss involving a high proportion of recent nuclear integrants. We propose that insertion, deletion, and rearrangement of plastid sequences in the nuclear genome are important evolutionary processes in the generation of novel nuclear genes. This work is also relevant in the context of transgenic plant research and crop production, because similar processes to those described here may be involved in the loss of plant transgenes.

  15. Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author)

  16. Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author) 25 refs.

  17. Nuclear Genome Size: Are We Getting Closer?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Greilhuber, J.

    77A, č. 7 (2010), s. 635-642 ISSN 1552-4922 R&D Projects : GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytometric techniques * reference standards * genome sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.749, year: 2010

  18. Society response to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, N. C.

    2007-01-01

    Energy demand in the world is growing increasingly, among other factors due to economic development. Every way of producing electricity has got their own drawbacks and has implicit environmental impact. Among all the energy sources, nuclear energy is the most polemic because of the way it is presented by the mass media. This aspect provokes controversy to occidental societies which reject this kind of energy with arguments normally based on a wrong and insufficient knowledge of the matter. The antinuclear discourse, promoted late in the seventies, has gone deeply into the collective social unconscious and has undermined public acceptance of nuclear energy due to the fact, deeply exploited by antinuclear groups, of linking nuclear energy with the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In this sense, it is important to mention that in Japan there was a profound resentment and opposition to nuclear energy, because the memory of the nuclear bombings was permanently alive. However when the Japanese government told its people that this energy was necessary to boost their industrial development, Japanese citizens in an unprecedented attitude of patriotism overcame their most antagonist feelings, in order to contribute to the industrial development of their country. The result was that most of them voted in favour. Presently Japan gets 30% of its energy by means of 56 nuclear power plants and 1 more is under construction. Antinuclear groups took as their best emblem the accident of Chernobyl to justify their opposition to the nuclear power plants. The manipulation of this accident has been one of the most shameful in the nuclear history. It is widely known among the experts that the reactor used in Chernobyl was a type of military plutonium converter with a positive temperature reactivity coefficient, which made very dangerous its functioning. Any nuclear regulatory commission in democratic and responsible countries would have never authorized the use of this reactor

  19. Nuclear genome size analysis of Agave tequilana Weber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palomino, G.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Méndez, I.; Rubluo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2003), s. 37-46 ISSN 0008-7114 Grant - others:Itálie(IT) Z5038910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Flow cytometry * nuclear genome size * Agave tequilana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.337, year: 2003

  20. Germline Genetic Modification and Identity: the Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    In a legal 'first', the UK removed a prohibition against modifying embryos in human reproduction, to enable mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs), a move the Government distanced from 'germline genetic modification', which it aligned with modifying the nuclear genome. This paper (1) analyzes the uses and meanings of this term in UK/US legal and policy debates; and (2) evaluates related ethical concerns about identity. It shows that, with respect to identity, MRTs and nuclear genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas-9 (now a policy topic), are not as different as has been supposed. While it does not follow that the two should be treated exactly alike, one of the central reasons offered for treating MRTs more permissively than nuclear genetic modification, and for not regarding MRTs as 'germline genetic modification', is thereby in doubt. Identity cannot, by itself, do the work thus far assigned to it, explicitly or otherwise, in law and policy.

  1. Nuclear fusion and genome encounter during yeast zygote formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakoff, Alan Michael; Jaiswal, Purnima

    2009-06-01

    When haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are crossed, parental nuclei congress and fuse with each other. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we have developed assays that evaluate the impact of drugs and mutations. Nuclear congression is inhibited by drugs that perturb the actin and tubulin cytoskeletons. Nuclear envelope (NE) fusion consists of at least five steps in which preliminary modifications are followed by controlled flux of first outer and then inner membrane proteins, all before visible dilation of the waist of the nucleus or coalescence of the parental spindle pole bodies. Flux of nuclear pore complexes occurs after dilation. Karyogamy requires both the Sec18p/NSF ATPase and ER/NE luminal homeostasis. After fusion, chromosome tethering keeps tagged parental genomes separate from each other. The process of NE fusion and evidence of genome independence in yeast provide a prototype for understanding related events in higher eukaryotes.

  2. Nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of ribosomal DNA in Musa and Ensete (Musaceae): taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Jan; Alkhimova, Olena; Kubaláková, Marie; De Langhe, E.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2005), s. 50-57 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204 Grant - others:IAEA Research Contract 12230/RBF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Musa and Ensete * nuclear genome size * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2005

  3. Nuclear law: organization and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    The paper emphasizes the importance of a special legislation insuring the governmental control of nuclear applications and other related activities. This legislation must establish the authority in charge for the development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and the specialized body legally competent to insure an independent control of nuclear activities, it must define the principles and the conditions for licensing nuclear activities insuring the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations and must establish the specific rules for nuclear liability in the case of a nuclear accident. A list of IAEA publications related to the safety of nuclear power plants is included

  4. Genomic Characterization of Metformin Hepatic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R Luizon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is used as a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D and prescribed for numerous other diseases. However, its mechanism of action in the liver has yet to be characterized in a systematic manner. To comprehensively identify genes and regulatory elements associated with metformin treatment, we carried out RNA-seq and ChIP-seq (H3K27ac, H3K27me3 on primary human hepatocytes from the same donor treated with vehicle control, metformin or metformin and compound C, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK inhibitor (allowing to identify AMPK-independent pathways. We identified thousands of metformin responsive AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent differentially expressed genes and regulatory elements. We functionally validated several elements for metformin-induced promoter and enhancer activity. These include an enhancer in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM intron that has SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with a metformin treatment response GWAS lead SNP (rs11212617 that showed increased enhancer activity for the associated haplotype. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL liver analysis and CRISPR activation suggest that this enhancer could be regulating ATM, which has a known role in AMPK activation, and potentially also EXPH5 and DDX10, its neighboring genes. Using ChIP-seq and siRNA knockdown, we further show that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, our top metformin upregulated AMPK-dependent gene, could have an important role in gluconeogenesis repression. Our findings provide a genome-wide representation of metformin hepatic response, highlight important sequences that could be associated with interindividual variability in glycemic response to metformin and identify novel T2D treatment candidates.

  5. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  6. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome DOI 10...e Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG Nucle

  7. Nuclear excitations in the nuclear response theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Giai.

    1983-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation is used to calculate the response of a nucleus to an external field. The method allows a full treatment of continuum effects. Effective interactions to be used are discussed, and the consistency between the mean field and the residual interaction is stressed. Some applications to excitation properties of spherical nuclei are shown

  8. Unmanned Mobile Monitoring for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, YoungSoo; Park, JongWon; Kim, TaeWon; Jeong, KyungMin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Severe accidents at nuclear power plant have led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility. Therefore, the appropriate response is required for the mitigation of the accidents. In the past, most of responses were performed by human beings, but it was dangerous and risky. In this paper, we proposed unmanned mobile system for the monitoring of nuclear accident in order to response effectively. For the integrity of reactor cooling and containment building, reactor cooling pipe and hydrogen distribution monitoring with unmanned ground vehicle was designed. And, for the safety of workers, radiation distribution monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicle was designed. Unmanned mobile monitoring system was proposed to respond nuclear accidents effectively. Concept of reinforcing the integrity of RCS and containment building, and radiation distribution monitoring were described. RCS flow measuring, hydrogen distribution measuring and radiation monitoring deployed at unmanned vehicle were proposed. These systems could be a method for the preparedness of effective response of nuclear accidents.

  9. Responsible stewardship of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to tap the massive energy potential of nuclear fission was first developed as a weapon to end a terrible world war. Nuclear fission is also a virtually inexhaustible energy resource, and is the only energy supply in certain areas in Russia, Kazakhstan and elsewhere. The potential link between civilian and military applications has been and continues to be a source of concern. With the end of the Cold War, this issue has taken a dramatic turn. The U.S. and Russia have agreed to reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles by as much as two-thirds. This will make some 100 tonnes of separated plutonium and 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium available, in a form that is obviously directly usable for weapons. The total world inventory of plutonium is now around 1000 tonnes and is increasing at 60-70 tonnes per year. There is even more highly enriched uranium. Fortunately the correct answer to what to do with excess weapons material is also the most attractive. It should be used and reused as fuel for fast reactors. Material in use (particularly nuclear material) is very easy to monitor and control, and is quite unattractive for diversion. Active management of fissile materials not only makes a major contribution to economic stability and well-being, but also simplifies accountability, inspection and other safeguards processes; provides a revenue stream to pay for the necessary safeguards; and, most importantly, limits the prospective world inventory of plutonium to only that which is used and useful

  10. A nuclear engineer's ethical responsibility to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Chernobyl notwithstanding, this paper seeks to illustrate why, on numerous fronts, nuclear technology provides the safest, cleanest and most effective method of base-load power generation. In particular it seeks to demonstrate that, despite the strident rhetoric and media exposure given to the anti-nuclear lobby, the technology is fundamental to the quality of life and the equitable sharing of energy by the year 2000. Therefore, the safety and technological superiority of the nuclear fuel cycle together with its high technology peripheral benefits both societal and fiscal are viewed as an ever increasing challenge and motivation which constitutes a major part of the nuclear engineer's ethical responsibility to society

  11. Adaptive response and genomic instability: allosteric response of genome to negative impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is an upsurge concern on the unique response of living cells to low dose ionizing radiation for its inconformity to the existing paradigm of the biological action of radiation and its impact on the current understanding of risk evaluation of health effect of radiation in our workplace and environment. For the allosteric response to have significance, the cells must have an excellent sensing mechanism to discriminate tolerable and intolerable signals. In a series of experiments with mammalian, including human, cells, we demonstrated a novel sensing and signaling mechanism in the low-dose irradiated cells that was mediated by a PKCα-p3BMAPK-PLCδ1 feedback regulatory loop. Upon irradiation, PKCα is immediately activated, which in turn activate p38MAPK. The activation of p38MAPK is feedbacked to the activation of PKCα via PLCδ1, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of PtdInsP2 to generate PKCα-directed second messengers DAG and lnsP3. At low doses, the PKCα and p38MAPK continue to be activated for long time through this feedback loop, but when the cells encounter the high dose (>10 cGy or equivalent), the feedback loop is immediately comes to shutdown by deprivation of PKCα protein, known as down-regulation of PKC signaling. Thus, PKCα plays a key role in the long lasting nature of adaptive response to low doses and a binary switch to the genomic instability by too much signals. Tumor suppressor protein, p53, is a downstream effecter

  12. Licensee responsibility for nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Simple sentences easy to grasp are desirable in regulations and bans. However, in a legal system, their meaning must be unambiguous. Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the EURATOM Directive on a community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear facilities of June 2009 states that 'responsibility for the nuclear safety of a nuclear facility is incumbent primarily on the licensee.' The draft 'Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, Revision D, April 2009' of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) (A Module 1, 'Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: Basic Safety Criteria' / '0 Principles' Paragraph 2) reads: 'Responsibility for ensuring safety rests with the licensee. He shall give priority to compliance with the safety goal over the achievement of other operational objectives.' In addition, the existing rules and regulations, whose rank is equivalent to that of international regulations, assign priority to the safety goal to be pursued by the licensee over all other objectives of the company. The operator's responsibility for nuclear safety can be required and achieved only on the basis of permits granted, which must meet legal requirements. The operator's proximity to plant operation is the reason for his 'primary responsibility.' Consequently, verbatim incorporation of Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the EURATOM Directive would only be a superscript added to existing obligations of the operator - inclusive of a safety culture designed as an incentive to further 'the spirit of safety-related actions' - without any new legal contents and consequences. In the reasons of the regulation, this would have to be clarified in addition to the cryptic wording of 'responsibility.. primarily,' at the same time expressing that operators and authorities work together in a spirit of openness and trust. (orig.)

  13. Responsibilities of the nuclear-weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun

    1994-01-01

    The responsibilities of Nuclear Weapon States are presented by a straightforward analysis together with the ways in which they could fulfill them. The complete undertaking of all the commitments by the Nuclear Weapon States may take a long time. However they do not have a single excuse to neglect such a historic opportunity to do their best to provide a genuinely secure world environment for the international community, of which they too are members

  14. Bacterial genomic adaptation and response to metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houdt, R.

    2009-01-01

    The beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 (formerly Ralstonia metallidurans) has been intensively studied since 1976 in SCK-CEN and VITO, for its adaptation capacity to survive in harsh (mostly industrial) environments, to overcome acute environmental stresses, for its resistance to a variety of heavy metals and for applications in environmental biotechnology. Recently, CH34 has become a model bacterium to study the effect of spaceflight conditions in several space flight experiments conducted by SCK-CEN (e.g. MESSAGE, BASE). Furthermore, Cupriavidus and Ralstonia species are isolated from the floor, air and surfaces of spacecraft assembly rooms; were found prior-to-flight on surfaces of space robots such as the Mars Odyssey Orbiter and even in-flight in ISS cooling water and Shuttle drinking water, vindicating its role as model bacterium in space research. In addition, Ralstonia species are also the causative agent of nosocomial infections and are among the unusual species recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The genomic organization of Cuprivavidus metallidurans CH34 was studied in-depth to identify the genetic and regulatory structures involved in the resistance to heavy metals

  15. Nuclear responses in INTOR plasma stabilization elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Gilligan, J.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Miley, G.H.; Wiffen, F.W.; Yang, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear responses in the plasma stabilization elements were studied in a parametric fashion as a part of the transient electromagnetics critical issue C of ETR/INTOR activity. The main responses are neutron fluence and radiation dose in the insulator material, induced resistivity and atomic displacement in the conductor material, nuclear heating and life analysis for the elements. Copper and aluminum conductors with either MgAl 2 O 4 or MgO insulating material were investigated. Radiation damage and life analysis for these elements were also discussed

  16. Functional genomics and proteomics - the role of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, U. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Nuklearmedizin; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiopharmacy

    2002-01-01

    Now that the sequencing of the human genome has been completed, the basic challenges are finding the genes, locating their coding regions and predicting their functions. This will result in a new understanding of human biology as well as in the design of new molecular structures as potential novel diagnostic or drug discovery targets. The assessment of gene function may be performed using the tools of the genome program. These tools represent high-throughput methods used to evaluate changes in the expression of many or all genes of an organism at the same time in order to investigate genetic pathways for normal development and disease. This will lead to a shift in the scientific paradigm: In the pre-proteomics era, functional assignments were derived from hypothesis-driven experiments designed to understand specific cellular processes. The new tools describe proteins on a proteome-wide scale, thereby creating a new way of doing cell research which results in the determination of three-dimensional protein structures and the description of protein networks. These descriptions may then be used for the design of new hypotheses and experiments in the traditional physiological, biochemical and pharmacological sense. The evaluation of genetically manipulated animals or newly designed biomolecules will require a thorough understanding of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology and the experimental approaches will involve many new technologies, including in vivo imaging with single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography. Nuclear medicine procedures may be applied for the determination of gene function and regulation using established and new tracers or using in vivo reporter genes such as enzymes, receptors, antigens or transporters. Pharmacogenomics will identify new surrogate markers for therapy monitoring which may represent potential new tracers for imaging. Also, drug distribution studies for new therapeutic biomolecules are needed, at least

  17. Functional genomics and proteomics - the role of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, U.; Altmann, A.; Eisenhut, M.

    2002-01-01

    Now that the sequencing of the human genome has been completed, the basic challenges are finding the genes, locating their coding regions and predicting their functions. This will result in a new understanding of human biology as well as in the design of new molecular structures as potential novel diagnostic or drug discovery targets. The assessment of gene function may be performed using the tools of the genome program. These tools represent high-throughput methods used to evaluate changes in the expression of many or all genes of an organism at the same time in order to investigate genetic pathways for normal development and disease. This will lead to a shift in the scientific paradigm: In the pre-proteomics era, functional assignments were derived from hypothesis-driven experiments designed to understand specific cellular processes. The new tools describe proteins on a proteome-wide scale, thereby creating a new way of doing cell research which results in the determination of three-dimensional protein structures and the description of protein networks. These descriptions may then be used for the design of new hypotheses and experiments in the traditional physiological, biochemical and pharmacological sense. The evaluation of genetically manipulated animals or newly designed biomolecules will require a thorough understanding of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology and the experimental approaches will involve many new technologies, including in vivo imaging with single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography. Nuclear medicine procedures may be applied for the determination of gene function and regulation using established and new tracers or using in vivo reporter genes such as enzymes, receptors, antigens or transporters. Pharmacogenomics will identify new surrogate markers for therapy monitoring which may represent potential new tracers for imaging. Also, drug distribution studies for new therapeutic biomolecules are needed, at least

  18. Integrated genomics of ovarian xenograft tumor progression and chemotherapy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckey, Ashley; Brodsky, Alexander S; Fischer, Andrew; Miller, Daniel H; Hillenmeyer, Sara; Kim, Kyu K; Ritz, Anna; Singh, Rakesh K; Raphael, Benjamin J; Brard, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer with a very poor prognosis. Xenograft mouse models have proven to be one very useful tool in testing candidate therapeutic agents and gene function in vivo. In this study we identify genes and gene networks important for the efficacy of a pre-clinical anti-tumor therapeutic, MT19c. In order to understand how ovarian xenograft tumors may be growing and responding to anti-tumor therapeutics, we used genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA copy number measurements to identify key genes and pathways that may be critical for SKOV-3 xenograft tumor progression. We compared SKOV-3 xenografts treated with the ergocalciferol derived, MT19c, to untreated tumors collected at multiple time points. Cell viability assays were used to test the function of the PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone, on SKOV-3 cell growth. These data indicate that a number of known survival and growth pathways including Notch signaling and general apoptosis factors are differentially expressed in treated vs. untreated xenografts. As tumors grow, cell cycle and DNA replication genes show increased expression, consistent with faster growth. The steroid nuclear receptor, PPARγ, was significantly up-regulated in MT19c treated xenografts. Surprisingly, stimulation of PPARγ with Rosiglitazone reduced the efficacy of MT19c and cisplatin suggesting that PPARγ is regulating a survival pathway in SKOV-3 cells. To identify which genes may be important for tumor growth and treatment response, we observed that MT19c down-regulates some high copy number genes and stimulates expression of some low copy number genes suggesting that these genes are particularly important for SKOV-3 xenograft growth and survival. We have characterized the time dependent responses of ovarian xenograft tumors to the vitamin D analog, MT19c. Our results suggest that PPARγ promotes survival for some ovarian tumor cells. We propose that a combination of regulated expression and copy number

  19. The Nuclear Review: the Institution of Nuclear Engineers' response to the Review of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom Government's Nuclear Review currently underway, addresses whether and in what form nuclear power should continue to be part of the country's power generation capability. This article sets out the response of the Institution of Nuclear Engineers to the Nuclear Review. This pro-nuclear group emphasises the benefits to be gained from diversity of generation in the energy supply industry. The environmentally benign nature of nuclear power is emphasised, in terms of gaseous emissions. The industry's excellent safety record also argues in favour of nuclear power. Finally, as power demand increases globally, a health U.K. nuclear industry could generate British wealth through power exports and via the construction industry. The Institution's view on radioactive waste management is also set out. (UK)

  20. Genome-wide deficiency screen for the genomic regions responsible for heat resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teramura Kouhei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature adaptation is one of the most important determinants of distribution and population size of organisms in nature. Recently, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and gene expression profiling approaches have been used for detecting candidate genes for heat resistance. However, the resolution of QTL mapping is not high enough to examine the individual effects of various genes in each QTL. Heat stress-responsive genes, characterized by gene expression profiling studies, are not necessarily responsible for heat resistance. Some of these genes may be regulated in association with the heat stress response of other genes. Results To evaluate which heat-responsive genes are potential candidates for heat resistance with higher resolution than previous QTL mapping studies, we performed genome-wide deficiency screen for QTL for heat resistance. We screened 439 isogenic deficiency strains from the DrosDel project, covering 65.6% of the Drosophila melanogaster genome in order to map QTL for thermal resistance. As a result, we found 19 QTL for heat resistance, including 3 novel QTL outside the QTL found in previous studies. Conclusion The QTL found in this study encompassed 19 heat-responsive genes found in the previous gene expression profiling studies, suggesting that they were strong candidates for heat resistance. This result provides new insights into the genetic architecture of heat resistance. It also emphasizes the advantages of genome-wide deficiency screen using isogenic deficiency libraries.

  1. Semiclassical theory for the nuclear response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, U.

    1986-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis it was demonstrated how on a semiclassical base a RPA theory is developed and applied to electron scattering. It was shown in which fields of nuclear physics this semiclassical theory can be applied and how it is to be understood. In this connection we dedicated an extensive discussion to the Fermi gas model. From the free response function we calculated the RPA response with a finite-range residual interaction which we completely antisymmetrize. In the second part of this thesis we studied with our theory (e,e') data for the separated response functions. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  3. Protection against nuclear terrorism: the IAEA response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the events of 11 September 2001, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) identified possible threats from acts of nuclear terrorism. A report to the Board of Governors in November 2001 summarized the IAEA's ongoing work in areas relevant to the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of such acts and outlined proposals for a number of new and/or enhanced activities. Four main threats were addressed: theft of a nuclear weapon; acquisition of nuclear material; acquisition of other radioactive material; and violent acts against nuclear facilities. These proposals have been further refined and the new plan was approved in principle at the March 2002 board meeting. In the beginning, implementation will be dependent on member state contributions to a voluntary fund. Proposed new or enhanced activities are grouped into eight areas: I. Physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; II. Detection of malicious activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; III. State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; IV. Security of radioactive material other than nuclear material; V. Assessment of safety/security related vulnerability of nuclear facilities; VI. Response to malicious acts, or threats thereof; VII. Adherence to and implementation of international agreements, guidelines and recommendations; VIII. Nuclear security co-ordination and information management. After an overview, this paper focuses on activity area IV, which deals with the radiological terrorism issues involving radioactive sources. A strategy for evaluation of the IAEA's role is presented, covering an analysis of the likely threats and possible scenarios. This leads to an assessment of the most desirable sources from a terrorist's viewpoint. The strategy then examines how terrorists might acquire such sources and attempts to determine the best ways to prevent their acquisition. Further activities are proposed to prevent the use

  4. Tropospheric response to a nuclear exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1983-10-01

    The immediate effects of a full-scale nuclear war would be large and severe. The survivors of such a war would have to endure possible changes in the chemical structure of the atmosphere. These changes may come about as a result of changes caused by the nuclear explosions themselves (direct effects) or as a result of changes caused by fires that may start after the explosions (indirect effects). This paper focuses on the expected global-scale changes in the chemical structure of the atmosphere from both direct and indirect effects after a full-scale nuclear exchange. The immediate effects of a nuclear explosion include the creation of a hot mass of air or fireball which rises in the atmosphere to a level that depends on the yield of the explosion. Because the fireball is hot, it is able to dissociate atmospheric nitrogen, N 2 . As the fireball cools, nitrogen atoms recombine with oxygen to form nitrogen oxides, NO and NO 2 . In addition, dust and recondensed gases are swept up through the stem of the fireball and deposited at the same level to which the fireball rises. This paper focuses on the response of atmospheric ozone to a nuclear war

  5. The nuclear response in extended RPA theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Linear response theories for small-amplitude nuclear motion are discussed. A review is given of the Random-Phase-Approximation and its successes and shortcomings are pointed out. Systematic improvements are presented which include two-particle two-hole excitations and account for dissipative effects due to binary collisions of nucleons in the mean field. These improved theories describe inelastic scattering experiments satisfactorily over a wide kinematical range. (author)

  6. The social responsibility of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuo, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the concept of Social Responsibility (SR) has increased recently. Continuing advances in the pace of innovative science and information technology development, growing competition in the world's markets, economic globalization and harsh criticism from communities have all drawn attention to the behavior of different organizations. As a way of drawing global attention to the fulfillment of SR, the goal of coexistence assumes an increasingly significant role from the standpoint of sustainable development of organizations and society. This implies that SR involves two responsibilities: the primary responsibility being an obligation to society, and the secondary responsibility being a positive contribution to society. Seen from the same perspective, Nuclear Energy (NE) is expected to make a positive contribution to the advancement of society and to encourage a safety culture that prevents serious accidents while also encouraging the sound development of organizations and society. ('Society' includes the environment and the economy, with the same sense as a 'triple bottom line'.) Considering the Social Responsibility of Nuclear Energy (NSR) from these points-of-view, NE should coexist with multiple stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between NE and society, to define a framework for problem-solving, and finally to suggest changes in NSR as a whole. (author)

  7. Understanding and exploiting the genomic response to hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaccia, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment influences both therapeutic outcome and malignant progression. Of the many factors that may be altered in the tumor microenvironment, changes in tumor oxygenation have been strongly associated with a lower probability of local tumor control and survival. In vitro studies indicate that cells exposed to a low oxygen environment exhibit multiple phenotypes, including cell-cycle arrest, increased expression of pro-angiogenic genes, increased invasive capacity, increased apoptosis, increased anaerobic metabolism and altered differentiation programs. While the mechanistic basis of hypoxia as an impediment to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is well understood, it is unclear what changes in the cellular phenotype are important in understanding how hypoxia modifies malignant progression. One insight into how hypoxia modulates malignant progression comes from understanding the critical transcriptional regulators of gene expression under hypoxic conditions such as hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) as well as changes in gene expression in untransformed and transformed cells. Overall, about 1.5% of the genome is found to be transcriptionally responsive to changes in oxygenation. Most importantly, the coordinated changes in gene expression under hypoxic conditions underscore the physiologic basis for altering gene expression in response to a low oxygen environment. In addition, some hypoxia-induced genes exhibit increased expression after reoxygenation, suggesting that they are regulated both by hypoxia and oxidative stress. Analysis of the genomic response to hypoxia has several therapeutic uses. First, it allows one to ask the question of what the cellular consequences are to inhibition of the transcriptional response to hypoxia such as by targeting the HIF-1 transcription factor. While the effect of loss of HIF-1 in tumors leads to inhibition of tumor growth, it does not eliminate tumors. In fact, studies indicate that inhibition of HIF-1 leads to a

  8. Conflicting Evolutionary Histories of the Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genomes in New World Myotis Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Roy N; Faircloth, Brant C; Sullivan, Kevin A M; Kieran, Troy J; Glenn, Travis C; Vandewege, Michael W; Lee, Thomas E; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2018-03-01

    The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial genomes of 37 representative Myotis, primarily from the New World, in conjunction with targeted sequencing of 3648 ultraconserved elements (UCEs). We inferred the phylogeny and explored the effects of concatenation and summary phylogenetic methods, as well as combinations of markers based on informativeness or levels of missing data, on our results. Of the 294 phylogenies generated from the nuclear UCE data, all are significantly different from phylogenies inferred using mitochondrial genomes. Even within the nuclear data, quartet frequencies indicate that around half of all UCE loci conflict with the estimated species tree. Several factors can drive such conflict, including incomplete lineage sorting, introgressive hybridization, or even phylogenetic error. Despite the degree of discordance between nuclear UCE loci and the mitochondrial genome and among UCE loci themselves, the most common nuclear topology is recovered in one quarter of all analyses with strong nodal support. Based on these results, we re-examine the evolutionary history of Myotis to better understand the phenomena driving their unique nuclear, mitochondrial, and biogeographic histories.

  9. Task 4 Improvised Nuclear Device Response Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alai, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    LLNL performed fallout and nuclear blast modeling for the 60 cities using the NARAC modeling system and predominant weather patterns determined in a previous Task 4 effort. LLNL performed model simulations and analyses to identify and provide response curves (expressed as two-dimensional contours) for radioactive fallout deposition, transport, population, and blast overpressure as a function of yield, weather, location and time. These contours can then be further combined and correlated with infrastructure and population databases to estimate city specific effects on KPFs such as impacted infrastructure and casualty rates.

  10. Some Qualitative Requirements for Testing of Nuclear Emergency Response Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heungseop; Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out the project 'Development of Core Technology for Remote Response in Nuclear Emergency Situation', and as a part of the project, we are studying the reliability and performance requirements of nuclear emergency response robots. In this paper, we described some qualitative requirements for testing of nuclear emergency response robots which are different to general emergency response robots. We briefly introduced test requirements of general emergency response robots and described some qualitative aspects of test requirements for nuclear emergency response robots. When considering an immature field-robot technology and variety of nuclear emergency situations, it seems hard to establish quantitative test requirements of these robots at this time. However, based on studies of nuclear severe accidents and the experience of Fukushima NPP accident, we can expect some test requirements including quantitative ones for nuclear emergency response robots

  11. Transcriptional profiling in response to terminal drought stress reveals differential responses along the wheat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Francesco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water stress during grain filling has a marked effect on grain yield, leading to a reduced endosperm cell number and thus sink capacity to accumulate dry matter. The bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS, a Chinese Spring terminal deletion line (CS_5AL-10 and the durum wheat cultivar Creso were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to mild and severe drought stress at the grain filling stage to find evidences of differential stress responses associated to different wheat genome regions. Results The transcriptome analysis of Creso, CS and its deletion line revealed 8,552 non redundant probe sets with different expression levels, mainly due to the comparisons between the two species. The drought treatments modified the expression of 3,056 probe sets. Besides a set of genes showing a similar drought response in Creso and CS, cluster analysis revealed several drought response features that can be associated to the different genomic structure of Creso, CS and CS_5AL-10. Some drought-related genes were expressed at lower level (or not expressed in Creso (which lacks the D genome or in the CS_5AL-10 deletion line compared to CS. The chromosome location of a set of these genes was confirmed by PCR-based mapping on the D genome (or the 5AL-10 region. Many clusters were characterized by different level of expression in Creso, CS and CS_AL-10, suggesting that the different genome organization of the three genotypes may affect plant adaptation to stress. Clusters with similar expression trend were grouped and functional classified to mine the biological mean of their activation or repression. Genes involved in ABA, proline, glycine-betaine and sorbitol pathways were found up-regulated by drought stress. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of a set of transposons and retrotransposons was detected in CS_5AL-10. Conclusion Bread and durum wheat genotypes were characterized by a different physiological reaction to water

  12. Political pressure on nuclear - responsibility or business?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrech, Rastislav; Holy, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment study prior to bringing the plant in a commercial operation - will change nothing. I believe that the outcomes will reinforce the arguments in favour of construction and commissioning of new sources of clean, safe, and reliable generation of electricity. Is it just diverting the public's attention from other problems or an attempt to gain a political capital? Is the political pressure on nuclear a real responsibility or a sheer business? Most politicians have no idea about the nuclear power, and if they do, it is only very misty one. It is necessary to invite them to visit plants, discuss with them and give them clear arguments. A clear statement of an energy policy and relying on the safe and economic advantageous nuclear power can also attract a large portion of electors in the future. We should try so that energy policy in post-communist countries got into election programmes of each political party, since the energy mix policy cannot be tailored only for one election period of a government, but for a time of 20 to 30 years in advance

  13. Critical seismic response of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drenick, R.F.; Wang, P.C.; Yun, C.B.; Philappacopoulos, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of how to assess the seismic resistance of important structures, particularly of nuclear reactor structures. Most of the design procedures presently in use or under investigation are based on design response spectra obtained by statistical evaluation of past ground excitations assuming certain probability distributions (e.g., normal or lognormal) of response peaks. Artificial time histories generated from these spectra are also used. However, it is not clear whether these approaches lead to designs that can be relied upon on the confidence levels that are presumably desired for structures such as nuclear reactors whose integrity during an earthquake is of considerable importance. The trouble lies with the fact that the analysis of structural integrity seems highly sensitive to the assumptions regarding the nature of those probability distributions: small variations, especially in the tails of the distributions, can induce large changes in the desired results. This greatly weakens the reliance that can be placed in many assessments of earthquake resistance. In this paper, a new method is developed which has the potential of avoiding those weaknesses. It is more specifically based on assumptions that seem well supported by seismological observations but side-steps others, especially those regarding probability distribution of ground motions, which are more conjectural. (orig./RW)

  14. Common developmental genome deprogramming in schizophrenia - Role of Integrative Nuclear FGFR1 Signaling (INFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narla, S T; Lee, Y-W; Benson, C A; Sarder, P; Brennand, K J; Stachowiak, E K; Stachowiak, M K

    2017-07-01

    The watershed-hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that over 200 different mutations dysregulate distinct pathways that converge on an unspecified common mechanism(s) that controls disease ontogeny. Consistent with this hypothesis, our RNA-sequencing of neuron committed cells (NCCs) differentiated from established iPSCs of 4 schizophrenia patients and 4 control subjects uncovered a dysregulated transcriptome of 1349 mRNAs common to all patients. Data reveals a global dysregulation of developmental genome, deconstruction of coordinated mRNA networks, and the formation of aberrant, new coordinated mRNA networks indicating a concerted action of the responsible factor(s). Sequencing of miRNA transcriptomes demonstrated an overexpression of 16 miRNAs and deconstruction of interactive miRNA-mRNA networks in schizophrenia NCCs. ChiPseq revealed that the nuclear (n) form of FGFR1, a pan-ontogenic regulator, is overexpressed in schizophrenia NCCs and overtargets dysregulated mRNA and miRNA genes. The nFGFR1 targeted 54% of all human gene promoters and 84.4% of schizophrenia dysregulated genes. The upregulated genes reside within major developmental pathways that control neurogenesis and neuron formation, whereas downregulated genes are involved in oligodendrogenesis. Our results indicate (i) an early (preneuronal) genomic etiology of schizophrenia, (ii) dysregulated genes and new coordinated gene networks are common to unrelated cases of schizophrenia, (iii) gene dysregulations are accompanied by increased nFGFR1-genome interactions, and (iv) modeling of increased nFGFR1 by an overexpression of a nFGFR1 lead to up or downregulation of selected genes as observed in schizophrenia NCCs. Together our results designate nFGFR1 signaling as a potential common dysregulated mechanism in investigated patients and potential therapeutic target in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Financing responsibility for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic premise for financing arrangements for the disposal of nuclear waste is that the nuclear industry - not the taxpayer - must bear the costs. Present regulations, however, are imperfect in this regard. The Inquiry therefore proposes extending the financial liability of the nuclear industry and introducing new fee-setting arrangements. It is proposed that a new law be enacted to regulate these changes. The present financing system is regulated in the 'Financing Act' 1. Under this Act, the licensed owner and operator of a nuclear reactor is required to pay an annual fee and provide guarantees to the State. Four companies are reactor owners. These companies are wholly or partly owned by other companies according to various arrangements. Each reactor owner is responsible for its own dismantling costs and for its share of allocated common costs of disposal and related measures. If there is insufficient money in the funds, the nuclear industry will still be liable. The basic premise of the Inquiry is that the financing system should be designed so as to minimise the risk that the State (and taxpayers) will need to step in and pay. Although the nuclear industry is intended to have full liability for payment, in practice it does not. This is because the formal full liability for payment in the nuclear industry rests with the reactor companies and not where the industry's long-term ability to pay is to be found. Essentially, the present arrangements mean that: - Companies that cannot be expected to have any long-term ability to pay have unlimited liability, and - Companies that can be expected to have an ability to pay have very limited liability. The Inquiry therefore proposes that ability to pay and liability are brought into line by a formal assumption by owning companies of the sort of liability for payment that now rests solely with the reactor companies. This means that the owning company in each group that is best suited to bear the liability for payment

  16. Genome wide analyses of metal responsive genes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAschner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals are major contaminants that influence human health. Many metals have physiologic roles, but excessive levels can be harmful. Advances in technology have made toxicogenomic analyses possible to characterize the effects of metal exposure on the entire genome. Much of what is known about cellular responses to metals has come from mammalian systems; however the use of non-mammalian species is gaining wider attention. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans is a small round worm whose genome has been fully sequenced and its development from egg to adult is well characterized. It is an attractive model for high throughput screens due to its short lifespan, ease of genetic mutability, low cost and high homology with humans. Research performed in C. elegans has led to insights in apoptosis, gene expression and neurodegeneration, all of which can be altered by metal exposure. Additionally, by using worms one can potentially study how the mechanisms that underline differential responses to metals in nematodes and humans, allowing for identification of novel pathways and therapeutic targets. In this review, toxicogenomic studies performed in C. elegans exposed to various metals will be discussed, highlighting how this non-mammalian system can be utilized to study cellular processes and pathways induced by metals. Recent work focusing on neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease will be discussed as an example of the usefulness of genetic screens in C. elegans and the novel findings that can be produced.

  17. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  18. A New Approach to Dissect Nuclear Organization: TALE-Mediated Genome Visualization (TGV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanari, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal organization of chromatin within the nucleus has so far remained elusive. Live visualization of nuclear remodeling could be a promising approach to understand its functional relevance in genome functions and mechanisms regulating genome architecture. Recent technological advances in live imaging of chromosomes begun to explore the biological roles of the movement of the chromatin within the nucleus. Here I describe a new technique, called TALE-mediated genome visualization (TGV), which allows us to visualize endogenous repetitive sequence including centromeric, pericentromeric, and telomeric repeats in living cells.

  19. Unraveling the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of an agar producing red macroalga, Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Lee, Wei-Kang; Lim, Ee-Leen

    2018-03-01

    Agar and agarose have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Knowledge on the genome of red seaweeds that produce them is still lacking. To fill the gap in genome analyses of these red algae, we have sequenced the nuclear and organellar genomes of an agarophyte, Gracilaria changii. The partial nuclear genome sequence of G. changii has a total length of 35.8Mb with 10,912 predicted protein coding sequences. Only 39.4% predicted proteins were found to have significant matches to protein sequences in SwissProt. The chloroplast genome of G. changii is 183,855bp with a total of 201 open reading frames (ORFs), 29 tRNAs and 3 rRNAs predicted. Five genes: ssrA, leuC and leuD CP76_p173 (orf139) and pbsA were absent in the chloroplast genome of G. changii. The genome information is valuable in accelerating functional studies of individual genes and resolving evolutionary relationship of red seaweeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Planning and implementing nuclear emergency response facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    After Three Mile Island, Arkansas Nuclear One produced a planning document called TMI-2 Response Program. Phase I of the program defined action plans in nine areas: safety assessment, training, organization, public information, communication, security, fiscal-governmental, technical and logistical support. Under safety assessment, the staff was made even better prepared to handle radioactive material. Under training, on site simulators for each unit at ANO were installed. The other seven topics interface closely with each other. An emergency control center is diagrammed. A habitable technical support system was created. A media center, with a large media area, and an auditorium, was built. Electric door strike systems increased security. Phone networks independently run via microwave were installed. Until Three Mile Island, logistical problems were guesswork. That incident afforded an opportunity to better identify and prepare for these problems

  1. Extension of responsibilities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehor, M.

    1995-01-01

    The responsibilities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety have been extended by Act No. 85/1995 to cover protection against ionizing radiation. The following responsibilities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are defined by the Act: a) state surveillance over nuclear safety of nuclear facilities, and over radioactive waste and spent fuel management; b) state surveillance over nuclear materials, their record-keeping and accountancy; c) state surveillance over the safeguarding of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials; d) state surveillance over selected materials, facilities and technologies used in the nuclear field, as well as dual-purpose materials and facilities; e) state surveillance over protection against ionizing radiation; f) coordination of the performance of the Radiation Monitoring Network over the Czech Republic and responsibility for international exchange of data on the radiological situation. The Act is reproduced in full, and the organizational structure of the Office is shown in a chart. (J.B.)

  2. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Angela M.; King, Adrienne L.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D.; Oliva, Claudia R.; Crowe, David Ralph; Ballinger, Scott W.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. Herein, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, Mitochondrial-Nuclear eXchange (MNX) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6...

  3. Radio- and magnetobiology program GENOM at Nuclear Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanov, E

    1985-01-01

    The five-year program called GENOM was adopted at OIYAI five years ago. The main task of this program has been the study of mechanisms that determine differences in the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations with different stopping powers, as well as regularities involved in the action of magnetic fields. A unit called GENOM, which is controlled by a computer, was built at OIYAI. With this unit, living cells have been irradiated with charged particles of various energies, using the U-200. Magnetic-field generators and a unit which makes it possible to weaken the strength of the earth's magnetic field by a million times have been developed for magnetobiology research. DNA molecules, bacteria, yeasts, plant cells, normal and tumor cells of animals, and nerve cells of mollusks have been objects of research.

  4. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  5. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  6. Evidence for site-specific occupancy of the mitochondrial genome by nuclear transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi K Marinov

    Full Text Available Mitochondria contain their own circular genome, with mitochondria-specific transcription and replication systems and corresponding regulatory proteins. All of these proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are post-translationally imported into mitochondria. In addition, several nuclear transcription factors have been reported to act in mitochondria, but there has been no comprehensive mapping of their occupancy patterns and it is not clear how many other factors may also be found in mitochondria. Here we address these questions by using ChIP-seq data from the ENCODE, mouseENCODE and modENCODE consortia for 151 human, 31 mouse and 35 C. elegans factors. We identified 8 human and 3 mouse transcription factors with strong localized enrichment over the mitochondrial genome that was usually associated with the corresponding recognition sequence motif. Notably, these sites of occupancy are often the sites with highest ChIP-seq signal intensity within both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and are thus best explained as true binding events to mitochondrial DNA, which exist in high copy number in each cell. We corroborated these findings by immunocytochemical staining evidence for mitochondrial localization. However, we were unable to find clear evidence for mitochondrial binding in ENCODE and other publicly available ChIP-seq data for most factors previously reported to localize there. As the first global analysis of nuclear transcription factors binding in mitochondria, this work opens the door to future studies that probe the functional significance of the phenomenon.

  7. The Insulator Protein SU(HW) Fine-Tunes Nuclear Lamina Interactions of the Drosophila Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bemmel, J.G.; Pagie, L.; Braunschweig, U.; Brugman, W.; Meuleman, W.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Van Steensel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL) are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs) in

  8. MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV, and ENDF/B-IV, and is suitable for fusion, fusion--fission hybrids, and fission applications. 3 figures, 4 tables

  9. MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.M.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hydrids, and fission applications

  10. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications

  11. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M A; Gohar, Y

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications.

  12. MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.M.

    1978-03-15

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hydrids, and fission applications.

  13. Status and developing of nuclear emergency response techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangang, Zhang; Bing, Zhao; Rongyao, Tang; Xiaoxiao, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Emergency preparedness and response in China is consistent with international basic principle of nuclear safety and emergency response. Nuclear emergency response techniques in China developed with nuclear power from 1980s. The status of nuclear emergency techniques in China are: 1) China have plentiful experiences and abilities in the fields of nuclear facility emergency planning and preparedness, nuclear accident consequence assessment, emergency monitoring, and emergency advisory; 2) Emergency assistance ability in China has a foundation, however it cannot satisfy national requirement; 3) Emergency planning and preparedness is not based on hazard assessment; 4) Remote monitoring and robot techniques in not adaptable to the requirements of nuclear emergency response; 5) A consistent emergency assessment system is lack in China. In this paper, it is analyzed what is the developing focal points of nuclear emergency response techniques in China, and it is proposed that the main points are: a) To develop the research of emergency preparedness on the base of hazard analysis; b) To improve remote monitoring and robot ability during nuclear emergency; c) To develop the response technique research with anti-terrorism. (author)

  14. The nuclear genome of Rhazya stricta and the evolution of alkaloid diversity in a medically relevant clade of Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K; Arasappan, Dhivya; Calderon, Virginie; Noutahi, Emmanuel; Zheng, Chunfang; Park, Seongjun; Sabir, Meshaal J; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Hajrah, Nahid H; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Baeshen, Nabih A; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sankoff, David; El-Mabrouk, Nadia; Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2016-09-22

    Alkaloid accumulation in plants is activated in response to stress, is limited in distribution and specific alkaloid repertoires are variable across taxa. Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae, Gentianales) represents a major center of structural expansion in the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) yielding thousands of unique molecules including highly valuable chemotherapeutics. The paucity of genome-level data for Apocynaceae precludes a deeper understanding of MIA pathway evolution hindering the elucidation of remaining pathway enzymes and the improvement of MIA availability in planta or in vitro. We sequenced the nuclear genome of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae, Rauvolfioideae) and present this high quality assembly in comparison with that of coffee (Rubiaceae, Coffea canephora, Gentianales) and others to investigate the evolution of genome-scale features. The annotated Rhazya genome was used to develop the community resource, RhaCyc, a metabolic pathway database. Gene family trees were constructed to identify homologs of MIA pathway genes and to examine their evolutionary history. We found that, unlike Coffea, the Rhazya lineage has experienced many structural rearrangements. Gene tree analyses suggest recent, lineage-specific expansion and diversification among homologs encoding MIA pathway genes in Gentianales and provide candidate sequences with the potential to close gaps in characterized pathways and support prospecting for new MIA production avenues.

  15. The development of nuclear power and emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power is a safe, clean energy, which has been evidenced by the history of nuclear power development. Nuclear power is associated with very low risk but not equal to zero. Accident emergency response and preparedness is a final barrier necessary to reduce potential risks that may arise from nuclear power plants, which must be enhanced. In the course of accident emergency response and preparedness, it is highly necessary to draw domestic and foreign experiences and lessons. Lastly, the paper presents the discussions of some issues which merit attention with respect to emergency response and preparedness in China. (authors)

  16. Computer Security Incident Response Planning at Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this publication is to assist Member States in developing comprehensive contingency plans for computer security incidents with the potential to impact nuclear security and/or nuclear safety. It provides an outline and recommendations for establishing a computer security incident response capability as part of a computer security programme, and considers the roles and responsibilities of the system owner, operator, competent authority, and national technical authority in responding to a computer security incident with possible nuclear security repercussions

  17. Response of nuclear emulsions to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Pinkerton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Heavy ion tracks in Ilford K-2 emulsion are simulated with a computer program which makes use of the delta-ray theory of track structure, and the special assumption that the response of this emulsion to gamma-rays is 8-or-more hit. The Ilford K-series of nuclear emulsions is produced from a parent stock called K.0 emulsion, sensitized to become K.1 to K.5, and desensitized to become K-1 to K-3. Our simulations demonstrate that the emulsions K.5 through K.0 to K-1 are 1-or-more hit detectors, while K-2 is an 8-or-more hit detector. We have no data for K-3 emulsion. It would appear that emulsions of intermediate hittedness might be produced by an intermediate desensitization, to mimic or match the RBE-LET variations of biological cells, perhaps to produce a ''rem-dosimeter''. In the K-2 emulsion no developable gains are produced by stopping H, He, and Li ions. The emulsion has ''threshold-like'' properties, resembling etchable track detectors. It should prove useful in the measurement of high LET dose in a strong low LET background, as for pions or neutrons. Since it can be expected to accumulate and repair ''sub-lethal damage'', to display the ion-kill and gamma-kill inactivation modes, the grain-count and track width regimes, it may serve to model biological effects. (auth)

  18. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  19. The yeast genome may harbor hypoxia response elements (HRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Túlio César; Hertzberg, Libi; Gassmann, Max; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2007-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor activated when cells are submitted to hypoxia. The heterodimer is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the constitutively expressed HIF-1beta. During normoxia, HIF-1alpha is degraded by the 26S proteasome, but hypoxia causes HIF-1alpha to be stabilized, enter the nucleus and bind to HIF-1beta, thus forming the active complex. The complex then binds to the regulatory sequences of various genes involved in physiological and pathological processes. The specific regulatory sequence recognized by HIF-1 is the hypoxia response element (HRE) that has the consensus sequence 5'BRCGTGVBBB3'. Although the basic transcriptional regulation machinery is conserved between yeast and mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express HIF-1 subunits. However, we hypothesized that baker's yeast has a protein analogous to HIF-1 which participates in the response to changes in oxygen levels by binding to HRE sequences. In this study we screened the yeast genome for HREs using probabilistic motif search tools. We described 24 yeast genes containing motifs with high probability of being HREs (p-value<0.1) and classified them according to biological function. Our results show that S. cerevisiae may harbor HREs and indicate that a transcription factor analogous to HIF-1 may exist in this organism.

  20. Genome-wide transcription responses to synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Carl N; Yang, Yuqing; Forrester, Helen B; Li, Jason; Zaitseva, Marina; Cann, Leonie; Restall, Tina; Anderson, Robin L; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Rogers, Peter A W

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients achieve benefit from radiotherapy. A significant limitation of radiotherapy is its relatively low therapeutic index, defined as the maximum radiation dose that causes acceptable normal tissue damage to the minimum dose required to achieve tumor control. Recently, a new radiotherapy modality using synchrotron-generated X-ray microbeam radiotherapy has been demonstrated in animal models to ablate tumors with concurrent sparing of normal tissue. Very little work has been undertaken into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that differentiate microbeam radiotherapy from broad beam. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the whole genome transcriptional response of in vivo microbeam radiotherapy versus broad beam irradiated tumors. We hypothesized that gene expression changes after microbeam radiotherapy are different from those seen after broad beam. We found that in EMT6.5 tumors at 4-48 h postirradiation, microbeam radiotherapy differentially regulates a number of genes, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen gene family members, and other immunity-related genes including Ciita, Ifng, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Indo and Ubd when compared to broad beam. Our findings demonstrate molecular differences in the tumor response to microbeam versus broad beam irradiation and these differences provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of microbeam radiotherapy and broad beam.

  1. Nuclear routing networks span between nuclear pore complexes and genomic DNA to guide nucleoplasmic trafficking of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Marek; Malecki, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    In health and disease, biomolecules, which are involved in gene expression, recombination, or reprogramming have to traffic through the nucleoplasm, between nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and genomic DNA (gDNA). This trafficking is guided by the recently revealed nuclear routing networks (NRNs). In this study, we aimed to investigate, if the NRNs have established associations with the genomic DNA in situ and if the NRNs have capabilities to bind the DNA de novo. Moreover, we aimed to study further, if nucleoplasmic trafficking of the histones, rRNA, and transgenes’ vectors, between the NPCs and gDNA, is guided by the NRNs. We used Xenopus laevis oocytes as the model system. We engineered the transgenes’ DNA vectors equipped with the SV40 LTA nuclear localization signals (NLS) and/or HIV Rev nuclear export signals (NES). We purified histones, 5S rRNA, and gDNA. We rendered all these molecules superparamagnetic and fluorescent for detection with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The NRNs span between the NPCs and genomic DNA. They form firm bonds with the gDNA in situ. After complete digestion of the nucleic acids with the RNases and DNases, the newly added DNA - modified with the dNTP analogs, bonds firmly to the NRNs. Moreover, the NRNs guide the trafficking of the DNA transgenes’ vectors - modified with the SV40 LTA NLS, following their import into the nuclei through the NPCs. The pathway is identical to that of histones. The NRNs also guide the trafficking of the DNA transgenes’ vectors, modified with the HIV Rev NES, to the NPCs, followed by their export out of the nuclei. Ribosomal RNAs follow the same pathway. To summarize, the NRNs are the structures connecting the NPCs and the gDNA. They guide the trafficking of the biomolecules between the NPCs and the gDNA. PMID:23275893

  2. The bad debt of nuclear responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear regulation plays an important role in keeping the visible and invisible threats of radioactivity at bay. This article argues that the largest gains in nuclear safety can be made if nuclear activities with economically, socially and environmentally viable alternatives (such as nuclear energy and nuclear weapons) are phased out - similarly to what has been done for toxic substances. Unless this takes place, the legacy of radioactive waste for future generations will only increase. In this respect, the article highlights the importance of accountability, independence and transparency of nuclear regulators to contain the risks stemming from radioactivity. In the interest of safety, other uses of nuclear technology should, as a rule, apply the best available technology and the best regulatory practice. As is made clear in the article, the EURATOM Nuclear Safety Directive, adopted in 2009, hardly addresses any of these issues. The article ends on a set of demands from Greenpeace to meet the challenges posed by nuclear safety, concluding that there is still a long way to go before the sector can be considered even reasonably safe. (author)

  3. DNA damage response and spindle assembly checkpoint function throughout the cell cycle to ensure genomic integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Errors in replication or segregation lead to DNA damage, mutations, and aneuploidies. Consequently, cells monitor these events and delay progression through the cell cycle so repair precedes division. The DNA damage response (DDR, which monitors DNA integrity, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, which responds to defects in spindle attachment/tension during metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, are critical for preventing genome instability. Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. Metaphase defects result in enrichment of SAC and DDR components to chromatin, and both SAC and DDR are required for metaphase delays. During persistent metaphase arrest following establishment of bi-oriented chromosomes, stability of the metaphase plate is compromised in the absence of DDR kinases ATR or CHK1 or SAC components, MAD1/MAD2, suggesting SAC functions in metaphase beyond its interactions with APC activator CDC20. In response to DNA damage, MAD2 and the histone variant CENPA become enriched at the nuclear periphery in a DDR-dependent manner. Further, depletion of either MAD1 or CENPA results in loss of peripherally associated damaged DNA. In contrast to a SAC-insensitive CDC20 mutant, germ cells deficient for SAC or CENPA cannot efficiently repair DNA damage, suggesting that SAC mediates DNA repair through CENPA interactions with the nuclear periphery. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved.

  4. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  5. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  6. Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions Regulate Cardiac Stem Cell Lineage Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshko, Andrey; Shah, Parisha P; Gupta, Mudit; Babu, Apoorva; Morley, Michael P; Manderfield, Lauren J; Ifkovits, Jamie L; Calderon, Damelys; Aghajanian, Haig; Sierra-Pagán, Javier E; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Qiaohong; Li, Li; Dubois, Nicole C; Morrisey, Edward E; Lazar, Mitchell A; Smith, Cheryl L; Epstein, Jonathan A; Jain, Rajan

    2017-10-19

    Progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cell types through coordinated expression of lineage-specific genes and modification of complex chromatin configurations. We demonstrate that a histone deacetylase (Hdac3) organizes heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina during cardiac progenitor lineage restriction. Specification of cardiomyocytes is associated with reorganization of peripheral heterochromatin, and independent of deacetylase activity, Hdac3 tethers peripheral heterochromatin containing lineage-relevant genes to the nuclear lamina. Deletion of Hdac3 in cardiac progenitor cells releases genomic regions from the nuclear periphery, leading to precocious cardiac gene expression and differentiation into cardiomyocytes; in contrast, restricting Hdac3 to the nuclear periphery rescues myogenesis in progenitors otherwise lacking Hdac3. Our results suggest that availability of genomic regions for activation by lineage-specific factors is regulated in part through dynamic chromatin-nuclear lamina interactions and that competence of a progenitor cell to respond to differentiation signals may depend upon coordinated movement of responding gene loci away from the nuclear periphery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Russian Nuclear Power Response to the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, Vladimir G.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. Nuclear safety is not based only on regulators. The prime responsibility for nuclear safety rests with operating organizations which have the necessary experience and knowledge. 2. Improvement in safety can be reached through better sharing of operation experience and improvements in technology. The IAEA is to increase interactions with utilities and nuclear industry. 3. The IAEA is to declare clearly the recognition of the role of operating organizations and nuclear industry in safe, efficacious and sustainable nuclear power development and to strengthen cooperation with them

  8. A prototype nuclear emergency response decision making expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Shih, C.; Hong, M.; Yu, W.; Su, M.; Wang, S.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype of emergency response expert system developed for nuclear power plants, has been fulfilled by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. Key elements that have been implemented for emergency response include radioactive material dispersion assessment, dynamic transportation evacuation assessment, and meteorological parametric forecasting. A network system consists of five 80386 Personal Computers (PCs) has been installed to perform the system functions above. A further project is still continuing to achieve a more complicated and fanciful computer aid integral emergency response expert system

  9. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 - 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 - 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change

  10. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S Burmeister

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1, a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance.

  11. Do nuclear engineering educators have a special responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Each 1000 MW(e) reactor in equilibrium contains 15 x 10 9 Ci of radioactivity. To handle this material safety requires an extremely high level of expertise and commitment - in many respects, an expertise that goes beyond what is demanded of any other technology. If one grants that nuclear engineering is more demanding than other engineering because the price of failure is greater, one must ask how can we inculcate into the coming generations of nuclear engineers a full sense of the responsibility they bear in practising their profession. Clearly a first requirement is that all elements of the nuclear community -utility executives, equipment engineers, operating engineers, nuclear engineers, administrators - must recognize and accept the idea that nuclear energy is something special, and that therefore its practitioners must be special. This sense must be instilled into young nuclear engineers during their education. A special responsibility therefore devolves upon nuclear engineering educators: first, to recognize the special character of their profession, and second, to convey this sense to their students. The possibility of institutionalizing this sense of responsibility by establishing a nuclear Hippocratic Oath or special canon of ethics for nuclear engineers ought to be discussed within the nuclear community. (author)

  12. Supplier responsibility for nuclear material quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, P.S.; Dohna, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear materials must be delivered by either the manufacturer or the distributor with objective, documented evidence that the material was manufactured, inspected, and tested by proven techniques performed by qualified personnel working to documented procedures. Measurement devices used for acceptance must be of proven accuracy. The material and all records must be identified for positive traceability as part of the quality history of the nuclear components, system, or structure in which the material was used. In conclusion, the nuclear material supplier must join the fabricator, the installer, and the user in effective implementation of the total systems approach to the application of quality assurance principles to all phases of procurement, fabrication, installation, and use of the safety-related components, systems, and structures in a nuclear power plant

  13. Nuclear alpha spectrin: Critical roles in DNA interstrand cross-link repair and genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Muriel W

    2016-01-01

    Non-erythroid alpha spectrin (?IISp) is a structural protein which we have shown is present in the nucleus of human cells. It interacts with a number of nuclear proteins such as actin, lamin, emerin, chromatin remodeling factors, and DNA repair proteins. ?IISp?s interaction with DNA repair proteins has been extensively studied. We have demonstrated that nuclear ?IISp is critical in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair in S phase, in both genomic (non-telomeric) and telomeric DNA, and in ma...

  14. ATM signaling and genomic stability in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, Martin F.; Birrell, Geoff; Chen, Philip; Kozlov, Sergei; Scott, Shaun; Gueven, Nuri

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks represent the most threatening lesion to the integrity of the genome in cells exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic chemicals. Those breaks are recognized, signaled to cell cycle checkpoints and repaired by protein complexes. The product of the gene (ATM) mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) plays a central role in the recognition and signaling of DNA damage. ATM is one of an ever growing number of proteins which when mutated compromise the stability of the genome and predispose to tumour development. Mechanisms for recognising double strand breaks in DNA, maintaining genome stability and minimizing risk of cancer are discussed

  15. The contribution of mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis in preventing the nuclear genome stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Hsiang; Wang, Liya; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2014-04-01

    In quiescent fibroblasts, the expression levels of cytosolic enzymes for thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis are down-regulated, causing a marked reduction in the dTTP pool. In this study, we provide evidence that mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis via thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a limiting factor for the repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage in the nuclear compartment in quiescent fibroblasts. We found that TK2 deficiency causes secondary DNA double-strand breaks formation in the nuclear genome of quiescent cells at the late stage of recovery from UV damage. Despite slower repair of quiescent fibroblast deficient in TK2, DNA damage signals eventually disappeared, and these cells were capable of re-entering the S phase after serum stimulation. However, these cells displayed severe genome stress as revealed by the dramatic increase in 53BP1 nuclear body in the G1 phase of the successive cell cycle. Here, we conclude that mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis via TK2 plays a role in facilitating the quality repair of UV damage for the maintenance of genome integrity in the cells that are temporarily arrested in the quiescent state.

  16. Legal responsibility for damage caused by nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, J.J. van den.

    1986-04-01

    In this essay a treatment is given of the legal third-party risks of licencees of nuclear power plants. It is regarded to what extent the actual responsibility arrangements provide an adequate protection to the citizen against potential risks of a nuclear power plant. (Auth.)

  17. Current nuclear threats and possible responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2005-04-01

    Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

  18. Emergency preparedness and response plan for nuclear facilities in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Rahmah Hidayati; Pande Made Udiyani

    2009-01-01

    All nuclear facilities in Indonesia are owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). The programs and activities of emergency planning and preparedness in Indonesia are based on the existing nuclear facilities, i.e. research reactors, research reactor fuel fabrication plant, radioactive waste treatment installation and radioisotopes production installation. The assessment is conducted to learn of status of emergency preparedness and response plan for nuclear facilities in Indonesia and to support the preparation of future Nuclear Power Plant. The assessment is conducted by comparing the emergency preparedness and response system in Indonesia to the system in other countries such as Japan and Republic of Korea, since the countries have many Nuclear Power Plants and other nuclear facilities. As a result, emergency preparedness response plan for existing nuclear facility in Indonesia has been implemented in many activities such as environmental monitoring program, facility monitoring equipment, and the continuous exercise of emergency preparedness and response. However, the implementation need law enforcement for imposing the responsibility of the coordinators in National Emergency Preparedness Plan. It also needs some additional technical support systems which refer to the system in Japan or Republic of Korea. The systems must be completed with some real time monitors which will support the emergency preparedness and response organization. The system should be built in NPP site before the first NPP will be operated. The system should be connected to an Off Site Emergency Center under coordination of BAPETEN as the regulatory body which has responsibility to control of nuclear energy in Indonesia. (Author)

  19. The Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Facultatively Eusocial Orchid Bee Euglossa dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Brand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant–insect interactions, and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. E. dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States. We provide a high-quality assembly of the 3.3 Gb genome, and an official gene set of 15,904 gene annotations. We find high conservation of gene synteny with the honey bee throughout 80 MY of divergence time. This genomic resource represents the first draft genome of the orchid bee genus Euglossa, and the first draft orchid bee mitochondrial genome, thus representing a valuable resource to the research community.

  20. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  1. Consideration of vertical seismic response spectrum in nuclear safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zaozhan; Huang Bingchen

    2011-01-01

    The basic requirements for civil nuclear installation are introduced in the article. Starting from the basic concept of seismic response spectrum, the authors analyze the site seismic response spectrum and the design seismic response spectrum that desire much consideration. By distinguishing the absolute seismic response spectrum and relative seismic response spectrum, the authors analyze the difference and relationship between the vertical seismic response spectrum and horizontal seismic response spectrum. The authors also bring forward some suggestions for determining the site vertical seismic response spectrum by considering the fact in our country. (authors)

  2. Nuclear fear and children: the impact of parental nuclear activism, responsivity, and fear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGuardia, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental nuclear fear, parental activism, and parental responsivity is associated with children's (age 10) nuclear fear. Other associated variables investigated include: nuclear denial, general anxiety and fear, and the personal characteristics of sex, socio-economic status, and academic aptitude. Findings indicate that children attend to nuclear issues when their parents attend to a significant degree. Children's hopelessness about the arms race is increased as parents' worry about nuclear war increases. Children's fear about not surviving a nuclear war increases as parents' worry about survivability decreases. Children who have more general fears also indicated that they have a high level of hopelessness, pervasive worry, and much concern about being able to survive a nuclear war. Children with a high degree of general anxiety did not indicate high degrees of nuclear fears. Children with high academic aptitude were more knowledgeable about nuclear issues and expressed more fears about the nuclear threat. Boys demonstrated more knowledge about nuclear issues than girls, and girls expressed much more frequent fear and worry about the nuclear threat than boys. Parents of lower socio-economic statues (SES) expressed more denial about the nuclear threat and were more pro-military than the higher SES parents.

  3. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  4. Nuclear emergency planning and response in the Netherlands after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, L.J.W.M.; Kerkhoven, I.P.

    1989-01-01

    After Chernobyl an extensive project on nuclear emergency planning and response was started in the Netherlands. The objective of this project was to develop a (governmental) structure to cope with accidents with radioactive materials, that can threaten the Dutch community and neighbouring countries. The project has resulted in a new organizational structure for nuclear emergency response, that differs on major points from the existing plans and procedures. In this paper an outline of the new structure is given. Emphasis is placed on accidents with nuclear power plants

  5. Evolutionary gradient of predicted nuclear localization signals (NLS)-bearing proteins in genomes of family Planctomycetaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Yang, Ruifu; Huang, Chen; Liao, Qiwen; Fan, Guangyi; Sun, Chenghang; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-04-04

    The nuclear envelope is considered a key classification marker that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes. However, this marker does not apply to the family Planctomycetaceae, which has intracellular spaces divided by lipidic intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs). Nuclear localization signal (NLS), a short stretch of amino acid sequence, destines to transport proteins from cytoplasm into nucleus, and is also associated with the development of nuclear envelope. We attempted to investigate the NLS motifs in Planctomycetaceae genomes to demonstrate the potential molecular transition in the development of intracellular membrane system. In this study, we identified NLS-like motifs that have the same amino acid compositions as experimentally identified NLSs in genomes of 11 representative species of family Planctomycetaceae. A total of 15 NLS types and 170 NLS-bearing proteins were detected in the 11 strains. To determine the molecular transformation, we compared NLS-bearing protein abundances in the 11 representative Planctomycetaceae genomes with them in genomes of 16 taxonomically varied microorganisms: nine bacteria, two archaea and five fungi. In the 27 strains, 29 NLS types and 1101 NLS-bearing proteins were identified, principal component analysis showed a significant transitional gradient from bacteria to Planctomycetaceae to fungi on their NLS-bearing protein abundance profiles. Then, we clustered the 993 non-redundant NLS-bearing proteins into 181 families and annotated their involved metabolic pathways. Afterwards, we aligned the ten types of NLS motifs from the 13 families containing NLS-bearing proteins among bacteria, Planctomycetaceae or fungi, considering their diversity, length and origin. A transition towards increased complexity from non-planctomycete bacteria to Planctomycetaceae to archaea and fungi was detected based on the complexity of the 10 types of NLS-like motifs in the 13 NLS-bearing proteins families. The results of this study reveal that

  6. Responsibilities and capabilities of a nuclear energy programme implementing organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    An appropriate infrastructure is essential for the efficient, safe, reliable and peaceful use of nuclear power. The IAEA was encouraged by its Member States to provide assistance to those considering the introduction of nuclear power. These countries face the challenge of building a national nuclear infrastructure to support a first nuclear power plant. The IAEA is responding to their needs through increased technical assistance, missions and workshops, and with new and updated technical publications in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, an IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication (NG-G-3.1), provides detailed guidance on a holistic approach to national nuclear infrastructure development, over three phases. Nineteen issues are identified in this guide, ranging from development of a government's national position on nuclear power to planning for procurement related to the first NPP. An important element of the holistic approach is an entity that can help prepare the decision makers in a country to make a knowledgeable commitment to nuclear power, and then to coordinate infrastructure development efforts among various implementing organizations so that they arrive at the point of readiness to issue a bid tender at the same time. In the Milestones guide, this entity is called a nuclear energy programme implementing organization (NEPIO). As a growing number of Member States started to consider the nuclear power option, they asked for guidance from the IAEA on how to launch a nuclear power programme. In particular, Member States requested additional information on how to establish a NEPIO, especially in the earliest phases of a programme. This report has been prepared to provide information on the responsibilities and capabilities of a NEPIO, as well as to give an indication on how it relates to other key national organizations in the implementation of a nuclear power programme, such as the owner

  7. More efficient response to nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Data provided by the local authorities in the counties in which the Oskarshamn and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants are situated is presented. The data is for planning of evaluation in the case of a reactor accident and includes population, population distribution, age distribution, institutions such as schools and hospitals, transport, both public and private and accommodation possibilities. Agricultural and domestic animal data are also provided. (J.I.W.)

  8. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  9. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURESR. Julian PrestonEnvironmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USAThere ...

  10. Costs for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelina, M.E.; Arsent'ev, S.V.; Molchanov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the method of calculation of rates for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials, which can minimize the insurer's costs for this type of insurance in situation when there is no statistics available and it is not possible to calculate the insurance rate by the traditional means using the probability theory

  11. Guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. The objectives of the earthquake response procedures are to determine (1) the immediate effects of an earthquake on the physical condition of the nuclear power plant, (2) if shutdown of the plant is appropriate based on the observed damage to the plant or because the OBE has been exceeded, and (3) the readiness of the plant to resume operation following shutdown due to an earthquake. Readiness of a nuclear power plant to restart is determined on the basis of visual inspections of nuclear plant equipment and structures, and the successful completion of surveillance tests which demonstrate that the limiting conditions for operation as defined in the plant Technical Specifications are met. The guidelines are based on information obtained from a review of earthquake response procedures from numerous US and foreign nuclear power plants, interviews with nuclear plant operations personnel, and a review of reports of damage to industrial equipment and structures in actual earthquakes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Impact of nuclear organization and chromatin structure on DNA repair and genome stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    The non-random organization of the eukaryotic cell nucleus and the folding of genome in chromatin more or less condensed can influence many functions related to DNA metabolism, including genome stability. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious DNA damages for the cells. To preserve genome integrity, eukaryotic cells thus developed DSB repair mechanisms conserved from yeast to human, among which homologous recombination (HR) that uses an intact homologous sequence to repair a broken chromosome. HR can be separated in two sub-pathways: Gene Conversion (GC) transfers genetic information from one molecule to its homologous and Break Induced Replication (BIR) establishes a replication fork than can proceed until the chromosome end. My doctorate work was focused on the contribution of the chromatin context and 3D genome organization on DSB repair. In S. cerevisiae, nuclear organization and heterochromatin spreading at sub-telomeres can be modified through the overexpression of the Sir3 or sir3A2Q mutant proteins. We demonstrated that reducing the physical distance between homologous sequences increased GC rates, reinforcing the notion that homology search is a limiting step for recombination. We also showed that hetero-chromatinization of DSB site fine-tunes DSB resection, limiting the loss of the DSB ends required to perform homology search and complete HR. Finally, we noticed that the presence of heterochromatin at the donor locus decreased both GC and BIR efficiencies, probably by affecting strand invasion. This work highlights new regulatory pathways of DNA repair. (author) [fr

  13. Report of nuclear utility industry responses to Kemeny Commission recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a report of nuclear utility industry progress in responding to the recommendations of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (The Kemeny Commission). On April 11, 1979, in response to TMI, President Carter established a Commission to conduct '.... a comprehensive study and investigation of the recent accident involving the nuclear power facility on Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania'. The Commission was chaired by Dr. John G. Kemeny, then President of Dartmouth College. (A list of all members of The Kemeny Commission is provided in Attachment to the Appendix ). The report of the commission's findings and recommendations was transmitted to the President in October 1979. During this same period, the nuclear utility industry responded to TMI by creating the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) with a mission to promote the highest levels of safety and reliability - to promote excellence - in the operation of nuclear electric generating plants. In addition, the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) was established at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI to evaluate the accident and assist in determining the best industry response. In a White House paper (and press release) of December 7 1979, the President announced that he agreed fully with the spirit and intent of al the Kemeny Commission recommendations and requested that the industry and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comply with the recommendations. The President also recognized the industry initiative in establishing INPO and called for several actions involving the Institute; the President directed the Department of Energy and other government agencies to provide assistance to INPO and the industry. An overall status of the nuclear utility industry responses to Kemeny Commission recommendations in the key areas directly related to nuclear plant operations is provided below. A more detailed status of industry responses to the

  14. Report of nuclear utility industry responses to Kemeny Commission recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a report of nuclear utility industry progress in responding to the recommendations of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (The Kemeny Commission). On April 11, 1979, in response to TMI, President Carter established a Commission to conduct '.... a comprehensive study and investigation of the recent accident involving the nuclear power facility on Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania'. The Commission was chaired by Dr. John G. Kemeny, then President of Dartmouth College. (A list of all members of The Kemeny Commission is provided in Attachment to the Appendix ). The report of the commission's findings and recommendations was transmitted to the President in October 1979. During this same period, the nuclear utility industry responded to TMI by creating the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) with a mission to promote the highest levels of safety and reliability - to promote excellence - in the operation of nuclear electric generating plants. In addition, the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) was established at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI to evaluate the accident and assist in determining the best industry response. In a White House paper (and press release) of December 7 1979, the President announced that he agreed fully with the spirit and intent of al the Kemeny Commission recommendations and requested that the industry and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comply with the recommendations. The President also recognized the industry initiative in establishing INPO and called for several actions involving the Institute; the President directed the Department of Energy and other government agencies to provide assistance to INPO and the industry. An overall status of the nuclear utility industry responses to Kemeny Commission recommendations in the key areas directly related to nuclear plant operations is provided below. A more detailed status of industry responses to the

  15. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses

  16. Technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Kokaji, Lisa; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics capability has been developed under the international collaborations. For its effective function, technical development in analysis of seized nuclear materials as well as the institutional development in comprehensive response framework are required under individual national responsibility. In order to keep the “chain of custody” in the proper operation of sample collection at the event scene, radiological analysis at the laboratory, storage of the samples, and further inspection and trial, close cooperation and information sharing between relevant organisations are essential. IAEA issues the Implementing Guide to provide the model action plan and assists individual national development. Some countries at the advancing stage of national response framework, promote the international cooperation for the technical improvement and awareness cultivation. Examples in such national developments will be introduced and prospective technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework will be studied. (author)

  17. Site response calculations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    Six typical sites consisting of three soil profiles with average shear wave velocities of 800, 1800, and 5000 ft/sec as well as two soil depths of 200 and 400 ft were considered. Seismic input to these sites was a synthetic accelerogram applied at the surface and corresponding to a statistically representative response spectrum. The response of each of these six sites to this input was calculated with the SHAKE program. The results of these calculations are presented

  18. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Kutschera, Verena E; Hallström, Björn M; Klassert, Denise; Fain, Steven R; Leonard, Jennifer A; Arnason, Ulfur; Janke, Axel

    2012-04-20

    Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data set from multiple independent loci across the nuclear genomes of a broad sample of polar, brown, and black bears. Bayesian coalescent analyses place polar bears outside the brown bear clade and date the divergence much earlier, in the middle Pleistocene, about 600 (338 to 934) thousand years ago. This provides more time for polar bear evolution and confirms previous suggestions that polar bears carry introgressed brown bear mitochondrial DNA due to past hybridization. Our results highlight that multilocus genomic analyses are crucial for an accurate understanding of evolutionary history.

  19. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghajanyan, Anna; Suskov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p 137 Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  20. Improvements in the nuclear accident response system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.J.S.; Azevedo, E.M.; Knofel, T.M.J.; Recio, J.C.A.; Alves, R.N.

    1998-01-01

    The National Commission on Nuclear Energy has been making outstanding effort to improve its nuclear and radiological accident response systems since the tragic accident in Goiania. Most of this effort is related to nuclear area although the radiological accident has been also considered. This paper describes the improvements in the CNEN response system structure, discusses several topics involving those related to emergency planning and preparedness, and points out some deficiencies that need to be corrected also. The situation during the Goiania accident was more disadvantageous than nowadays, so it is believed that none of the actual deficiencies are sufficient to guess that the population and the environment will not be protected in case of a nuclear or radiological accident

  1. Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs

  2. Prevention and preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges from smuggled or illegally transported radioactive sources with malevolent intention of causing potential threats to the society are much higher to those potential radiological emergencies from misplaced, orphan or lost radioactive sources. Large number of radioactive sources world over is transported for its application in various fields. The emergency preparedness and response system is less developed for potential radiological emergencies caused by them compared to those at nuclear facilities which are kept in readiness to respond to any kind of emergency. After the terrorist attack on WTC of 2001, there is significant concern world over about the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive material. This calls for prevention of stealing/smuggling of radioactive materials and improving the emergency response system. Use of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) are considered as possible radiological and nuclear threats, can lead to large area contamination in addition to the injuries caused by blast and thermal effects. (author)

  3. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-02-17

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear-plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as "distributed genomic control modules." According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement.

  5. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original ‘Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as “distributed genomic control modules.” According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement. PMID:27777577

  6. Additional mitochondrial DNA influences the interactions between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in a bovine embryo model of nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; St John, Justin C

    2018-05-08

    We generated cattle embryos using mitochondrial supplementation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), named miNT, to determine how additional mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) modulates the nuclear genome. To eliminate any confounding effects from somatic cell mtDNA in intraspecies SCNT, donor cell mtDNA was depleted prior to embryo production. Additional oocyte mtDNA did not affect embryo development rates but increased mtDNA copy number in blastocyst stage embryos. Moreover, miNT-derived blastocysts had different gene expression profiles when compared with SCNT-derived blastocysts. Additional mtDNA increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, cell cycle and DNA repair. Supplementing the embryo culture media with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), had no beneficial effects on the development of miNT-derived embryos, unlike SCNT-derived embryos. When compared with SCNT-derived blastocysts cultured in the presence of TSA, additional mtDNA alone had beneficial effects as the activity of glycolysis may increase and embryonic cell death may decrease. However, these beneficial effects were not found with additional mtDNA and TSA together, suggesting that additional mtDNA alone enhances reprogramming. In conclusion, additional mtDNA increased mtDNA copy number and expression levels of genes involved in energy production and embryo development in blastocyst stage embryos emphasising the importance of nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  7. Human CST Facilitates Genome-wide RAD51 Recruitment to GC-Rich Repetitive Sequences in Response to Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Megan; Zhou, Qing; Shiva, Olga; Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Whitmore, Leanne; Jia, Pingping; Dai, Xueyu; Huang, Chenhui; Ye, Ping; Chai, Weihang

    2016-08-02

    The telomeric CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex has been implicated in promoting replication recovery under replication stress at genomic regions, yet its precise role is unclear. Here, we report that STN1 is enriched at GC-rich repetitive sequences genome-wide in response to hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication stress. STN1 deficiency exacerbates the fragility of these sequences under replication stress, resulting in chromosome fragmentation. We find that upon fork stalling, CST proteins form distinct nuclear foci that colocalize with RAD51. Furthermore, replication stress induces physical association of CST with RAD51 in an ATR-dependent manner. Strikingly, CST deficiency diminishes HU-induced RAD51 foci formation and reduces RAD51 recruitment to telomeres and non-telomeric GC-rich fragile sequences. Collectively, our findings establish that CST promotes RAD51 recruitment to GC-rich repetitive sequences in response to replication stress to facilitate replication restart, thereby providing insights into the mechanism underlying genome stability maintenance. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  9. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  10. Exercises for radiological and nuclear emergency response. Planing - performance - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Faleschini, J.; Goelling, K.; Stapel, R.; Strobl, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report of the study group emergency response seminar covers the following topics: (A) purpose of exercises and exercise culture: fundamentals and appliances for planning, performance and evaluation; (B) exercises in nuclear facilities; (C) exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on nuclear scenarios; exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on other radiological scenarios; (D) exercises in industrial plants, universities, medical facilities and medical services, and research institutes; (E) transnational exercises, international exercises; (F): exercises on public information.

  11. How the Nuclear Applications Laboratories Help in Strengthening Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is one of the most important considerations when engaging in highly advanced scientific and technological activities. In this respect, utilizing the potential of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes also involves risks, and nuclear techniques themselves can be useful in strengthening emergency response measures related to the use of nuclear technology. In the case of a nuclear incident, the rapid measurement and subsequent monitoring of radiation levels are top priorities as they help to determine the degree of risk faced by emergency responders and the general public. Instruments for the remote measurement of radioactivity are particularly important when there are potential health risks associated with entering areas with elevated radiation levels. The Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL) — one of the eight laboratories of the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA) in Seibersdorf, Austria — focuses on developing a variety of specialized analytical and diagnostic instruments and methods, and transferring knowledge to IAEA Member States. These include instruments capable of carrying out remote measurements. This emergency response work carried out by the NA laboratories supports health and safety in Member States and supports the IAEA’s mandate to promote the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy

  12. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  13. Identification and characterisation of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghini, Elena; Mascagni, Flavia; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cavallini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous retrotransposons in the genome of most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, SINE identification has been carried out only in a limited number of plant species. This lack of information is apparent especially in non-model plants whose genome has not been sequenced yet. The aim of this work was to produce a specific bioinformatics pipeline for analysing second generation sequence reads of a non-model species and identifying SINEs. We have identified, for the first time, 227 putative SINEs of the olive tree (Olea europaea), that constitute one of the few sets of such sequences in dicotyledonous species. The identified SINEs ranged from 140 to 362 bp in length and were characterised with regard to the occurrence of the tRNA domain in their sequence. The majority of identified elements resulted in single copy or very lowly repeated, often in association with genic sequences. Analysis of sequence similarity allowed us to identify two major groups of SINEs showing different abundances in the olive tree genome, the former with sequence similarity to SINEs of Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae and the latter to SINEs of Salicaceae. A comparison of sequence conservation between olive SINEs and LTR retrotransposon families suggested that SINE expansion in the genome occurred especially in very ancient times, before LTR retrotransposon expansion, and presumably before the separation of the rosids (to which Oleaceae belong) from the Asterids. Besides providing data on olive SINEs, our results demonstrate the suitability of the pipeline employed for SINE identification. Applying this pipeline will favour further structural and functional analyses on these relatively unknown elements to be performed also in other plant species, even in the absence of a reference genome, and will allow establishing general evolutionary patterns for this kind of repeats in

  14. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  15. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Initial Human Response to Nuclear Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    symptomatic response to radiation. In the second phase, the models will be used to infer performance effects. DNA staff members Cyrus Knowles and David ...P. Setty ATTN: K. Schwartz ATTN: J. NcGahan Kamn Tempo System Planning Corp ATTN: R. Miller ATTN: J. JonesATTN: G. Perks Kamen Tempo AiT: S. Shrier

  17. Legal responsibility in case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabhane, M. F.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous laws have been elaborated in order to determine the legal responsibility in case of a nuclear accident. These laws were made necessary because of intervention of the factor 'error' in the nuclear accident. The legal definition of 'error' assumes that it results from non-respect or negligence of established norms on the part of the persons who manipulate the instruments of radioactive production. Nuclear research should not be undertaken in a country without the formal engagement of the central authorities to take the necessary dispositions to ensure the security and safety of the populations and their possessions. The world community should not admit a scientific activity in the nuclear field in the absence of guarantees for the safety and the security of man. The state that permits the production of nuclear energy is legally responsible for any failure that might result in radioactive spills. Considering the possibility of error and the dangers attached to the manipulation of radioactive material, the legislators have elaborated a series of laws, which take into consideration two principles: a)The inalienable right of man to life as conceived in the monotheistic religions and proclaimed by positive law; and b)The responsibility of the state for the safety and security of its citizens. Of course, error is human; but if man may make an error of judgement in ordinary normal life, he does not have the right to make the least miscalculation when this might lead to a nuclear disaster. (author)

  18. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  19. Rosatom's Crisis Response Centre within the national nuclear safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, S.N.; Komarovskij, A.V.; Moskalev, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rosatom Corporation includes a number of subsidiaries associated with nuclear energy use as well as with the military, scientific, technological, nuclear and radiation safety management aspects. The Rosatom Corporation has a well-established and efficient industry-wide system of emergency prevention and response, whose purpose is to ensure safe functioning of the nuclear industry, protection of personnel, the public and nature from potential dangers; it is also a functional subsystem of the unified national system of emergency prevention and response. Overall management of the system is performed by Director General of the Rosatom Corporation, overall methodological management - by the Department of Licensing, Nuclear and Radiation Safety; everyday management of the emergency prevention and response system, round-the-clock monitoring and informational support - by the Rosatom Crisis and Response Centre (CRC). CRC acts as the national focal point for warning and communication in Russia, which provides continuous round-the-clock preparedness to cooperate with the IAEA's Incident and Emergency Centre using the formats of the ENATOM international emergency response system, similar national crisis response centres abroad [ru

  20. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia

    2016-06-07

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data.

  1. International responsibility of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouenat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the stability of the idea of international responsibility in public international law, the international jurisprudence has not settled on a definition. The concept of international responsibility is no longer limited to the legal effects or consequences under international law to violate its provisions. The states recognized that the customary principles governing the international responsibility in public international law does not take into account the specificities of nuclear dangers, this sought to conclude a number of international conventions include a special system of nuclear liability not based on the wrongful act, but on the principle of keeping things, and it requires the existence of an international regime for nuclear liability in order to establish measures and procedures to achieve the implementation of the provisions for compensation unhindered by national legal systems. There is no doubt that the use of nuclear energy in time of peace falls within the scope of internationally prohibited acts. Atomic activities undertaken by the State within its borders for peaceful purposes are considered legitimate activities as long as they have taken necessary measures to avoid damage to neighboring countries. States has tended to conclude international agreements under which disputes that may result from the use of nuclear energy can be solved. The existing international legal framework on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage consists of three major interrelated agreements: Paris Convention on civil liability in the field of nuclear energy, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for civil damages and the Brussels Convention on Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Materials.

  2. Non-genomic effects of the NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB orphan nuclear receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Alicja; Strzadala, Leon; Kalas, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB acts primarily as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of multiple genes. However, increasing research attention has recently been given to non-genomic activities of NR4A1. The first description of a non-genomic action of NR4A1 referred to the conversion of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 into a pro-apoptotic protein by direct interaction with NR4A1. In response to certain apoptotic stimuli, NR4A1 translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it associates with Bcl-2 and thereby causes apoptosis. Afterwards, it appeared that NR4A1 could also bind and convert other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The latest studies indicate a significant role of NR4A1 in the process of autophagy. For example, a new NR4A1-mediated pathway specific for melanoma cells has been described where NR4A1 interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) leading to induction of the autophagy pathway. Moreover, NR4A1 interaction with cytoplasmic p53 may also contribute to the induction of autophagy. In addition to mitochondria, NR4A1 could be translocated to the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associate with Bcl-2 or translocon-associated protein subunit γ (TRAPγ) causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. NR4A1 also contributes to the proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) under non-hypoxic conditions. This review summarizes research findings on non-genomic effects of NR4A1 in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear Localization of Mitochondrial TCA Cycle Enzymes as a Critical Step in Mammalian Zygotic Genome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Raghavendra; Sharpley, Mark S; Chi, Fangtao; Braas, Daniel; Zhou, Yonggang; Kim, Rachel; Clark, Amander T; Banerjee, Utpal

    2017-01-12

    Transcriptional control requires epigenetic changes directed by mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. In the mouse embryo, global epigenetic changes occur during zygotic genome activation (ZGA) at the 2-cell stage. Pyruvate is essential for development beyond this stage, which is at odds with the low activity of mitochondria in this period. We now show that a number of enzymatically active mitochondrial enzymes associated with the TCA cycle are essential for epigenetic remodeling and are transiently and partially localized to the nucleus. Pyruvate is essential for this nuclear localization, and a failure of TCA cycle enzymes to enter the nucleus correlates with loss of specific histone modifications and a block in ZGA. At later stages, however, these enzymes are exclusively mitochondrial. In humans, the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase is transiently nuclear at the 4/8-cell stage coincident with timing of human embryonic genome activation, suggesting a conserved metabolic control mechanism underlying early pre-implantation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Response to Eimeria maxima Challenge in Broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Hérault, Frédéric

    Use of genetic tools for improvement of host’s response is considered as a promising complementary approach for coccidiosis control. Therefore, we performed genome wide association study (GWAS) for response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. The challenge was done on 2024 Cobb500 broilers. We...

  5. Plastid, nuclear and reverse transcriptase sequences in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera: is genetic information transferred between organelles via RNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W; Brennicke, A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an open reading frame (ORF) with high homology to reverse transcriptase in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera. This ORF displays all the characteristics of an active plant mitochondrial gene with a possible ribosome binding site and 39% T in the third codon position. It is located between a sequence fragment from the plastid genome and one of nuclear origin downstream from the gene encoding subunit 5 of the NADH dehydrogenase. The nuclear derived sequence consists of 528 nucleotides from the small ribosomal RNA and contains an expansion segment unique to nuclear rRNAs. The plastid sequence contains part of the ribosomal protein S4 and the complete tRNA(Ser). The observation that only transcribed sequences have been found i more than one subcellular compartment in higher plants suggests that interorganellar transfer of genetic information may occur via RNA and subsequent local reverse transcription and genomic integration. PMID:14650433

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Japan. Risk management and communication regarding nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Severe accidents at nuclear plants can result in long-standing and large-scale disasters encompassing wide areas. The public may have special concerns regarding these plants and radiation-related health risks. It has therefore been argued that risk communications efforts, along with rigid safety management of nuclear plants, are imperative to prevent such accidents, mitigate their impacts, and alleviate public concerns. This article introduces a set of laws, acts, codes, and guidelines concerning nuclear safety in Japan. In addition, the preparedness and mitigation plans and programs for dealing with nuclear accidents and possible disasters are also discussed. Furthermore, the ongoing accidents at the Fukushima nuclear power plants following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, and the government response to them are presented. A set of points regarding the management and communications of power plant accidents are discussed. (author)

  7. Response of high Tc superconducting Josephson junction to nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Wanchang; Zhang Xiufeng

    1992-10-01

    The development of nuclear radiation detectors and research on high T c superconducting nuclear radiation detectors are introduced. The emphases are the principle of using thin-film and thick-film Josephson junctions (bridge junction) based on high T c YBCO superconductors to detect nuclear radiation, the fabrication of thin film and thick-film Josephson junction, and response of junction to low energy gamma-rays of 59.5 keV emitted from 241 Am and beta-rays of 546 keV. The results show that a detector for measuring nuclear radiation spectrum made of high T c superconducting thin-film or thick-film, especially, thick-film Josephson junction, certainly can be developed

  8. Genomic prediction in a nuclear population of layers using single-step models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiyuan; Wu, Guiqin; Liu, Aiqiao; Sun, Congjiao; Han, Wenpeng; Li, Guangqi; Yang, Ning

    2018-02-01

    Single-step genomic prediction method has been proposed to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction by incorporating information of both genotyped and ungenotyped animals. The objective of this study is to compare the prediction performance of single-step model with a 2-step models and the pedigree-based models in a nuclear population of layers. A total of 1,344 chickens across 4 generations were genotyped by a 600 K SNP chip. Four traits were analyzed, i.e., body weight at 28 wk (BW28), egg weight at 28 wk (EW28), laying rate at 38 wk (LR38), and Haugh unit at 36 wk (HU36). In predicting offsprings, individuals from generation 1 to 3 were used as training data and females from generation 4 were used as validation set. The accuracies of predicted breeding values by pedigree BLUP (PBLUP), genomic BLUP (GBLUP), SSGBLUP and single-step blending (SSBlending) were compared for both genotyped and ungenotyped individuals. For genotyped females, GBLUP performed no better than PBLUP because of the small size of training data, while the 2 single-step models predicted more accurately than the PBLUP model. The average predictive ability of SSGBLUP and SSBlending were 16.0% and 10.8% higher than the PBLUP model across traits, respectively. Furthermore, the predictive abilities for ungenotyped individuals were also enhanced. The average improvements of prediction abilities were 5.9% and 1.5% for SSGBLUP and SSBlending model, respectively. It was concluded that single-step models, especially the SSGBLUP model, can yield more accurate prediction of genetic merits and are preferable for practical implementation of genomic selection in layers. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Following the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, all NEA member countries took early action to ensure and confirm the continued safety of their nuclear power plants and the protection of the public. After these preliminary safety reviews, all countries with nuclear facilities carried out comprehensive safety reviews, often referred to as 'stress tests', which reassessed safety margins of nuclear facilities with a primary focus on challenges related to conditions experienced at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, for example extreme external events and the loss of safety functions, or capabilities to cope with severe accidents. As appropriate, improvements are being made to safety and emergency response systems to ensure that nuclear power plants are capable of withstanding events that lead to loss of electrical power and/or cooling capability. In the weeks following the accident, the NEA immediately began establishing expert groups in the nuclear safety and radiological protection areas, as well as contributing to information exchange with the Japanese authorities and other international organisations. It promptly provided a forum for high-level decision makers and regulators within the G8-G20 frameworks. The NEA actions taken at the international level in response to the accident have been carried out primarily by the three NEA standing technical committees concerned with nuclear and radiation safety issues - the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) - under the leadership of the CNRA. More than two years following the accident, the NEA continues to assist the Japanese authorities in dealing with their nuclear safety and recovery efforts as well as to facilitate international co-operation on nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. It is strongly supporting the establishment of

  10. Nuclear response beyond mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, M.G.E.; Allaart, K.; Dickhoff, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    An extension of the RPA equations is derived, with emphasis on the relation between the single-particle Green function and the polarization propagator. Including second order self-energy contributions the resulting particle-hole interaction includes the coupling to two-particle-two-hole (2p2h) states and the resulting response satisfies relevant conservation laws. This aspect of the theory is shown to be essential to obtain reliable and meaningful results for excitation strengths and to avoid ghost solutions. This method is applied to electromagnetic and charge exchange excitations in 48 Ca up to 100 MeV. A G-matrix interaction based on meson exchange is used which takes care of short-range correlations. The results compare favourably with measured excitation strengths and electromagnetic form factors both at low energy as well as in the giant resonance region. Remaining discrepancies point in the direction of further strength reduction due to short-range correlations as well as a possible stronger coupling to 2p2h states at low energy. (orig.)

  11. Small cell ovarian carcinoma: genomic stability and responsiveness to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Lisa F; Gambaro, Karen; Merziotis, Maria; Crane, Colleen; Arcand, Suzanna L; Bourada, Valerie; Davis, Christopher; Squire, Jeremy A; Huntsman, David G; Tonin, Patricia N; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2013-02-21

    The biology of small cell ovarian carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), which is a rare and aggressive form of ovarian cancer, is poorly understood. Tumourigenicity, in vitro growth characteristics, genetic and genomic anomalies, and sensitivity to standard and novel chemotherapeutic treatments were investigated in the unique SCCOHT cell line, BIN-67, to provide further insight in the biology of this rare type of ovarian cancer. The tumourigenic potential of BIN-67 cells was determined and the tumours formed in a xenograft model was compared to human SCCOHT. DNA sequencing, spectral karyotyping and high density SNP array analysis was performed. The sensitivity of the BIN-67 cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents and to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the JX-594 vaccinia virus was tested. BIN-67 cells were capable of forming spheroids in hanging drop cultures. When xenografted into immunodeficient mice, BIN-67 cells developed into tumours that reflected the hypercalcemia and histology of human SCCOHT, notably intense expression of WT-1 and vimentin, and lack of expression of inhibin. Somatic mutations in TP53 and the most common activating mutations in KRAS and BRAF were not found in BIN-67 cells by DNA sequencing. Spectral karyotyping revealed a largely normal diploid karyotype (in greater than 95% of cells) with a visibly shorter chromosome 20 contig. High density SNP array analysis also revealed few genomic anomalies in BIN-67 cells, which included loss of heterozygosity of an estimated 16.7 Mb interval on chromosome 20. SNP array analyses of four SCCOHT samples also indicated a low frequency of genomic anomalies in the majority of cases. Although resistant to platinum chemotherapeutic drugs, BIN-67 cell viability in vitro was reduced by > 75% after infection with oncolytic viruses. These results show that SCCOHT differs from high-grade serous carcinomas by exhibiting few chromosomal anomalies and lacking TP53 mutations. Although BIN-67 cells are

  12. Responsibility, fairness and credibility - ethical dilemmas concerning nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Annika

    1999-01-01

    This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc

  13. Evolutionary analysis of a large mtDNA translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the Panthera genus species

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Heup; Antunes, Agostinho; Luo, Shu-Jin; Menninger, Joan; Nash, William G.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2005-01-01

    Translocation of cymtDNA into the nuclear genome, also referred to as numt, has been reported in many species, including several closely related to the domestic cat (Felis catus). We describe the recent transposition of 12,536 bp of the 17 kb mitochondrial genome into the nucleus of the common ancestor of the five Panthera genus species: tiger, P. tigris; snow leopard, P. uncia; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus; and lion, P. leo. This nuclear integration, representing 74% of the mitochondr...

  14. Nuclear vorticity and the low-energy nuclear response. Towards the neutron drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Athens Univ.; Wambach, J.; Ponomarev, V.Y.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2004-01-01

    The transition density and current provide valuable insight into the nature of nuclear vibrations. Nuclear vorticity is a quantity related to the transverse transition current. In this work, we study the evolution of the strength distribution, related to density fluctuations, and the vorticity strength distribution, as the neutron drip line is approached. Our results on the isoscalar, natural-parity multipole response of Ni isotopes, obtained by using a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+continuum RPA model, indicate that, close to the drip line, the low-energy response is dominated by L > 1 vortical transitions. (orig.)

  15. Update of the Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule for the Emergency Response to a Nuclear Criticality Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duluc, Matthieu; Bardelay, Aurélie; Celik, Cihangir; Heinrichs, Dave; Hopper, Calvin; Jones, Richard; Kim, Soon; Miller, Thomas; Troisne, Marc; Wilson, Chris

    2017-09-01

    AWE (UK), IRSN (France), LLNL (USA) and ORNL (USA) began a long term collaboration effort in 2015 to update the nuclear criticality Slide Rule for the emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident. This document, published almost 20 years ago, gives order of magnitude estimates of key parameters, such as number of fissions and doses (neutron and gamma), useful for emergency response teams and public authorities. This paper will present, firstly the motivation and the long term objectives for this update, then the overview of the initial configurations for updated calculations and preliminary results obtained with modern 3D codes.

  16. Update of the Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule for the Emergency Response to a Nuclear Criticality Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duluc Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AWE (UK, IRSN (France, LLNL (USA and ORNL (USA began a long term collaboration effort in 2015 to update the nuclear criticality Slide Rule for the emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident. This document, published almost 20 years ago, gives order of magnitude estimates of key parameters, such as number of fissions and doses (neutron and gamma, useful for emergency response teams and public authorities. This paper will present, firstly the motivation and the long term objectives for this update, then the overview of the initial configurations for updated calculations and preliminary results obtained with modern 3D codes.

  17. The responsibility of nuclear suppliers in the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, C.W.; Cotton, J.D.; Tait, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of escalating oil prices, the developing countries are more and more turning to nuclear energy. As these countries become a more significant part of the international market, unique issues must be faced by the utility and country concerned and the nuclear supplier. A fundamental prerequisite of a successful supplier/customer relationship is a good relationship between their two governments. The supplier can fulfil an effective liaison function to ensure efficiency of communications in this area. In the preplanning phase the supplier can play a major role in supplying information relative to siting, unit size, system planning and plant economics. Once the nuclear choice is made, the pros and cons of purchasing plants on a turnkey versus non-turnkey basis must be weighed. The customer must balance his available resources and experience against his desires for acquisition of overall plant and systems knowledge. During the planning and procurement phase the subject of training, maintenance and service facilities can be an effective part of a comprehensive nuclear programme. In fact, local training and service centres could logically be the first step of a long-term localization effort. With respect to localization the supplier should be capable and experienced in developing this capability and willing to make a long-term commitment in this area. Through a clearer understanding of the responsibilities of the nuclear supplier and a clear delineation of his role, developing nations can more adequately assess the basis upon which to move forward on a nuclear programme. (author)

  18. Identification and insertion polymorphisms of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in Brassica genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Naveed, M.

    2018-01-01

    The non-LTR retrotransposons (retroposons) are abundant in plant genomes including members of Brassicaceae. Of the retroposons, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are more copious followed by short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The SINEs are short elements and ranged from 100-500 bps flanked by variable sized target site duplications, 5' tRNA region with polymerase III promoter, internal tRNA unrelated region, 3' LINEs derived region and a poly adenosine tail. Different computational approaches were used for the identification and characterization of SINEs, while PCR was used to detect the SINEs insertion polymorphisms in various Brassica genotypes. Ten previously unidentified families of SINEs were identified and characterized from Brassica genomes. The structural features of these SINEs were studied in detail, which showed typical SINE features displaying small sizes, target site duplications, head regions, internal regions (body) of variable sizes and a poly (A) tail at the 3' terminus. The elements from various families ranged from 206-558 bp, where BoSINE2 family displayed smallest SINE element (206 bp), while larger members belonged to BoSINE9 family (524-558 bp). The distribution and abundance of SINEs in various Brassica species and genotypes (40) at a particular site/locus were investigated by SINEs based PCR markers. Various SINE insertion polymorphisms were detected from different genotypes, where higher PCR bands amplified the SINE insertions, while lower bands amplified the pre-insertion sites (flanking regions). The analysis of Brassica SINEs copy numbers from 10 identified families revealed that around 860 and 1712 copies of SINEs were calculated from B. rapa and B. oleracea Whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) respectively. Analysis of insertion sites of Brassica SINEs revealed that the members from all 10 SINE families had shown an insertion preference in AT rich regions. The present

  19. Preparedness for and response to a radiological or nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman Coleman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Public health and medical planning for a nuclear or radiological incident requires a complex, multi-faceted systematic approach involving federal, state and local governments, private sector organizations, academia, industry, international partners and individual experts and volunteers. The approach developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in collaboration with other U.S. Departments is the result of efforts from government and non-government experts that connect the available capabilities, resources, guidance tools, underlying concepts and science into the Nuclear Incident Medical Enterprise (NlME). It is a systems approach that can be used to support planning for, response to, and recovery from the effects of a nuclear incident. Experience is gained in exercises specific to radiation but also from other mass casualty incidents as there are many principles and components in common. Resilience and the ability to mitigate the consequences of a nuclear incident are enhanced by effective planning, preparation and training, timely response, clear communication, and continuous improvements based on new science, technology, experience and ideas. Recognizing that preparation for a radiological or nuclear incident will be a lower priority for healthcare workers and responders due to other demands, the Radiation Emergency Medical Management website has been developed with the National Library of Medicine. This includes tools for education and training, just-in-time medical management and triage among others. Most of the components of NIME are published in the peer review medical and disaster medicine literature to help ensure high quality and accessibility. While NIME is a continuous work-in-progress, the current status of the public health and medical preparedness and response for a nuclear incident is presented. (author)

  20. Fukushima nuclear accident and the social responsibility of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Five months had passed since Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident occurred but still there was no knowing when the accident ended. Released radioactivity seemed to be greater than one million terra Bq and if there occurred an explosive rupture of containment vessel due to the failure of containment vent or occurrence of steam explosion, the amount of released radioactivity might amount to be at least equivalent to or surpass that of Chernobyl NPP accident. There existed still a risk that overheating and meltdown of nuclear fuels might reoccur with loss of cooling due to a possible giant aftershock. This article described total views on significant disaster that the accident brought about on many neighboring residents or wide range of people. After a general discussion about what was social responsibility of scientists, social responsibility of scientists for Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident was discussed. Responsibility of omission was also argued. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Evaluating nuclear power plant crew performance during emergency response drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is responsible for the regulation of the health, safety and environmental consequences of nuclear activities in Canada. Recently, the Human Factors Specialists of the AECB have become involved in the assessment of emergency preparedness and emergency response at nuclear facilities. One key contribution to existing AECB methodology is the introduction of Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) to measure crew interaction skills during emergency response drills. This report presents results of an on-going pilot study to determine if the BARS provide a reliable and valid means of rating the key dimensions of communications, openness, task coordination and adaptability under simulated emergency circumstances. To date, the objectivity of the BARS is supported by good inter-rater reliability while the validity of the BARS is supported by the agreement between ratings of crew interaction and qualitative and quantitative observations of crew performance. (author)

  2. Seismic response analysis for a deeply embedded nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.W.H.; Chatterjee, M.; Day, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the important aspect of the aseimic design of nuclear power plants is the evaluation of the seismic soil-structure interaction effect due to design earthquakes. The soil-structure interaction effect can initiate rocking and result in different soil motions compared to the free field motions, thus significantly affecting the structural response. Two methods are generally used to solve the seismic soil-structure interaction problems: the direct finite element method (FLUSH) and the substructure or impedance approach. This paper presents the results of the horizontal seismic soil-structure interaction analysis using the impedance aproach and the direct finite element method for a deeply embedded nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  3. Limits on the experimental simulation of nuclear fuel rod response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagar, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state and transient effects of intrinxic geometric and material property differences between typical nuclear fuel pins and electric fuel pin simulators (FPSs) are identified. The effectiveness of varying the transient power supplied to the FPS in reducing the differences between the transient responses of nuclear fuel pins and FPSs is investigated. This effectiveness is shown to be limited by the heat capacity of the FPS, the allowed range of the power program, and different FPS power requirements at different positions on a full-length FPS

  4. Cross-family translational genomics of abiotic stress-responsive genes between Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Hyung

    Full Text Available Cross-species translation of genomic information may play a pivotal role in applying biological knowledge gained from relatively simple model system to other less studied, but related, genomes. The information of abiotic stress (ABS-responsive genes in Arabidopsis was identified and translated into the legume model system, Medicago truncatula. Various data resources, such as TAIR/AtGI DB, expression profiles and literatures, were used to build a genome-wide list of ABS genes. tBlastX/BlastP similarity search tools and manual inspection of alignments were used to identify orthologous genes between the two genomes. A total of 1,377 genes were finally collected and classified into 18 functional criteria of gene ontology (GO. The data analysis according to the expression cues showed that there was substantial level of interaction among three major types (i.e., drought, salinity and cold stress of abiotic stresses. In an attempt to translate the ABS genes between these two species, genomic locations for each gene were mapped using an in-house-developed comparative analysis platform. The comparative analysis revealed that fragmental colinearity, represented by only 37 synteny blocks, existed between Arabidopsis and M. truncatula. Based on the combination of E-value and alignment remarks, estimated translation rate was 60.2% for this cross-family translation. As a prelude of the functional comparative genomic approaches, in-silico gene network/interactome analyses were conducted to predict key components in the ABS responses, and one of the sub-networks was integrated with corresponding comparative map. The results demonstrated that core members of the sub-network were well aligned with previously reported ABS regulatory networks. Taken together, the results indicate that network-based integrative approaches of comparative and functional genomics are important to interpret and translate genomic information for complex traits such as abiotic stresses.

  5. The genomic view of genes responsive to the antagonistic phytohormones, abscisic acid, and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Junshi; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2005-01-01

    We now have the various genomics tools for monocot (Oryza sativa) and a dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant. Plant is not only a very important agricultural resource but also a model organism for biological research. It is important that the interaction between ABA and GA is investigated for controlling the transition from embryogenesis to germination in seeds using genomics tools. These studies have investigated the relationship between dormancy and germination using genomics tools. Genomics tools identified genes that had never before been annotated as ABA- or GA-responsive genes in plant, detected new interactions between genes responsive to the two hormones, comprehensively characterized cis-elements of hormone-responsive genes, and characterized cis-elements of rice and Arabidopsis. In these research, ABA- and GA-regulated genes have been classified as functional proteins (proteins that probably function in stress or PR tolerance) and regulatory proteins (protein factors involved in further regulation of signal transduction). Comparison between ABA and/or GA-responsive genes in rice and those in Arabidopsis has shown that the cis-element has specificity in each species. cis-Elements for the dehydration-stress response have been specified in Arabidopsis but not in rice. cis-Elements for protein storage are remarkably richer in the upstream regions of the rice gene than in those of Arabidopsis.

  6. Nuclear energy and the responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses nuclear energy and the responsibilities of the previous Atomic Energy Board, (now the Atomic Energy Corporation) of South Africa in this respect. The paper starts by giving a brief introduction to the Atomic Energy Board, its organization and its functions. Research is undertaken in various fields such as the exploitation of nuclear fuels, radiobiology, radioisotopes, etc. Certain activities of the Board was also more directly related to Koeberg. The paper covers four of these areas, namely the early studies of the feasibility of introducing nuclear power in South Africa; the services involving the Board's special expertise in certain areas which Escom makes use of; the regulatory function and the preparation for handling and disposal of radioactive waste

  7. Response trees and expert systems for nuclear reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a project performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to evaluate different display concepts for use in nuclear reactor control rooms. Included in this project is the evaluation of the response tree computer based decision aid and its associated displays. This report serves as an overview of the response tree methodology and how it has been implemented as a computer based decision aid utilizing color graphic displays. A qualitative assessment of the applicability of the response tree aid in the reactor control room is also made. Experience gained in evaluating the response tree aid is generalized to address a larger category of computer aids, those known as knowledge based expert systems. General characteristics of expert systems are discussed, as well as examples of their application in other domains. A survey of ongoing work on expert systems in the nuclear industry is presented, and an assessment of their potential applicability is made. Finally, recommendations for the design and evaluation of computer based decision aids are presented

  8. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Iuso

    Full Text Available The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT. Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  9. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuso, Domenico; Czernik, Marta; Di Egidio, Fiorella; Sampino, Silvestre; Zacchini, Federica; Bochenek, Michal; Smorag, Zdzislaw; Modlinski, Jacek A; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  10. Integrity of nuclear genomic deoxyribonucleic acid in cooked meat: Implications for food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, O; Hamill, R M; Sweeney, T; Reardon, W; Mullen, A M

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to isolate high-quality DNA from muscle tissue for PCR-based applications in traceability of animal origin. We wished to examine the impact of cooking meat to a range of core temperatures on the quality and quantity of subsequently isolated genomic (specifically, nuclear) DNA. Triplicate steak samples were cooked in a water bath (100 degrees C) until their final internal temperature was 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 degrees C, and DNA was extracted. Deoxyribonucleic acid quantity was significantly reduced in cooked meat samples compared with raw (6.5 vs. 56.6 ng/microL; P 800 bp) were observed only when using DNA from raw meat and steak cooked to lower core temperatures. Small amplicons (food authentication, it is less abundant, and results suggest that analyses should be designed to use small amplicon sizes for meat cooked to high core temperatures.

  11. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni; Rasmussen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about......BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking....... RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes...

  12. Isolation and analysis of high quality nuclear DNA with reduced organellar DNA for plant genome sequencing and resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdepski Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics by drastically reducing the cost of sequencing, making it feasible for individual labs to sequence or resequence plant genomes. Obtaining high quality, high molecular weight DNA from plants poses significant challenges due to the high copy number of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, as well as high levels of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides. Multiple methods have been used to isolate DNA from plants; the CTAB method is commonly used to isolate total cellular DNA from plants that contain nuclear DNA, as well as chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA. Alternatively, DNA can be isolated from nuclei to minimize chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA contamination. Results We describe optimized protocols for isolation of nuclear DNA from eight different plant species encompassing both monocot and eudicot species. These protocols use nuclei isolation to minimize chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA contamination. We also developed a protocol to determine the number of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA copies relative to the nuclear DNA using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR. We compared DNA isolated from nuclei to total cellular DNA isolated with the CTAB method. As expected, DNA isolated from nuclei consistently yielded nuclear DNA with fewer chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA copies, as compared to the total cellular DNA prepared with the CTAB method. This protocol will allow for analysis of the quality and quantity of nuclear DNA before starting a plant whole genome sequencing or resequencing experiment. Conclusions Extracting high quality, high molecular weight nuclear DNA in plants has the potential to be a bottleneck in the era of whole genome sequencing and resequencing. The methods that are described here provide a framework for researchers to extract and quantify nuclear DNA in multiple types of plants.

  13. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.; Perkins, K.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Response is the fifth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes NRC response modes, organizations, and official positions; roles of other federal agencies are also described briefly. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  14. Dynamical response of the nuclear 'pasta' in neutron star crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Perez-Garcia, M.A.; Berry, D.K.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear pasta - a novel state of matter having nucleons arranged in a variety of complex shapes - is expected to be found in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae at subnuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 . Owing to frustration, a phenomenon that emerges from the competition between short-range nuclear attraction and long-range Coulomb repulsion, the nuclear pasta displays a preponderance of unique low-energy excitations. These excitations could have a strong impact on many transport properties, such as neutrino propagation through stellar environments. The excitation spectrum of the nuclear pasta is computed via a molecular-dynamics simulation involving up to 100,000 nucleons. The dynamic response of the pasta displays a classical plasma oscillation in the 1- to 2-MeV region. In addition, substantial strength is found at low energies. Yet this low-energy strength is missing from a simple ion model containing a single-representative heavy nucleus. The low-energy strength observed in the dynamic response of the pasta is likely to be a density wave involving the internal degrees of freedom of the clusters

  15. The complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1 reveals a processing system involved in the quorumsensing signal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte, Vinicius da Silva; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1. The 2.3-Mbp genome contains an extremely interesting AI-2 transporter and processing system related to the quorum-sensing signal response. This specific feature is described in this species for the first time and might be ...... be responsible for a new pathogenic behavior.......We present here the complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1. The 2.3-Mbp genome contains an extremely interesting AI-2 transporter and processing system related to the quorum-sensing signal response. This specific feature is described in this species for the first time and might...

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R.; Trompet, Stella; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Avery, Christy L.; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; de Keyser, Catherine E.; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Evans, Daniel S.; Feng, QiPing; Li, Xiaohui; Smit, Roelof A. J.; Smith, Albert V.; Sun, Fangui; Taylor, Kent D.; Arnold, Alice M.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barratt, Bryan J.; Betteridge, John; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buckley, Brendan M.; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Cummings, Steven R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Durrington, Paul N.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Ford, Ian; Guo, Xiuqing; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Launer, Leonore J.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; McKeigue, Paul M.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Neil, Andrew; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Nyberg, Fredrik; O'Brien, Eoin; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy; Poulter, Neil; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Rice, Kenneth; Rich, Stephen S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sattar, Naveed; Sever, Peter; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Denis C.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smith, Nicholas L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Stanton, Alice; Stott, David J.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Stürmer, Til; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wei, Wei-Qi; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Wilke, Russell A.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Franco, Oscar H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hitman, Graham; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Stein, Charles M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Caulfield, Mark J.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide

  17. Accuracy and responses of genomic selection on key traits in apple breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muranty, Hélène; Troggio, Michela; Sadok, Ben Inès; Rifaï, Al Mehdi; Auwerkerken, Annemarie; Banchi, E.; Velasco, Riccardo; Stevanato, P.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guardo, Di M.; Kumar, S.; Laurens, François; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The application of genomic selection in fruit tree crops is expected to enhance breeding efficiency by increasing prediction accuracy, increasing selection intensity and decreasing generation interval. The objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of prediction and selection response in

  18. Functional Associations by Response Overlap (FARO), a functional genomics approach matching gene expression phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Mundy, J.; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2007-01-01

    The systematic comparison of transcriptional responses of organisms is a powerful tool in functional genomics. For example, mutants may be characterized by comparing their transcript profiles to those obtained in other experiments querying the effects on gene expression of many experimental facto...

  19. A biological-based model that links genomic instability, bystander effects, and adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper links genomic instability, bystander effects, and adaptive response in mammalian cell communities via a novel biological-based, dose-response model called NEOTRANS 3 . The model is an extension of the NEOTRANS 2 model that addressed stochastic effects (genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) associated with brief exposure to low radiation doses. With both models, ionizing radiation produces DNA damage in cells that can be associated with varying degrees of genomic instability. Cells with persistent problematic instability (PPI) are mutants that arise via misrepair of DNA damage. Progeny of PPI cells also have PPI and can undergo spontaneous neoplastic transformation. Unlike NEOTRANS 2 , with NEOTRANS 3 newly induced mutant PPI cells and their neoplastically transformed progeny can be suppressed via our previously introduced protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process, which can be activated by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. However, with NEOTRANS 3 (which like NEOTRANS 2 involves cross-talk between nongenomically compromised [e.g., nontransformed, nonmutants] and genomically compromised [e.g., mutants, transformants, etc.] cells), it is assumed that PAM is only activated over a relatively narrow, dose-rate-dependent interval (D PAM ,D off ); where D PAM is a small stochastic activation threshold, and D off is the stochastic dose above which PAM does not occur. PAM cooperates with activated normal DNA repair and with activated normal apoptosis in guarding against genomic instability. Normal repair involves both error-free repair and misrepair components. Normal apoptosis and the error-free component of normal repair protect mammals by preventing the occurrence of mutant cells. PAM selectively removes mutant cells arising via the misrepair component of normal repair, selectively removes existing neoplastically transformed cells, and probably selectively removes other genomically compromised cells when it is activated

  20. Genomic counter-stress changes induced by the relaxation response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A Dusek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mind-body practices that elicit the relaxation response (RR have been used worldwide for millennia to prevent and treat disease. The RR is characterized by decreased oxygen consumption, increased exhaled nitric oxide, and reduced psychological distress. It is believed to be the counterpart of the stress response that exhibits a distinct pattern of physiology and transcriptional profile. We hypothesized that RR elicitation results in characteristic gene expression changes that can be used to measure physiological responses elicited by the RR in an unbiased fashion.We assessed whole blood transcriptional profiles in 19 healthy, long-term practitioners of daily RR practice (group M, 19 healthy controls (group N(1, and 20 N(1 individuals who completed 8 weeks of RR training (group N(2. 2209 genes were differentially expressed in group M relative to group N(1 (p<0.05 and 1561 genes in group N(2 compared to group N(1 (p<0.05. Importantly, 433 (p<10(-10 of 2209 and 1561 differentially expressed genes were shared among long-term (M and short-term practitioners (N(2. Gene ontology and gene set enrichment analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, generation of reactive oxygen species and response to oxidative stress in long-term and short-term practitioners of daily RR practice that may counteract cellular damage related to chronic psychological stress. A significant number of genes and pathways were confirmed in an independent validation set containing 5 N(1 controls, 5 N(2 short-term and 6 M long-term practitioners.This study provides the first compelling evidence that the RR elicits specific gene expression changes in short-term and long-term practitioners. Our results suggest consistent and constitutive changes in gene expression resulting from RR may relate to long term physiological effects. Our study may stimulate new investigations into applying transcriptional profiling for accurately measuring

  1. Genomic instability: potential contributions to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Induced genomic instability generally refers to a type of damage which is transmissible down cell generations, and which results in a persistently enhanced frequency of de novo mutations, chromosomal abnormalities or lethality in a significant fraction of the descendant cell population. The potential contribution of induced genomic instability to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy, is explored. Results: The phenomenon of spontaneous genomic instability is well known in some rare genetic diseases (e.g. Gorlin's syndrome), and there is evidence in such cases that it can lead to a greater propensity for carcinogenesis (with shortened latency) which is enhanced after irradiation. It is unclear what role induced genomic instability plays in the response of normal individuals, but persistent chromosomal instability has been detected in vivo in lymphocytes and keratinocytes from irradiated normal individuals. Such induced genomic instability might play some role in tumour response in a subset of tumours with specific defects in damage response genes, but again its contribution to radiocurability in the majority of cancer patients is unclear. In normal tissues, genomic instability induced in wild-type cells leading to delayed cell death might contribute to more severe or prolonged early reactions as a consequence of increased cell loss, a longer time required for recovery, and greater residual injury. In tumours, induced genomic instability reflected in delayed reductions in clonogenic capacity might contribute to the radiosensitivity of primary tumours, and also to a lower incidence, longer latency and slower growth rate of recurrences and metastases. Conclusions: The evidence which is reviewed shows that there is little information at present to support these propositions, but what exists is consistent with their expectations. Also, it is not yet clear to what extent mutations associated with genomic instability

  2. Japanese Nuclear Accident and U.S. Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douet, Randy

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Government response to the Fukushima accident: • Multi-agency task force (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy, Department of Defense) supporting Japan recovery efforts; • President Obama directed the NRC to perform a comprehensive review of U.S. reactors; • NRC established agency task force to develop lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi accident to provide short-term and long-term analysis of the events

  3. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46... Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of Nuclear... evaluation and assessment of technical issues involving security at nuclear facilities, and is the agency...

  4. Quantitative analysis of polycomb response elements (PREs at identical genomic locations distinguishes contributions of PRE sequence and genomic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulski Helena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycomb/Trithorax response elements (PREs are cis-regulatory elements essential for the regulation of several hundred developmentally important genes. However, the precise sequence requirements for PRE function are not fully understood, and it is also unclear whether these elements all function in a similar manner. Drosophila PRE reporter assays typically rely on random integration by P-element insertion, but PREs are extremely sensitive to genomic position. Results We adapted the ΦC31 site-specific integration tool to enable systematic quantitative comparison of PREs and sequence variants at identical genomic locations. In this adaptation, a miniwhite (mw reporter in combination with eye-pigment analysis gives a quantitative readout of PRE function. We compared the Hox PRE Frontabdominal-7 (Fab-7 with a PRE from the vestigial (vg gene at four landing sites. The analysis revealed that the Fab-7 and vg PREs have fundamentally different properties, both in terms of their interaction with the genomic environment at each site and their inherent silencing abilities. Furthermore, we used the ΦC31 tool to examine the effect of deletions and mutations in the vg PRE, identifying a 106 bp region containing a previously predicted motif (GTGT that is essential for silencing. Conclusions This analysis showed that different PREs have quantifiably different properties, and that changes in as few as four base pairs have profound effects on PRE function, thus illustrating the power and sensitivity of ΦC31 site-specific integration as a tool for the rapid and quantitative dissection of elements of PRE design.

  5. Bread wheat progenitors: Aegilops tauschii (DD genome) and Triticum dicoccoides (AABB genome) reveal differential antioxidative response under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bains, Navtej Singh

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are known to play a significant role in scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activity of four antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was examined in the flag leaves of nine Aegilops tauschii and three Triticum dicoccoides accessions along with two bread wheat cultivars under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. These accessions were shortlisted from a larger set on the basis of field performance for a set of morpho-physiological traits. At anthesis, significant differences were observed in enzyme activities in two environments. A 45% elevation in average GR activity was observed under rain-fed conditions. Genotypic variation was evident within each environment as well as in terms of response to stress environment. Aegilops tauschii accession 3769 (86% increase in SOD, 41% in CAT, 72% in APX, 48% in GR activity) and acc. 14096 (37% increase in SOD, 32% CAT, 25% APX, 42% GR) showed up-regulation in the activity of all the four studied antioxidant enzymes. Aegilops tauschii accessions-9809, 14189 and 14113 also seemed to have strong induction mechanism as elevated activity of at least three enzymes was observed in them under rain-fed conditions. T. dicoccoides , on the other hand, maintained active antioxidative machinery under irrigated condition with relatively lower induction under stress. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.760) was identified between change in the activity of CAT and GR under stress. Changes in plant height, spike length and grain weight were recorded under stress and non-stress conditions on the basis of which a cumulative tolerance index was deduced and accessions were ranked for drought tolerance. Overall, Ae. tauschii accession 3769, 14096, 14113 (DD-genome) and T. dicoccoides accession 7054 (AABB-genome) may be used as donors to combine beneficial stress adaptive traits of all the three sub-genomes

  6. Nuclear targeting by fragmentation of the Potato spindle tuber viroid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraitiene, Asta; Zhao Yan; Hammond, Rosemarie

    2008-01-01

    Transient expression of engineered reporter RNAs encoding an intron-containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a Potato virus X-based expression vector previously demonstrated the nuclear targeting capability of the 359 nucleotide Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome. To further delimit the putative nuclear-targeting signal, PSTVd subgenomic fragments were embedded within the intron, and recombinant reporter RNAs were inoculated onto Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Appearance of green fluorescence in leaf tissue inoculated with PSTVd-fragment-containing constructs indicated shuttling of the RNA into the nucleus by fragments as short as 80 nucleotides in length. Plant-to-plant variation in the timing of intron removal and subsequent GFP fluorescence was observed; however, earliest and most abundant GFP expression was obtained with constructs containing the conserved hairpin I palindrome structure and embedded upper central conserved region. Our results suggest that this conserved sequence and/or the stem-loop structure it forms is sufficient for import of PSTVd into the nucleus

  7. Generic procedures for medical response during a nuclear or radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical resource for planning the medical response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to such emergencies. Effective medical response is a necessary component of the overall response to nuclear or radiological (radiation) emergencies. In general, the medical response may represent a difficult challenge for the authorities due to the complexity of the situation, often requiring specialized expertise, and special organizational arrangements and materials. To be effective, adequate planning and preparedness are needed. This manual, if implemented, should help to contribute to coherent international response. The manual provides the practical tools and generic procedures for use by emergency medical personnel during an emergency situation. It also provides guidance to be used at the stage of preparedness for development of medical response capabilities. The manual also addresses mass casualty emergencies resulting from malicious acts involving radioactive material. This part was supported by the Nuclear Security Fund. The manual was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, it must be reviewed and revised as part of the planning process to match the potential accidents, threats, local conditions and other unique characteristics of the facility where it may be used

  8. The Glycolytic Versatility of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 and Its Genome Response to Oligo and Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benítez-Páez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides spp. are dominant components of the phylum Bacteroidetes in the gut microbiota and prosper in glycan enriched environments. However, knowledge of the machinery of specific species isolated from humans (like Bacteroides uniformis contributing to the utilization of dietary and endogenous sources of glycans and their byproducts is limited. We have used the cutting-edge nanopore-based technology to sequence the genome of B. uniformis CECT 7771, a human symbiont with a proven pre-clinical efficacy on metabolic and immune dysfunctions in obesity animal models. We have also used massive sequencing approaches to distinguish the genome expression patterns in response to carbon sources of different complexity during growth. At genome-wide level, our analyses globally demonstrate that B. uniformis strains exhibit an expanded glycolytic capability when compared with other Bacteroides species. Moreover, by studying the growth and whole-genome expression of B. uniformis CECT 7771 in response to different carbon sources, we detected a differential growth fitness and expression patterns across the genome depending on the carbon source of the culture media. The dietary fibers used exerted different effects on B. uniformis CECT 7771 activating different molecular pathways and, therefore, allowing the production of different metabolite types with potential impact on gut health. The genome and transcriptome analysis of B. uniformis CECT 7771, in response to different carbon sources, shows its high versatility to utilize both dietary and endogenous glycans along with the production of potentially beneficial end products for both the bacterium and the host, pointing to a mechanistic basis of a mutualistic relationship.

  9. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of genomic intervals that underlie nematode responses to benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Mostafa; Cook, Daniel E; Zdraljevic, Stefan; Brady, Shannon C; Lee, Daehan; Lee, Junho; Andersen, Erik C

    2018-03-01

    Parasitic nematodes impose a debilitating health and economic burden across much of the world. Nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs threatens parasite control efforts in both human and veterinary medicine. Despite this threat, the genetic landscape of potential resistance mechanisms to these critical drugs remains largely unexplored. Here, we exploit natural variation in the model nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control sensitivity to benzimidazoles widely used in human and animal medicine. High-throughput phenotyping of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, and thiabendazole responses in panels of recombinant lines led to the discovery of over 15 QTL in C. elegans and four QTL in C. briggsae associated with divergent responses to these anthelmintics. Many of these QTL are conserved across benzimidazole derivatives, but others show drug and dose specificity. We used near-isogenic lines to recapitulate and narrow the C. elegans albendazole QTL of largest effect and identified candidate variants correlated with the resistance phenotype. These QTL do not overlap with known benzimidazole target resistance genes from parasitic nematodes and present specific new leads for the discovery of novel mechanisms of nematode benzimidazole resistance. Analyses of orthologous genes reveal conservation of candidate benzimidazole resistance genes in medically important parasitic nematodes. These data provide a basis for extending these approaches to other anthelmintic drug classes and a pathway towards validating new markers for anthelmintic resistance that can be deployed to improve parasite disease control.

  11. Evolutionary analysis of a large mtDNA translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the Panthera genus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Heup; Antunes, Agostinho; Luo, Shu-Jin; Menninger, Joan; Nash, William G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2006-02-01

    Translocation of cymtDNA into the nuclear genome, also referred to as numt, has been reported in many species, including several closely related to the domestic cat (Felis catus). We describe the recent transposition of 12,536 bp of the 17 kb mitochondrial genome into the nucleus of the common ancestor of the five Panthera genus species: tiger, P. tigris; snow leopard, P. uncia; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus; and lion, P. leo. This nuclear integration, representing 74% of the mitochondrial genome, is one of the largest to be reported in eukaryotes. The Panthera genus numt differs from the numt previously described in the Felis genus in: (1) chromosomal location (F2-telomeric region vs. D2-centromeric region), (2) gene make up (from the ND5 to the ATP8 vs. from the CR to the COII), (3) size (12.5 vs. 7.9 kb), and (4) structure (single monomer vs. tandemly repeated in Felis). These distinctions indicate that the origin of this large numt fragment in the nuclear genome of the Panthera species is an independent insertion from that of the domestic cat lineage, which has been further supported by phylogenetic analyses. The tiger cymtDNA shared around 90% sequence identity with the homologous numt sequence, suggesting an origin for the Panthera numt at around 3.5 million years ago, prior to the radiation of the five extant Panthera species.

  12. Active nuclear transcriptome analysis reveals inflammasome-dependent mechanism for early neutrophil response to Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Gavriouchkina, Daria; Zorman, Jernej; Napolitani, Giorgio; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana

    2017-07-26

    The mechanisms governing neutrophil response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain poorly understood. In this study we utilise biotagging, a novel genome-wide profiling approach based on cell type-specific in vivo biotinylation in zebrafish to analyse the initial response of neutrophils to Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis used to model tuberculosis. Differential expression analysis following nuclear RNA-seq of neutrophil active transcriptomes reveals a significant upregulation in both damage-sensing and effector components of the inflammasome, including caspase b, NLRC3 ortholog (wu: fb15h11) and il1β. Crispr/Cas9-mediated knockout of caspase b, which acts by proteolytic processing of il1β, results in increased bacterial burden and less infiltration of macrophages to sites of mycobacterial infection, thus impairing granuloma development. We also show that a number of immediate early response genes (IEGs) are responsible for orchestrating the initial neutrophil response to mycobacterial infection. Further perturbation of the IEGs exposes egr3 as a key transcriptional regulator controlling il1β transcription.

  13. Emergency Preparedness and Response at Nuclear Power Plants in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, L. A.; Qamar, M. A.; Liaquat, M.R., E-mail: samasl@yahoo.com [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    Emergency preparedness and response arrangements at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Pakistan have been reevaluated in the light of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Appropriate measures have been taken to strengthen and effectively implement the on-site and off-site emergency plans. Verification of these plans is conducted through regulatory review and by witnessing periodic emergency drills and exercises conducted by the NPPs in the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements. Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) have been revised at NPPs. A multi discipline reserve force has been formed for assistance during severe accidents. Nuclear Emergency Management System (NEMS) has been established at the national level in order to make necessary arrangements for responding to nuclear and radiological emergencies. Training programs for first responders and medical professionals have been launched. Emergencies coordination centres have been established at national and corporate levels. Public awareness program has been initiated to ensure that the surrounding population is provided with appropriate information on emergency planning and response. To share national and international operational experience, Pakistan has arranged various workshops and developed a strong link with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  14. Initial operations in local nuclear emergency response headquarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and the tsunami that occurred thereafter, local nuclear emergency response headquarters (local headquarters) was set up at off-site center (OFC). However, several obstacles such as the collapse of means of communication resulting from severed communication lines, food and fuel shortage resulting from stagnant physical distribution, and increasing radiation dose around the center significantly restricted originally intended operation of local headquarters. In such severe situation, the personnel gathered at the OFC from the government, local public bodies and electric companies from March 11 to 15 acted without sufficient food, sleep or rest and did all they could against successively occurring unexpected challenges by using limited means of communication. However, issues requiring further consideration were activities of each functional group, location of OFC and the functions of equipment, machines and materials and reflecting the consideration results into future protective measures and revision of the manual for nuclear emergency response were greatly important. This report described investigated results on initial operations in local headquarters such as situation of activities conducted by local headquarters and operations at functional groups. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugletveit, F.; Aaltonen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A large number of different national plans and procedures have been established and substantial resources allocated world wide with varying comprehensiveness and quality depending an the national requirements and the possible threat scenarios considered. These national plans are only to a small degree harmonized. It is clear that it is the responsibility of the authorities in the respective countries or utilities under their jurisdiction, to decide upon and implement appropriate response actions to a nuclear emergency. The basic needs for responding properly are: infrastructure in terms of plans, procedures etc.; information regarding the accident, its development and consequences; resources in terms of expertise, man power and tools for acquiring and processing information, making assessments and decisions and carry out the actions. When a large number of countries are making assessments and decisions for their own country and providing the public with information, it is important that assessments, decisions and public information become correct, complete and consistent across boarders. In order to achieve this, they should all have access to the same information as basis for their actions. Lack of information or wrong information could easily lead to wrong assessments, wrong decisions and misleading information to the public. If there is a serious nuclear emergency somewhere that could potentially affect several or many States in one way or another, 'everyone' would like to know 'everything' that happens 'everywhere'. In this case, all States should have the obligation to share with the international community the relevant information they have available themselves and that could be of interest for other States responding to the situation. During a serious nuclear or radiological emergency, the demand for different kinds of resources is huge and could, in many countries, probably exceed national capabilities. Looking at the situation in a global

  16. The mitochondrial gene encoding ribosomal protein S12 has been translocated to the nuclear genome in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, L; Brennicke, A; Schuster, W

    1992-01-01

    The Oenothera mitochondrial genome contains only a gene fragment for ribosomal protein S12 (rps12), while other plants encode a functional gene in the mitochondrion. The complete Oenothera rps12 gene is located in the nucleus. The transit sequence necessary to target this protein to the mitochondrion is encoded by a 5'-extension of the open reading frame. Comparison of the amino acid sequence encoded by the nuclear gene with the polypeptides encoded by edited mitochondrial cDNA and genomic sequences of other plants suggests that gene transfer between mitochondrion and nucleus started from edited mitochondrial RNA molecules. Mechanisms and requirements of gene transfer and activation are discussed. Images PMID:1454526

  17. Emergency Response Resources guide for nuclear power plant emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    On August 28 and September 18, 1990, the States of Louisiana and Mississippi, Gulf States Utilities, five local parishes, six Federal agencies, and the American Nuclear Insurers participated in a post-emergency TABLETOP exercise in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. One of the products developed from that experience was this guide for understanding the responsibilities and obtaining resources for specific needs from the various participants, particularly from those organizations within the Federal Government. This first revision of that guide broadens the focus of the original document. Also, new information defines the major Federal response facilities. This guide should assist State and local government organizations with identifying and obtaining those resources for the post-emergency response when their resources have been exhausted

  18. Earthquake response of nuclear reactor buildings deeply embedded in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masao, T.; Takasaki, Y.; Hirasawa, M.; Okajima, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Kawata, E.; Koori, Y.; Ochiai, S.; Shimizu, N.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is concerned with experimental and analytical studies to investigate dynamic behavior of deeply embedded structures such as nuclear reactor buildings. The principal points studied are as follows: (1) Examination of stiffness and radiation damping effects according to embedded depth, (2) verification for distributions of earth pressure according to embedded depth, (3) differences of response characteristics during oscillation according to embedded depth, and (4) proposal of an analytical method for seismic design. Experimental studies were performed by two ways: forced vibration test, and earthquake observation against a rigid body model embedded in soil. Three analytical procedures were performed to compare experimental results and to examine the relation between each procedure. Finally, the dynamic behavior for nuclear reactor buildings with different embedded depths were evaluated by an analytical method. (orig.)

  19. Integrative Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Lactobacillus casei Zhang to Glucose Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hui, Wenyan; Cao, Chenxia; Pan, Lin; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2018-03-02

    Nutrient starvation is an important survival challenge for bacteria during industrial production of functional foods. As next-generation sequencing technology has greatly advanced, we performed proteomic and genomic analysis to investigate the response of Lactobacillus casei Zhang to a glucose-restricted environment. L. casei Zhang strains were permitted to evolve in glucose-restricted or normal medium from a common ancestor over a 3 year period, and they were sampled at 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, and 8000 generations and subjected to proteomic and genomic analyses. Genomic resequencing data revealed different point mutations and other mutational events in each selected generation of L. casei Zhang under glucose restriction stress. The differentially expressed proteins induced by glucose restriction were mostly related to fructose and mannose metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes, lyase activity, and amino-acid-transporting ATPase activity. Integrative proteomic and genomic analysis revealed that the mutations protected L. casei Zhang against glucose starvation by regulating other cellular carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid catabolism; phosphoenolpyruvate system pathway activation; glycogen synthesis; ATP consumption; pyruvate metabolism; and general stress-response protein expression. The results help reveal the mechanisms of adapting to glucose starvation and provide new strategies for enhancing the industrial utility of L. casei Zhang.

  20. Archaeal Genome Guardians Give Insights into Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Damage Response Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the third domain of life, archaea, like the eukarya and bacteria, must have robust DNA replication and repair complexes to ensure genome fidelity. Archaea moreover display a breadth of unique habitats and characteristics, and structural biologists increasingly appreciate these features. As archaea include extremophiles that can withstand diverse environmental stresses, they provide fundamental systems for understanding enzymes and pathways critical to genome integrity and stress responses. Such archaeal extremophiles provide critical data on the periodic table for life as well as on the biochemical, geochemical, and physical limitations to adaptive strategies allowing organisms to thrive under environmental stress relevant to determining the boundaries for life as we know it. Specifically, archaeal enzyme structures have informed the architecture and mechanisms of key DNA repair proteins and complexes. With added abilities to temperature-trap flexible complexes and reveal core domains of transient and dynamic complexes, these structures provide insights into mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity despite extreme environmental stress. The DNA damage response protein structures noted in this review therefore inform the basis for genome integrity in the face of environmental stress, with implications for all domains of life as well as for biomanufacturing, astrobiology, and medicine.

  1. Response function of spin-isospin nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvetti, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The selected aspects of spin-isospir nuclear excitations are studied. The spreading width of M/ states in even Ca isotopes for the purpose of trying to understand the missing strenght specially in 44 Ca, was estimated. The doorway calculation, was used, considering the level of complexity next to the independent particle M/ state. Using a nuclear matter context, the system response function to a spin-isospin probe and verify how the response function behaves for free fermions and in the ring approximation was studied. Higher correlations to polarization propagation such as the induced interaction and self-energy corrections was introduced. The dopping of colletive effects by such collisions terms was verified. It was investigate how to estimate the short range term of the effective interaction in the spin-isospin channel and the possibility of detecting a difference between these short range terms in the longitudinal and the transverse channel, for understanding the absence of pior condensation precursor states and negative results in a recent attempt to detect differences between longitudinal and transverse response functions one naively expects theoretically. (author) [pt

  2. Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow–Teller response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, E.; Brown, B.A.; Fang, D.-L.; Marketin, T.; Zegers, R.G.T.

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow–Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended “jj77” model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow–Teller response functions are calculated for 208 Pb, 132 Sn and 78 Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208 Pb are compared to data that enable a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132 Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle–hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph⊗phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

  3. Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow–Teller response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinova, E., E-mail: elena.litvinova@wmich.edu [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5252 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Brown, B.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Fang, D.-L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Marketin, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Zegers, R.G.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2014-03-07

    A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow–Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended “jj77” model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow–Teller response functions are calculated for {sup 208}Pb, {sup 132}Sn and {sup 78}Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for {sup 208}Pb are compared to data that enable a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus {sup 132}Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle–hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph⊗phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

  4. The genomic analysis of lactic acidosis and acidosis response in human cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ling-Yu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment has a significant impact on tumor development. Two important determinants in this environment are hypoxia and lactic acidosis. Although lactic acidosis has long been recognized as an important factor in cancer, relatively little is known about how cells respond to lactic acidosis and how that response relates to cancer phenotypes. We develop genome-scale gene expression studies to dissect transcriptional responses of primary human mammary epithelial cells to lactic acidosis and hypoxia in vitro and to explore how they are linked to clinical tumor phenotypes in vivo. The resulting experimental signatures of responses to lactic acidosis and hypoxia are evaluated in a heterogeneous set of breast cancer datasets. A strong lactic acidosis response signature identifies a subgroup of low-risk breast cancer patients having distinct metabolic profiles suggestive of a preference for aerobic respiration. The association of lactic acidosis response with good survival outcomes may relate to the role of lactic acidosis in directing energy generation toward aerobic respiration and utilization of other energy sources via inhibition of glycolysis. This "inhibition of glycolysis" phenotype in tumors is likely caused by the repression of glycolysis gene expression and Akt inhibition. Our study presents a genomic evaluation of the prognostic information of a lactic acidosis response independent of the hypoxic response. Our results identify causal roles of lactic acidosis in metabolic reprogramming, and the direct functional consequence of lactic acidosis pathway activity on cellular responses and tumor development. The study also demonstrates the utility of genomic analysis that maps expression-based findings from in vitro experiments to human samples to assess links to in vivo clinical phenotypes.

  5. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  6. Phylogeny of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear RAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Oommen, Oommen V; Wilkinson, Mark; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of five individual caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) representing five of the six recognized families: Rhinatrema bivittatum (Rhinatrematidae), Ichthyophis glutinosus (Ichthyophiidae), Uraeotyphlus cf. oxyurus (Uraeotyphlidae), Scolecomorphus vittatus (Scolecomorphidae), and Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Caeciliidae). The organization and size of these newly determined mitogenomes are similar to those previously reported for the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Typhlonectidae), and for other vertebrates. Nucleotide sequences of the nuclear RAG1 gene were also determined for these six species of caecilians, and the salamander Mertensiella luschani atifi. RAG1 (both at the amino acid and nucleotide level) shows slower rates of evolution than almost all mt protein-coding genes (at the amino acid level). The new mt and nuclear sequences were compared with data for other amphibians and subjected to separate and combined phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Parsimony, Minimum Evolution, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian Inference). All analyses strongly support the monophyly of the three amphibian Orders. The Batrachia hypothesis (Gymnophiona, (Anura, Caudata) receives moderate or good support depending on the method of analysis. Within Gymnophiona, the optimal tree (Rhinatrema, (Ichthyophis, Uraeotyphlus), (Scolecomorphus, (Gegeneophis Typhlonectes) agrees with the most recent morphological and molecular studies. The sister group relationship between Rhinatrematidae and all other caecilians, that between Ichthyophiidae and Uraeotyphlidae, and the monophyly of the higher caecilians Scolecomorphidae+Caeciliidae+Typhlonectidae, are strongly supported, whereas the relationships among the higher caecilians are less unambiguously resolved. Analysis of RAG1 is affected by a spurious local rooting problem and associated low support that is ameliorated when outgroups are excluded. Comparisons of trees using the

  7. Functional Analysis of Nuclear Estrogen Receptors in Zebrafish Reproduction by Genome Editing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Liwen; Ge, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Estrogens signal through both nuclear and membrane receptors with most reported effects being mediated via the nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs). Although much work has been reported on nERs in the zebrafish, there is a lack of direct genetic evidence for their functional roles and importance in reproduction. To address this issue, we undertook this study to disrupt all three nERs in the zebrafish, namely esr1 (ERα), esr2a (ERβII), and esr2b (ERβI), by the genome-editing technology clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and its associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9). Using this loss-of-function genetic approach, we successfully created three mutant zebrafish lines with each nER knocked out. In addition, we also generated all possible double and triple knockouts of the three nERs. The phenotypes of these mutants in reproduction were analyzed in all single, double, and triple nER knockouts in both females and males. Surprisingly, all three single nER mutant fish lines display normal reproductive development and function in both females and males, suggesting functional redundancy among these nERs. Further analysis of double and triple knockouts showed that nERs, especially Esr2a and Esr2b, were essential for female reproduction, and loss of these two nERs led to an arrest of folliculogenesis at previtellogenic stage II followed by sex reversal from female to male. In addition, the current study also revealed a unique role for Esr2a in follicle cell proliferation and transdifferentiation, follicle growth, and chorion formation. Taken together, this study provides the most comprehensive genetic analysis for differential functions of esr1, esr2a, and esr2b in fish reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Sensitivity of nuclear power plant structural response to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.; Magiera, G.; Matthees, W.; Weber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a sensitivity study for aircraft impact is performed concerning the excitation of internal components, with particular regard to nonlinear structural material behaviour in the impact area. The nonlinear material values are varied within the bandwidth of suitable material strength, depending on local stiffness pre-calculations. The analyses are then performed on a globally discretized three-dimensional finite element model of a nuclear power plant, using a relatively fine mesh. For specified nodal points results are evaluated by comparing their response spectra. (Author) [pt

  9. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  10. National response plan - Major nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    France has been implementing stringent radiation protection and nuclear safety and security measures for many years. However, this does not mean that the country is exempt from having to be prepared to deal with an emergency. Changes in France, Europe and other parts of the globe have made it necessary for France to reconsider how it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies. As the potential impact of a nuclear or radiological accident can affect a wide range of activities, the plan described herein is based on a cross-sector and inter-ministerial approach to emergency response. The Chernobyl and Fukushima-Daiichi disasters are proof that the consequences of a major nuclear or radiological accident can affect all levels of society. These challenges are substantial and relate to: public health: An uncontrolled nuclear accident can have immediate consequences (death, injury, irradiation) as well as long-term consequences that can lead to increased risk of developing radiation-induced diseases (such as certain types of cancer); environmental quality: Radiation contamination can last for several decades and, in some cases, can result in an area being closed off permanently to the public; economic and social continuity: Nuclear accidents bring human activity to a halt in contaminated areas, disrupting the economic and social order of the entire country. It may therefore be necessary to adapt economic and social systems and carry out clean-up operations if people and businesses have been displaced; quality of international relations: Related to fulfillment of obligations to alert and inform European and international partners. This international dimension also covers the protection of French nationals present in countries stricken by a nuclear accident. This national plan provides reference information on how to prepare for a nuclear or radiological emergency and make the appropriate decisions in the event of an emergency. It covers the emergency phase (including

  11. An emergency response centre (ERC) for the preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirement for a state of the art Emergency Response Centre (ERC) to be developed and kept in readiness for the quick response to any nuclear or radiological emergencies. For an effective response to any major nuclear emergency an ERC having the facilities of i) environmental dose rate monitoring network established using both mobile and fixed units ii) on-line meteorological data collection and information station iii) on-line computation and prediction of isodose curves in real time and iv) properly developed and tested monitoring methodologies are essential. Vehicles with on-line data transfer facility to the ERC and equipped with different type of monitoring systems can function as Mobile Monitoring Laboratories (MMLs) and can help in quick decision making even during a radiological emergency far away from the ERC. (author)

  12. Social response to nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Bulaon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in the Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications, and socio-political/implications/benefit) were identified through factor analysis of beliefs items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all other energy systems. Identification of the relationship between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to different attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of Metro Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  13. Nucleoporin NUP153 guards genome integrity by promoting nuclear import of 53BP1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moudrý, Pavel; Lukas, C.; Macůrek, Libor; Neumann, B.; Heriche, J.K.; Pepperkok, R.; Ellenberg, J.; Hodný, Zdeněk; Lukas, J.; Bartek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2012), s. 798-807 ISSN 1350-9047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/0353; GA ČR GAP301/10/1525; GA ČR GPP305/10/P420 Grant - others:7.RP EU(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : DNA damage response * NUP153 * 53BP1 nuclear import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.371, year: 2012

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed...... a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify variants with an effect on statin-induced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) changes. The 123 most promising signals with p

  15. DNA double-strand break response in stem cells: mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaria, Pratik; Robert, Carine; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2013-02-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent the point of origin of all cells in a given organism and must protect their genomes from both endogenous and exogenous genotoxic stress. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of damage, and failure to adequately repair DSBs would not only compromise the ability of SCs to self-renew and differentiate, but will also lead to genomic instability and disease. Herein, we describe the mechanisms by which ESCs respond to DSB-inducing agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ionizing radiation, compared to somatic cells. We will also discuss whether the DSB response is fully reprogrammed in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the role of the DNA damage response (DDR) in the reprogramming of these cells. ESCs have distinct mechanisms to protect themselves against DSBs and oxidative stress compared to somatic cells. The response to damage and stress is crucial for the maintenance of self-renewal and differentiation capacity in SCs. iPSCs appear to reprogram some of the responses to genotoxic stress. However, it remains to be determined if iPSCs also retain some DDR characteristics of the somatic cells of origin. The mechanisms regulating the genomic integrity in ESCs and iPSCs are critical for its safe use in regenerative medicine and may shed light on the pathways and factors that maintain genomic stability, preventing diseases such as cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Global DNA methylation synergistically regulates the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Johnson, Jacqueline; St John, Justin C

    2018-05-02

    Replication of mitochondrial DNA is strictly regulated during differentiation and development allowing each cell type to acquire its required mtDNA copy number to meet its specific needs for energy. Undifferentiated cells establish the mtDNA set point, which provides low numbers of mtDNA copy but sufficient template for replication once cells commit to specific lineages. However, cancer cells, such as those from the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, HSR-GBM1, cannot complete differentiation as they fail to enforce the mtDNA set point and are trapped in a 'pseudo-differentiated' state. Global DNA methylation is likely to be a major contributing factor, as DNA demethylation treatments promote differentiation of HSR-GBM1 cells. To determine the relationship between DNA methylation and mtDNA copy number in cancer cells, we applied whole genome MeDIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to HSR-GBM1 cells and following their treatment with the DNA demethylation agents 5-azacytidine and vitamin C. We identified key methylated regions modulated by the DNA demethylation agents that also induced synchronous changes to mtDNA copy number and nuclear gene expression. Our findings highlight the control exerted by DNA methylation on the expression of key genes, the regulation of mtDNA copy number and establishment of the mtDNA set point, which collectively contribute to tumorigenesis.

  17. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  18. Genomic Microdiversity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Underlying Differential Strain-Level Responses to Dietary Carbohydrate Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95 of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely unaffected, while the other three were promoted to different extents by the changes in dietary carbohydrate resources. The differential responses of these strains were consistent with their functional clustering based on the COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, including those involved with the ABC-type sugar transport systems, suggesting that the strain-specific genomic variations may have contributed to the niche adaption. Particularly, B. pseudocatenulatum C15, which had the most diverse types and highest gene copy numbers of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant polysaccharides, had the highest abundance after the dietary intervention. These studies show the importance of understanding genomic diversity of specific members of the gut microbiota if precise nutrition approaches are to be realized.

  19. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response

  20. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    We examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response. (author)

  1. Nuclear spin response studies in inelastic polarized proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    Spin-flip probabilities S/sub nn/ have been measured for inelastic proton scattering at incident proton energies around 300 MeV from a number of nuclei. At low excitation energies S/sub nn/ is below the free value. For excitation energies above about 30 MeV for momentum transfers between about 0.35 fm/sup /minus/1/ and 0.65 fm/sup / minus/1/ S/sub nn/ exceeds free values significantly. These results suggest that the relative ΔS = 1(ΔS = 0 + ΔS = 1) nuclear spin response approaches about 90% in the region of the enhancement. Comparison of the data with slab response calculations are presented. Decomposition of the measured cross sections into σ(ΔS = 0) and σ(ΔS = 1) permit extraction of nonspin-flip and spin-flip dipole and quadrupole strengths. 29 refs., 11 figs

  2. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijawka, K D [Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA)

    1982-08-01

    We examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response.

  3. Earthquake response of nuclear reactor building deeply embedded in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masao, T.; Hirasawa, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Koori, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Regarding the earthquake response of nuclear reactor building embedded in soil, experimental and theoretical investigations has been performed on a model of height-3.75 meter, bottom cross section-5x5 meter, weight-173 ton made of conrete under the financial support of Japanese government (The Science and Technology Agency). The top of model was excited by an eccentric mass vibration that can generate maximum force of 3 tons. Earthpressures were measured at the bottom and side wall of model, and displacements were also measured at the top of model (6 components) and ground surface changed in the steps which were 0, 20, 47, 73, 100% (against the height of model). Using these experimental results and soil properties, dynamical characteristics were studied, including resonant frequency, radiation damping, vibrational mode, frequency response and earthpressure distribution around the model at varying embedment by lumped model, cyclindrical elastic wave model and FEM models (thin layer elements). (Auth.)

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of rollers (Coraciidae) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and fifteen nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ulf S; Irestedt, Martin; Qu, Yanhua; Ericson, Per G P

    2018-04-06

    The rollers (Coraciidae) constitute a relative small avian family with ca. 12 species distributed in Africa, western and southern Eurasia, and eastern Australia. In this study we examine the phylogenetic relationships of all species currently recognized in the family, including two taxa whose taxonomic status is currently contested. By using shotgun sequencing on degraded DNA from museum study skins we have been able to recover complete mitochondrial genomes as well as 15 nuclear genes for in total 16 taxa. The gene sequences were analyzed both concatenated in a maximum likelihood framework as well in a species tree approach using MP-EST. The different analytical approaches yield similar, highly supported trees and support the current division of the rollers into two genera, Coracias and Eurystomus. The only conflict relates to the placement of the Blue-bellied Roller (C. cyanogaster), where the mitochondrial, and the concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial data set, place this taxon as sister to the other Coracias species, whereas nuclear data and the species tree analysis place it as the sister taxon of C. naevia and C. spatulatus. All analyses place the Eurasian roller (C. garrulus) with the two African species, Abyssinian Roller (C. abyssinica) and Liliac-breasted Roller (C. caudatus), and place this clade as the sister group to the Asian Coracias rollers. In addition, our results support a sister group relationship between the morphologically rather dissimilar Purple Roller (C. naevia) and Racquet-tailed Roller (C. spatulatus) and also support the division of Eurystomus in an African and an Asian clade. However, within the Asian clade the Azure Roller (E. azureus) from Halmahera appears to be nested within the Dollarbird (E. orientalis), indicating that that this taxon is a morphological divergent, but a rather recent offshoot, of the widespread Dollarbird. Similarly, the Purple-winged Roller (C. temminickii) from Sulawesi group together with C. benghalensis

  5. Assembled Plastid and Mitochondrial Genomes, as well as Nuclear Genes, Place the Parasite Family Cynomoriaceae in the Saxifragales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellot, Sidonie; Cusimano, Natalie; Luo, Shixiao; Sun, Guiling; Zarre, Shahin; Gröger, Andreas; Temsch, Eva; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-08-03

    Cynomoriaceae, one of the last unplaced families of flowering plants, comprise one or two species or subspecies of root parasites that occur from the Mediterranean to the Gobi Desert. Using Illumina sequencing, we assembled the mitochondrial and plastid genomes as well as some nuclear genes of a Cynomorium specimen from Italy. Selected genes were also obtained by Sanger sequencing from individuals collected in China and Iran, resulting in matrices of 33 mitochondrial, 6 nuclear, and 14 plastid genes and rDNAs enlarged to include a representative angiosperm taxon sampling based on data available in GenBank. We also compiled a new geographic map to discern possible discontinuities in the parasites' occurrence. Cynomorium has large genomes of 13.70-13.61 (Italy) to 13.95-13.76 pg (China). Its mitochondrial genome consists of up to 49 circular subgenomes and has an overall gene content similar to that of photosynthetic angiosperms, while its plastome retains only 27 of the normally 116 genes. Nuclear, plastid and mitochondrial phylogenies place Cynomoriaceae in Saxifragales, and we found evidence for several horizontal gene transfers from different hosts, as well as intracellular gene transfers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Genomic priming of the antisecretory response to estrogen in rat distal colon throughout the estrous cycle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2009-11-01

    The secretion of Cl(-) across distal colonic crypt cells provides the driving force for the movement of fluid into the luminal space. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in secretion in females, which is dependent on the novel protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) isozyme and PKA isoform I targeting of KCNQ1 channels. This sexual dimorphism in the E2 response is associated with a higher expression level of PKC delta in female compared with the male tissue. The present study revealed the antisecretory response is regulated throughout the female reproductive (estrous) cycle and is primed by genomic regulation of the kinases. E2 (1-10 nm) decreased cAMP-dependent secretion in colonic epithelia during the estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages. A weak inhibition of secretion was demonstrated in the proestrus stage. The expression levels of PKC delta and PKA fluctuated throughout the estrous cycle and correlated with the potency of the antisecretory effect of E2. The expression of PKC delta and PKA were up-regulated by estrogen at a transcriptional level via a PKC delta-MAPK-cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated pathway indicating a genomic priming of the antisecretory response. PK Cdelta was activated by the membrane-impermeant E2-BSA, and this response was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The 66-kDa estrogen receptor-alpha isoform was present at the plasma membrane of female colonic crypt cells with a lower abundance found in male colonic crypts. The study demonstrates estrogen regulation of intestinal secretion both at a rapid and transcriptional level, demonstrating an interdependent relationship between both nongenomic and genomic hormone responses.

  7. Confusion in practice: on nuclear safety responsibility subject of our nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear safety responsibility subject seems a unquestionable issue, but when I took part in the CNNC searching team of 'nuclear law legislation', I found that there are confusions on understanding of this concept and in application. The paper focuses on the content of nuclear safety responsibility, using legal and practical method to dig out the differences with the related and frequently confusing concepts, on which basis to analyze the situation of nuclear safety responsibility subject of our nation. In conclusion, I give suggestions on who shall be the nuclear safety responsibility subject. (author)

  8. Public's Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Nuclear Messages: Implications for Effective Nuclear Communication Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung

    2017-01-01

    The public debate over the use of nuclear energy is not limited to the area of technology, and has become subject to the public's subjective perceptions and emotions regarding the issue. This study empirically demonstrated the advantage of loss framing in improving public's favorable responses toward nuclear energy messages. Such framing effect was found to be moderated by individuals' daily use of online news. The findings of this study suggest that public's cognitive and emotional responses toward nuclear messages should be carefully considered when planning effective nuclear communication program.

  9. Composition and fundamental requirements of nuclear emergency response monitoring equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yongfang; Huang Weiqi; Wang Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear emergency monitoring equipment is concrete foundation for accomplishing radiation monitoring in nuclear or radiation accidents. Based on technical report: Generic procedures for monitoring in a nuclear or radiological emergency published by IAEA in 1999, this paper presents the main task and composition of nuclear emergency monitoring briefly, and then the basic equipment and trends of nuclear emergency monitoring equipment is put forward in detail, which is useful to construction and reinforcement of our nuclear emergency monitoring. (authors)

  10. Experience with RTD response time testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor coolant temperatures in pressurized water reactors are measured with platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The information furnished by these RTDs is used for plant protection as well as control. As a part of the plant protection system, the RTDs must respond to temperature changes in a timely fashion. The RTD response time requirements are different for the various plant types. These requirements are specified in the plant technical specifications in terms of an RTd time constant. The current time constant requirements for nuclear plant RTDs varies from 0.5 seconds to 13.0 seconds depending on the type of the plant. Therefore, different types of RTDs are used in different plants to achieve the required time constants. In addition, in-situ response time tests are periodically performed on protective system RTDs to ensure that the in-service time constants are within acceptable limits as the plant is operating. The periodic testing is important because response time degradation may occur while the RTD ages in the process. Recent response time tests in operating plants revealed unacceptable time constants for several protection system RTDs. As a result, these plants had to be shut down to resolve the problem which in one case was due to improper installation and in another case was because of degradation of a thermal compound used in the thermowell

  11. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of the Eimeria maxima response in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzić, Edin; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hérault, Frédéric; Hawken, Rachel; Abrahamsen, Mitchel S; Servin, Bertrand; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand

    2015-11-25

    Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and is caused by protozoans of the Eimeria genus. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high costs for the development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the current control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics to improve the host response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500 broilers using E. maxima for which we investigated variability among animals in response to the challenge. As a follow-up to this challenge study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions underlying variability of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis to increase our biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge. In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with q value Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, the post-GWAS functional analysis indicates that biological pathways and networks involved in tissue proliferation and repair along with the primary innate immune response may play the most important role during the early stage of Eimeria maxima infection in broilers.

  12. International nuclear third party liability law: The response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In terms of liability and compensation issues, the response of the international community to the accident at Chernobyl has been comprehensive, aimed at modernising two outdated international regimes, linking them together and adopting a brand, new global one - all this in the hope of bettering the situation of victims of a nuclear accident, wherever they may be found. That improvement will be brought about in a number of ways once all of the relevant international instruments have entered into force. Much more money will be available to compensate victims of a nuclear accident and that money will be more readily and easily accessible. More victims will be entitled to compensation, both in terms of the type of damage that they have suffered and where those victims were physically located at the time they suffered it; in some cases, such as under the Supplementary Compensation Convention, victims in states other than that of the liable operator will be in a privileged position as regards a portion of the available compensation. In addition, the period in which claims for compensation can be made in respect of personal injury and loss of life has been extended, in recognition of the fact that some such injuries may not manifest themselves for many years after the accident has occurred. Yet despite the lessons learned from Chernobyl, despite the attempts to make these new or amended instruments as attractive as possible to encourage the broadest possible adherence, their acceptance by individual states has not been overwhelming. This is particularly true in the case of the VC Protocol and the CSC where the required liability amounts and financial security limits were intentionally established at levels deemed to be acceptable to the vast majority of potential parties. It is equally discouraging to see that Ukraine has not ratified either the VC Protocol or the CSC, even though it signed both shortly after their adoption in 1997. Similarly, the Russian Federation has

  13. Genomic selection improves response to selection in resilience by exploiting genotype by environment interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mulder

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interactions (GxE are very common in livestock and hamper genetic improvement. On the other hand, GxE is a source of genetic variation: genetic variation in response to environment, e.g. environmental perturbations such as heat stress or disease. In livestock breeding, there is tendency to ignore GxE because of increased complexity of models for genetic evaluations and lack of accuracy in extreme environments. GxE, however, creates opportunities to increase resilience of animals towards environmental perturbations. The main aim of the paper is to investigate to which extent GxE can be exploited with traditional and genomic selection methods. Furthermore, we investigated the benefit of reaction norm models compared to conventional methods ignoring GxE. The questions were addressed with selection index theory. GxE was modelled according to a linear reaction norm model in which the environmental gradient is the contemporary group mean. Economic values were based on linear and non-linear profit equations.Accuracies of environment-specific (GEBV were highest in intermediate environments and lowest in extreme environments. Reaction norm models had higher accuracies of (GEBV in extreme environments than conventional models ignoring GxE. Genomic selection always resulted in higher response to selection in all environments than sib or progeny testing schemes. The increase in response was with genomic selection between 9% and 140% compared to sib testing and between 11% and 114% compared to progeny testing when the reference population consisted of 1 million animals across all environments. When the aim was to decrease environmental sensitivity, the response in slope of the reaction norm model with genomic selection was between 1.09 and 319 times larger than with sib or progeny testing and in the right direction in contrast to sib and progeny testing that still increased environmental sensitivity. This shows that genomic selection

  14. Genomic predictors of the maximal O2 uptake response to standardized exercise training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rice, Treva K.; Kraus, William E.; Church, Timothy S.; Sung, Yun Ju; Rao, D. C.; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2011-01-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful predictor of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. In 473 sedentary adults, all whites, from 99 families of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, the heritability of gains in maximal O2 uptake (V̇o2max) after exposure to a standardized 20-wk exercise program was estimated at 47%. A genome-wide association study based on 324,611 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken to identify SNPs associated with improvements in V̇o2max Based on single-SNP analysis, 39 SNPs were associated with the gains with P HERITAGE whites were replicated in HERITAGE blacks (n = 247). These genomic predictors of the response of V̇o2max to regular exercise provide new targets for the study of the biology of fitness and its adaptation to regular exercise. Large-scale replication studies are warranted. PMID:21183627

  15. Genomic responses to arsenic in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Riego

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant and a toxic metalloid which presents two main redox states in nature: arsenite [As(III] and arsenate [As(V]. Arsenic resistance in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is mediated by the arsBHC operon and two additional arsenate reductases encoded by the arsI1 and arsI2 genes. Here we describe the genome-wide responses to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in wild type and mutants in the arsenic resistance system. Both forms of arsenic produced similar responses in the wild type strain, including induction of several stress related genes and repression of energy generation processes. These responses were transient in the wild type strain but maintained in time in an arsB mutant strain, which lacks the arsenite transporter. In contrast, the responses observed in a strain lacking all arsenate reductases were somewhat different and included lower induction of genes involved in metal homeostasis and Fe-S cluster biogenesis, suggesting that these two processes are targeted by arsenite in the wild type strain. Finally, analysis of the arsR mutant strain revealed that ArsR seems to only control 5 genes in the genome. Furthermore, the arsR mutant strain exhibited hypersentivity to nickel, copper and cadmium and this phenotype was suppressed by mutation in arsB but not in arsC gene suggesting that overexpression of arsB is detrimental in the presence of these metals in the media.

  16. Transient Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation In Vivo in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Susanne R.; Rocke, David M.; Dai Jian; Schwietert, Chad W.; Santana, Alison; Stern, Robin L.; Lehmann, Joerg; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L.; Goldberg, Zelanna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The in vivo effects of low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation on healthy human skin are largely unknown. Using a patient-based tissue acquisition protocol, we have performed a series of genomic analyses on the temporal dynamics over a 24-hour period to determine the radiation response after a single exposure of 10 cGy. Methods and Materials: RNA from each patient tissue sample was hybridized to an Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array. Data analysis was performed on selected gene groups and pathways. Results: Nineteen gene groups and seven gene pathways that had been shown to be radiation responsive were analyzed. Of these, nine gene groups showed significant transient transcriptional changes in the human tissue samples, which returned to baseline by 24 hours postexposure. Conclusions: Low doses of ionizing radiation on full-thickness human skin produce a definable temporal response out to 24 hours postexposure. Genes involved in DNA and tissue remodeling, cell cycle transition, and inflammation show statistically significant changes in expression, despite variability between patients. These data serve as a reference for the temporal dynamics of ionizing radiation response following low-dose exposure in healthy full-thickness human skin

  17. Duties and responsibilities of the Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Radiation Protection Institute in connection with nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckered, T.

    1977-01-01

    The two Swedish bodies competent for the control of nuclear energy are the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the National Swedish Institute on Radiation Protection (SSI). The duties of both bodies in respect of inspection stem from the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Act. The procedure to be followed for construction and operation of nuclear power plants is described from the viewpoint of the responsibilities entrusted to SKI and SSI. (NEA) [fr

  18. Bystander effects, adaptive response and genomic instability induced by prenatal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian [Institute for Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, Auf dem Sutan 12, D-45239 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: streffer.essen@t-online.de

    2004-12-02

    The developing human embryo and fetus undergo very radiosensitive stages during the prenatal development. It is likely that the induction of low dose related effects such as bystander effects, the adaptive response, and genomic instability would have profound effects on embryonic and fetal development. In this paper, I review what has been reported on the induction of these three phenomena in exposed embryos and fetuses. All three phenomena have been shown to occur in murine embryonic or fetal cells and structures, although the induction of an adaptive response (and also likely the induction of bystander effects) are limited in terms of when during development they can be induced and the dose or dose-rate used to treat animals in utero. In contrast, genomic instability can be induced throughout development, and the effects of radiation exposure on genome instability can be observed for long times after irradiation including through pre- and postnatal development and into the next generation of mice. There are clearly strain-specific differences in the induction of these phenomena and all three can lead to long-term detrimental effects. This is true for the adaptive response as well. While induction of an adaptive response can make fetuses more resistant to some gross developmental defects induced by a subsequent high dose challenge with ionizing radiation, the long-term effects of this low dose exposure are detrimental. The negative effects of all three phenomena reflect the complexity of fetal development, a process where even small changes in the timing of gene expression or suppression can have dramatic effects on the pattern of biological events and the subsequent development of the mammalian organism.

  19. Selective recruitment of nuclear factors to productively replicating herpes simplex virus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Jill A; DeLuca, Neal A

    2015-05-01

    Much of the HSV-1 life cycle is carried out in the cell nucleus, including the expression, replication, repair, and packaging of viral genomes. Viral proteins, as well as cellular factors, play essential roles in these processes. Isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) was developed to label and purify cellular replication forks. We adapted aspects of this method to label viral genomes to both image, and purify replicating HSV-1 genomes for the identification of associated proteins. Many viral and cellular factors were enriched on viral genomes, including factors that mediate DNA replication, repair, chromatin remodeling, transcription, and RNA processing. As infection proceeded, packaging and structural components were enriched to a greater extent. Among the more abundant proteins that copurified with genomes were the viral transcription factor ICP4 and the replication protein ICP8. Furthermore, all seven viral replication proteins were enriched on viral genomes, along with cellular PCNA and topoisomerases, while other cellular replication proteins were not detected. The chromatin-remodeling complexes present on viral genomes included the INO80, SWI/SNF, NURD, and FACT complexes, which may prevent chromatinization of the genome. Consistent with this conclusion, histones were not readily recovered with purified viral genomes, and imaging studies revealed an underrepresentation of histones on viral genomes. RNA polymerase II, the mediator complex, TFIID, TFIIH, and several other transcriptional activators and repressors were also affinity purified with viral DNA. The presence of INO80, NURD, SWI/SNF, mediator, TFIID, and TFIIH components is consistent with previous studies in which these complexes copurified with ICP4. Therefore, ICP4 is likely involved in the recruitment of these key cellular chromatin remodeling and transcription factors to viral genomes. Taken together, iPOND is a valuable method for the study of viral genome dynamics during infection and

  20. Selective recruitment of nuclear factors to productively replicating herpes simplex virus genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A Dembowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the HSV-1 life cycle is carried out in the cell nucleus, including the expression, replication, repair, and packaging of viral genomes. Viral proteins, as well as cellular factors, play essential roles in these processes. Isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND was developed to label and purify cellular replication forks. We adapted aspects of this method to label viral genomes to both image, and purify replicating HSV-1 genomes for the identification of associated proteins. Many viral and cellular factors were enriched on viral genomes, including factors that mediate DNA replication, repair, chromatin remodeling, transcription, and RNA processing. As infection proceeded, packaging and structural components were enriched to a greater extent. Among the more abundant proteins that copurified with genomes were the viral transcription factor ICP4 and the replication protein ICP8. Furthermore, all seven viral replication proteins were enriched on viral genomes, along with cellular PCNA and topoisomerases, while other cellular replication proteins were not detected. The chromatin-remodeling complexes present on viral genomes included the INO80, SWI/SNF, NURD, and FACT complexes, which may prevent chromatinization of the genome. Consistent with this conclusion, histones were not readily recovered with purified viral genomes, and imaging studies revealed an underrepresentation of histones on viral genomes. RNA polymerase II, the mediator complex, TFIID, TFIIH, and several other transcriptional activators and repressors were also affinity purified with viral DNA. The presence of INO80, NURD, SWI/SNF, mediator, TFIID, and TFIIH components is consistent with previous studies in which these complexes copurified with ICP4. Therefore, ICP4 is likely involved in the recruitment of these key cellular chromatin remodeling and transcription factors to viral genomes. Taken together, iPOND is a valuable method for the study of viral genome dynamics

  1. Our response to the earthquake at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Tomoshi

    2008-01-01

    When the Miyagi Offshore earthquake occurred on August 16, 2005, all three units at the Onagawa NPS were shut down automatically according to the Strong Seismic Acceleration' signal. Our inspection after the earthquake confirmed there was no damage to the equipment of the nuclear power plants, but the analysis of the response spectrum observed at the bedrock showed the earthquake had exceeded the 'design-basis earthquake', at certain periods, so that we implemented a review of the seismic safety of plant facilities. In the review, the ground motion of Miyagi Offshore Earthquake which are predicted to occur in the near future were reexamined based on the observation data, and then 'The Ground Motion for Safety Check' surpassing the supposed ground motion of the largest earthquake was established. The seismic safety of plant facilities, important for safety, was assured. At present, No.1 to No.3 units at Onagawa NPS have returned to normal operation. (author)

  2. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalk, M.; Woelfel, H.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Germany are to be designed against airplane crash. Two problems arise: first, the local problem of penetration as well as local destruction of the building and secondly the airplane induced vibrations of the whole building which cause loadings for secondary systems (equipment). This paper deals especially with the second problem. Floor response spectra due to airplane crash are presented for two different power plant buildings. The influence of various parameters (time history of excitation, direction and location of impact, mathematical model, soil, damping, etc.) are discussed. A comparison with the results of earthquake loading is given. Suggestions are made for developing suitable floor design spectra and using them to analyse multidegree-of-freedom systems. However, the paper gives only a partial answer to the questions arising because of some important restrictions which had to be made. Studies concerning these restrictions are still being conducted and will be presented in a separate paper. (Auth.)

  3. Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Samah Alzebair.

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to find out what is ionizing radiation and its users in various medical and industrial fields and extent of the risk resulting from it as a result of inappropriate use. Examples have been mentioned so (the Chernobyl accident and San Salvador) and caused problems. Due to the non-use of nuclear and ionizing radiation in industrial areas in Sudan. There are no radiological incidents remember. Current and universally agreed-upon court plants have been developed by the organization and the competent authorities at the regional and local level and global and who is responsible because of the dangers caused to humans and the environment and all around him. (Author)

  4. Genomic Copy Number Dictates a Gene-Independent Cell Response to CRISPR/Cas9 Targeting | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system enables genome editing and somatic cell genetic screens in mammalian cells. We performed genome-scale loss-of-function screens in 33 cancer cell lines to identify genes essential for proliferation/survival and found a strong correlation between increased gene copy number and decreased cell viability after genome editing. Within regions of copy-number gain, CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of both expressed and unexpressed genes, as well as intergenic loci, led to significantly decreased cell proliferation through induction of a G2 cell-cycle arrest.

  5. Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects.

  6. Targeted identification of short interspersed nuclear element families shows their widespread existence and extreme heterogeneity in plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Döbel, Thomas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Junghans, Holger; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons that are highly abundant, heterogeneous, and mostly not annotated in eukaryotic genomes. We developed a tool designated SINE-Finder for the targeted discovery of tRNA-derived SINEs. We analyzed sequence data of 16 plant genomes, including 13 angiosperms and three gymnosperms and identified 17,829 full-length and truncated SINEs falling into 31 families showing the widespread occurrence of SINEs in higher plants. The investigation focused on potato (Solanum tuberosum), resulting in the detection of seven different SolS SINE families consisting of 1489 full-length and 870 5' truncated copies. Consensus sequences of full-length members range in size from 106 to 244 bp depending on the SINE family. SolS SINEs populated related species and evolved separately, which led to some distinct subfamilies. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed along chromosomes and distributed without clustering but with preferred integration into short A-rich motifs. They emerged more than 23 million years ago and were species specifically amplified during the radiation of potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). We show that tobacco TS retrotransposons are composite SINEs consisting of the 3' end of a long interspersed nuclear element integrated downstream of a nonhomologous SINE family followed by successfully colonization of the genome. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the formation of TS as a spontaneous event, which could be typical for the emergence of SINE families.

  7. Targeted Identification of Short Interspersed Nuclear Element Families Shows Their Widespread Existence and Extreme Heterogeneity in Plant Genomes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Döbel, Thomas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Junghans, Holger; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons that are highly abundant, heterogeneous, and mostly not annotated in eukaryotic genomes. We developed a tool designated SINE-Finder for the targeted discovery of tRNA-derived SINEs. We analyzed sequence data of 16 plant genomes, including 13 angiosperms and three gymnosperms and identified 17,829 full-length and truncated SINEs falling into 31 families showing the widespread occurrence of SINEs in higher plants. The investigation focused on potato (Solanum tuberosum), resulting in the detection of seven different SolS SINE families consisting of 1489 full-length and 870 5′ truncated copies. Consensus sequences of full-length members range in size from 106 to 244 bp depending on the SINE family. SolS SINEs populated related species and evolved separately, which led to some distinct subfamilies. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed along chromosomes and distributed without clustering but with preferred integration into short A-rich motifs. They emerged more than 23 million years ago and were species specifically amplified during the radiation of potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). We show that tobacco TS retrotransposons are composite SINEs consisting of the 3′ end of a long interspersed nuclear element integrated downstream of a nonhomologous SINE family followed by successfully colonization of the genome. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the formation of TS as a spontaneous event, which could be typical for the emergence of SINE families. PMID:21908723

  8. Responsibilities of nuclear regulatory authority and overview of nuclear safety regulations in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the organizational structure of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, its rights and duties, the status of nuclear legislation with emphasis on nuclear activities completely or partially covered, and licensing procedures

  9. No boundaries: genomes, organisms, and ecological interactions responsible for divergence and reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the genetic basis of traits that cause reproductive isolation, particularly premating or sexual isolation, usually involves the same challenges as most attempts at genotype-phenotype mapping and so requires knowledge of how these traits are expressed in different individuals, populations, and environments, particularly under natural conditions. Genetic dissection of speciation phenotypes thus requires understanding of the internal and external contexts in which underlying genetic elements are expressed. Gene expression is a product of complex interacting factors internal and external to the organism including developmental programs, the genetic background including nuclear-cytotype interactions, epistatic relationships, interactions among individuals or social effects, stochasticity, and prevailing variation in ecological conditions. Understanding of genomic divergence associated with reproductive isolation will be facilitated by functional expression analysis of annotated genomes in organisms with well-studied evolutionary histories, phylogenetic affinities, and known patterns of ecological variation throughout their life cycles. I review progress and prospects for understanding the pervasive role of host plant use on genetic and phenotypic expression of reproductive isolating mechanisms in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis and suggest how this system can be used as a model for revealing the genetic basis for species formation in organisms where speciation phenotypes are under the joint influences of genetic and environmental factors. © The American Genetic Association. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  11. Genomic interrogation of mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rupesh P.; Hamadeh, Hisham K.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Bennett, Lee; Afshari, Cynthia A.; Paules, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic exposure on human health and disease progression is complex. Knowledge of mode(s) of action, including mechanism(s) contributing to toxicity and disease progression, is valuable for evaluating compounds. Toxicogenomics, the subdiscipline which merges genomics with toxicology, holds the promise to contributing significantly toward the goal of elucidating mechanism(s) by studying genome-wide effects of xenobiotics. Global gene expression profiling, revolutionized by microarray technology and a crucial aspect of a toxicogenomic study, allows measuring transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes following exposure to a xenobiotic. We use our results from previous studies on compounds representing two different classes of xenobiotics (barbiturate and peroxisome proliferator) to discuss the application of computational approaches for analyzing microarray data to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants. In particular, our laboratory demonstrated that chemical-specific patterns of gene expression can be revealed using cDNA microarrays. Transcript profiling provides discrimination between classes of toxicants, as well as, genome-wide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and disease progression. Ultimately, the expectation is that novel approaches for predicting xenobiotic toxicity in humans will emerge from such information

  12. First genomic insights into members of a candidate bacterial phylum responsible for wastewater bulking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Sekiguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using differential coverage binning of metagenomic data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted probes specific for the two populations confirmed that both are filamentous organisms. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and microscopic observation of the KSB3 filaments in the presence of sugar gradients indicate that both filament types are Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic fermenters capable of non-flagellar based gliding motility, and have a strikingly large number of sensory and response regulator genes. We propose that the KSB3 filaments are highly sensitive to their surroundings and that cellular processes, including those causing bulking, are controlled by external stimuli. The obtained genomes lay the foundation for a more detailed understanding of environmental cues used by KSB3 filaments, which may lead to more robust treatment options to prevent bulking.

  13. Genome wide analysis of stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaiq Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins that bind with a specific sequence C/TTGACT/C known as W-Box found in promoters of genes which are regulated by these WRKYs. From previous studies, 43 different stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana, identified and then categorized in three groups viz., abiotic, biotic and both of these stresses. A comprehensive genome wide analysis including chromosomal localization, gene structure analysis, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and promoter analysis of these WRKY genes was carried out in this study to determine the functional homology in Arabidopsis. This analysis led to the classification of these WRKY family members into 3 major groups and subgroups and showed evolutionary relationship among these groups on the base of their functional WRKY domain, chromosomal localization and intron/exon structure. The proposed groups of these stress responsive WRKY genes and annotation based on their position on chromosomes can also be explored to determine their functional homology in other plant species in relation to different stresses. The result of the present study provides indispensable genomic information for the stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and will pave the way to explain the precise role of various AtWRKYs in plant growth and development under stressed conditions.

  14. Inactivating UBE2M impacts the DNA damage response and genome integrity involving multiple cullin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cukras

    Full Text Available Protein neddylation is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. Here we show that the DNA damage response is perturbed in cells inactivated with an E2 Nedd8 conjugating enzyme UBE2M, measured by RAD51 foci formation kinetics and cell based DNA repair assays. UBE2M knockdown increases DNA breakages and cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, further suggesting heightened genomic instability and defective DNA repair activity. Investigating the downstream Cullin targets of UBE2M revealed that silencing of Cullin 1, 2, and 4 ligases incurred significant DNA damage. In particular, UBE2M knockdown, or defective neddylation of Cullin 2, leads to a blockade in the G1 to S progression and is associated with delayed S-phase dependent DNA damage response. Cullin 4 inactivation leads to an aberrantly high DNA damage response that is associated with increased DNA breakages and sensitivity of cells to DNA damaging agents, suggesting a DNA repair defect is associated. siRNA interrogation of key Cullin substrates show that CDT1, p21, and Claspin are involved in elevated DNA damage in the UBE2M knockdown cells. Therefore, UBE2M is required to maintain genome integrity by activating multiple Cullin ligases throughout the cell cycle.

  15. Inactivating UBE2M impacts the DNA damage response and genome integrity involving multiple cullin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Scott; Morffy, Nicholas; Ohn, Takbum; Kee, Younghoon

    2014-01-01

    Protein neddylation is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. Here we show that the DNA damage response is perturbed in cells inactivated with an E2 Nedd8 conjugating enzyme UBE2M, measured by RAD51 foci formation kinetics and cell based DNA repair assays. UBE2M knockdown increases DNA breakages and cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, further suggesting heightened genomic instability and defective DNA repair activity. Investigating the downstream Cullin targets of UBE2M revealed that silencing of Cullin 1, 2, and 4 ligases incurred significant DNA damage. In particular, UBE2M knockdown, or defective neddylation of Cullin 2, leads to a blockade in the G1 to S progression and is associated with delayed S-phase dependent DNA damage response. Cullin 4 inactivation leads to an aberrantly high DNA damage response that is associated with increased DNA breakages and sensitivity of cells to DNA damaging agents, suggesting a DNA repair defect is associated. siRNA interrogation of key Cullin substrates show that CDT1, p21, and Claspin are involved in elevated DNA damage in the UBE2M knockdown cells. Therefore, UBE2M is required to maintain genome integrity by activating multiple Cullin ligases throughout the cell cycle.

  16. GENOMIC PREDICTOR OF RESPONSE AND SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TAXANE-ANTHRACYCLINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR INVASIVE BREAST CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzis, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; Valero, Vicente; Booser, Daniel J.; Esserman, Laura; Lluch, Ana; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Holmes, Frankie; Souchon, Eduardo; Martin, Miguel; Cotrina, José; Gomez, Henry; Hubbard, Rebekah; Chacón, J. Ignacio; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Dyer, Richard; Buxton, Meredith; Gong, Yun; Wu, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Ueno, Naoto T.; Hunt, Kelly; Yang, Wei; Nazario, Arlene; DeMichele, Angela; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Symmans, W. Fraser

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Accurate prediction of who will (or won’t) have high probability of survival benefit from standard treatments is fundamental for individualized cancer treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE To develop a predictor of response and survival from chemotherapy for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. DESIGN Development of different predictive signatures for resistance and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (stratified according to estrogen receptor (ER) status) from gene expression microarrays of newly diagnosed breast cancer (310 patients). Then prediction of breast cancer treatment-sensitivity using the combination of signatures for: 1) sensitivity to endocrine therapy, 2) chemo-resistance, and 3) chemo-sensitivity. Independent validation (198 patients) and comparison with other reported genomic predictors of chemotherapy response. SETTING Prospective multicenter study to develop and test genomic predictors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS Newly diagnosed HER2-negative breast cancer treated with chemotherapy containing sequential taxane and anthracycline-based regimens then endocrine therapy (if hormone receptor-positive). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) if predicted treatment-sensitive and absolute risk reduction (ARR, difference in DRFS of the two predicted groups) at median follow-up (3 years), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS Patients in the independent validation cohort (99% clinical Stage II–III) who were predicted to be treatment-sensitive (28% of total) had DRFS of 92% (CI 85–100) and survival benefit compared to others (absolute risk reduction (ARR) 18%; CI 6–28). Predictions were accurate if breast cancer was ER-positive (30% predicted sensitive, DRFS 97%, CI 91–100; ARR 11%, CI 0.1–21) or ER-negative (26% predicted sensitive, DRFS 83%, CI 68–100; ARR 26%, CI 4–28), and were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant clinical-pathologic characteristics. Other

  17. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  18. Seismic response analysis of floating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hideharu; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1988-01-01

    Since Floating Nuclear Power Plants (FNPs) are considered to be isolated from horizontal seismic motion, it is anticipated to reduce seismic load for plant components and buildings on the barge. On the other hand, barge oscillation and sloshing in the closed basin might be excited by earthquakes, because natural periods of those motions correspond to relatively-long period component (between 2 and 20 seconds) of seismic motion. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate seismic isolation effects and barge oscillation, for the rational design of FNPs. However, there do not exist any reasonable analytical tools which can evaluate seismic response of floating structures in closed basin. The purpose of the present report is to develop a seismic analysis method for FNPs. The proposed method is based on the finite element method, and the formulation includes fluid-structure interaction, water surface wave, buoyancy effect, and non-linear characteristics of mooring system. Response analysis can be executed in both time-domain and frequency-domain. Shaking table tests were conducted to validate the proposed method of analysis. The test results showed significant isolation effect of floating structure, and apparent interaction between the barge and the basin. And 2-D and 3-D frequency domain analyses and the 2-D linear and non-linear time-domain analyses were done and those analyses could simulate the test results well. (author)

  19. Study of developing nuclear fabrication facility's integrated emergency response manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeh Yeong; Cho, Nam Chan; Han, Seung Hoon; Moon, Jong Han; Lee, Jin Hang; Min, Guem Young; Han, Ji Ah

    2016-01-01

    Public begin to pay attention to emergency management. Thus, public's consensus on having high level of emergency management system up to advanced country's is reached. In this social atmosphere, manual is considered as key factor to prevent accident or secure business continuity. Therefore, we first define possible crisis at KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (hereinafter KNF) and also make a 'Reaction List' for each crisis situation at the view of information-design. To achieve it, we analyze several country's crisis response manual and then derive component, indicate duties and roles at the information-design point of view. From this, we suggested guideline to make 'Integrated emergency response manual(IERM)'. The manual we used before have following few problems; difficult to applicate at the site, difficult to deliver information. To complement these problems, we searched manual elements from the view of information-design. As a result, we develop administrative manual. Although, this manual could be thought as fragmentary manual because it confined specific several agency/organization and disaster type

  20. An expert system for improving nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame-Alfie, A.; Goldbogen, G.C.; Ryan, R.M.; Wallace, W.A.; Yeater, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The accidents at TMI-2 and Chernobyl have produced initiatives aimed at improving nuclear plant emergency response capabilities. Among them are the development of emergency response facilities with capabilities for the acquisition, processing, and diagnosis of data which are needed to help coordinate plant operations, engineering support and management under emergency conditions. An effort in this direction prompted the development of an expert system. EP (EMERGENCY PLANNER) is a prototype expert system that is intended to help coordinate the overall management during emergency conditions. The EP system was built using the GEN-X expert system shell. GEN-X has a variety of knowledge representation mechanisms including AND/OR trees, Decision trees, and IF/THEN tables, and runs on an IBM PC-XT or AT computer or compatible. Among the main features, EP is portable, modular, user friendly, can interact with external programs and interrogate data bases. The knowledge base is made of New York State (NYS) Procedures for Emergency Classification, NYS Radiological Emergency Preparedness Plan (REPP) and knowledge from experts of the NYS Radiological Emergency Preparedness Group and the Office of Radiological Health and Chemistry of the New York Power Authority (NYPA)

  1. The directionality of the nuclear transport of the influenza A genome is driven by selective exposure of nuclear localization sequences on nucleoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panté Nelly

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early in infection, the genome of the influenza A virus, consisting of eight complexes of RNA and proteins (termed viral ribonucleoproteins; vRNPs, enters the nucleus of infected cells for replication. Incoming vRNPs are imported into the nucleus of infected cells using at least two nuclear localization sequences on nucleoprotein (NP; NLS1 at the N terminus, and NLS2 in the middle of the protein. Progeny vRNP assembly occurs in the nucleus, and later in infection, these are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Nuclear-exported vRNPs are different from incoming vRNPs in that they are prevented from re-entering the nucleus. Why nuclear-exported vRNPs do not re-enter the nucleus is unknown. Results To test our hypothesis that the exposure of NLSs on the vRNP regulates the directionality of the nuclear transport of the influenza vRNPs, we immunolabeled the two NLSs of NP (NLS1 and NLS2 and analyzed their surface accessibility in cells infected with the influenza A virus. We found that the NLS1 epitope on NP was exposed throughout the infected cells, but the NLS2 epitope on NP was only exposed in the nucleus of the infected cells. Addition of the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B further revealed that NLS1 is no longer exposed in cytoplasmic NP and vRNPs that have already undergone nuclear export. Similar immunolabeling studies in the presence of leptomycin B and with cells transfected with the cDNA of NP revealed that the NLS1 on NP is hidden in nuclear exported-NP. Conclusion NLS1 mediates the nuclear import of newly-synthesized NP and incoming vRNPs. This NLS becomes hidden on nuclear-exported NP and nuclear-exported vRNPs. Thus the selective exposure of the NLS1 constitutes a critical mechanism to regulate the directionality of the nuclear transport of vRNPs during the influenza A viral life cycle.

  2. OxyGene: an innovative platform for investigating oxidative-response genes in whole prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barloy-Hubler Frédérique

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is a common stress encountered by living organisms and is due to an imbalance between intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS and cellular antioxidant defence. To defend themselves against ROS/RNS, bacteria possess a subsystem of detoxification enzymes, which are classified with regard to their substrates. To identify such enzymes in prokaryotic genomes, different approaches based on similarity, enzyme profiles or patterns exist. Unfortunately, several problems persist in the annotation, classification and naming of these enzymes due mainly to some erroneous entries in databases, mistake propagation, absence of updating and disparity in function description. Description In order to improve the current annotation of oxidative stress subsystems, an innovative platform named OxyGene has been developed. It integrates an original database called OxyDB, holding thoroughly tested anchor-based signatures associated to subfamilies of oxidative stress enzymes, and a new anchor-driven annotator, for ab initio detection of ROS/RNS response genes. All complete Bacterial and Archaeal genomes have been re-annotated, and the results stored in the OxyGene repository can be interrogated via a Graphical User Interface. Conclusion OxyGene enables the exploration and comparative analysis of enzymes belonging to 37 detoxification subclasses in 664 microbial genomes. It proposes a new classification that improves both the ontology and the annotation of the detoxification subsystems in prokaryotic whole genomes, while discovering new ORFs and attributing precise function to hypothetical annotated proteins. OxyGene is freely available at: http://www.umr6026.univ-rennes1.fr/english/home/research/basic/software

  3. Virus Type and Genomic Load in Acute Bronchiolitis: Severity and Treatment Response With Inhaled Adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven, Håvard O; Megremis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2016-03-15

    Acute bronchiolitis frequently causes infant hospitalization. Studies on different viruses or viral genomic load and disease severity or treatment effect have had conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether the presence or concentration of individual or multiple viruses were associated with disease severity in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate whether detected viruses modified the response to inhaled racemic adrenaline. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 363 infants with acute bronchiolitis in a randomized, controlled trial that compared inhaled racemic adrenaline versus saline. Virus genome was identified and quantified by polymerase chain reaction analyses. Severity was assessed on the basis of the length of stay and the use of supportive care. Respiratory syncytial virus (83%) and human rhinovirus (34%) were most commonly detected. Seven other viruses were present in 8%-15% of the patients. Two or more viruses (maximum, 7) were detected in 61% of the infants. Virus type or coinfection was not associated with disease severity. A high genomic load of respiratory syncytial virus was associated with a longer length of stay and with an increased frequency of oxygen and ventilatory support use. Treatment effect of inhaled adrenaline was not modified by virus type, load or coinfection. In infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis, disease severity was not associated with specific viruses or the total number of viruses detected. A high RSV genomic load was associated with more-severe disease. NCT00817466 and EudraCT 2009-012667-34. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. NRC/FEMA operational response procedures for response to a commercial nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    Procedures have been developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which provide the response teams of both agencies with the steps to be taken in responding to an emergency at a commercial nuclear power plant. The emphasis of these procedures is mainly on the interface between NRC and FEMA at their respective Headquarters and Regional Offices and at the various sites at which such an emergency could occur. Detailed procedures are presented that cover for both agencies, notification schemes and manner of activation, organizations at Headquaters and the site, interface procedures, coordination of onsite and offsite operations, the role of the Senior FEMA Official, and the cooperative efforts of each agency's public information staff

  5. NRC/FEMA operational response procedures for response to a commercial nuclear reactor accident. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Procedures have been developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which provide the response teams of both agencies with the steps to be taken in responding to an emergency at a commercial nuclear power plant. The emphasis of these procedures is mainly on the interface between NRC and FEMA at their respective Headquarters and Regional Offices and at the various sites at which such an emergency could occur. Detailed procedures are presented that cover for both agencies, notification schemes and manner of activation, organizations at Headquarters and the site, interface procedures, coordination of onsite and offsite operations, the role of the Senior FEMA Official, and the cooperative efforts of each agency's public information staff

  6. Explanation of procedure on site medical emergency response for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulong; Jiang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health, supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents. Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan. The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units. The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  7. Latency Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Determined by the Interaction of Its Genome with the Nuclear Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Camille; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Texier, Pascale; Takissian, Julie; Rousseau, Antoine; Poccardi, Nolwenn; Welsch, Jérémy; Corpet, Armelle; Schaeffer, Laurent; Labetoulle, Marc; Lomonte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in trigeminal ganglia (TG) sensory neurons of infected individuals. The commitment of infected neurons toward the viral lytic or latent transcriptional program is likely to depend on both viral and cellular factors, and to differ among individual neurons. In this study, we used a mouse model of HSV-1 infection to investigate the relationship between viral genomes and the nuclear environment in terms of the establishment of latency. During acute infection, viral genomes show two major patterns: replication compartments or multiple spots distributed in the nucleoplasm (namely “multiple-acute”). Viral genomes in the “multiple-acute” pattern are systematically associated with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein in structures designated viral DNA-containing PML nuclear bodies (vDCP-NBs). To investigate the viral and cellular features that favor the acquisition of the latency-associated viral genome patterns, we infected mouse primary TG neurons from wild type (wt) mice or knock-out mice for type 1 interferon (IFN) receptor with wt or a mutant HSV-1, which is unable to replicate due to the synthesis of a non-functional ICP4, the major virus transactivator. We found that the inability of the virus to initiate the lytic program combined to its inability to synthesize a functional ICP0, are the two viral features leading to the formation of vDCP-NBs. The formation of the “multiple-latency” pattern is favored by the type 1 IFN signaling pathway in the context of neurons infected by a virus able to replicate through the expression of a functional ICP4 but unable to express functional VP16 and ICP0. Analyses of TGs harvested from HSV-1 latently infected humans showed that viral genomes and PML occupy similar nuclear areas in infected neurons, eventually forming vDCP-NB-like structures. Overall our study designates PML protein and PML-NBs to be major cellular components involved in the control of HSV-1 latency

  8. A comparative study and a phylogenetic exploration of the compositional architectures of mammalian nuclear genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Elhaik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past four decades the compositional organization of the mammalian genome posed a formidable challenge to molecular evolutionists attempting to explain it from an evolutionary perspective. Unfortunately, most of the explanations adhered to the "isochore theory," which has long been rebutted. Recently, an alternative compositional domain model was proposed depicting the human and cow genomes as composed mostly of short compositionally homogeneous and nonhomogeneous domains and a few long ones. We test the validity of this model through a rigorous sequence-based analysis of eleven completely sequenced mammalian and avian genomes. Seven attributes of compositional domains are used in the analyses: (1 the number of compositional domains, (2 compositional domain-length distribution, (3 density of compositional domains, (4 genome coverage by the different domain types, (5 degree of fit to a power-law distribution, (6 compositional domain GC content, and (7 the joint distribution of GC content and length of the different domain types. We discuss the evolution of these attributes in light of two competing phylogenetic hypotheses that differ from each other in the validity of clade Euarchontoglires. If valid, the murid genome compositional organization would be a derived state and exhibit a high similarity to that of other mammals. If invalid, the murid genome compositional organization would be closer to an ancestral state. We demonstrate that the compositional organization of the murid genome differs from those of primates and laurasiatherians, a phenomenon previously termed the "murid shift," and in many ways resembles the genome of opossum. We find no support to the "isochore theory." Instead, our findings depict the mammalian genome as a tapestry of mostly short homogeneous and nonhomogeneous domains and few long ones thus providing strong evidence in favor of the compositional domain model and seem to invalidate clade Euarchontoglires.

  9. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  10. Experiences from exercises associated with nuclear emergency response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Responsibilities Regarding Emergency Response in Germany - In the Federal Republic of Germany, the 16 federal state Ministries of the Interior are responsible for emergency response (threat through weapons, explosives, etc.). In the case of threats due to radioactive material experts of the competent federal state radiological protection authorities are consulted. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection assists in serious cases of defence against nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, risk of dispersion). Currently, exercises are being performed in all 16 federal states to co-ordinate the ways of behaviour, action and thinking of the various necessary organisational units, like police, deactivators, prosecution officials, radiological protection experts and fire brigade. The joint exercises serve the purpose to practice the total chain of necessary measures like: notification chain, organisation at the place of action, co-ordination of appropriate search strategy, investigation of who was responsible, analysis (X-ray pictures, radiological analysis), activity determination, assessment of possible effects due to deactivation measures, determination of dispersion conditions, recommendation of measures for the protection of responders and the general population and measures to limit the consequences. Given Exercise Scenario - Via the emergency emergency call a situation is transmitted that urgently demands joint and co-ordinated action of prosecution authority, emergency response and radiation protection authority, to be able to master the situation successfully. As a rule this means that one deals with an IED (Improvised Explosive Device) secured by a booby trap with added radioactive substances. Organisation at the Place of Action - Experience shows that as a rule the patrol police and the local fire brigade will be the first to arrive at the place of action, already after a few minutes. Gradually, the other experts arrive. Depending on distance

  11. Genome-wide identification of soybean WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Nan; Hu, Ruibo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Members of the large family of WRKY transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, most particularly in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Here, an analysis of the soybean genome sequence allowed the identification of the full complement of 188 soybean WRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that soybean WRKY genes were classified into three major groups (I, II, III), with the second group further categorized into five subgroups (IIa-IIe). The soybean WRKYs from each group shared similar gene structures and motif compositions. The location of the GmWRKYs was dispersed over all 20 soybean chromosomes. The whole genome duplication appeared to have contributed significantly to the expansion of the family. Expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that in soybean root, 66 of the genes responded rapidly and transiently to the imposition of salt stress, all but one being up-regulated. While in aerial part, 49 GmWRKYs responded, all but two being down-regulated. RT-qPCR analysis showed that in the whole soybean plant, 66 GmWRKYs exhibited distinct expression patterns in response to salt stress, of which 12 showed no significant change, 35 were decreased, while 19 were induced. The data present here provide critical clues for further functional studies of WRKY gene in soybean salt tolerance.

  12. Some issues on nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear emergency preparedness and response have comprehensively been developed over ten years in China. In order to promote the sound development of emergency preparedness and response, it is useful to retrospect the process of emergency preparedness and response, to summarize the experiences and absorb the experiences from foreign countries. The main issues are as follows: 1) The preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological accident is basically the same as the response to any accident involving hazardous material. 2) The classification of emergency planning, not only for nuclear facilities, but also irradiation installation, etc. 3) The hazard assessment-- a top priority. 4) The emergency planning zones. 5) Psychological impact

  13. Genome-wide Escherichia coli stress response and improved tolerance towards industrially relevant chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm; Calero Valdayo, Patricia; Lennen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Economically viable biobased production of bulk chemicals and biofuels typically requires high product titers. During microbial bioconversion this often leads to product toxicity, and tolerance is therefore a critical element in the engineering of production strains. Here, a systems biology...... approach was employed to understand the chemical stress response of Escherichia coli, including a genome-wide screen for mutants with increased fitness during chemical stress. Twelve chemicals with significant production potential were selected, consisting of organic solvent-like chemicals (butanol......, hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, 1,4-butanediol, furfural), organic acids (acetate, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, succinic acid), amino acids (serine, threonine) and membrane-intercalating chemicals (decanoic acid, geraniol). The transcriptional response towards these chemicals revealed large overlaps...

  14. TRAIP promotes DNA damage response during genome replication and is mutated in primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Margaret E; Murina, Olga; Leitch, Andrea; Higgs, Martin R; Bicknell, Louise S; Yigit, Gökhan; Blackford, Andrew N; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Mackenzie, Karen J; Reddy, Kaalak; Halachev, Mihail; McGlasson, Sarah; Reijns, Martin A M; Fluteau, Adeline; Martin, Carol-Anne; Sabbioneda, Simone; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Chessa, Luciana; Maghnie, Mohamad; Salim, Mahmoud; Bober, Michael B; Nürnberg, Peter; Jackson, Stephen P; Hurles, Matthew E; Wollnik, Bernd; Stewart, Grant S; Jackson, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    DNA lesions encountered by replicative polymerases threaten genome stability and cell cycle progression. Here we report the identification of mutations in TRAIP, encoding an E3 RING ubiquitin ligase, in patients with microcephalic primordial dwarfism. We establish that TRAIP relocalizes to sites of DNA damage, where it is required for optimal phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA2 during S-phase in response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, as well as fork progression through UV-induced DNA lesions. TRAIP is necessary for efficient cell cycle progression and mutations in TRAIP therefore limit cellular proliferation, providing a potential mechanism for microcephaly and dwarfism phenotypes. Human genetics thus identifies TRAIP as a component of the DNA damage response to replication-blocking DNA lesions.

  15. Nigeria status on capabilities for response to nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambo, I.; Elegba, S.B.; Ogharandukun, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology has been widely employed and will continue to expand in use in Nigeria particularly in the health, industrial, mining, water resources, agriculture, manufacturing, education and research sectors. Incidents and emergencies cannot therefore be ruled out. Effective national response capabilities are essential to minimize the impacts from nuclear and radiological emergencies, and to build public trust in the safety and security of nuclear technology. The often discussed Nigeria's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) project cannot occur without enhanced national capabilities to respond to an incidence or emergency. Moreover, increased concern over the use of nuclear or radioactive materials malevolent acts increases the need to broaden response capabilities. This paper examines Nigeria's status on capabilities for response to a nuclear and radiological emergency vis-a-vis international requirements for effective response capabilities

  16. Reflections on the emergency preparations and responses of China to Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu; Li Bing; Yu Shaoqing

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the emergency response of Japan in Fukushima nuclear accident, provided and discussed the issues should be of concern on emergency preparedness and response in future: (1) modifying the existing emergency preparedness and response system; (2) consolidating the concept of emergency preparedness as the ultimate level of defense-in-depth; (3) promoting the emergency response decision-making support capabilities; (4) valuing the information opening of involving nuclear news and radiation environmental information. (authors)

  17. Nuclear security: A global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2016-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real. The possibility of criminals getting hold of nuclear and other radioactive material cannot be ruled out. Much progress has been made in tackling this threat nationally, regionally and globally, but more needs to be done. International cooperation is vital. As the global platform for cooperation in nuclear security, the IAEA helps countries to establish and maintain robust and sustainable national nuclear security regimes. We help ensure that measures are taken to protect nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the facilities in which such material is housed, from malicious acts. This has been an important year for nuclear security with the entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. I encourage all countries that have not yet done so to adhere to this Amendment and thereby contribute to a stronger global nuclear security regime. In this edition of the IAEA Bulletin, you will learn about the different areas of security where our work is making a real difference. We highlight the progress made in a number of countries.

  18. Updated tool for nuclear criticality accident emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Some 20 yr ago a hand-held slide rule was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to aid in the response to several postulated nuclear criticality accidents. These assumed accidents involved highly enriched uranium in either a bare metal or a uranyl nitrate system. The slide rule consisted of a sliding scale based on the total fission yield and four corresponding dose indicators: (1) a prompt radiation dose relationship as a function of distance; (2) a delayed fission product gamma dose rate relationship as a function of time and distance; (3) the total dose relationship with time and distance; and (4) the I-min integrated dose relationship with time and distance. The original slide rule was generated assuming very simplistic numerical procedures such as the inverse-square relationship of dose with distance and the Way-Wigner relationship to express the time dependence of the dose. The simple prescriptions were tied to actual dose measurements from similar systems to yield a meaningful, yet simple approach to emergency planning and response needs. This paper describes the application of an advanced procedure to the updating of the original slide rule for five critical systems. These five systems include (a) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranium metal, (b) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranyl nitrate solution with a H/ 235 U ratio of 500, (c) an unreflected sphere of damp 93.2 wt% enriched uranium oxide with a H/ 235 U ratio of 10, (d) an unreflected sphere of 4.95 wt% enriched uranyl fluoride solution having a H/ 235 U ratio of 410, and (e) an unreflected sphere of damp 5 wt% enriched uranium dioxide having a H/ 235 U ratio of 200

  19. Integration of radiation monitoring for nuclear emergency response teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J T; Thompson, N Y [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Forces have established Nuclear Emergency Response Teams to cope with potential radiation accidents. Previously, only gamma and high-energy beta radiation could be detected. Recently, new radiation sampling, detecting, and analytical equipment has been bought, including air samplers, beta counters, high-purity germanium gamma detectors, and multi-channel analyzers together with Gamma Vision Software to analyze gamma spectra. The purpose of the present study is to propose a way to use the new equipment, to analyze the results from the gamma and beta detectors, and to integrate the results into a format for decision making. Integration is achieved through the creation of a computer program, Radiation Integration Program (RIP). This program analyzes gross beta counts, and uses them to estimate danger to the thyroid. As well the results from Gamma Vision are converted from Bq to dose rate for several parts of the body. Overall gamma results affecting the thyroid are compared to the beta results to verify the initial estimations.

  20. Optimization of emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Christou, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident has been developed. The method aims at an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise when the minimization of the potential adverse effects of an accident and the simultaneous minimization of the associated socioeconomic impacts is attempted. Additional conflicting objectives appear whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect (e.g. acute deaths) while at the same time it increases another (e.g. latent deaths). The uncertainty is due to the multitude of the possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions and in the variability and/or lack of knowledge in the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted in a dynamic programming scheme. An emergency protective plan consists of defining a protective action (e.g. evacuation, sheltering) at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria (evaluators) are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e. all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point

  1. Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Core Modulators of Echinocandin Stress Responses in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavia Caplan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade. We discovered that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the stability of Pkc1 and Bck1, establishing key mechanisms through which Hsp90 mediates echinocandin resistance. We also discovered that perturbation of the CCT chaperonin complex causes enhanced echinocandin sensitivity, altered cell wall architecture, and aberrant septin localization. Thus, we provide insights into the mechanisms by which cellular chaperones enable crucial responses to echinocandin-induced stress. : Caplan et al. screen 3,030 Candida albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins, the first-line therapy for systemic candidiasis. They reveal that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for stability of Pkc1 and Bck1 and that the CCT chaperonin complex is a key modulator of echinocandin susceptibility. Keywords: fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, echinocandins, Hsp90, Pkc1, CCT complex, client protein, stress response, functional genomic screen, drug resistance

  2. Genome-wide transcriptional response of Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis to infection with the deadly chytrid fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bree Rosenblum

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern for both wildlife and humans. Several highly virulent fungal pathogens have recently been discovered in natural populations, highlighting the need for a better understanding of fungal-vertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Because most fungal pathogens are not fatal in the absence of other predisposing conditions, host-pathogen dynamics for deadly fungal pathogens are of particular interest. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd infects hundreds of species of frogs in the wild. It is found worldwide and is a significant contributor to the current global amphibian decline. However, the mechanism by which Bd causes death in amphibians, and the response of the host to Bd infection, remain largely unknown. Here we use whole-genome microarrays to monitor the transcriptional responses to Bd infection in the model frog species, Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis, which is susceptible to chytridiomycosis. To elucidate the immune response to Bd and evaluate the physiological effects of chytridiomycosis, we measured gene expression changes in several tissues (liver, skin, spleen following exposure to Bd. We detected a strong transcriptional response for genes involved in physiological processes that can help explain some clinical symptoms of chytridiomycosis at the organismal level. However, we detected surprisingly little evidence of an immune response to Bd exposure, suggesting that this susceptible species may not be mounting efficient innate and adaptive immune responses against Bd. The weak immune response may be partially explained by the thermal conditions of the experiment, which were optimal for Bd growth. However, many immune genes exhibited decreased expression in Bd-exposed frogs compared to control frogs, suggesting a more complex effect of Bd on the immune system than simple temperature-mediated immune suppression. This study generates important baseline data for ongoing

  3. HAEA NEPO tools used in nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, K.; Koblinger, L.

    2001-01-01

    The publication on 2 CD-ROMs and includes 145 presentations delivered at the congress. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated 288 young scientific works from over 30 countries. The address discusses the following sessions: Young Generation Session Nuclear Education and Transfer of Know-How; Nuclear Technology I; Political Aspects; Nuclear Technology II; Environment and Safety; Communication and Public Perception I; Communication and Public Perception II; Nuclear Programs and Technical Cooperation; Economics; Fuel Cycle Challenges. Each paper has been indexed separately. Before of full papers the first CD contains next chapters: Introduction (in 19 languages); General Information; Day by Day; Y-Notes Session Results; Sponsors; Media Album, and Conclusions. The second CD-ROM contains 28 minutes of video-film about programme of International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000. (authors)

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear installations - regulations - financing - responsibility - insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, E.H.; Andersson, C.; Deprimoz, J.; Mayoux, J.C.; Richard, M.; Sartorelli, C.; Nocera, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA) [fr

  5. Conservation and divergence of chemical defense system in the tunicate Oikopleura dioica revealed by genome wide response to two xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadetie Fekadu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals have developed extensive mechanisms of response to xenobiotic chemical attacks. Although recent genome surveys have suggested a broad conservation of the chemical defensome across metazoans, global gene expression responses to xenobiotics have not been well investigated in most invertebrates. Here, we performed genome survey for key defensome genes in Oikopleura dioica genome, and explored genome-wide gene expression using high density tiling arrays with over 2 million probes, in response to two model xenobiotic chemicals - the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP the pharmaceutical compound Clofibrate (Clo. Results Oikopleura genome surveys for key genes of the chemical defensome suggested a reduced repertoire. Not more than 23 cytochrome P450 (CYP genes could be identified, and neither CYP1 family genes nor their transcriptional activator AhR was detected. These two genes were present in deuterostome ancestors. As in vertebrates, the genotoxic compound BaP induced xenobiotic biotransformation and oxidative stress responsive genes. Notable exceptions were genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR signaling pathway. Clo also affected the expression of many biotransformation genes and markedly repressed genes involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction pathways. Conclusions Oikopleura has the smallest number of CYP genes among sequenced animal genomes and lacks the AhR signaling pathway. However it appears to have basic xenobiotic inducible biotransformation genes such as a conserved genotoxic stress response gene set. Our genome survey and expression study does not support a role of AhR signaling pathway in the chemical defense of metazoans prior to the emergence of vertebrates.

  6. Emergency preparedness and response: compensating victims of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The 1986 tragedy at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine motivated the entire international nuclear community to ensure that countries would, in the future, be well prepared to manage the physical, psychological and financial consequences of a serious nuclear accident. Since that event, numerous nuclear emergency preparedness and post-emergency management programmes have been established at national and international levels to ensure that appropriate mechanisms will respond to the threat, and the aftermath, of a nuclear accident. The INEX 2000 Workshop on the Indemnification of Nuclear Damage, jointly organised by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency and the French Government, was the first ever international programme to address the manner in which victims of a nuclear accident with trans-boundary consequences would be compensated for damage suffered before, during and after the accident. The Workshop results revealed striking differences in the compensation principles and practices implemented in the 30 participating countries, in the co-ordination measures between different public authorities within an affected state, and in the co-operative procedures between the accident state and its neighbours. All participants agreed on the need for improvement in these areas, particularly for maintaining public confidence in governments' ability to properly manage nuclear emergencies

  7. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Followed by CRIPSR/Cas9 Microinjection Results in Highly Efficient Genome Editing in Cloned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Sheets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig is an ideal “dual purpose” animal model for agricultural and biomedical research. With the availability of genome editing tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR and associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9, it is now possible to perform site-specific alterations with relative ease, and will likely help realize the potential of this valuable model. In this article, we investigated for the first time a combination of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT and direct injection of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoprotein complex targeting GRB10 into the reconstituted oocytes to generate GRB10 ablated Ossabaw fetuses. This strategy resulted in highly efficient (100% generation of biallelic modifications in cloned fetuses. By combining SCNT with CRISPR/Cas9 microinjection, genome edited animals can now be produced without the need to manage a founder herd, while simultaneously eliminating the need for laborious in vitro culture and screening. Our approach utilizes standard cloning techniques while simultaneously performing genome editing in the cloned zygotes of a large animal model for agriculture and biomedical applications.

  8. SINE_scan: an efficient tool to discover short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in large-scale genomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are transposable elements (TEs) that amplify through a copy-and-paste mode via RNA intermediates. The computational identification of new SINEs are challenging because of their weak structural signals and rapid diversification in sequences. Here we report SINE_Scan, a highly efficient program to predict SINE elements in genomic DNA sequences. SINE_Scan integrates hallmark of SINE transposition, copy number and structural signals to identify a SINE element. SINE_Scan outperforms the previously published de novo SINE discovery program. It shows high sensitivity and specificity in 19 plant and animal genome assemblies, of which sizes vary from 120 Mb to 3.5 Gb. It identifies numerous new families and substantially increases the estimation of the abundance of SINEs in these genomes. The code of SINE_Scan is freely available at http://github.com/maohlzj/SINE_Scan , implemented in PERL and supported on Linux. wangh8@fudan.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. A 'joint venture' model of recontacting in clinical genomics: challenges for responsible implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Carrieri, Daniele; Kelly, Susan; Clarke, Angus; Doheny, Shane; Turnpenny, Peter; Lucassen, Anneke

    2017-07-01

    Advances in genomics often lead healthcare professionals (HCPs) to learn new information, e.g., about reinterpreted variants that could have clinical significance for patients seen previously. A question arises of whether HCPs should recontact these former patients. We present some findings interrogating the views of patients (or parents of patients) with a rare or undiagnosed condition about how such recontacting might be organised ethically and practically. Forty-one interviews were analysed thematically. Participants suggested a 'joint venture' model in which efforts to recontact are shared with HCPs. Some proposed an ICT-approach involving an electronic health record that automatically alerts them to potentially relevant updates. The need for rigorous privacy controls and transparency about who could access their data was emphasised. Importantly, these findings highlight that the lack of clarity about recontacting is a symptom of a wider problem: the lack of necessary infrastructure to pool genomic data responsibly, to aggregate it with other health data, and to enable patients/parents to receive updates. We hope that our findings will instigate a debate about the way responsibilities for recontacting under any joint venture model could be allocated, as well as the limitations and normative implications of using ICT as a solution to this intractable problem. As a first step to delineating responsibilities in the clinical setting, we suggest HCPs should routinely discuss recontacting with patients/parents, including the new information that should trigger a HCP to initiate recontact, as part of the consent process for genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide dynamics of a bacterial response to antibiotics that target the cell envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decline in the discovery of new antibacterial drugs, coupled with a persistent rise in the occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria, has highlighted antibiotics as a diminishing resource. The future development of new drugs with novel antibacterial activities requires a detailed understanding of adaptive responses to existing compounds. This study uses Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2 as a model system to determine the genome-wide transcriptional response following exposure to three antibiotics (vancomycin, moenomycin A and bacitracin that target distinct stages of cell wall biosynthesis. Results A generalised response to all three antibiotics was identified which involves activation of transcription of the cell envelope stress sigma factor σE, together with elements of the stringent response, and of the heat, osmotic and oxidative stress regulons. Attenuation of this system by deletion of genes encoding the osmotic stress sigma factor σB or the ppGpp synthetase RelA reduced resistance to both vancomycin and bacitracin. Many antibiotic-specific transcriptional changes were identified, representing cellular processes potentially important for tolerance to each antibiotic. Sensitivity studies using mutants constructed on the basis of the transcriptome profiling confirmed a role for several such genes in antibiotic resistance, validating the usefulness of the approach. Conclusions Antibiotic inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis induces both common and compound-specific transcriptional responses. Both can be exploited to increase antibiotic susceptibility. Regulatory networks known to govern responses to environmental and nutritional stresses are also at the core of the common antibiotic response, and likely help cells survive until any specific resistance mechanisms are fully functional.

  11. Revealing less derived nature of cartilaginous fish genomes with their evolutionary time scale inferred with nuclear genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina J Renz

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous fishes, divided into Holocephali (chimaeras and Elasmoblanchii (sharks, rays and skates, occupy a key phylogenetic position among extant vertebrates in reconstructing their evolutionary processes. Their accurate evolutionary time scale is indispensable for better understanding of the relationship between phenotypic and molecular evolution of cartilaginous fishes. However, our current knowledge on the time scale of cartilaginous fish evolution largely relies on estimates using mitochondrial DNA sequences. In this study, making the best use of the still partial, but large-scale sequencing data of cartilaginous fish species, we estimate the divergence times between the major cartilaginous fish lineages employing nuclear genes. By rigorous orthology assessment based on available genomic and transcriptomic sequence resources for cartilaginous fishes, we selected 20 protein-coding genes in the nuclear genome, spanning 2973 amino acid residues. Our analysis based on the Bayesian inference resulted in the mean divergence time of 421 Ma, the late Silurian, for the Holocephali-Elasmobranchii split, and 306 Ma, the late Carboniferous, for the split between sharks and rays/skates. By applying these results and other documented divergence times, we measured the relative evolutionary rate of the Hox A cluster sequences in the cartilaginous fish lineages, which resulted in a lower substitution rate with a factor of at least 2.4 in comparison to tetrapod lineages. The obtained time scale enables mapping phenotypic and molecular changes in a quantitative framework. It is of great interest to corroborate the less derived nature of cartilaginous fish at the molecular level as a genome-wide phenomenon.

  12. Regeneration of somatic hybrids in relation to the nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of wheat and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Zhi, Daying; Wang, Jing; Nie, Hui; Chen, Huimin

    2004-08-01

    Somatic hybridization via PEG (Polyethylene 6000)-mediated protoplast fusion was achieved between two different wheat culture lines (Triticum aestivum L., "Jinan"177, T1 and T2) and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. The T1 recipient originated from non-regenerable long-term cell suspensions, while T2 was derived from embryogenic calli with a high regeneration capacity. Donor protoplasts were obtained from embryogenic calli of S. italica (S) (with low regeneration capacity) irradiated with different doses of ultraviolet light. Twenty-three putative hybrid cell lines were produced in fusion combinations with the donor protoplasts treated with UV light for 30 s (combination I) and 1 min (combination II), but only one (from combination II) differentiated into green plants. Three cell lines from combination I and five cell lines from combination II possessed the nuclear genomes of T1, T2, and S. italica as revealed by cytological, isozyme, RAPD, and 5S rDNA spacer sequence analyses. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis showed that most hybrid cell lines had 22-36 wheat chromosomes, 0-2 S. italica chromosomes, and 1-6 wheat - S. italica recombinant chromosomes, whereas the regenerable cell line had 44-56 wheat chromosomes and 3-6 recombinant chromosomes, but no intact S. italica chromosomes. RFLP analysis of organellar DNA revealed that mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA of both parents coexisted in all hybrid cell lines and recombined in most hybrid cell lines. These results indicate that the regeneration of hybrid plants involves not only the integration of S. italica nuclear and organellar DNA, but also the genome complementation of T1 and T2.

  13. Identification of two novel functional p53 responsive elements in the herpes simplex virus-1 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Kuta, Ryan; Armour, Courtney R; Boehmer, Paul E

    2014-07-01

    Analysis of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome reveals two candidate p53 responsive elements (p53RE), located in proximity to the replication origins oriL and oriS, referred to as p53RE-L and p53RE-S, respectively. The sequences of p53RE-L and p53RE-S conform to the p53 consensus site and are present in HSV-1 strains KOS, 17, and F. p53 binds to both elements in vitro and in virus-infected cells. Both p53RE-L and p53RE-S are capable of conferring p53-dependent transcriptional activation onto a heterologous reporter gene. Importantly, expression of the essential immediate early viral transactivator ICP4 and the essential DNA replication protein ICP8, that are adjacent to p53RE-S and p53RE-L, are repressed in a p53-dependent manner. Taken together, this study identifies two novel functional p53RE in the HSV-1 genome and suggests a complex mechanism of viral gene regulation by p53 which may determine progression of the lytic viral replication cycle or the establishment of latency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Myocellular limitations of human performance and their modification through genome-dependent responses at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Human muscle operates along a continuum of power output, which is set through bioenergetic and anatomical principles. In turn, environmental and intrinsic factors during contractile work exert pronounced control over muscle performance by instructing muscle remodelling. This phenotypic control is specifically indicated with intense exercise at altitude, when extra strain is put on energy supply and the temperature-dependent mechanical efficiency of contraction. While it is classically thought that chronic exposure to hypoxia is maladaptive, repeated short episodes of reduced oxygenation alone or in combination with intense endurance work is now understood to preserve exercise performance when atmospheric oxygen levels are low. Endurance training at moderate altitude exploits the temperature-dependent malleability of energy supply that may maximize metabolic flux at altitude. The contribution of genomic mechanisms is important to the plasticity of metabolic pathways in exercised muscle. This is highlighted by the association of distinct gene polymorphisms in master governors of mitochondrial and vascular growth with exercise phenotypes. Feedforward control of human locomoter muscle by exercise involves the transient upregulation of transcript expression for metabolic processes. The response of the mitochondrial transcriptome to intense exercise is graded with respect to mitochondrial content and deoxygenation during muscle work and reflects exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. This supports the notion that genome-mediated muscle malleability is under feedback control by design constraints of the pathway of oxygen. Thus, activity-dependent and genetic mechanisms contribute to the interindividual difference in the metabolic bottlenecks in athletes performing in exceptional environmental conditions.

  15. Response of normal stem cells to ionizing radiation: A balance between homeostasis and genomic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfouche, G.; Martin, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells have been described in most adult tissues, where they play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. As they self-renew throughout life, accumulating genetic anomalies can compromise their genomic integrity and potentially give rise to cancer. Stem cells (SCs) may thus be a major target of radiation carcinogenesis. In addition, unrepaired genotoxic damage may cause cell death and stem cell pool depletion, impairing lineage functionality and accelerating aging. Developments in SC biology enabled the characterization of the responses of stem cells to genotoxic stress and their role in tissue damage. We here examine how these cells react to ionizing radiation (IR), and more specifically their radiosensitivity, stress signaling and DNA repair. We first review embryonic SCs, as a paradigm of primitive pluri-potent cells, then three adult tissues, bone marrow, skin and intestine, capable of long-term regeneration and at high risk for acute radiation syndromes and long-term carcinogenesis. We discuss IR disruption of the fine balance between maintenance of tissue homeostasis and genomic stability. We show that stem cell radiosensitivity does not follow a unique model, but differs notably according to the turnover rates of the tissues. (authors)

  16. An ISO response to the needs of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyers, R.

    1982-01-01

    The history and development of the International Standards Organisation's standard DIS6215, Nuclear Power Plants - Quality Assurance, is presented. The aim is to produce quality assurance standards covering the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The remit was later extended to include fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. (U.K.)

  17. Soldiers’ Psychological Responses to Tactical Nuclear Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    530. Greene , T.L. (1987). Description of a nuclear battlefield. In R.H. Young & B.H. Drum (Edo.), Proceedings of the Defense Nuclear Agency Symposium...ATTN: DEPT OF BEHAVOR SCI & LEADERSHIP ATTN: PMS/PMA-423 ATTN: DEPT OF PHYSICS COL J G CAMPBELL ATTN: SCIENCE RESEARCH LAB OPERATIONAL TEST & EVALUATION

  18. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  19. Genome-wide association of lipid-lowering response to statins in combined study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J Barber

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Statins effectively lower total and plasma LDL-cholesterol, but the magnitude of decrease varies among individuals. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to this variation, we performed a combined analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results from three trials of statin efficacy.Bayesian and standard frequentist association analyses were performed on untreated and statin-mediated changes in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride on a total of 3932 subjects using data from three studies: Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (40 mg/day simvastatin, 6 weeks, Pravastatin/Inflammation CRP Evaluation (40 mg/day pravastatin, 24 weeks, and Treating to New Targets (10 mg/day atorvastatin, 8 weeks. Genotype imputation was used to maximize genomic coverage and to combine information across studies. Phenotypes were normalized within each study to account for systematic differences among studies, and fixed-effects combined analysis of the combined sample were performed to detect consistent effects across studies. Two SNP associations were assessed as having posterior probability greater than 50%, indicating that they were more likely than not to be genuinely associated with statin-mediated lipid response. SNP rs8014194, located within the CLMN gene on chromosome 14, was strongly associated with statin-mediated change in total cholesterol with an 84% probability by Bayesian analysis, and a p-value exceeding conventional levels of genome-wide significance by frequentist analysis (P = 1.8 x 10(-8. This SNP was less significantly associated with change in LDL-cholesterol (posterior probability = 0.16, P = 4.0 x 10(-6. Bayesian analysis also assigned a 51% probability that rs4420638, located in APOC1 and near APOE, was associated with change in LDL-cholesterol.Using combined GWA analysis from three clinical trials involving nearly 4,000 individuals treated with simvastatin, pravastatin, or atorvastatin, we

  20. Comment on "Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-03-29

    Based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, Hailer et al. (Reports, 20 April 2012, p. 344) suggested early divergence of polar bears from a common ancestor with brown bears and subsequent introgression. Our population genetic analysis that traces each of the genealogies in the independent nuclear loci does not support the evolutionary model proposed by the authors.

  1. Bursting the Bubble - Nuclear Envelope Rupture as a Path to Genomic Instability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, P.; Wolf, K.A.; Lammerding, J.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear envelope safeguards the genetic material inside the nucleus by separating it from the cytoplasm. Until recently, it was assumed that nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown occurs only in a highly controlled fashion during mitosis when the chromatin is condensed and divided between the daughter

  2. Production of ABA responses requires both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functional involvement of PYR1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, EunJoo; Kim, Tae-Houn

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) enhances stress tolerant responses in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis, ABA promotes interactions between PYR/PYL/RCARs and PP2C, thereby allowing SnRK2s to phosphorylate downstream components required for the regulation of gene expression or for gating ion channels. Because PYR1 is known to localize to nucleus and cytoplasm it is a question whether nuclear or cytoplasmic PYR1 confer different functions to the ABA signaling pathway, as has been previously shown for regulatory proteins. In order to answer this question, transgenic lines expressing nuclear PYR1 were generated in an ABA insensitive mutant background. Enforced nuclear expression of PYR1 was examined by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. Physiological analyses of the transgenic lines demonstrated that nuclear PYR1 is sufficient to generate ABA responses, such as, the inhibition of seed germination, root growth inhibition, the induction of gene expression, and stomatal closing movement. However, for the full recovery of ABA responses in the mutant background cytoplasmic PYR1 was required. The study suggests both nuclear and cytoplasmic PYR1 participate in the control of ABA signal transduction. - Highlights: • Nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were studied in the mutant which lacked majority of ABA responses. • Nuclear PYR1 reconstituted partially the ABA responses during seed germination, root growth, and guard cell movement. • Both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were required for the full generation of ABA responses.

  3. The genomic response of Ishikawa cells to bisphenol A exposure is dose- and time-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naciff, Jorge M.; Khambatta, Zubin S.; Reichling, Timothy D.; Carr, Gregory J.; Tiesman, Jay P.; Singleton, David W.; Khan, Sohaib A.; Daston, George P.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable in vitro model to determine the potential estrogenic activity of chemicals of interest is still unavailable. To further investigate the usefulness of a human-derived cell line, we determined the transcriptional changes induced by bisphenol A (BPA) in Ishikawa cells at various doses (1 nM, 100 nM, 10 μM, and 100 μM) and time points (8, 24 and 48 h) by comparing the response of approximately 38,500 human genes and ESTs between treatment groups and controls (vehicle-treated). By trend analysis, we determined that the expression of 2794 genes was modified by BPA in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.0001). However, the majority of gene expression changes induced in Ishikawa cells were elicited by the highest doses of BPA evaluated (10-100 μM), while the genomic response of the cells exposed to low doses of BPA was essentially negligible. By comparing the Ishikawa cells' response to BPA vs.17α-ethynyl estradiol we determined that the change in the expression of 307 genes was identical in the direction of the change, although the magnitude of the change for some genes was different. Further, the response of Ishikawa cells to high doses of BPA shared similarities to the estrogenic response of the rat uterus, specifically, 362 genes were regulated in a similar manner in vivo as well as in vitro. Gene ontology analysis indicated that BPA results in changes to multiple molecular pathways affecting various biological processes particularly associated with cell organization and biogenesis, regulation of translation, cell proliferation, and intracellular transport; processes also affected by estrogen exposure in the uterus of the rat. These results indicate that Ishikawa cells are capable of generating a biologically relevant estrogenic response after exposure to chemicals with varied estrogenic activity, and offer an in vitro model to assess this mode of action.

  4. Whole-genome sequencing of a malignant granular cell tumor with metabolic response to pazopanib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Song; Conroy, Jeffrey; Wang, Jianmin; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Glenn, Sean T.; Murakami, Mitsuko; Liu, Lu; Hu, Qiang; Conroy, Jacob; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Nowak, David E.; Liu, Biao; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Omilian, Angela R.; Head, Karen; Bianchi, Michael; Burgher, Blake; Darlak, Christopher; Kane, John; Merzianu, Mihai; Cheney, Richard; Fabiano, Andrew; Salerno, Kilian; Talati, Chetasi; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.; Morrison, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are an uncommon soft tissue neoplasm. Malignant granular cell tumors comprise T transitions, particularly when immediately preceded by a 5′ G. A loss-of-function mutation was detected in a newly recognized tumor suppressor candidate, BRD7. No mutations were found in known targets of pazopanib. However, we identified a receptor tyrosine kinase pathway mutation in GFRA2 that warrants further evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of a malignant granular cell tumor exhibiting a response to pazopanib, and the first whole-genome sequencing of this uncommon tumor type. The findings provide insight into the genetic basis of malignant granular cell tumors and identify potential targets for further investigation. PMID:27148567

  5. Shifting of Immune Responsiveness to House Dust Mite by Influenza A Infection: Genomic Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Garawi, A.

    2011-12-14

    Respiratory viral infections have been associated with an increased incidence of allergic asthma. However, the mechanisms by which respiratory infections facilitate allergic airway disease are incompletely understood.We previously showed that exposure to a low dose of house dust mite (HDM) resulted in enhanced HDM-mediated allergic airway inflammation, and, importantly, marked airway hyperreactivity only when allergen exposure occurred during an acute influenza A infection. In this study, we evaluated the impact of concurrent influenza infection and allergen exposure at the genomic level, using whole-genome micro-array. Our data showed that, in contrast to exposure to a low dose of HDM, influenza A infection led to a dramatic increase in gene expression, particularly of TLRs, C-type lectin receptors, several complement components, as well as FcεR1. Additionally, we observed increased expression of a number of genes encoding chemokines and cytokines associated with the recruitment of proinflammatory cells. Moreover, HDM exposure in the context of an influenza A infection resulted in the induction of unique genes, including calgranulin A (S100a8), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern and TLR4 agonist. In addition, we observed significantly increased expression of serum amyloid A (Saa3) and serine protease inhibitor 3n (Serpina3n). This study showed that influenza infection markedly increased the expression of multiple gene classes capable of sensing allergens and amplifying the ensuing immune-inflammatory response. We propose that influenza A infection primes the lung environment in such a way as to lower the threshold of allergen responsiveness, thus facilitating the emergence of a clinically significant allergic phenotype. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Effects of racial and ethnic group and health literacy on responses to genomic risk information in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Stafford, Jewel D; McGowan, Lucy D'Agostino; Seo, Joann; Lachance, Christina R; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have examined how individuals respond to genomic risk information for common, chronic diseases. This randomized study examined differences in responses by type of genomic information (genetic test/family history) and disease condition (diabetes/heart disease), and by race/ethnicity in a medically underserved population. 1,057 English-speaking adults completed a survey containing 1 of 4 vignettes (2-by-2 randomized design). Differences in dependent variables (i.e., interest in receiving genomic assessment, discussing with doctor or family, changing health habits) by experimental condition and race/ethnicity were examined using chi-squared tests and multivariable regression analysis. No significant differences were found in dependent variables by type of genomic information or disease condition. In multivariable models, Hispanics were more interested in receiving a genomic assessment than Whites (OR = 1.93; p literacy had greater interest than those with adequate health literacy. Blacks (OR = 1.78; p = .001) and Hispanics (OR = 1.85; p = .001) had greater interest in discussing information with family than Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 1.45; p = .04) had greater interest in discussing genomic information with a doctor than Whites. Blacks (β = -0.41; p literacy was negatively associated with number of health habits participants intended to change. Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may affect responses to genomic risk information. Additional research could examine how cognitive representations of this information differ across racial/ethnic groups. Health literacy is also critical to consider in developing approaches to communicating genomic information.

  7. Generation of floor response spectra for a model structure of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, C.V.; Kamatchi, P.; Ravichandran, R.; Lakshmanan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of Nuclear power plants and the consequences of a nuclear accident require that the nuclear structures be designed for the most severe environmental conditions. Earthquakes constitutes major design consideration for the system, structures and equipment of a nuclear power plant. The design of structures on ground is based on the ground response spectra. Many important parts of a nuclear power plant facility are attached to the principal parts of the structure and respond in a manner determined by the structural response rather than by the general ground motion to which the structure is supported. Hence the seismic response of equipment is generally based on the response spectrum of the floor on which it is mounted. In this paper such floor response spectra have been generated at different nodes of a chosen model structure of a nuclear power plant. In the present study a detailed nonlinear time history analysis has been carried out on the mathematical model of the chosen Nuclear Power Plant model structure with the spectrum compatible time history. The acceleration response results of the time history analysis has been used in the spectral analysis and the response spectra are generated. Further peak broadening has been done to account for uncertainties in the material properties and soil characteristics. (author)

  8. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10μg RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  9. Genome wide transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress-induced perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal eTaymaz-Nikerel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells respond to environmental and/or genetic perturbations in order to survive and proliferate. Characterization of the changes after various stimuli at different -omics levels is crucial to comprehend the adaptation of cells to changing conditions. Genome wide quantification and analysis of transcript levels, the genes affected by perturbations, extends our understanding of cellular metabolism by pointing out the mechanisms that play role in sensing the stress caused by those perturbations and related signaling pathways, and in this way guides us to achieve endeavors such as rational engineering of cells or interpretation of disease mechanisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system has been studied in response to different perturbations and corresponding transcriptional profiles were followed either statically or/and dynamically, short- and long- term. This review focuses on response of yeast cells to diverse stress inducing perturbations including nutritional changes, ionic stress, salt stress, oxidative stress, osmotic shock, as well as to genetic interventions such as deletion and over-expression of genes. It is aimed to conclude on common regulatory phenomena that allow yeast to organize its transcriptomic response after any perturbation under different external conditions.

  10. Cell Cycle Regulates Nuclear Stability of AID and Determines the Cellular Response to AID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Le

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AID (Activation Induced Deaminase deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Leaf Rust Response in a Durum Wheat Worldwide Germplasm Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Meriem; Breiland, Matthew; Kathryn Turner, M; Loladze, Alexander; Chao, Shiaoman; Xu, Steven S; Ammar, Karim; Anderson, James A; Kolmer, James A; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2016-11-01

    Leaf rust (caused by Erikss. []) is increasingly impacting durum wheat ( L. var. ) production with the recent appearance of races with virulence to widely grown cultivars in many durum producing areas worldwide. A highly virulent race on durum wheat was recently detected in Kansas. This race may spread to the northern Great Plains, where most of the US durum wheat is produced. The objective of this study was to identify sources of resistance to several races from the United States and Mexico at seedling stage in the greenhouse and at adult stage in field experiments. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with leaf rust response in a worldwide durum wheat collection of 496 accessions. Thirteen accessions were resistant across all experiments. Association mapping revealed 88 significant SNPs associated with leaf rust response. Of these, 33 SNPs were located on chromosomes 2A and 2B, and 55 SNPs were distributed across all other chromosomes except for 1B and 7B. Twenty markers were associated with leaf rust response at seedling stage, while 68 markers were associated with leaf rust response at adult plant stage. The current study identified a total of 14 previously uncharacterized loci associated with leaf rust response in durum wheat. The discovery of these loci through association mapping (AM) is a significant step in identifying useful sources of resistance that can be used to broaden the relatively narrow leaf rust resistance spectrum in durum wheat germplasm. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  12. Planning for off-site response to radiation accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to give guidance to those who are responsible for the protection of the public in the event of an accident occurring at a land-based nuclear facility. This guidance should assist in the advance preparation of emergency response plans and implementing procedures. Basic principles of protective measures along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Other principles related to emergency planning and the operational response to an emergency are outlined. Although the guidance is primarily oriented towards land-based nuclear power facilities, the guidance does have general application to other types of nuclear facility

  13. Planning for off-site response to radiation accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to give guidance to those who are responsible for the protection of the public in the event of an accident occurring at a land-based nuclear facility. This guidance should assist in the advance preparation of emergency response plans and implementing procedures. Basic principles of protective measures along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Other principles related to emergency planning and the operational response to an emergency are outlined. Although the guidance is primarily oriented toward land-based nuclear power facilities, the guidance does have general application to other types of nuclear facilities

  14. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Dí az-Arce, Natalia; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Murua, Hilario; Irigoien, Xabier; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-01-01

    conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough

  15. The contribution of mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis in preventing the nuclear genome stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ming-Hsiang; Wang, Liya; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2014-01-01

    In quiescent fibroblasts, the expression levels of cytosolic enzymes for thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis are down-regulated, causing a marked reduction in the dTTP pool. In this study, we provide evidence that mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis via thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a limiting factor for the repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage in the nuclear compartment in quiescent fibroblasts. We found that TK2 deficiency causes secondary DNA double-strand breaks formation in the nuclear ge...

  16. Introducing PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Shih, Chunkuan; Chiang, Show-Chyuan; Weng, Tung-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PCTRAN is integrated with an atmospheric dispersion algorithm. ► The improved PCTRAN acts as an accident/incident simulator and a data exchange system. ► The software helps the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. ► The evaluation results show the nuclear power plant accident and its off-site dose consequences. ► The software can be used for nuclear power plant emergency responses. - Abstract: Protecting the public from radiation exposure is important if a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident occurs. Deciding appropriate protective actions in a timely and effective manner can be fulfilled by using an effective accident evaluation tool. In our earlier work, we have integrated PCTRAN (Personal Computer Transient Analyzer) with the off-site dose calculation model. In this study, we introduce PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses. If abnormal conditions in the plant are monitored or observed, the plant staffs can distinguish accident/incident initiation events. Thus, the responsible personnel can immediately operate PCTRAN and set up those accident/incident initiation events to simulate the nuclear power plant transient or accident in conjunction with off-site dose distributions. The evaluation results consequently help the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. In this study, we explain and demonstrate the capabilities of PCTRAN for nuclear emergency responses, through applying it to simulate the postulated nuclear power plant accident scenarios.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptional response of silkworm (Bombyx mori to infection by the microsporidian Nosema bombycis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengang Ma

    Full Text Available Microsporidia have attracted much attention because they infect a variety of species ranging from protists to mammals, including immunocompromised patients with AIDS or cancer. Aside from the study on Nosema ceranae, few works have focused on elucidating the mechanism in host response to microsporidia infection. Nosema bombycis is a pathogen of silkworm pébrine that causes great economic losses to the silkworm industry. Detailed understanding of the host (Bombyx mori response to infection by N. bombycis is helpful for prevention of this disease. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by N. bombycis was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, B. mori genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, N. bombycis can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. N. bombycis also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of N. bombycis-specific response factors suggested their important roles in anti-microsporidia defense. Overall, this study primarily provides insight into the potential molecular mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction between B. mori and N. bombycis and may provide a

  18. Functional Associations by Response Overlap (FARO, a functional genomics approach matching gene expression phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Bjørn Nielsen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic comparison of transcriptional responses of organisms is a powerful tool in functional genomics. For example, mutants may be characterized by comparing their transcript profiles to those obtained in other experiments querying the effects on gene expression of many experimental factors including treatments, mutations and pathogen infections. Similarly, drugs may be discovered by the relationship between the transcript profiles effectuated or impacted by a candidate drug and by the target disease. The integration of such data enables systems biology to predict the interplay between experimental factors affecting a biological system. Unfortunately, direct comparisons of gene expression profiles obtained in independent, publicly available microarray experiments are typically compromised by substantial, experiment-specific biases. Here we suggest a novel yet conceptually simple approach for deriving 'Functional Association(s by Response Overlap' (FARO between microarray gene expression studies. The transcriptional response is defined by the set of differentially expressed genes independent from the magnitude or direction of the change. This approach overcomes the limited comparability between studies that is typical for methods that rely on correlation in gene expression. We apply FARO to a compendium of 242 diverse Arabidopsis microarray experimental factors, including phyto-hormones, stresses and pathogens, growth conditions/stages, tissue types and mutants. We also use FARO to confirm and further delineate the functions of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 in disease and stress responses. Furthermore, we find that a large, well-defined set of genes responds in opposing directions to different stress conditions and predict the effects of different stress combinations. This demonstrates the usefulness of our approach for exploiting public microarray data to derive biologically meaningful associations between experimental factors. Finally, our

  19. Genome, Functional Gene Annotation, and Nuclear Transformation of the Heterokont Oleaginous Alga Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    development of such an algal model system for basic discovery, we sequenced the genome and two sets of transcriptomes of N. oceanica CCMP1779, assembled...CCMP1779 has a gene encoding a highly conserved violax- anthin de-epoxidase ( VDE ) protein like that found in plants (Table S9). In Arabidopsis, VDE is...HLA3 or LCI1 were present. This result suggests that CCMP1779 might have a plastid Ci transport system similar to that of Chlamydomonas, but a distinct

  20. Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive-behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, Jonathan R I; Lester, Kathryn J; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Curtis, Charles; Arendt, Kristian; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Dalgleish, Tim; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiervang, Einar R; Hötzel, Katrin; Hudson, Jennifer L; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyneham, Heidi J; Marin, Carla E; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C; Silverman, Wendy K; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Breen, Gerome; Eley, Thalia C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent. AIMS: To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of

  1. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  2. Long-Term Protective Immune Response Elicited by Vaccination with an Expression Genomic Library of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Fachado, Alberto; Rodriguez, Alexandro; Molina, Judith; Silvério, Jaline C.; Marino, Ana P. M. P.; Pinto, Luzia M. O.; Angel, Sergio O.; Infante, Juan F.; Traub-Cseko, Yara; Amendoeira, Regina R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2003-01-01

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with an expression genomic library of Toxoplasma gondii induces a Th1-type immune response, with recognition of several T. gondii proteins (21 to 117 kDa) and long-term protective immunity against a lethal challenge. These results support further investigations to achieve a multicomponent anti-T. gondii DNA vaccine.

  3. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  4. ARTEMIS stabilizes the genome and modulates proliferative responses in multipotent mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tompkins Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unrepaired DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs cause chromosomal rearrangements, loss of genetic information, neoplastic transformation or cell death. The nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ pathway, catalyzing sequence-independent direct rejoining of DSBs, is a crucial mechanism for repairing both stochastically occurring and developmentally programmed DSBs. In lymphocytes, NHEJ is critical for both development and genome stability. NHEJ defects lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and lymphoid cancer predisposition in both mice and humans. While NHEJ has been thoroughly investigated in lymphocytes, the importance of NHEJ in other cell types, especially with regard to tumor suppression, is less well documented. We previously reported evidence that the NHEJ pathway functions to suppress a range of nonlymphoid tumor types, including various classes of sarcomas, by unknown mechanisms. Results Here we investigate roles for the NHEJ factor ARTEMIS in multipotent mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs, as putative sarcomagenic cells of origin. We demonstrate a key role for ARTEMIS in sarcoma suppression in a sensitized mouse tumor model. In this context, we found that ARTEMIS deficiency led to chromosomal damage but, paradoxically, enhanced resistance and proliferative potential in primary MSCs subjected to various stresses. Gene expression analysis revealed abnormally regulated stress response, cell proliferation, and signal transduction pathways in ARTEMIS-defective MSCs. Finally, we identified candidate regulatory genes that may, in part, mediate a stress-resistant, hyperproliferative phenotype in preneoplastic ARTEMIS-deficient MSCs. Conclusions Our discoveries suggest that Art prevents genome damage and restrains proliferation in MSCs exposed to various stress stimuli. We propose that deficiency leads to a preneoplastic state in primary MSCs and is associated with aberrant proliferative control and cellular stress

  5. Nuclear accident response and population protection in The Netherlands: philosophy, solutions, and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, J.L.; Bosnjakovic, B.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with under the headings: nuclear energy in the Netherlands; the philosophy underlying the existing organization of response to nuclear accidents and population protection; practical experiences and recent developments; dose estimates; data transmission and lines of communication; international cooperation. (U.K.)

  6. Berlin and nuclear power. Courage to assume responsibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    On October 28, 2009, the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (KTG) awarded to Professor Dr. Juergen Knorr its 32 nd honorary membership in recognition of his untiring commitment and his decades of work for the peaceful uses of, and research into, nuclear power in Germany. Between 1992 and 2006 the scientist, now retired, held the Nuclear Power Technology chair at the Technical University of Dresden and, temporarily, also headed the university's Institute for Power Technology at the same time. From 1990, Professor Knorr was a member of the Executive Board of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft; he was KTG Chairman between 1993 and 2000. At the same time and beyond, until 2005, Professor Knorr was a member also of the Board of the Deutsches Atomforum. At the awarding ceremony in Berlin on October 28, KTG Chairman Dr. Helmut Blaesig welcomed the fact that, on the basis of the coalition agreement of CDU, CSU and FDP, the new federal government 'had clearly recognized the advantages of nuclear power.' It appreciated the safety of German plants and, in addition to the non-polluting characteristics due to CO 2 emissions saved and the security of supply, also the economic benefit of electricity generation from nuclear power. This supported the German economy in a situation which continued to be difficult. In his vote of thanks for the 32 nd honorary membership of KTG, Professor Knorr emphasized what he considered a key expectation of the re-evaluation of nuclear power by the new federal government: Creating framework conditions for a societal consensus that fair competition among conventional, renewable and nuclear power technologies will give rise to an optimum mix enabling sustainable development to be achieved. (orig.)

  7. U.K. policy responses to international influences - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of U.K. participation in international discussions directed towards the safe development and application of nuclear power. Particular attention is given to the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), which is stated to be looking at the whole question of proliferation and the merits and disadvantages of a range of alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies. A summary is also given of U.K. participation in work on radiological protection (through the I.C.R.P.) and radioactive waste disposal. International cooperation in research and development is mentioned. Public involvement in policy making is also discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  8. Responsible management: the Dutch licensing policy for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slange, R.

    1994-01-01

    The governmental policy, to tolerate operation of existing nuclear installations not backed by the required operating permits, certainly is applied only in exceptional cases, and this all the more when the plant is a nuclear installation. Any decision to tolerate further operation must be justified by compliance with a number of rigid criteria, there may be a debate in Parliament about the case, third parties have the right participate in the decision-finding procedure, and there is the right of appeal. (orig.) [de

  9. Social responsible communication of nuclear power plant with external stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoncic, Milan [Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia); Zurga, Gordana [Faculty of Organisation Studies in Novo Mesto (Slovenia)

    2016-11-15

    Implications that nuclear technology brings to common physical and social environment, are on daily lists of questions that stakeholders address to owners and operators of nuclear power plants. In this respect, stakeholders expect and demand narrow and explicit answers to concrete questions set. We claim that the acceptability of the NPP in the society can be achieved and maintained also through active communication and trust building between NPP and its stakeholders. A research in this respect was conducted on case of the Krsko NPP, Slovenia. Some institutional and international implications are presented, as well as possible areas for further investigation and research.

  10. Integration of mtDNA pseudogenes into the nuclear genome coincides with speciation of the human genus. A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, Konstantin; Peshkin, Leonid; Popadin, Konstantin; Annis, Sofia; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Khrapko, Konstantin

    2017-05-01

    Fragments of mitochondrial DNA are known to get inserted into nuclear DNA to form NUMTs, i.e. nuclear pseudogenes of the mtDNA. The insertion of a NUMT is a rare event. Hundreds of pseudogenes have been cataloged in the human genome. NUMTs are, in essence, a special type of mutation with their own internal timer, which is synchronized with an established molecular clock, the mtDNA. Thus insertion of NUMTs can be timed with respect to evolution milestones such as the emergence of new species. We asked whether NUMTs were inserted uniformly over time or preferentially during certain periods of evolution, as implied by the "punctuated evolution" model. To our surprise, the NUMT insertion times do appear nonrandom with at least one cluster positioned at around 2.8 million years ago (Ma). Interestingly, 2.8Ma closely corresponds to the time of emergence of the genus Homo, and to a well-documented period of major climate change ca. 2.9-2.5Ma. It is tempting to hypothesize that the insertion of NUMTs is related to the speciation process. NUMTs could be either "riders", i.e., their insertion could be facilitated by the overall higher genome rearrangement activity during speciation, or "drivers", i.e. they may more readily get fixed in the population due to positive selection associated with speciation. If correct, the hypothesis would support the idea that evolution of our genus may have happened in a rapid, punctuated manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Ubiquitination of HTLV-I Tax in response to DNA damage regulates nuclear complex formation and nuclear export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott Susan J

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HTLV-I oncoprotein, Tax, is a pleiotropic protein whose activity is partially regulated by its ability to interact with, and perturb the functions of, numerous cellular proteins. Tax is predominantly a nuclear protein that localizes to nuclear foci known as Tax Speckled Structures (TSS. We recently reported that the localization of Tax and its interactions with cellular proteins are altered in response to various forms of genotoxic and cellular stress. The level of cytoplasmic Tax increases in response to stress and this relocalization depends upon the interaction of Tax with CRM1. Cellular pathways and signals that regulate the subcellular localization of Tax remain to be determined. However, post-translational modifications including sumoylation and ubiquitination are known to influence the subcellular localization of Tax and its interactions with cellular proteins. The sumoylated form of Tax exists predominantly in the nucleus while ubiquitinated Tax exists predominantly in the cytoplasm. Therefore, we hypothesized that post-translational modifications of Tax that occur in response to DNA damage regulate the localization of Tax and its interactions with cellular proteins. Results We found a significant increase in mono-ubiquitination of Tax in response to UV irradiation. Mutation of specific lysine residues (K280 and K284 within Tax inhibited DNA damage-induced ubiquitination. In contrast to wild-type Tax, which undergoes transient nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in response to DNA damage, the K280 and K284 mutants were retained in nuclear foci following UV irradiation and remained co-localized with the cellular TSS protein, sc35. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the localization of Tax, and its interactions with cellular proteins, are dynamic following DNA damage and depend on the post-translational modification status of Tax. Specifically, DNA damage induces the ubiquitination of Tax at K280 and K284

  12. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  13. Decision making in the digital age: the nuclear industry response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, G. [Energy Group, Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Ten years ago, the consequences of a prolonged outage - or of choosing a costly alternative - could usually be recovered from the ratepayers without major difficulty. But today, as in the rest of industrial America, poorly crafted decisions have very real economic consequences. This paper discusses the decision making process within the nuclear industry in the age of industry deregulation.

  14. Decision making in the digital age: the nuclear industry response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Ten years ago, the consequences of a prolonged outage - or of choosing a costly alternative - could usually be recovered from the ratepayers without major difficulty. But today, as in the rest of industrial America, poorly crafted decisions have very real economic consequences. This paper discusses the decision making process within the nuclear industry in the age of industry deregulation

  15. Risk assessment and the social response to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical framework for risk assessment studies is presented. Methodologies from various disciplines can be used within this framework to allow a scientific approach to the understanding of complex interactions between technological and social systems. A pilot application of an attitude-formation model to examine the underlying determinants of groups for and against nuclear power is summarized. (author)

  16. A comparison of responses to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Many Institutions abroad have expressed their views on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. When more emphasis on risk and precaution, they differ markedly from that in Japan. One of the main causes of the accident lies in disregard for prior warnings about possible tsunami risks. This paper will discuss lessons we can learn from the accident and future problems. (author)

  17. Analysis of emergency response to fukushima nuclear accident in Japan and suggestions for China's nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Ding Qihua; Wu Haosong

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company ('TEPCO') was hit and damaged by a magnitude 9 earthquake and accompanying tsunami. The accident is determined to be of the highest rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The Government of Japan and TEPCO have taken emergency response actions on-site and off-site at the accident. It became clear through the investigation that the accident had been initiated on the occasion of a natural disaster of an earthquake and tsunami, but there have been various complex problems behind this very serious and large scale accident. For an example, the then-available accident preventive measures and disaster preparedness of TEPCO were insufficient against tsunami and severe accidents; inadequate TEPCO emergency responses to the accident at the site were also identified. The accident rang the alarm for the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants. It also taught us a great of lessons in nuclear emergency management. (authors)

  18. A Multiplexed Single-Cell CRISPR Screening Platform Enables Systematic Dissection of the Unfolded Protein Response. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional genomics efforts face tradeoffs between number of perturbations examined and complexity of phenotypes measured. We bridge this gap with Perturb-seq, which combines droplet-based single-cell RNA-seq with a strategy for barcoding CRISPR-mediated perturbations, allowing many perturbations to be profiled in pooled format. We applied Perturb-seq to dissect the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) using single and combinatorial CRISPR perturbations. Two genome-scale CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) screens identified genes whose repression perturbs ER homeostasis.

  19. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents; Notfallschutz und Risk Governance. Zur nuklearen Sicherheit bei Kernkraftwerksunfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlen, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  20. Supporting system in emergency response plan for nuclear material transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Y.; Aoki, S.

    1993-01-01

    As aiming to provide the detailed information concerning nuclear material transport accidents and to supply it to the concerned organizations by an online computer, the Emergency Response Supporting System has been constructed in the Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Japan. The system consists of four subsystems and four data bases. By inputting initial information such as name of package and date of accident, one can obtain the appropriate initial response procedures and related information for the accident immediately. The system must be useful for protecting the public safety from nuclear material transport accidents. But, it is not expected that the system shall be used in future. (J.P.N.)

  1. Reflections on nuclear security. The USA's top nuclear regulator reviews the 9/11 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There are three fundamental points related to nuclear security that should be emphasized. First, the physical protection at nuclear power plants was strong before September 11. Second, there have been no specific credible threats of a terrorist attack on nuclear power plants since September 11. Third, in light of the events of September 11, the NRC has recognized the need to reexamine past security strategies to ensure that we have the right protections in place for the long term. Following the attacks, the NRC issued over 30 safeguards and threat advisories to the major licensed facilities, placing them on the highest security level. Security across the nuclear industry was enhanced as a result of these actions, and many of the strengthened security measures are now requirements as a result of subsequently issued NRC Orders. One should note that nuclear facilities are the strongest and most well protected civilian facilities in our country. But the need to enhance those protections must be recognized. The NRC is dedicated to meeting the obligation to protect the public health and safety and the common defense and security from threats of all kinds. Much has been accomplished over the last year, but there is more to be done. Put in place within months of the September 2001 terrorist attacks, the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Security is now being implemented on many fronts worldwide

  2. Nuclear Safety: Our Overriding Priority. EDF Group Report 2015 in response to FTSE4Good Nuclear Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillart, H.

    2015-01-01

    EDF is the world's leading nuclear operator with 74.8 GW of installed capacity in France, the United Kingdom and the United States, an EPR under construction in France, and 2 EPRs under construction in China through TNPJVC (EDF 30%), a joint venture with CGNPC. As such, EDF acts at all stages in the life of its power plants (design, construction, operation, decommissioning) to: - ensure rigorous operation of facilities; - prevent all incidents and accidents; - reduce the impact of any incidents or accidents that might nevertheless occur. The main safety measures were published in a single document in 2015 setting out the Group's nuclear safety policy. Each nuclear operating company inside the Group acts in compliance with the legal obligations and regulations specific to its host country. Each company works to ensure and continuously improve its safety performance with its own methods, skills and values. The EDF Group respects national differences. At the same time it frames common principles to deliver the highest level of incident prevention and protection of the public, workers and the environment. This policy applies to new projects (overall architecture, design and construction) and all existing plants (operation, maintenance, waste management, decommissioning and engineering). The Group works closely with its industrial partners to deliver these objectives. Each company is responsible for the proper operation of its nuclear activities, and delegates responsibilities appropriately to each level of management or operation. The Group guarantees the allocation of resources needed to ensure nuclear safety. An in-house independent nuclear safety function is in place at power plant level, company level and Group level. Each has a duty to alert senior management of inappropriate or inadequate line management response. Nuclear safety is the absolute priority for the EDF Group at every stage of the plant life-cycle. Each company is responsible for ensuring that its

  3. Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker - a physicist and philosopher in the shade of the nuclear bomb. A conversation on nuclear weapons and the responsibility of nuclear scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, M.

    1996-06-01

    The 50th anniversary of the first nuclear explosion (16th July 1945) prompted the editor of this collection to look again at the part played by German physicists in the nuclear weapons issue. Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, one of the last surviving witnesses of this period, kindly agreed to give a comprehensive interview on the German nuclear programme and the responsibility of physicists. The interview is published here for the first time and forms the central part of this brochure. It is complemented by two statements by Edward Teller and two historical letters. The author, in preparing this compilation, had in mind to contribute towards science-historical discussion and to give younger colleagues a graphic idea of the conflict surrounding nuclear research. (orig.) [de

  4. Hope, connectedness, and action: responses of adolescents and young adults to the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernald, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study undertook to assess the degree to which a person's sense of interconnectedness with others may have a mediating effect on whether one reacts to the consciousness of nuclear threat with feelings of despair (helplessness and hopelessness) or with a sense of empowerment (hope, efficacy, and action for change). Subjects included 119 public high school students and 14 Friends' school students, ranging from 12-18 years of age; 58 university students ranging from 18-25 years of age; and 24 parents of public school students, 10 adult Friends, and 38 members of Physicians for Social Responsibility, ranging from 20-83 years of age. A self-rating questionnaire was administered to assess subjects' conscious level of concern about nuclear issues, feelings of connectedness with others in general and about nuclear concerns, feelings of hope and efficacy in general and with regard to nuclear issues, and participation in activities reflecting concerns about nuclear threat. Correlational analyses (multiple regression, Spearman Rho, Kendall's Tau) showed that general feelings of hope, level of activity, and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns were the best predictors of hope about nuclear concerns. Conscious level of concern and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns, along with age and SES were the best predictors of an active response to nuclear threat; additionally, parents' level of concern about nuclear issues was predictive of their children's degree of activity in response to nuclear threat. Adolescents' level of concern and degree of connectedness with others was predicted by their parents' degree of connectedness.

  5. Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive–behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Curtis, Charles; Arendt, Kristian; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Dalgleish, Tim; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heiervang, Einar R.; Hötzel, Katrin; Hudson, Jennifer L.; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Marin, Carla E.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Breen, Gerome; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent. Aims To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980). Method Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Results No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P = 5 × 10−8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5 × 10−6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis. Conclusions This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts. PMID:26989097

  6. Nuclear Terrorism: Assessing the Threat, Developing a Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    milling facilities to crush the ore and extract the uranium concentrate, a process that yields what is often called yellowcake. The yellowcake would then...issued by the Baker-Cutler Task Force described the threat, “In a worst-case scenario, a nuclear engineer graduate with a grapefruit -sized lump of HEU...stealing spent power reactor fuel or fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel, both of which would need to have their plutonium chemically extracted . While separating

  7. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  8. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  9. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  10. Manual of functions, assignments, and responsibilities for nuclear safety: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-15

    The FAR Manual is a convenient easy-to-use collection of the functions, assignments, and responsibilities (FARs) of DOE nuclear safety personnel. Current DOE directives, including Orders, Secretary of Energy Notices, and other assorted policy memoranda, are the source of this information and form the basis of the FAR Manual. Today, the majority of FARs for DOE personnel are contained in DOE`s nuclear safety Orders. As these Orders are converted to rules in the Code of Federal Regulations, the FAR Manual will become the sole source for information relating to the functions, assignments, responsibilities of DOE nuclear safety personnel. The FAR Manual identifies DOE directives that relate to nuclear safety and the specific DOE personnel who are responsible for implementing them. The manual includes only FARs that have been extracted from active directives that have been approved in accordance with the procedures contained in DOE Order 1321.1B.

  11. National radiological emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011, when two natural disasters of unprecedented strengths, an earthquake with magnitude 9 followed one hour later by a powerful tsunami struck northeastern Japan and felled the external power supply and the emergency diesel generators of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, resulting in a loss of coolant accident. There were core meltdowns in three nuclear reactors with the release of radioactivity estimated to be 1/10 of what was released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986. The Fukushima nuclear accident tested the capability of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) in responding to such radiological emergency as a nuclear power plant accident. The PNRI and NDRRMC activated the RADPLAN for possible radiological emergency. The emergency response was calibrated to the status of the nuclear reactors on site and the environmental monitoring undertaken around the site and off-site, including the marine environment. This orchestrated effort enabled the PNRI and the national agencies concerned to reassure the public that the nuclear accident does not have a significant impact on the Philippines, both on the health and safety of the people and on the safety of the environment. National actions taken during the accident will be presented. The role played by the International Atomic Energy Agency as the central UN agency for nuclear matters will be discussed. (author)

  12. Planning guidance for emergency response to a hypothetical nuclear attack on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.

    The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.

  13. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  14. Roles of brca2 (fancd1 in oocyte nuclear architecture, gametogenesis, gonad tumors, and genome stability in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodríguez-Marí

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild mutations in BRCA2 (FANCD1 cause Fanconi anemia (FA when homozygous, while severe mutations cause common cancers including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers when heterozygous. Here we report a zebrafish brca2 insertional mutant that shares phenotypes with human patients and identifies a novel brca2 function in oogenesis. Experiments showed that mutant embryos and mutant cells in culture experienced genome instability, as do cells in FA patients. In wild-type zebrafish, meiotic cells expressed brca2; and, unexpectedly, transcripts in oocytes localized asymmetrically to the animal pole. In juvenile brca2 mutants, oocytes failed to progress through meiosis, leading to female-to-male sex reversal. Adult mutants became sterile males due to the meiotic arrest of spermatocytes, which then died by apoptosis, followed by neoplastic proliferation of gonad somatic cells that was similar to neoplasia observed in ageing dead end (dnd-knockdown males, which lack germ cells. The construction of animals doubly mutant for brca2 and the apoptotic gene tp53 (p53 rescued brca2-dependent sex reversal. Double mutants developed oocytes and became sterile females that produced only aberrant embryos and showed elevated risk for invasive ovarian tumors. Oocytes in double-mutant females showed normal localization of brca2 and pou5f1 transcripts to the animal pole and vasa transcripts to the vegetal pole, but had a polarized rather than symmetrical nucleus with the distribution of nucleoli and chromosomes to opposite nuclear poles; this result revealed a novel role for Brca2 in establishing or maintaining oocyte nuclear architecture. Mutating tp53 did not rescue the infertility phenotype in brca2 mutant males, suggesting that brca2 plays an essential role in zebrafish spermatogenesis. Overall, this work verified zebrafish as a model for the role of Brca2 in human disease and uncovered a novel function of Brca2 in vertebrate oocyte nuclear architecture.

  15. Cmr1/WDR76 defines a nuclear genotoxic stress body linking genome integrity and protein quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Irene; Colding, Camilla Skettrup; Henriksen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication stress is a source of genomic instability. Here we identify changed mutation rate 1 (Cmr1) as a factor involved in the response to DNA replication stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that Cmr1-together with Mrc1/Claspin, Pph3, the chaperonin containing TCP1 (CCT) and 25...... other proteins-define a novel intranuclear quality control compartment (INQ) that sequesters misfolded, ubiquitylated and sumoylated proteins in response to genotoxic stress. The diversity of proteins that localize to INQ indicates that other biological processes such as cell cycle progression...... propose that Cmr1/WDR76 plays a role in the recovery from genotoxic stress through regulation of the turnover of sumoylated and phosphorylated proteins....

  16. Our response to climate change requires nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.

    2007-01-01

    Australian politicians and environmental activists who reject nuclear power as the pivotal technology to combat climate change stand compromised before the court of international scientific opinion and informed global realism. The content of their rhetoric on nuclear matters comprises pseudo-science, innuendo and ideological prejudice communicated through the politics of fear and risk. The recent report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calls for urgent major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, without which the natural feedback mechanisms that control global temperatures might be overwhelmed. It points out that presently human activity produces around 23.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per annum, about one half of which can be absorbed by soil and ocean. However this capacity is being rapidly destroyed by rising soil and ocean surface temperatures. The report points out that if global warming cannot be kept between manageable limits, it could lead to the destruction of the Great Barrier Reef and the Amazon rainforest, and lead to the forced migration of hundreds of millions of people from equatorial regions and the loss of vast tracts of land as ice caps melt and sea levels rise. For many scientists and engineers concerned with energy and environmental issues it is a matter of deep regret that, the IPCC meetings at Kyoto and Paris have not explicitly endorsed the central role, which could be played by nuclear energy in combating greenhouse gas production and climate change. The environmental benefits from switching to nuclear fuels are striking. The IPCC delegates attending Kyoto in 1997 must have known that light and air-conditioning for the modern International Convention Centre were obtained from an electricity grid supplied partly from a network of 54 nuclear power stations. The greenhouse gas emissions saved by the use of this network and the uranium fuel cycle is around 287 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per

  17. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeongyoon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO and tissue-culture origin (TCO vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined by microarray analysis. In this study, a microarray analysis was performed to understand host-vaccine ILTV interactions at the host gene transcription level. Results The 44 K chicken oligo microarrays were used, and the results were compared to those found in virulent ILTV infection. Total RNAs extracted from vaccine ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi, compared to 0 dpi, were subjected to microarray assay using the two color hybridization method. Data analysis using JMP Genomics 5.0 and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA program showed that 213 differentially expressed genes could be grouped into a number of functional categories including tissue development, cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, 10 possible gene networks were created by the IPA program to show intermolecular connections. Interestingly, of 213 differentially expressed genes, BMP2, C8orf79, F10, and NPY were expressed distinctly in vaccine ILTV infection when compared to virulent ILTV infection. Conclusions Comprehensive knowledge of gene expression and biological functionalities of host factors during vaccine ILTV infection can provide insight into host cellular defense mechanisms compared to those of virulent ILTV.

  18. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Dietzgen, Ralf G. [Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  19. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio; Dietzgen, Ralf G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

  20. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest

    2017-09-18

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  1. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Moon, Robert W.; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.; Roper, Cally; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Pain, Arnab; Sutherland, Colin J.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G.

    2017-01-01

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  2. Initiating nuclear power programmes: Responsibilities and capabilities of owners and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing nuclear power due to growing energy needs, limitations on natural resources and concern for the environment. However, the introduction and development of nuclear power is a major undertaking. This requires building the necessary national infrastructure to construct and operate nuclear power plants in a safe, secure and technically sound manner. Many IAEA Member States that do not yet have nuclear power programmes have expressed their interest to the IAEA about the possibility of introducing nuclear power plants to help meet their energy needs. To assist these Member States, the IAEA is preparing a series of guides and reports. An overall description of the issues was presented by the IAEA in a brochure entitled Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme (GOV/INF/2007/2), which was targeted mainly at policy makers. A subsequent IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication, Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (NG-G-3.1), describes 19 infrastructure issues that should be addressed through the three phases of development outlined in the brochure, Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. The IAEA is preparing a number of guides addressing these issues. Once a firm decision has been made by a government to proceed with the development of a nuclear programme, a number of organizations must be developed. A key organization for the successful construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant is the owner/operator, who provides ownership and management of the project. The owner/operator must clearly understand what must be done and how it has to act, who are partners and supporters and the corresponding interactions that have to be established. The owner or operator may be state owned or a private company. It may be an existing utility, or a specially established project organization. Its responsibilities include bidding, construction, licensing, commissioning

  3. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  4. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  5. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  6. Reflections at La Rabida: the responsibilities of the nuclear physicist for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Atomic energy was first applied to war but it was successful in its aim of bringing about peace. Nuclear physicists have been responsible for many momentous changes in world history. Their continuing responsibility to see that the public debates on nuclear issues of both war and peace are conducted with due regard for the essential scientific facts. Attempts by nuclear scientists to influence political decisions, through Pugwash meetings and Non-Poliferation treaties are discussed in an historical context. It is concluded that the anti-nuclear activists have won the propaganda battle about nuclear power - scientists have lost the battle to convey the facts about nuclear physics and especially nuclear safety to the public. Risks from nuclear power are perceived as great whereas in fact they are very small. Wise decisions cannot be made until the facts are known. The media is saturated with false information. Those who know the facts are unable to make their voices heard. This is exceedingly dangerous for our society. (UK)

  7. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-06-19

    The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and

  8. Nuclear energy: The need for responsible global management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Mechelynck, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problems posed by nuclear power generation have been discussed in earlier Pugwash meetings and, more recently, participants in at least one working group (Hiroshima, 1995) have urged that the issue should be taken up again in a specially convened workshop. Subsequently, at Lahti in 1996, Working Group 6 (Global action on the energy/climate interaction) asked the present authors to follow up this recommendation. The present paper reports on the modest progress that has been made in this direction. It is intended to form the basis for discussion, in Lillehammer Working Group 6, on whether further Pugwash action should be taken and, if so, how?

  9. Radioactive waste: the Nuclear Industry's response to the Environment Committee's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This paper represents the nuclear industry's response to the Environmental Committee's report on the handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include the historical aspects of the management of radioactive wastes, technical problems, comparisons with overseas management methods, liquid effluents, reprocessing problems, and public attitudes and perceptions of radioactive waste. Responses to the Environmental Committee's recommendations form an appendix. (U.K.)

  10. Seismic response of a block-type nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.; Bennett, J.G.; Merson, J.L.

    1976-05-01

    An analytical model is developed to predict seismic response of large gas-cooled reactor cores. The model is used to investigate scaling laws involved in the design of physical models of such cores, and to make parameter studies

  11. Conflict of interests, nuclear weapons, and flexible response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afheldt, H.

    1992-01-01

    When President Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power in the Soviet Union in 1985, neither goal had been achieved. Consequently, a serious crisis on NATO policy was developing. That crisis had its focus on the double-track decision of 1979 and the deployment in Central Europe of ground-based, Medium-range ballistic and cruise missiles. In the early 1990s the world looks much more promising. First steps for a new less confrontational political structure in Europe have been taken. First successes are in the field of disarmament are being realized. Unfortunately, the results have seen a tendency to forget about the difficulties. This paper reports on a new military security structure and force postures for central Europe, which avoid former roadblocks to disarmament and political cooperation and at the same time provide for military security just in case things go wrong in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, on some of the results of that study. As to the critical examination on the problems we face with NATO's security policy, two areas demand detailed examination: Political and military reasons for the failure of policies of detente, arms limitation, and disarmament in the past. The role of nuclear weapons in the policy of confrontation, especially their role inside NATO and in the continuing NATO crisis on nuclear deterrence

  12. Analysis of binary responses with outcome-specific misclassification probability in genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekaya R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romdhane Rekaya,1–3 Shannon Smith,4 El Hamidi Hay,5 Nourhene Farhat,6 Samuel E Aggrey3,7 1Department of Animal and Dairy Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 2Department of Statistics, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, 3Institute of Bioinformatics, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 4Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI, 5United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD, 6Carolinas HealthCare System Blue Ridge, Morganton, NC, 7Department of Poultry Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Errors in the binary status of some response traits are frequent in human, animal, and plant applications. These error rates tend to differ between cases and controls because diagnostic and screening tests have different sensitivity and specificity. This increases the inaccuracies of classifying individuals into correct groups, giving rise to both false-positive and false-negative cases. The analysis of these noisy binary responses due to misclassification will undoubtedly reduce the statistical power of genome-wide association studies (GWAS. A threshold model that accommodates varying diagnostic errors between cases and controls was investigated. A simulation study was carried out where several binary data sets (case–control were generated with varying effects for the most influential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and different diagnostic error rate for cases and controls. Each simulated data set consisted of 2000 individuals. Ignoring misclassification resulted in biased estimates of true influential SNP effects and inflated estimates for true noninfluential markers. A substantial reduction in bias and increase in accuracy ranging from 12% to 32% was observed when the misclassification procedure was invoked. In fact, the majority of influential SNPs that were not identified using the noisy data were captured using the

  13. Genomic instability in quartz dust exposed rat lungs: Is inflammation responsible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, C; Schins, R P F [Institut fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF) at the Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Demircigil, G Cakmak; Coskun, Erdem [Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, Ankara (Turkey); Schooten, F J van [Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, University of Maastricht (Netherlands); Borm, P J A [Centre of Expertise in Life Sciences (Cel), Hogeschool Zuyd, Heerlen (Netherlands); Knaapen, A M, E-mail: catrin.albrecht@uni-duesseldorf.d

    2009-02-01

    Exposure to quartz dusts has been associated with lung cancer and fibrosis. Although the responsible mechanisms are not completely understood, progressive inflammation with associated induction of persistent oxidative stress has been discussed as a key event for these diseases. Previously we have evaluated the kinetics of pulmonary inflammation in the rat model following a single intratracheal instillation of 2mg DQ12 quartz, either in its native form or upon its surface modification with polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide or aluminium lactate. This model has been applied now to evaluate the role of inflammation in the kinetics of induction of DNA damage and response at 3, 7, 28, and 90 days after treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and differentials as well as BAL fluid myeloperoxidase activity were used as markers of inflammation. Whole lung homogenate was investigated to determine the induction of the oxidative and pre-mutagenic DNA lesion 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) by HPLC/ECD, while mRNA and protein expression of oxidative stress and DNA damage response genes including hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) were evaluated using Western blotting and real time PCR. Isolated lung epithelial cells from the treated rats were used for DNA strand breakage analysis using the alkaline comet assay as well as for micronucleus scoring in May-Gruenwald-Giemsa stained cytospin preparations. In the rats that were treated with quartz, no increased 8-OHdG levels were observed, despite the presence of a marked and persistent inflammation. However, DNA strand breakage in the lung epithelial cells of the quartz treated rats was significantly enhanced at 3 days, but not at 28 days. Moreover, significantly enhanced micronucleus frequencies were observed for all four time points investigated. In the animals that were treated with the PVNO modified quartz, micronuclei scores did not differ from controls, while in those treated with

  14. Evolution of Rosaceae Fruit Types Based on Nuclear Phylogeny in the Context of Geological Times and Genome Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yezi; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Hu, Yi; Wen, Jun; Li, Shisheng; Yi, Tingshuang; Chen, Hongyi; Xiang, Jun; Ma, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Fruits are the defining feature of angiosperms, likely have contributed to angiosperm successes by protecting and dispersing seeds, and provide foods to humans and other animals, with many morphological types and important ecological and agricultural implications. Rosaceae is a family with ∼3000 species and an extraordinary spectrum of distinct fruits, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry prized by their consumers, as well as dry achenetum and follicetum with features facilitating seed dispersal, excellent for studying fruit evolution. To address Rosaceae fruit evolution and other questions, we generated 125 new transcriptomic and genomic datasets and identified hundreds of nuclear genes to reconstruct a well-resolved Rosaceae phylogeny with highly supported monophyly of all subfamilies and tribes. Molecular clock analysis revealed an estimated age of ∼101.6 Ma for crown Rosaceae and divergence times of tribes and genera, providing a geological and climate context for fruit evolution. Phylogenomic analysis yielded strong evidence for numerous whole genome duplications (WGDs), supporting the hypothesis that the apple tribe had a WGD and revealing another one shared by fleshy fruit-bearing members of this tribe, with moderate support for WGDs in the peach tribe and other groups. Ancestral character reconstruction for fruit types supports independent origins of fleshy fruits from dry-fruit ancestors, including the evolution of drupes (e.g., peach) and pomes (e.g., apple) from follicetum, and drupetum (raspberry and blackberry) from achenetum. We propose that WGDs and environmental factors, including animals, contributed to the evolution of the many fruits in Rosaceae, which provide a foundation for understanding fruit evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Colonization and diversification of aquatic insects on three Macaronesian archipelagos using 59 nuclear loci derived from a draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschmann, Sereina; Detering, Harald; Simon, Sabrina; Funk, David H; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Hughes, Samantha J; Raposeiro, Pedro M; DeSalle, Rob; Sartori, Michel; Monaghan, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny, although a lack of phylogenetic markers remains a limitation for many non-model groups. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L. 1761 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), in Macaronesia. Whole-genome sequencing data from one member of the species complex were used to identify 59 nDNA loci (32,213 base pairs), followed by Sanger sequencing of 29 individuals sampled from 13 islands of three Macaronesian archipelagos. Multispecies coalescent analyses established six putative species. Three island species formed a monophyletic clade, with one species occurring on the Azores, Europe and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated at least two colonization events from the mainland (to the Canaries, respectively Azores) and one within the archipelago (between Madeira and the Canaries). Random subsets of the 59 loci showed a positive linear relationship between number of loci and node support. In contrast, node support in the multispecies coalescent tree was negatively correlated with mean number of phylogenetically informative sites per locus, suggesting a complex relationship between tree resolution and marker variability. Our approach highlights the value of combining genomics, coalescent-based phylogeography, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction to resolve recent diversification events in an archipelago species complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Information for nuclear emergency response: a case study based on ANGRA nuclear power plant emergency simulation exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current nuclear emergency management procedures do not always satisfactorily address issues related to the information availability and to how people in emergency control centres use this information to respond to an nuclear accident. The lack of an adequate and prompt information may lead to a response that can be very different from what authorities recommend and thus create confusion, mistrust, and widespread uncertainty. This is a potentially serious problem for emergency planners. An adequate and prompt access to relevant information is a critical requirement that emergency teams face while they work towards reducing the undesired consequences of the emergency. There are three basic types of knowledge according to a conceptual framework developed to deal with emergency response: Previous Personal, Previous and, Current Contextual knowledge. Most decisions in emergency control centres require a dynamic combination of all types of knowledge, particularly the current contextual that comes from the emergency settings, including all information about the activities of other emergency teams. The aim of this paper is to describe the concepts and the structure of a system that aims at storing and disseminating the previous formal and contextual knowledge to help teams make the correct decisions during the evolution of an emergency. The elicitation of critical requirements are provided by a case study based on Cognitive Work Analysis and Naturalistic Decision Making methods, applied to a nuclear emergency response simulation. The framework and a prototype system were tested in a controlled experiment. The paper reports the results of this experiment. (author)

  18. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  19. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY gene family in the sesame genome and identification of the WRKY genes involved in responses to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghua; Liu, Pan; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhou, Rong; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2017-09-11

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world's most important oil crops. However, it is susceptible to abiotic stresses in general, and to waterlogging and drought stresses in particular. The molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in sesame have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY domain transcription factors play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to stresses. However, little is known about the number, location, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes in sesame. We performed a comprehensive study of the WRKY gene family in sesame and identified 71 SiWRKYs. In total, 65 of these genes were mapped to 15 linkage groups within the sesame genome. A phylogenetic analysis was performed using a related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to investigate the evolution of the sesame WRKY genes. Tissue expression profiles of the WRKY genes demonstrated that six SiWRKY genes were highly expressed in all organs, suggesting that these genes may be important for plant growth and organ development in sesame. Analysis of the SiWRKY gene expression patterns revealed that 33 and 26 SiWRKYs respond strongly to waterlogging and drought stresses, respectively. Changes in the expression of 12 SiWRKY genes were observed at different times after the waterlogging and drought treatments had begun, demonstrating that sesame gene expression patterns vary in response to abiotic stresses. In this study, we analyzed the WRKY family of transcription factors encoded by the sesame genome. Insight was gained into the classification, evolution, and function of the SiWRKY genes, revealing their putative roles in a variety of tissues. Responses to abiotic stresses in different sesame cultivars were also investigated. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the structures and functions of sesame WRKY genes and suggest that manipulating these WRKYs could enhance resistance to waterlogging and drought.

  20. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhana Kanhayuwa

    Full Text Available Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  1. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  2. What would getting over with nuclear energy mean. Getting in on responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerle, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the current situation where the controversial debate in public about the further use or even enhancement of use of nuclear energy is carried on with ever growing vehemence and arguments lost in the flood of less transparent motivations, clear and down-to-earth information and sensible, convincing argumentation is badly needed. In his book the Professor of Systematic Theology at Marburg University tries to elaborate sensible answers to the puzzling questions, and to indicate ways and means of using one's own discernment. The problems involved are discussed under the following headings: Christian faith and political responsibility - Pros and cons of establishing the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf - Nuclear power seen from the point of view of economy and ecology - Nuclear power after Chernobyl - Energy policy concepts and their validation - The nuclear controversy as a challenge to political culture - The church and political culture. A documentation is given in an annex. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Legislative framework on establishing emergency response plan in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Valcic, I.; Biscan, R.

    2000-01-01

    To give an overview of the legislative framework, which defined emergency planning in Croatia in the case of a nuclear accident, it's necessary to look at all international recommendations and obligations and the national legislation, acts and regulations. It has to be emphasized that Croatia signed three international conventions in this field, and by that took over some responsibilities and obligations. Beside that, it is also in Croatian interest to follow the recommendations of international institutions such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA standards and technical documents). On the other hand, national legislation in this field consists of several laws, which cover nuclear safety measures, governmental organization, natural disasters and acts (decree, decisions) of responsible authority for emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident (Ministry of Economy). This paper presents an overview of the international and Croatian legislation which influenced the emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  4. Identification of genetic loci in Lactobacillus plantarum that modulate the immune response of dendritic cells using comparative genome hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Meijerink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and the strain-dependent factors involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to identify gene loci in the model probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 that modulate the immune response of host dendritic cells. The amounts of IL-10 and IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DCs after stimulation with 42 individual L. plantarum strains were measured and correlated with the strain-specific genomic composition using comparative genome hybridisation and the Random Forest algorithm. This in silico "gene-trait matching" approach led to the identification of eight candidate genes in the L. plantarum genome that might modulate the DC cytokine response to L. plantarum. Six of these genes were involved in bacteriocin production or secretion, one encoded a bile salt hydrolase and one encoded a transcription regulator of which the exact function is unknown. Subsequently, gene deletions mutants were constructed in L. plantarum WCFS1 and compared to the wild-type strain in DC stimulation assays. All three bacteriocin mutants as well as the transcription regulator (lp_2991 had the predicted effect on cytokine production confirming their immunomodulatory effect on the DC response to L. plantarum. Transcriptome analysis and qPCR data showed that transcript level of gtcA3, which is predicted to be involved in glycosylation of cell wall teichoic acids, was substantially increased in the lp_2991 deletion mutant (44 and 29 fold respectively. CONCLUSION: Comparative genome hybridization led to the identification of gene loci in L

  5. Radioecology teaching: response to a nuclear or radiological emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. M.

    2006-03-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers rarely have the opportunity to discuss with their students the effects of radioactive contamination in forest and agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear or radiological emergency, or to conduct experiments to illustrate the methodology employed to assess the consequences of such an event. This paper presents a laboratory experiment which could be included as part of a teaching programme on ionizing radiation physics, addressing some of the aspects related to the fate and effects of anthropogenic radionuclides following a radiation emergency, and the possible physical countermeasures that could be adopted in order to reduce their impact on the environment.

  6. Radioecology teaching: response to a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M

    2006-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers rarely have the opportunity to discuss with their students the effects of radioactive contamination in forest and agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear or radiological emergency, or to conduct experiments to illustrate the methodology employed to assess the consequences of such an event. This paper presents a laboratory experiment which could be included as part of a teaching programme on ionizing radiation physics, addressing some of the aspects related to the fate and effects of anthropogenic radionuclides following a radiation emergency, and the possible physical countermeasures that could be adopted in order to reduce their impact on the environment

  7. Genetics and genomics of susceptibility and immune response to necrotic enteritis in chicken: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Imran; Ghayas, Abdul; Basheer, Atia

    2018-02-01

    Global poultry production is facing many challenges and is currently under pressure due to the presence of several diseases like Necrotic Enteritis (NE). It is estimated that NE-caused global economic losses has increased from 2 billion to 6 billion US$ in 2015 because it is not easy to diagnose and control disease at the earlier stage of occurrence. Additionally, ban on the in-feed antibiotics and some other genetic and non-genetic predisposing factors affect the occurrence of the disease. Though the incidence of the disease can be reduced by minimizing the predisposing factors and through immunization of birds but there is no single remedy to control the disease. Therefore, we suggest that there is need to find out the genetic variants that could help to select the birds resistant to NE. The current review details the pertinent features about the genetic and genomics of susceptibility and immune response of birds to Necrotic Enteritis. We report here the list of candidate gene reported for their involvement with the susceptibility and/or resistance to the disease. However, most of these genes are involved in immune-related functions. For better understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens and its toxins in the pathogenesis of disease there is need to unveil the association between any specific genetic variation and clinical status of NE. However, the presence of substantial genetic variations among different breeds/strains of chicken shows that it is possible to develop broiler strain with genetic resistant against NE. It would help in the cost-effective and sustainable production of safe broiler meat.

  8. RPA spin-isospin nuclear response in the deep inelastic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberico, W.M.; Molinari, A.; De Pace, A.; Johnson, M.B.; Ericson, M.

    1985-11-01

    The spin-isospin volume responses of a finite nucleus are evaluated in the RPA frame, utilizing a harmonic oscillator basis. Particular emphasis is given to the mixing between the longitudinal and transverse couplings, which arise at the nuclear surface. We show that it reduces somewhat the contrast between the two spin responses. We compare the calculated transverse response with the experimental one extracted from deep inelastic electron scattering

  9. Sharing of responsibilities between central and local authorities with regard to the licensing of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.

    1986-01-01

    With regard to sharing of responsibility in the field of nuclear licensing between central and local authorities, the Belgian State has entered into a new phase of regionalisation since the enactment of the law of August 8, 1980. This might entail a conflict of competence in case of the licensing of nuclear power plants. A general survey of foreign legislations seems to indicate that a similar risk also exists in other countries. (CW) [de

  10. Genome-Wide Host-Pathogen Interaction Unveiled by Transcriptomic Response of Diamondback Moth to Fungal Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jian Chu

    Full Text Available Genome-wide insight into insect pest response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana (fungal insect pathogen is critical for genetic improvement of fungal insecticides but has been poorly explored. We constructed three pairs of transcriptomes of Plutella xylostella larvae at 24, 36 and 48 hours post treatment of infection (hptI and of control (hptC for insight into the host-pathogen interaction at genomic level. There were 2143, 3200 and 2967 host genes differentially expressed at 24, 36 and 48 hptI/hptC respectively. These infection-responsive genes (~15% of the host genome were enriched in various immune processes, such as complement and coagulation cascades, protein digestion and absorption, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. Fungal penetration into cuticle and host defense reaction began at 24 hptI, followed by most intensive host immune response at 36 hptI and attenuated immunity at 48 hptI. Contrastingly, 44% of fungal genes were differentially expressed in the infection course and enriched in several biological processes, such as antioxidant activity, peroxidase activity and proteolysis. There were 1636 fungal genes co-expressed during 24-48 hptI, including 116 encoding putative secretion proteins. Our results provide novel insights into the insect-pathogen interaction and help to probe molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal infection to the global pest.

  11. Salinity- and population-dependent genome regulatory response during osmotic acclimation in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew; Roach, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shujun; Galvez, Fernando

    2012-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is abundant in osmotically dynamic estuaries and it can quickly adjust to extremes in environmental salinity. We performed a comparative osmotic challenge experiment to track the transcriptomic and physiological responses to two salinities throughout a time course of acclimation, and to explore the genome regulatory mechanisms that enable extreme osmotic acclimation. One southern and one northern coastal population, known to differ in their tolerance to hypo-osmotic exposure, were used as our comparative model. Both populations could maintain osmotic homeostasis when transferred from 32 to 0.4 p.p.t., but diverged in their compensatory abilities when challenged down to 0.1 p.p.t., in parallel with divergent transformation of gill morphology. Genes involved in cell volume regulation, nucleosome maintenance, ion transport, energetics, mitochondrion function, transcriptional regulation and apoptosis showed population- and salinity-dependent patterns of expression during acclimation. Network analysis confirmed the role of cytokine and kinase signaling pathways in coordinating the genome regulatory response to osmotic challenge, and also posited the importance of signaling coordinated through the transcription factor HNF-4α. These genome responses support hypotheses of which regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for enabling extreme physiological flexibility.

  12. Understanding the Value of a Computer Emergency Response Capability for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, Peter Donald [Idaho National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-06-01

    The international nuclear community has a great understanding of the physical security needs relating to the prevention, detection, and response of malicious acts associated with nuclear facilities and radioactive material. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC_225_Rev 5) outlines specific guidelines and recommendations for implementing and maintaining an organization’s nuclear security posture. An important element for inclusion into supporting revision 5 is the establishment of a “Cyber Emergency Response Team (CERT)” focused on the international communities cybersecurity needs to maintain a comprehensive nuclear security posture. Cybersecurity and the importance of nuclear cybersecurity require that there be a specific focus on developing an International Nuclear CERT (NS-CERT). States establishing contingency plans should have an understanding of the cyber threat landscape and the potential impacts to systems in place to protect and mitigate malicious activities. This paper will outline the necessary components, discuss the relationships needed within the international community, and outline a process by which the NS-CERT identifies, collects, processes, and reports critical information in order to establish situational awareness (SA) and support decision-making

  13. The Δ excitation in the nuclear-charge longitudinal response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, P.; Cenni, R.; Saracco, P.; Genoa Univ., Genoa

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a resonant structure corresponding to the Δ excitation in the longitudinal response to an e.m. probe is investigated. It is shown that many-body effects could significantly increase the relativistic contribution suggested by M. Ericson and coworkers

  14. Genome-Wide Distribution, Organisation and Functional Characterization of Disease Resistance and Defence Response Genes across Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Chand, Suresh; Singh, N. K.; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-01-01

    The resistance (R) genes and defense response (DR) genes have become very important resources for the development of disease resistant cultivars. In the present investigation, genome-wide identification, expression, phylogenetic and synteny analysis was done for R and DR-genes across three species of rice viz: Oryza sativa ssp indica cv 93-11, Oryza sativa ssp japonica and wild rice species, Oryza brachyantha. We used the in silico approach to identify and map 786 R -genes and 167 DR-genes, 672 R-genes and 142 DR-genes, 251 R-genes and 86 DR-genes in the japonica, indica and O. brachyanth a genomes, respectively. Our analysis showed that 60.5% and 55.6% of the R-genes are tandemly repeated within clusters and distributed over all the rice chromosomes in indica and japonica genomes, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis along with motif distribution shows high degree of conservation of R- and DR-genes in clusters. In silico expression analysis of R-genes and DR-genes showed more than 85% were expressed genes showing corresponding EST matches in the databases. This study gave special emphasis on mechanisms of gene evolution and duplication for R and DR genes across species. Analysis of paralogs across rice species indicated 17% and 4.38% R-genes, 29% and 11.63% DR-genes duplication in indica and Oryza brachyantha, as compared to 20% and 26% duplication of R-genes and DR-genes in japonica respectively. We found that during the course of duplication only 9.5% of R- and DR-genes changed their function and rest of the genes have maintained their identity. Syntenic relationship across three genomes inferred that more orthology is shared between indica and japonica genomes as compared to brachyantha genome. Genome wide identification of R-genes and DR-genes in the rice genome will help in allele mining and functional validation of these genes, and to understand molecular mechanism of disease resistance and their evolution in rice and related species. PMID:25902056

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic molecular determinants or modulators for epigenetic remodeling and reprogramming of somatic cell-derived genome in mammalian nuclear-transferred oocytes and resultant embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiec, M; Skrzyszowska, M

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of somatic cell cloning in mammals remains disappointingly low. Incomplete and aberrant reprogramming of epigenetic memory of somatic cell nuclei in preimplantation nuclear- transferred (NT) embryos is one of the most important factors that limit the cloning effectiveness. The extent of epigenetic genome-wide alterations, involving histone or DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, that are mediated by histone-lysine methyltransferases (HMTs) or DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) can be modulated/reversed via exogenous inhibitors of these enzymes throughout in vitro culture of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient oocytes and/or cloned embryos. The use of the artificial modifiers of epigenomically-conditioned gene expression leads to inhibition of both chromatin condensation and transcriptional silencing the genomic DNA of somatic cells that provide a source of nuclear donors for reconstruction of enucleated oocytes and generation of cloned embryos. The onset of chromatin decondensation and gene transcriptional activity is evoked both through specific/selective inactivating HMTs by BIX-01294 and through non-specific/non-selective blocking the activity of either DNMTs by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, S-adenosylhomocysteine or HDACs by trichostatin A, valproic acid, scriptaid, oxamflatin, sodium butyrate, m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide, panobinostat, abexinostat, quisinostat, dacinostat, belinostat and psammaplin A. Epigenomic modulation of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient cells and/or cloned embryos may facilitate and accelerate the reprogrammability for gene expression of donor cell nuclei that have been transplanted into a host ooplasm and subsequently underwent dedifferentiating and re-establishing the epigenetically dependent status of their transcriptional activity during pre- and postimplantation development of NT embryos. Nevertheless, a comprehensive additional work is necessary to determine

  16. Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J C; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-07-27

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J. C.; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The CRISPR–Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. PMID:28525578

  18. Influence of individual differences in disease perception on consumer response to direct-to-consumer genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, D L; Schork, N J; Topol, E J; Bloss, C S

    2015-03-01

    Individuals who undergo multiplex direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing receive genetic risk results for multiple conditions. To date, research has not investigated the influence of individual differences in disease perceptions among consumers on testing outcomes. A total of 2037 participants received DTC genomic testing and completed baseline and follow-up surveys assessing disease perceptions and health behaviors. Participants were asked to indicate their most feared disease of those tested. Perceived seriousness and controllability of the disease via lifestyle or medical intervention were assessed. Participants most frequently reported heart attack (19.1%) and Alzheimer's disease (18.6%) as their most feared disease. Perceived seriousness and control over the feared disease both influenced response to DTC genomic testing. Greater perceived seriousness and diminished perceived control were associated with higher, but not clinically significant levels of anxiety and distress. In some cases these associations were modified by genetic risk. No significant associations were observed for diet, exercise and screening behaviors. Individual differences in disease perceptions influence psychological outcomes following DTC genomic testing. Higher perceived seriousness may make a consumer more psychologically sensitive to test results and greater perceived control may protect against adverse psychological outcomes. Findings may inform development of educational and counseling services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nuclear energy policy in the United States 1990–2010: A federal or state responsibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most influential reason for no nuclear new build in the US. -- Highlights: •Examines the US nuclear energy sector, 1990–2010. •Nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where an individual state is the key driver. •Misunderstanding of the project management and public administration. •Potential of the power of more localised (state) actions to re-ignite the industry

  20. Generic Procedures for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency at Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The IAEA publishes the Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to fulfil that function. This publication is part of that series. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, contains the following requirement: 'To ensure that arrangements are in place for a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response at the scene...'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(53)/RES/10, continues to encourage Member States '...to enhance, where necessary, their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies, by improving capabilities to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences...'. This publication is intended to assist Member States meet the requirements of GS-R-2 and enhance their preparedness by providing guidance on the response by facility personnel to emergencies at research reactor facilities.

  1. mEBT: multiple-matching Evidence-based Translator of Murine Genomic Responses for Human Immunity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Donghyun; Seok, Junhee

    2018-05-29

    In this paper, we introduce multiple-matching Evidence-based Translator (mEBT) to discover genomic responses from murine expression data for human immune studies, which are significant in the given condition of mice and likely have similar responses in the corresponding condition of human. mEBT is evaluated over multiple data sets and shows improved inter-species agreement. mEBT is expected to be useful for research groups who use murine models to study human immunity. http://cdal.korea.ac.kr/mebt/. jseok14@korea.ac.kr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant's operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ''onsite'' response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world's collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously

  3. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  4. Correlation between nuclear response and defects in CZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermon, H.; Schieber, M.; James, R. B.; Lee, E.; Cross, E.; Goorsky, M.; Lam, T.; Schlesinger, T. E.; Greaves, M.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) was considered until now to be the most successful crystal growth method to produce Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT), (0.04 1-x Zn x Te crystals produced by IMARAD Co. have also been successfully fabricated into nuclear spectroscopic radiation detectors. In view of the database of many years' study of the electrical properties of VHPB CZT grown and obtained from various sources, the authors also studied the HB CZT crystals in order to compare the defects present in both different kinds of crystals grown by different methods. The VHB-grown samples were examined using thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES), X- and gamma ray spectroscopy and laser induced transient charge technique (TCT). The surface and the bulk crystalline homogeneity were mapped using triaxial double crystal x-ray diffraction (TADXRD) and infrared transmission spectroscopy (IR). They have found a correlation between crystallinity, IR transmission microstructure and trapping times. Spectrometer grade VHPB CZT crystals exhibit trapping times of 20 (micro)s for electrons and 7 (micro)s for holes, however, regions, which were opaque to IR transmission, had trapping times shorter by one order of magnitude. The trapping times of HB CZT for electrons, were 10--15 (micro)s. A similar trend has been observed on VHPB CZT crystals with poor crystallinity. The HB CZT crystals that they measured in this study had a crystallinity that was inferior to that of the best spectroscopic grade VHPB crystals

  5. Support for a nuclear future: student response to the CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremseth, M.D.; Clelland, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a multiple regression analysis of questionnaire data from two random samples of University of Tennessee seniors. Data were collected from 94 students with science/engineering majors (the ''Tech'' sample), and 91 students with non-science/engineering majors (the ''Mass'' sample--which represents the majority of the students). The purpose of the analysis was to isolate factors which independently explain student response to the CRBRP and to breeder reactors in general

  6. Nuclear medicine imaging to predict response to radiotherapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiele, Christophe van de; Lahorte, Christophe; Oyen, Wim; Boerman, Otto; Goethals, Ingeborg; Slegers, Guido; Dierckx, Rudi Andre

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To review available literature on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) for the measurement of tumor metabolism, hypoxia, growth factor receptor expression, and apoptosis as predictors of response to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Medical literature databases (Pubmed, Medline) were screened for available literature and critically analyzed as to their scientific relevance. Results: Studies on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET as a predictor of response to radiotherapy in head-and-neck carcinoma are promising but need confirmation in larger series. 18 F-fluorothymine is stable in human plasma, and preliminary clinical data obtained with this marker of tumor cell proliferation are promising. For imaging tumor hypoxia, novel, more widely available radiopharmaceuticals with faster pharmacokinetics are mandatory. Imaging of ongoing apoptosis and growth factor expression is at a very early stage, but results obtained in other domains with radiolabeled peptides appear promising. Finally, for most of the tracers discussed, validation against a gold standard is needed. Conclusion: Optimization of the pharmacokinetics of relevant radiopharmaceuticals as well as validation against gold-standard tests in large patient series are mandatory if PET and SPECT are to be implemented in routine clinical practice for the purpose of predicting response to radiotherapy

  7. Research on the response of various persons to information about nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The author surveyed blogs readily available on the Internet for three purposes: (1) to grasp the public response to nuclear problems after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, (2) to determine changes in the number of blogs based on an article search, and (3) to identify the stance of bloggers on the necessity of nuclear power generation based on reading contribution contents. Furthermore the author conducted a questionnaire survey of public response in reference to the results of the blog survey. From the blog survey, it was found that immediately after the accident, the number of blogs which were negative toward nuclear power generation drastically increased, but as time has passed, blogs which are positive are increasing in number somewhat in expectation of stabilized economic and living conditions. The main results of the questionnaire survey are as follows. (1) Many persons want power generation that is non-nuclear; this is because they have good expectations for renewable energy sources or new thermal power generation as an alternative energy and they strongly feel anxious about the issue of disposal of spent nuclear fuel. (2) Because of the risk of negative impacts which electricity shortages bring on the economy and lifestyles, some persons do not want immediate decommissioning of nuclear power reactors, they favor a phase-out of nuclear power generation. Though public opinion about nuclear problems includes the expectation that one alternative energy can be selected, there is a possibility that this opinion will shift to find an optimum energy mix of plural energy sources. (author)

  8. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask B: dosimeter response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1983-03-01

    As part of a larger program to evaluate personnel neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power plants, this study was designed to characterize neutron dosimeter responses inside the containment structure of commercial nuclear plants. In order to characterize those responses, dosimeters were irradiated inside containment at 2 pressurized water reactors and at pipe penetrations outside the biological shield at two boiling water reactors. The reactors were operating at full power during the irradiations. Measurements were also performed with electronic instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and portable remmeters, SNOOPY, RASCAL and PNR-4.

  9. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask B: dosimeter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1983-03-01

    As part of a larger program to evaluate personnel neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power plants, this study was designed to characterize neutron dosimeter responses inside the containment structure of commercial nuclear plants. In order to characterize those responses, dosimeters were irradiated inside containment at 2 pressurized water reactors and at pipe penetrations outside the biological shield at two boiling water reactors. The reactors were operating at full power during the irradiations. Measurements were also performed with electronic instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and portable remmeters, SNOOPY, RASCAL and PNR-4

  10. Initial genomics of the human nucleolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Németh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the genomics of a nuclear compartment of the eukaryotic cell. 454 sequencing and microarray analysis revealed the pattern of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs in the linear human genome and identified different gene families and certain satellite repeats as the major building blocks of NADs, which constitute about 4% of the genome. Bioinformatic evaluation showed that NAD-localized genes take part in specific biological processes, like the response to other organisms, odor perception, and tissue development. 3D FISH and immunofluorescence experiments illustrated the spatial distribution of NAD-specific chromatin within interphase nuclei and its alteration upon transcriptional changes. Altogether, our findings describe the nature of DNA sequences associated with the human nucleolus and provide insights into the function of the nucleolus in genome organization and establishment of nuclear architecture.

  11. Initial Genomics of the Human Nucleolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Attila; Conesa, Ana; Santoyo-Lopez, Javier; Medina, Ignacio; Montaner, David; Péterfia, Bálint; Solovei, Irina; Cremer, Thomas; Dopazo, Joaquin; Längst, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time the genomics of a nuclear compartment of the eukaryotic cell. 454 sequencing and microarray analysis revealed the pattern of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs) in the linear human genome and identified different gene families and certain satellite repeats as the major building blocks of NADs, which constitute about 4% of the genome. Bioinformatic evaluation showed that NAD–localized genes take part in specific biological processes, like the response to other organisms, odor perception, and tissue development. 3D FISH and immunofluorescence experiments illustrated the spatial distribution of NAD–specific chromatin within interphase nuclei and its alteration upon transcriptional changes. Altogether, our findings describe the nature of DNA sequences associated with the human nucleolus and provide insights into the function of the nucleolus in genome organization and establishment of nuclear architecture. PMID:20361057

  12. Evolutionary history of the Corallinales (Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta) inferred from nuclear, plastidial and mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Lucie; Payri, Claude E; Maneveldt, Gavin W; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; de Reviers, Bruno; Le Gall, Line

    2011-12-01

    Systematics of the red algal order Corallinales has a long and convoluted history. In the present study, molecular approaches were used to assess the phylogenetic relationships based on the analyses of two datasets: a large dataset of SSU sequences including mainly sequences from GenBank; and a combined dataset including four molecular markers (two nuclear: SSU, LSU; one plastidial: psbA; and one mitochondrial: COI). Phylogenetic analyses of both datasets re-affirmed the monophyly of the Corallinales as well as the two families (Corallinaceae and Hapalidiaceae) currently recognized within the order. Three of the four subfamilies of the Corallinaceae (Corallinoideae, Lithophylloideae, Metagoniolithoideae) were also resolved as a monophyletic lineage whereas members of the Mastophoroideae were resolved as four distinct lineages. We therefore propose to restrict the Mastophoroideae to the genera Mastophora, Metamastophora, and possibly Lithoporella in the aim of rendering this subfamily monophyletic. In addition, our phylogenies resolved the genus Hydrolithon in two unrelated lineages, one containing the generitype Hydrolithon reinboldii and the second containing Hydrolithon onkodes, which used to be the generitype of the now defunct genus Porolithon. We therefore propose to resurrect the genus Porolithon for the second lineage encompassing those species with primarily monomerous thalli, and trichocyte arrangements in large pustulate horizontal rows. Moreover, our phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of cryptic diversity in several taxa, shedding light on the need for further studies to better circumscribe species frontiers within the diverse order Corallinales, especially in the genera Mesophyllum and Neogoniolithon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Strains of bacterial species induce a greatly varied acute adaptive immune response: The contribution of the accessory genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Sela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in human susceptibility to bacterial infections is to what extent variability is a function of differences in the pathogen species or in individual humans. To focus on the pathogen species, we compared in the same individual the human adaptive T and B cell immune response to multiple strains of two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. We found wide variability in the acute adaptive immune response induced by various strains of a species, with a unique combination of activation within the two arms of the adaptive response. Further, this was also accompanied by a dramatic difference in the intensity of the specific protective T helper (Th response. Importantly, the same immune response differences induced by the individual strains were maintained across multiple healthy human donors. A comparison of isogenic phage KO strains, demonstrated that of the pangenome, prophages were the major contributor to inter-strain immune heterogeneity, as the T cell response to the remaining "core genome" was noticeably blunted. Therefore, these findings extend and modify the notion of an adaptive response to a pathogenic bacterium, by implying that the adaptive immune response signature of a bacterial species should be defined either per strain or alternatively to the species' 'core genome', common to all of its strains. Further, our results demonstrate that the acquired immune response variation is as wide among different strains within a single pathogenic species as it is among different humans, and therefore may explain in part the clinical heterogeneity observed in patients infected with the same species.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaño-Pachón Diego

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs, ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. Results Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Conclusion Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of

  15. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Porras, Judith L; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Dreyer, Ingo; Mayer, Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2007-08-01

    In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs), ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE) associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs) in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of interacting with transcription factors. Further studies will be

  16. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15

    Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on responses of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these response for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes of A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in response to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth distribution of

  17. Estimation of low-dose radiation-responsive proteins in the absence of genomic instability in normal human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Ji-Hye; Yun, Jung Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Cha Soon

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose radiation has various biological effects such as adaptive responses, low-dose hypersensitivity, as well as beneficial effects. However, little is known about the particular proteins involved in these effects. Here, we sought to identify low-dose radiation-responsive phosphoproteins in normal fibroblast cells. We assessed genomic instability and proliferation of fibroblast cells after γ-irradiation by γ-H2AX foci and micronucleus formation analyses and BrdU incorporation assay, respectively. We screened fibroblast cells 8 h after low-dose (0.05 Gy) γ-irradiation using Phospho Explorer Antibody Microarray and validated two differentially expressed phosphoproteins using Western blotting. Cell proliferation proceeded normally in the absence of genomic instability after low-dose γ-irradiation. Phospho antibody microarray analysis and Western blotting revealed increased expression of two phosphoproteins, phospho-NFκB (Ser536) and phospho-P70S6K (Ser418), 8 h after low-dose radiation. Our findings suggest that low-dose radiation of normal fibroblast cells activates the expression of phospho-NFκB (Ser536) and phospho-P70S6K (Ser418) in the absence of genomic instability. Therefore, these proteins may be involved in DNA damage repair processes.

  18. Integrating genome-based informatics to modernize global disease monitoring, information sharing, and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Brown, Eric W; Detter, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease...... typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases......-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular...

  19. Trial application of guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Oliver, R.; O'Connor, W.

    1993-09-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. These guidelines are published in EPRI report NP-6695, ''Guidelines for Nuclear Plant Response to an Earthquake,'' dated December 1989. This report includes two sets of nuclear plant procedures which were prepared to implement the guidelines of EPRI report NP-6695. The first set were developed by the Toledo Edison Company Davis-Besse plant. Davis-Besse is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and contains relatively standard seismic monitoring instrumentation typical of many domestic nuclear plants. The second set of procedures were prepared by Yankee Atomic Electric Company for the Vermont Yankee facility. This plant is a boiling water reactor (BWR) with state-of-the-art seismic monitoring and PC-based data processing equipment, software developed specifically to implement the OBE Exceedance Criterion presented in EPRI report NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the operating Basis Earthquake.'' The two sets of procedures are intended to demonstrate how two different nuclear utilities have interpreted and applied the EPRI guidance given in report NP-6695

  20. A corporate social responsibility initiative in the field of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, M.; Rizea, L.

    2009-01-01

    Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica SA is the operator of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant and the second largest energy producer in Romania, after Hidroelectrica, ensuring 18% of the internal energy demand. The production of nuclear power differs from other industrial activities through the risks it involves and through the legacy it leaves to the future generations, i.e. the nuclear waste. Taking into account these considerations, public acceptance represents a constant preoccupation for nuclear companies around the world. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a new practice in the nuclear industry. After a long tradition of involvement in the life of the local community through the Social Program for Cernavoda, Nuclearelectrica has initiated a CSR campaign with the theme 'Welcome a tree in your family', addressed to pupils and high school students from Cernavoda. By this campaign, we aimed at creating relevance, not just green lots and to launch a chain of reactions among the citizens of Cernavoda through 'word of mouth communication' so that our initiative may become a sustainable activity. In order to establish the basis of a long term program, the essential element was to change the attitude and behavior of the target population from lack of involvement to responsibility towards the environment. The ecological campaign developed in two phases of planting trees, has recorded significant results among the target population increasing the level of information and acceptance towards nuclear power. (authors)

  1. DNA Length Modulates the Affinity of Fragments of Genomic DNA for the Nuclear Matrix In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vilchis, David; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2017-12-01

    Classical observations have shown that during the interphase the chromosomal DNA of metazoans is organized in supercoiled loops attached to a compartment known as the nuclear matrix (NM). Fragments of chromosomal DNA able to bind the isolated NM in vitro are known as matrix associated/attachment/addressed regions or MARs. No specific consensus sequence or motif has been found that may constitute a universal, defining feature of MARs. On the other hand, high-salt resistant DNA-NM interactions in situ define true DNA loop anchorage regions or LARs, that might correspond to a subset of the potential MARs but are not necessarily identical to MARs characterized in vitro, since there are several examples of MARs able to bind the NM in vitro but which are not actually bound to the NM in situ. In the present work we assayed the capacity of two LARs, as well as of shorter fragments within such LARs, for binding to the NM in vitro. Paradoxically the isolated (≈2 kb) LARs cannot bind to the NM in vitro while their shorter (≈300 pb) sub-fragments and other non-related but equally short DNA fragments, bind to the NM in a high-salt resistant fashion. Our results suggest that the ability of a given DNA fragment for binding to the NM in vitro primarily depends on the length of the fragment, suggesting that binding to the NM is modulated by the local topology of the DNA fragment in suspension that it is known to depend on the DNA length. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4487-4497, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Whole genome sequence to decipher the resistome of Shewanella algae, a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for pneumonia, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Teresa; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    We characterize and decipher the resistome and the virulence factors of Shewanella algae MARS 14, a multidrug-resistant clinical strain using the whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy. The bacteria were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalized patient in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France who developed pneumonia after plunging into the Mediterranean Sea. The genome size of S. algae MARS 14 was 5,005,710 bp with 52.8% guanine cytosine content. The resistome includes members of class C and D beta-lactamases and numerous multidrug-efflux pumps. We also found the presence of several hemolysins genes, a complete flagellum system gene cluster and genes responsible for biofilm formation. Moreover, we reported for the first time in a clinical strain of Shewanella spp. the presence of a bacteriocin (marinocin). The WGS analysis of this pathogen provides insight into its virulence factors and resistance to antibiotics.

  3. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalk, M.; Woelfel, H.

    1975-01-01

    The question has been posed concerning the effect of airplane crash on the safety of the equipment (pipes, vessels, etc.) mounted on the floors and walls inside the outer structure. This equipment is set into vibration by the crash-induced shaking of the outer building; the resulting stresses may be quite appreciable. The following questions arise: a) how large are these stresses. Can they, for example, be larger than the stresses produced by earthquake loading. b) What are the significant response parameters. c) Which methods of analysis and design criteria are reasonable. To what extent is it possible to apply the techniques which have become generally accepted for earthquake loading. The paper presents a preliminary answer to these questions pending further work in this area. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Network of siren, public address and display system to preparedness and response for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.H.; Padmanabhan, N.; Raman, N.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    For an effective emergency response and implementation of counter measures, communication during a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect. The declaration of a nuclear emergency must be immediately conveyed to all those working in the plant and around the nuclear site. Besides this, the nature of emergency also needs to be conveyed unambiguously along with corresponding counter measures, such as stay in, evacuation or all clear signal for the relevant plants. This requirement has necessitated the need for a networked signaling system. Based on this requirement, a microcontroller based signaling and a telephone/wireless based communication and display system has been designed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. It is proposed to be used as a part of emergency preparedness and response programme at the nuclear facility sites. As per the design made for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site, each plant or area in the site is identified by a unique identification code. The main Site Emergency Control Centre/Emergency Response Centre at Mod. Labs. selectively calls the various plants and declares the nature of emergency to be followed In that plant/area through different siren signals along with display and announcement of instructions. This paper describes the details of the system that is designed for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site and proposed for other nuclear power plant sites. (author)

  6. Nuclear accident/radiological emergency assistance plan. NAREAP - edition 2000. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Nuclear Accident/Radiological Emergency Assistance Plan (NAREAP) is to describe the framework for systematic, integrated, co-ordinated, and effective preparedness and response for a nuclear accident or radiological emergency involving facilities or practices that may give rise to a threat to health, the environment or property. The purpose of the NAREAP is: to define the emergency response objectives of the Agency's staff in a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency; to assign responsibilities for performing the tasks and authorities for making the decisions that comprise the Agency staff's response to a nuclear accident or radiological emergency; to guide the Agency managers who must ensure that all necessary tasks are given the necessary support in discharging the Agency staff responsibilities and fulfilling its obligations in response to an emergency; to ensure that the development and maintenance of detailed and coherent response procedures are well founded; to act as a point of reference for individual Agency staff members on their responsibilities (as an individual or a team member) throughout a response; to identify interrelationships with other international intergovernmental Organizations; and to serve as a training aid to maintain readiness of personnel. The NAREAP refers to the arrangements of the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the United Nations Security and Safety Section at the Vienna International Centre (UNSSS-VIC) that may be necessary for the IAEA to respond to a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, as defined in the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions. It covers response arrangements for any situation that may have actual, potential or perceived radiological consequences and that could require a response from the IAEA, as well as the arrangements for developing, maintaining and exercising preparedness. The implementing procedures themselves are not included in the NAREAP, but they are required

  7. Heat Shock Protein Genes Undergo Dynamic Alteration in Their Three-Dimensional Structure and Genome Organization in Response to Thermal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S; Gross, David S

    2017-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin organization is important for proper gene regulation, yet how the genome is remodeled in response to stress is largely unknown. Here, we use a highly sensitive version of chromosome conformation capture in combination with fluorescence microscopy to investigate Heat Shock Protein ( HSP ) gene conformation and 3D nuclear organization in budding yeast. In response to acute thermal stress, HSP genes undergo intense intragenic folding interactions that go well beyond 5'-3' gene looping previously described for RNA polymerase II genes. These interactions include looping between upstream activation sequence (UAS) and promoter elements, promoter and terminator regions, and regulatory and coding regions (gene "crumpling"). They are also dynamic, being prominent within 60 s, peaking within 2.5 min, and attenuating within 30 min, and correlate with HSP gene transcriptional activity. With similarly striking kinetics, activated HSP genes, both chromosomally linked and unlinked, coalesce into discrete intranuclear foci. Constitutively transcribed genes also loop and crumple yet fail to coalesce. Notably, a missense mutation in transcription factor TFIIB suppresses gene looping, yet neither crumpling nor HSP gene coalescence is affected. An inactivating promoter mutation, in contrast, obviates all three. Our results provide evidence for widespread, transcription-associated gene crumpling and demonstrate the de novo assembly and disassembly of HSP gene foci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Emergency planning and response: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the recommendations contained in the President's Commission Report on the Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident (the Kemeny Commission report) that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors have been reviewed. The assessments of the 13 facilities are based on information provided by the individual operator organizations and/or cognizant DOE Field Offices. Additional clarifying information was supplied in some, but not all, instances. This report indicates how these 13 reactor facilities measure up in light of the Kemeny and other TMI-related studies and recommendations, particularly those that have resulted in upgraded Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in the area of emergency planning and response

  9. In-situ measurement of response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Response time measurements are performed once every fuel cycle on most safety-related temperature and pressure sensors in a majority of nuclear power plants in the US. This paper provides a review of the methods that are used for these measurements. The methods are referred to as the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test, which is used for response time testing of temperature sensors, and noise analysis and power interrupt (PI) tests, which are used for response time testing of pressure, level, and flow transmitters

  10. Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1 protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP, regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. To better understand these various functions of EBNA1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the viral and cellular DNA sites associated with EBNA1 protein in a latently infected Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55 D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. EBNA1 also bound close to the transcriptional start sites of a large number of cellular genes, including HDAC3, CDC7, and MAP3K1, which we show are positively regulated by EBNA1. EBNA1 binding sites were enriched in some repetitive elements, especially LINE 1 retrotransposons, and had weak correlations with histone modifications and ORC binding. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA

  11. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  12. Genome-wide expression analysis offers new insights into the origin and evolution of Physcomitrella patens stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2015-11-30

    Changes in the environment, such as those caused by climate change, can exert stress on plant growth, diversity and ultimately global food security. Thus, focused efforts to fully understand plant response to stress are urgently needed in order to develop strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Because Physcomitrella patens holds a key evolutionary position bridging the gap between green algae and higher plants, and because it exhibits a well-developed stress tolerance, it is an excellent model for such exploration. Here, we have used Physcomitrella patens to study genome-wide responses to abiotic stress through transcriptomic analysis by a high-throughput sequencing platform. We report a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics, defining profiles of elicited gene regulation responses to abiotic stress-associated hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), cold, drought, and salt treatments. We identified more than 20,000 genes expressed under each aforementioned stress treatments, of which 9,668 display differential expression in response to stress. The comparison of Physcomitrella patens stress regulated genes with unicellular algae, vascular and flowering plants revealed genomic delineation concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general gene family complexity and loss of genes associated with different functional groups.

  13. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  14. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  15. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  16. Calibration of thermoluminescence skin dosemeter response to beta emitters found in Ontario Hydro nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.L.; Agnew, D.A.; Donnelly, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The response of the Ontario Hydro Thermoluminescence Dosimetry System to beta radiation in nuclear power station environments was evaluated. Synthetic beta spectra were constructed, based on activity samples from heat transport systems and fuelling machine contamination smears at nuclear power stations. Using these spectra and dosemeter energy response functions, an overall response factor for the skin dosemeter relative to skin dose at 7 mg.cm -2 was calculated. This calculation was done assuming three specific geometries: (1) an infinite uniformly contaminated plane source at a distance of 33 cm (50 mg.cm -2 total shielding) from the receptor; (2) an infinite cloud surrounding the receptor; (3) a point source at 33 cm. Based on these calculations, a conservative response factor of 0.7 has been chosen. This provides an equation for skin dose assignment, i.e. Skin Dose = 1.4 x Skin Dosemeter Reading when the skin dosemeter is directly calibrated in mGy(gamma). (author)

  17. Sum rule approach to the nuclear response in the isovector spin channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberico, W.M.; Ericson, M.; Molinari, A.

    1982-01-01

    We study the global features of the response of infinite nuclear matter in the spin-isospin channel through the energy weighted sum rules S 1 and Ssub(-) 1 . In particular we compare the outcome of the ring approximation with the exact RPA evaluation of the sum rules. We also investigate the influence of the collective character of the response, induced by the particle hole force for a longitudinal and transverse spin couplings. We show that S 1 is insensitive to the collectivity of the response, as long as the Δ degree of freedom is ignored. The inverse energy weighted sum rule on the other hand, which is linked to the paramagnetic susceptibility, always reflects the hardening or softening of the nuclear response, due to the repulsive or attractive character of the p-h force. This quantity is well suited to the comparison with the experiments, which we perform for 12 C and 56 Fe. (orig.)

  18. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species.

  19. Validation of Infinite Impulse Response Multilayer Perceptron for Modelling Nuclear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cadini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are powerful algorithms for constructing nonlinear empirical models from operational data. Their use is becoming increasingly popular in the complex modeling tasks required by diagnostic, safety, and control applications in complex technologies such as those employed in the nuclear industry. In this paper, the nonlinear modeling capabilities of an infinite impulse response multilayer perceptron (IIR-MLP for nuclear dynamics are considered in comparison to static modeling by a finite impulse response multilayer perceptron (FIR-MLP and a conventional static MLP. The comparison is made with respect to the nonlinear dynamics of a nuclear reactor as investigated by IIR-MLP in a previous paper. The superior performance of the locally recurrent scheme is demonstrated.

  20. Neutrino nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos by charge exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for neutrino studies in nuclei. Charge exchange reactions (CER) are shown to be used to study charged current neutrino nuclear responses associated with double beta decays(DBD)and astro neutrino interactions. CERs to be used are high energy-resolution (He3 ,t) reactions at RCNP, photonuclear reactions via IAR at NewSUBARU and muon capture reactions at MUSIC RCNP and MLF J-PARC. The Gamow Teller (GT) strengths studied by CERs reproduce the observed 2 neutrino DBD matrix elements. The GT and spin dipole (SD) matrix elements are found to be reduced much due to the nucleon spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic (delta isobar) nuclear medium effects. Impacts of the reductions on the DBD matrix elements and astro neutrino interactions are discussed.

  1. The discovery of nuclear fission and the responsibility of the scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The history of the discovery of nuclear fission is placed in historical context and the responsibility of the scientists involved for the subsequent military uses is discussed. It is explained that the deep things in science are not found because they are useful; they are found because it is possible to find them. If Otto Hahn and his co-workers had not discovered nuclear fission someone else in the late 1930s or early 1940s would have done so. It was decisions outside science which set the course for the nuclear fission research once the basic principle had been understood. The question how far does the scientists responsibility extend for unknown and unintended consequences of research and for misuses of his findings by others is discussed. Scientists have a duty to understand the applications of their work and to warn of misuse or hazards, as did Otto Hahn. (UK)

  2. Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wagner Schenkel; Buarque, Lia; Voshell, Martin; Branlat, Matthieu; Woods, David D.; Gomes, Jose Orlando

    2008-01-01

    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response System in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation training. (authors)

  3. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  4. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  5. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  6. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  7. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  8. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  9. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  10. A 'joint venture' model of recontacting in clinical genomics : Challenges for responsible implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Carrieri, Daniele; Kelly, Susan; Clarke, Angus; Doheny, Shane; Turnpenny, Peter; Lucassen, Anneke

    Advances in genomics often lead healthcare professionals (HCPs) to learn new information, e.g., about reinterpreted variants that could have clinical significance for patients seen previously. A question arises of whether HCPs should recontact these former patients. We present some findings

  11. Genomic dissection of anthracnose resistant response in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to use a genomics-based approaches to identify anthracnose resistance loci from diverse sorghum germplasm as an effort to the disease resistance mechanism of at least one of these genes. This information will provide plant breeders with a tool kit that can be used to maxi...

  12. Integrative Genomics Reveals Mechanisms of Copy Number Alterations Responsible for Transcriptional Deregulation in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jordi; Nguyen, Quang Tri; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Knutsen, Turid; McNeil, Nicole E.; Wangsa, Danny; Hummon, Amanda B.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal aberrations in colorectal cancer (CRC), we used a combination of spectral karyotyping, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and array-based global gene expression profiling on 31 primary carcinomas and 15 established cell lines. Importantly, aCGH showed that the genomic profiles of primary tumors are recapitulated in the cell lines. We revealed a preponderance of chromosome breakpoints at sites of copy number variants (CNVs) in the CRC cell lines, a novel mechanism of DNA breakage in cancer. The integration of gene expression and aCGH led to the identification of 157 genes localized within high-level copy number changes whose transcriptional deregulation was significantly affected across all of the samples, thereby suggesting that these genes play a functional role in CRC. Genomic amplification at 8q24 was the most recurrent event and led to the overexpression of MYC and FAM84B. Copy number dependent gene expression resulted in deregulation of known cancer genes such as APC, FGFR2, and ERBB2. The identification of only 36 genes whose localization near a breakpoint could account for their observed deregulated expression demonstrates that the major mechanism for transcriptional deregulation in CRC is genomic copy number changes resulting from chromosomal aberrations. PMID:19691111

  13. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidaritabar, M.; Vereijken, A.; Muir, W.M.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Cheng, H.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60¿K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the

  14. Scale model study of the seismic response of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Rhorer, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of scale models to study the dynamics of a system of graphite core blocks used in certain nuclear reactor designs is described. Scaling laws, material selecton, model instrumentation to measure collision forces, and the response of several models to simulated seismic excitation are covered. The effects of Coulomb friction between the blocks and the clearance gaps between the blocks on the system response to seismic excitation are emphasized

  15. IRSN - Institute of Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety. Report 2014. Corporate societal responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repussard, Jacques; Dufer, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    After a discussion of the importance of the societal responsibility of the IRSN as a collective approach, and as an asset for nuclear safety, this report first addresses how to preserve the environment and to manage the risks (reduction of carbon print in the policy of trips and travels, improvement of energy efficiency of IRSN buildings). It describes how to maintain the social commitment at a high level, how to develop responsible purchases and sales, how to strengthen relationships between stakeholders

  16. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  17. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar2@buffalo.edu; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  18. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Liu

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and avian influenza (AI are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP. Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising.

  19. Acceptance criteria for determining armed response force size at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This guidance document contains acceptance criteria to be used in the NRC license review process. It consists of a scored worksheet and guidelines for interpreting the worksheet score that can be used in determining the adequacy of the armed response force size at a nuclear power reactor facility

  20. Nuclear Disarmament and the Insanity Defense: What Happened to Political Responsiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John H.; Shaver, Kelly G.

    A study which explored the degree to which belief in a politically responsive/unresponsive world might be related to opinions concerning nuclear disarmament, the insanity defense, and women's rights is described. A total of 206 male and female undergraduates completed a 63-item questionnaire consisting of 46 Likert-format I-E items and 17 attitude…

  1. Guidelines for communicating about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibly, and ethically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses guidelines for communicating information about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibility, and ethically. It consists of four parts: guidelines for communicating risk information; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk-related numbers and statistics; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk comparisons; and problems frequently encountered in communicating risk information

  2. Study of arcview GIS application in the nuclear power plant emergency response decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Chen Lin; Dong Binjiang

    2003-01-01

    It is very significant to apply the technique of GIS to the development of the Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Response Decision Support System. On the basis of the software system ArcView. This paper investigate the framework, the function and the development methods of the system. (authors)

  3. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted

  4. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted.

  5. Proteomics approach to identify dehydration responsive nuclear proteins from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aarti; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2008-01-01

    Dehydration or water-deficit is one of the most important environmental stress factors that greatly influences plant growth and development and limits crop productivity. Plants respond and adapt to such stress by altering their cellular metabolism and activating various defense machineries. Mechanisms that operate signal perception, transduction, and downstream regulatory events provide valuable information about the underlying pathways involved in environmental stress responses. The nuclear proteins constitute a highly organized, complex network that plays diverse roles during cellular development and other physiological processes. To gain a better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a comparative nuclear proteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water and the changes in the nuclear proteome were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Approximately 205 protein spots were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 147 differentially expressed proteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including gene transcription and replication, molecular chaperones, cell signaling, and chromatin remodeling. The dehydration responsive nuclear proteome of chickpea revealed a coordinated response, which involves both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. This study, for the first time, provides an insight into the complex metabolic network operating in the nucleus during dehydration.

  6. Symbiodinium genomes reveal adaptive evolution of functions related to symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huanle; Stephens, Timothy G.; Gonzá lez-Pech, Raú l; Beltran, Victor H.; Lapeyre, Bruno; Bongaerts, Pim; Cooke, Ira; Bourne, David G.; Forê t, Sylvain; Miller, David John; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Ragan, Mark A.; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2017-01-01

    Symbiosis between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals forms the trophic foundation of the world's coral reef ecosystems. Here we present the first draft genome of Symbiodinium goreaui (Clade C, type C1: 1.03 Gbp), one of the most ubiquitous endosymbionts associated with corals, and an improved draft genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii (Clade F, strain CS-156: 1.05 Gbp), previously sequenced as strain CCMP2468, to further elucidate genomic signatures of this symbiosis. Comparative analysis of four available Symbiodinium genomes against other dinoflagellate genomes led to the identification of 2460 nuclear gene families that show evidence of positive selection, including genes involved in photosynthesis, transmembrane ion transport, synthesis and modification of amino acids and glycoproteins, and stress response. Further, we identified extensive sets of genes for meiosis and response to light stress. These draft genomes provide a foundational resource for advancing our understanding Symbiodinium biology and the coral-algal symbiosis.

  7. Symbiodinium genomes reveal adaptive evolution of functions related to symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huanle

    2017-10-06

    Symbiosis between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals forms the trophic foundation of the world\\'s coral reef ecosystems. Here we present the first draft genome of Symbiodinium goreaui (Clade C, type C1: 1.03 Gbp), one of the most ubiquitous endosymbionts associated with corals, and an improved draft genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii (Clade F, strain CS-156: 1.05 Gbp), previously sequenced as strain CCMP2468, to further elucidate genomic signatures of this symbiosis. Comparative analysis of four available Symbiodinium genomes against other dinoflagellate genomes led to the identification of 2460 nuclear gene families that show evidence of positive selection, including genes involved in photosynthesis, transmembrane ion transport, synthesis and modification of amino acids and glycoproteins, and stress response. Further, we identified extensive sets of genes for meiosis and response to light stress. These draft genomes provide a foundational resource for advancing our understanding Symbiodinium biology and the coral-algal symbiosis.

  8. Evaluation of the nuclear and radiological emergency response system in Brazil; Visao critica do sistema de atendimento a emergencia radiologica e nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Julio J.S.; Azevedo, Eduardo M.; Knoefel, Tom M.J. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has made outstanding efforts to improve its nuclear and radiological accident response system since the tragic accident in Goiania, Brazil. Most of these efforts are related to nuclear emergency although radiological accidents are also considered. Several topics are discussed involving those related to planning and preparedness. Some deficiencies that need to be corrected or improved are pointed out 8 refs.

  9. Medical Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Training Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In almost all nuclear and radiological emergencies, local emergency services (e.g. local medical, law enforcement, and fire brigades) will have the most important role in the early response. Within hours, hospitals may also have an important role to play in the response at the local level. Since nuclear and radiological emergencies are rare, medical responders often have little or no experience in dealing with this type of emergency and inexperience may lead to an inadequate response. For this reason, training in medical preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency is an important aspect of preparedness and response activities. These materials are designed for use at a training course on medical preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. They contain a wide range of lectures and supporting materials, which cover the basic topics and more specific areas of medical preparedness and response. Therefore, in planning their specific courses, organizers are encouraged to choose those lectures and supportive materials from the CD-ROM that best match their training priorities. Materials on the CD-ROM address the following areas: • Terrorism in Perspective; • Malicious Act Scenarios; • Providing Information to the Medical Community and the Public; • Medical Response to a Radiation Mass Casualty Event; • Handling of Contaminated Persons in Malicious Events; • Planning and Preparedness for Medical Response to Malicious Events with Radioactive Material; • Handling the Bodies of Decedents Contaminated with Radioactive Material; • Radiation Emergencies: Scope of the Problem; • Common Sources of Radiation; • Basic Concepts of Ionizing Radiation; • Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection; • Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation – Basic Notions; • Basics of Radiopathology; • External Radioactive Contamination; • Internal Radioactive Contamination; • Acute Radiation Syndrome; • Cutaneous Radiation

  10. Institutional Responsibility and the Flawed Genomic Biomarkers at Duke University: A Missed Opportunity for Transparency and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, David L; Fleming, Thomas R; Geller, Gail; Ransohoff, David F

    2017-08-01

    When there have been substantial failures by institutional leadership in their oversight responsibility to protect research integrity, the public should demand that these be recognized and addressed by the institution itself, or the funding bodies. This commentary discusses a case of research failures in developing genomic predictors for cancer risk assessment and treatment at a leading university. In its review of this case, the Office of Research Integrity, an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services, focused their report entirely on one individual faculty member and made no comment on the institution's responsibility and its failure to provide adequate oversight and investigation. These actions missed an important opportunity to emphasize the institution's critical responsibilities in oversight of research integrity and the importance of institutional transparency and accountability.

  11. Genome-wide Differences in DNA Methylation Changes in Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes in Response to Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Differences in drought stress tolerance within diverse rice genotypes have been attributed to genetic diversity and epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that influences diverse biological processes, but its effects on rice drought stress tolerance are poorly understood. In this study, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing and an Affymetrix GeneChip rice genome array were used to profile the DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes of the drought-tolerant introgression line DK151 and its drought-sensitive recurrent parent IR64 under drought and control conditions. The introgression of donor genomic DNA induced genome-wide DNA methylation changes in DK151 plants. A total of 1190 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were detected between the two genotypes under normal growth conditions, and the DMR-associated genes in DK151 plants were mainly related to stress response, programmed cell death, and nutrient reservoir activity, which are implicated to constitutive drought stress tolerance. A comparison of the DNA methylation changes in the two genotypes under drought conditions indicated that DK151 plants have a more stable methylome, with only 92 drought-induced DMRs, than IR64 plants with 506 DMRs. Gene ontology analyses of the DMR-associated genes in drought-stressed plants revealed that changes to the DNA methylation status of genotype-specific genes are associated with the epigenetic regulation of drought stress responses. Transcriptome analysis further helped to identify a set of 12 and 23 DMR-associated genes that were differentially expressed in DK151 and IR64, respectively, under drought stress compared with respective controls. Correlation analysis indicated that DNA methylation has various effects on gene expression, implying that it affects gene expression directly or indirectly through diverse regulatory pathways. Our results indicate that drought-induced alterations to DNA

  12. Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended

  13. Social responsibility (SR) of nuclear research and its practice for pursuing integrity and sustainability of nuclear research with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsuo, Sawada; Naoki, Yamano; Yoshiko, Aoyama; Akiko, Shioda; Junichi, Mizuo; Yasuhiko, Fujii

    2007-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which includes compliance, engineering and business ethics, safety and security, and corporate governance, is being widely applied not only in the field of business administrations but also in academia and research communities. The basic 3 ideals of CSR are sustainability, stakeholder dialogue (stakeholder include consumers, suppliers, employees, investors and local communities) and triple basic constraints (be environment-friendly, competitive and beneficial for the society as a whole). A typical aspect of this trend is that most electric power company publishes documents such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reports which are the improved version of social-environmental reports. CSR reflects the very expectations from the society that how far the corporations and organizations including universities can resolve the issues in which the society is necessarily involved. The nuclear power generations and related facilities are sorts of societal systems and not merely technological systems. This paper describes the concept of CSR, its basic prerequisites and the framework of the civic forum that is a part of the practices of Nuclear CSR