WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear gages

  1. Improved nuclear gage development - phase i and ii. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.L.; Champion, F.C.; Castanon, D.R.; Chang, J.C.; Hannon, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains Phase I and II of an investigation covering the design and construction of a prototype nuclear-moisture-density backscatter gage. Gage development was based upon the analysis of several factors which affect gage performance. This research indicated that the prototype gage measurements are approximately equivalent to measurements obtained by a commercial transmission gage. The implication of this research finding concerns the qualification of the backscatter test method as a valid, reliable, and expedient procedure for determining in-situ soil conditions

  2. Operation of a nuclear test gage at low multiplications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Test Gage (NTG) at the Savannah River Plant is a subcritical multiplying facility (low k) with H 2 O moderator and 2.54-cm-diameter fuel slugs of 5 wt percent 235 U in aluminum alloy at a 4.285-cm triangular pitch. The core of the facility is 61-cm long with a normal diameter of 27 cm. The NTG is used for quality control of reactor components, such as 235 U-Al fuel tubes, Li--Al target tubes, control and safety rods, and miscellaneous special irradiation elements. A component is tested by passing it through an axial test port 11.63 cm in diameter. The ion chamber response from the resultant change in neutron source multiplication is then compared with corresponding responses from known standards

  3. Lower-energy neutron sources for increasing the sensitivity of nuclear gages for measuring the water content of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of a gage using a nuclear source for measuring the water content of bulk materials, such as plastic concrete, is increased by use of a lithium or fluorine neutron nuclear source. 3 figures

  4. GAGE cancer-germline antigens bind DNA and are recruited to the nuclear envelope by Germ cell-less

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Rösner, Heike; Pedersen, Christina Bøg

    GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin and the nuc......GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin...... and the nuclear envelope. Structural analysis by NMR and CD spectroscopy showed GAGE proteins lack distinct secondary or tertiary structure and are therefore intrinsically disordered. In normal cells and cancer cells GAGE proteins localize predominantly in the nucleus; we found GAGE proteins formed stable......) at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, exogenous and endogenous GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope in GCL-overexpressing cells. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical staining suggest GAGE proteins and GCL interact physiologically in human cells that express both, including male germ...

  5. GAGE cancer-germline antigens are recruited to the nuclear envelope by germ cell-less (GCL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Rösner, Heike I; Pedersen, Christina B

    2012-01-01

    GAGE proteins are highly similar, primate-specific molecules with unique primary structure and undefined cellular roles. They are restricted to cells of the germ line in adult healthy individuals, but are broadly expressed in a wide range of cancers. In a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified the...... different dsDNA fragments, suggesting sequence-nonspecific binding. Dual association of GAGE family members with GCL at the nuclear envelope inner membrane in cells, and with dsDNA in vitro, implicate GAGE proteins in chromatin regulation in germ cells and cancer cells....... the metazoan transcriptional regulator, Germ cell-less (GCL), as an interaction partner of GAGE12I. GCL directly binds LEM-domain proteins (LAP2β, emerin, MAN1) at the nuclear envelope, and we found that GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope inner membrane by GCL. Based on yeast two...

  6. Application of the nuclear gages in dynamic sedimentology for the solid transport study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamdasni, Y.

    1994-02-01

    The problems caused by the solid particle transport in rivers, dams, harbors, estuaries and in navigation channels have considerable economical consequences. The technical difficulties met when trying to limit or manage these problems are very important because of lack of knowledge. The nuclear gages and the radioactive tracers can be the measurement and monitoring means which, associated to the conventional techniques, permit to develop strongly the knowledge in the solid transport field. This report gives the modes of solid transport and the problems caused by these transports and exposes the physical properties of the fine sediments and their behavior under the hydrodynamic effects. In the same way, it deals with the theory of the nuclear gages, often applied in dynamic sedimentology and gives some examples of their applications. 29 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (F.M.)

  7. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  8. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  9. Versatile radiation gaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of computerized versatile radiation gaging systems are described. The gages are used to measure plating thicknesses and material characteristics that can be determined from radiation attenuation and/or x-ray fluorescence measurements

  10. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  11. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  12. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications for 9,322 stream gages maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It is an update to the original GAGES, which was published as a Data Paper on the journal Ecology's website (Falcone and others, 2010b) in 2010. The GAGES II dataset consists of gages which have had either 20+ complete years (not necessarily continuous) of discharge record since 1950, or are currently active, as of water year 2009, and whose watersheds lie within the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Reference gages were identified based on indicators that they were the least-disturbed watersheds within the framework of broad regions, based on 12 major ecoregions across the United States. Of the 9,322 total sites, 2,057 are classified as reference, and 7,265 as non-reference. Of the 2,057 reference sites, 1,633 have (through 2009) 20+ years of record since 1950. Some sites have very long flow records: a number of gages have been in continuous service since 1900 (at least), and have 110 years of complete record (1900-2009) to date. The geospatial data include several hundred watershed characteristics compiled from national data sources, including environmental features (e.g. climate – including historical precipitation, geology, soils, topography) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. land use, road density, presence of dams, canals, or power plants). The dataset also includes comments from local USGS Water Science Centers, based on Annual Data Reports, pertinent to hydrologic modifications and influences. The data posted also include watershed boundaries in GIS format. This overall dataset is different in nature to the USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN; Slack and Landwehr 1992), whose data evaluation ended with water year 1988. The HCDN identifies stream gages which at some point in their history had

  13. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  14. Development of high temperature strain gage, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Kanai, Kenji; Yamaura, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Development and improvement of resistance wire type strain gages usable for experimental measurement of thermal strains generated at high temperature in various structures and equipments that consist of a Fast Breeder Reactor have been carried out, and various characteristics of the strain gages have been investigated. Based on the results obtained up to now, development and research of this time mainly aim to improve strain and fatigue characteristics. As the results, characteristics of strain gages with sensing elements of nichrome V are improved, specifically mechanical hysteresis is decreased, strain limit is increased, etc. Also, improvement is recognized in thermal output, and it becomes clear that dummy gages work effectively. However, a filling method of MgO and an inserting method of active-dummy elements are selected as primary objects to improve strain characteristics, and many hours are taken for these objects, so confirmations of characteristics of platinum-tungsten strain gages, strain sensing elements of which are troublesome to produce, have not been completely done, though the performance of the gages has been improved in several points. As to nichrome V strain gages, there is a fair prospect of obtaining ones, specifications of which are quite close to the goal, though problems in manufacturing technics remain for future. As to platinum-tungsten strain gages, it is expected that similar strain gages to nichrome V are obtainable by improvement in manufacturing of sensing elements. (auth.)

  15. Gage for measuring coastal erosion and sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpini, T. D.; Moughon, W. C.

    1970-01-01

    Underwater sand height gage, which measures heights up to 12 inches, is comprised of two standard flush-diaphragm pressure transducers. Gage is very sensitive to buried water heights and is useful as a research tool in study of wet earth and landslide phenomena.

  16. Properties of strain gages at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Nobuo; Fujiyoshi, Toshimitsu.

    1978-01-01

    At the time of developing superconduction generators, the stress measurement for rotor parts is required to grasp the safety and performance of the rotor at cryogenic temperature, which is cooled with liquid helium. In case of carrying out the stress measurement with strain gages, the problems are as follows. The strain gages and lead wires are exposed to cryogenic temperature from 4 to 10 K and strong magnetic field of about 3T, and subjected to high centrifugal acceleration of about 500G. In order to establish the techniques of the stress measurement under such conditions, the adhesives and damp-proof coatings for strain gages and strain gages themselves in Japan and foreign countries were examined on the properties at cryogenic temperature. As for the properties of strain gages, mainly the apparent strain owing to temperature change was investigated, and the change of the gage factors was studies only at liquid nitrogen temperature. The stress measurement with strain gages at low temperature had been studied in detail down to liquid nitrogen temperature concerning LNG tanks. The experimental apparatus, the samples, the testing methods and the test results of cooling tests on adhesives and damp-proof coatings, and the temperature characteristics of strain gages are reported. The usable adhesives and coatings were found, and correction by accurate temperature measurement is required for apparent strain. (Kako, I.)

  17. Non-metallic gage for gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a non-metallic gage for detecting a gap which can not be seen from the out side such as a gap between a water pipe and fuel rods without damaging an objective material as to whether the gap is formed within a standard value or not. The gage is made of a synthetic resin, for example, polyacetal having such a hardness as not damaging the objective material and endurable to repeating flexure upon use. The gage comprises a short gage portion having a predetermined standard thickness and an flexible extended connection portion reduced in the thickness. Provision of the extended connection portion enables wide range flexure thereof such as ±60deg relative to insertion direction during insertion operation upon testing to solve a drawback in the prior art such as worry of breakage of the gage, thereby enabling to conduct inspection rapidly at high reliability. (N.H.)

  18. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  19. Latin square three dimensional gage master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynn L.

    1982-01-01

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  20. Accelerometer and strain gage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Madsen, M.M.; Uncapher, W.L.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the method developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to evaluate transducer used in the design certification testing of nuclear material shipping packages. This testing project was performed by SNL for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). This evaluation is based on the results of tests conducted to measure ruggedness, failure frequency, repeatability, and manufacturers' calibration data under both field and laboratory conditions. The results of these tests are provided and discussed. The transducer were selected for testing by surveying cask contractors and testing facilities. Important insights relating to operational characteristics of accelerometer types were gained during field testing. 11 refs., 105 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Low pressure gage type VM-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandea, I.; Curuia, M.; Culcer, M.

    2000-01-01

    High vacuum systems became an important element of many applied technologies, from gas analysers to rocket engines. An intelligent apparatus for pressure measurement in the range of 10 -3 - 10 -8 mbar, with incorporated INTEL 80C51 microcontroller is presented. Based on a Bayard-Alpert hot cathode gage, equally developed in our institute, the pressure gage allows the displaying of different operation parameters and also of the error codes for different kinds of malfunctioning, as for instance missing of grid voltage, grid-collector breakdown, pressure increasing above 10 -3 mbar. Its operation is based on a microcontroller assembly language program especially worked out and introduced in the central units EPROM memory. The gage characteristics for different gases are also introduced in an EPROM memory, and the type of the gas is selected by the operator from the front panel. One can select also from the front panel the pressure unit (mbar, torr, Pa). If a remote control is necessary, this can be done by means of a PC, with a program written in the LabVIEW graphical programming language. The pressure gage was tested and calibrated in relation with an EDWARDS vacuum measuring system and provided a good accuracy (better than 25%). Its field of application is both laboratory and industrial measurements. Its main features are: - supply voltage, 220 V ac / 50 Hz; - power consumption, 30 W; - gage's grid supply voltage, 160 V; grid current, 2 mA / p = 10 -5 ...10 -8 mbar and 0.2 mA / p = 10 -3 ...10 -5 mbar; - cathode heating current, max. 3 A; - measuring range, 10 -3 ...10 -8 mbar; - error of measurement, ±35%; - remote control, according to the RS232 standard; - size, 320 x 200 x 100 mm; - weight, 3.5 Kg. (authors)

  2. Sensitivity of hot-cathode ionization vacuum gages in several gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.

    1972-01-01

    Four hot-cathode ionization vacuum gages were calibrated in 12 gases. The relative sensitivities of these gages were compared to several gas properties. Ionization cross section was the physical property which correlated best with gage sensitivity. The effects of gage accelerating voltage and ionization-cross-section energy level were analyzed. Recommendations for predicting gage sensitivity according to gage type were made.

  3. GAGES: A stream gage database for evaluating natural and alteredflow conditions in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.; Meador, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Stream flow is a controlling element in the ecology of rivers and streams. Knowledge of the natural flow regime facilitates the assessment of whether specific hydrologic attributes have been altered by humans in a particular stream and the establishment of specific goals for stream-flow restoration. Because most streams are ungaged or have been altered by human influences, characterizing the natural flow regime is often only possible by estimating flow characteristics based on nearby stream gages of reference quality, i.e., gaged locations that are least disturbed by human influences. The ability to evaluate natural stream flow, that which is not altered by human activities, would be enhanced by the existence of a nationally consistent and up-to-date database of gages in relatively undisturbed watersheds.

  4. Evaluation results of the 700 deg C Chinese strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    There is a continuing interest and need for resistance strain gages capable of making static strain measurements on components located in the hot section of gas turbine engines. A paper by Tsen-tai Wu describes the development and evaluation of high temperature gauges fabricated from specially developed Fe-Cr-Al-V-Ti-Y alloy wire. Several of these gages and a quantity of P12-2 ceramic adhesive were purchased for evaluation. Nine members of the aircraft turbine engine community were invited to participate in an evaluation of these gages. Each participant was sent one strain gage, a small amount of ceramic adhesive, instructions for mounting the gage on a test beam, and a set of suggestions for the experiment. Data on gage factor variation with temperature, apparent strain, and drift are discussed.

  5. INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF SLURRIES USING RADIOISOTOPE GAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jr., H. L.

    1963-09-15

    Radioactivity gages are available in a variety of configurations to suit the problem of process measurement. The placement of any gage configuration must be selected carefully so that the process material flowing past the gage is representative of actual process conditions. The initial calibration of a gage is relatively simple but when the gage reading is compared with the existing manual sample measurement, confusion can result if the manual measurement is not basically accurate or subject to human error. Routine mechanical and electrical maintenance of the gage is relatively simple, because modern gages use solidstate circuitry with modular plug-in construction. Thus, routine maintenance of the gage is usually limited to restandardization to compensate for source decay. Two types of zero suppression are available, via. fixed and reductionwith-time. If reduction-with-time suppression is used the re-standardization period is about ten times longer than that required for fixed-zero suppression. Routine maintenance of the process piping and machinery is necessary to assure that a representative process material sample continues to flow through the gage. (auth)

  6. How the Schmidt-Boelter gage really works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, C.T.; Nelson, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Schmidt-Boelter gage is but one version of a proven heat flux measurement concept generally referred to as the axial temperature gradient method. This gage has been used since the mid-1950's and has gained wide acceptance because the transducer provides a high-level, self-generating output signal directly proportional to the heat flux incident upon the sensing surface. Utilization of this transducer in aerospace measurements since the late 1970's has broadened the scope of application of the device, but has raised questions concerning the proper interpretation of the results. The principle of operation of the gage can correctly be divided into two distinct categories-the thermal and thermoelectric functions. The thermal response of the gage can be approximated by simple steady-state equations. But due to the number of different materials required in the construction of the gage, the transient temperature and heat conduction in gage members are more accurately characterized by finite-element thermal analysis techniques. Results of these analyses are presented in graphical format in the paper. Thermoelectric characteristics of the gage are accurately defined by basic principles of thermoelectric thermometry. Altogether, the analyses presented in this paper demonstrate how this transducer actually works. The conclusions presented herein may be different than opinions held by most casual users regarding gage operation. Results of limited laboratory experiments which support the analyses are described and presented

  7. Strain gage based determination of mixed mode SIFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. S. R. K.; Sarangi, H.; Chakraborty, D.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate determination of mixed mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) is essential in understanding and analysis of mixed mode fracture of engineering components. Only a few strain gage determination of mixed mode SIFs are reported in literatures and those also do not provide any prescription for radial locations of strain gages to ensure accuracy of measurement. The present investigation experimentally demonstrates the efficacy of a proposed methodology for the accurate determination of mixed mode I/II SIFs using strain gages. The proposed approach is based on the modified Dally and Berger's mixed mode technique. Using the proposed methodology appropriate gage locations (optimal locations) for a given configuration have also been suggested ensuring accurate determination of mixed mode SIFs. Experiments have been conducted by locating the gages at optimal and non-optimal locations to study the efficacy of the proposed approach. The experimental results from the present investigation show that highly accurate SIFs (0.064%) can be determined using the proposed approach if the gages are located at the suggested optimal locations. On the other hand, results also show the very high errors (212.22%) in measured SIFs possible if the gages are located at non-optimal locations. The present work thus clearly substantiates the importance of knowing the optimal locations of the strain gages apriori in accurate determination of SIFs.

  8. Ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauler, Allen L.; Pasieka, Donald F.

    1983-01-01

    A ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage is disclosed. The fixture includes a pair of chuck assemblies oriented substantially transversely with respect to one another and mounted on a common base. Each chuck assembly preferably includes a rotary stage and a wobble plate affixed thereto. A ball chuck affixed to each wobble plate is operable to selectively support a ball to be measured for roundness, with the wobble plate permitting the ball chuck to be tilted to center the ball on the axis of rotation of the rotary stage. In a preferred embodiment, each chuck assembly includes a vacuum chuck operable to selectively support the ball to be measured for roundness. The mounting fixture enables a series of roundness measurements to be taken with a conventional rotating gagehead roundness instrument, which measurements can be utilized to determine the sphericity of the ball.

  9. Neutron moisture gaging of agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, S.; Janout, Z.; Kovacik, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design is described of a neutron moisture gage which consists of a measuring probe, neutron detector, small electronic recording device and a 241 Am-Be radionuclide source. The neutron detector consists of a surface barrier semiconductor silicon detector and a conversion layer of lithium fluoride. The detection of triton which is the reaction product of lithium with neutrons by the silicon detector is manifested as a voltage pulse. The detector has low sensitivity for fast neutrons and for gamma radiation and is suitable for determining moisture values in large volume samples. Verification and calibration measurements were carried out of chernozem, brown soil and podzolic soils in four series. The results are tabulated. Errors of measurement range between 0.8 to 1.0%. The precision of measurement could be improved by the calibration of the device for any type of soil. (E.S.). 4 tabs., 6 refs., 5 figs

  10. Comparison of Ruska and Rosemont pressure gages (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a 150,000 gallon tank was calibrated during the months of May and July of 1990. Six calibration runs were completed. Ruska and Rosemont pressure gages were installed to make in-tank liquid level measurements during the calibration process. A flow meter was used to measure the incremental volumes of water added to or removed from the tank. The Ruska and Rosemont gages were compared to determine the gage best suited for tank operation. One comparison criteria was the tolerance limits of error (LOE) for the predicted standardized in-tank volumes. For accountability purposes, the effects of the two gages on the LOE for the predicted inventory of U-235 were evaluated. The most important comparison criteria was the gage's contribution to the U-235 inventory LOE. The choice of which gage to use depends on the other measurement methods used for material accountability. The contributions to the inventory LOE were evaluated for two in-tank liquid level measurement methods, two concentration measurement methods, and one isotopic measurement method. The results indicate the Ruska pressure gage is best suited for tank operation only if the best concentration measurement method is used

  11. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    with migratory and invasive properties and were found to be upregulated in cancer cells with metastasizing potential in a gastric cancer model. METHODS: We have addressed the direct role of GAGE proteins in supporting metastasis using an isogenic metastasis model of human cancer, consisting of 4 isogenic cell......) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support metastasis and that further...

  12. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  13. Vision system for dial gage torque wrench calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Doiron, Theodore D.; Sanghera, Paramjeet S.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a fast and robust vision system which, in conjunction with the Dial Gage Calibration system developed by AKO Inc., will be used by the U.S. Army in calibrating dial gage torque wrenches. The vision system detects the change in the angular position of the dial pointer in a dial gage. The angular change is proportional to the applied torque. The input to the system is a sequence of images of the torque wrench dial gage taken at different dial pointer positions. The system then reports the angular difference between the different positions. The primary components of this vision system include modules for image acquisition, linear feature extraction and angle measurements. For each of these modules, several techniques were evaluated and the most applicable one was selected. This system has numerous other applications like vision systems to read and calibrate analog instruments.

  14. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro

    1983-08-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500/sup 0/C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others.

  15. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500 0 C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others. (author)

  16. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers (''Goodzeit gages'') for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M.; Gilbertson, A.; Dougherty, M.

    1991-03-01

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched ''backing plate'' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a ''backing plate'' is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations

  17. Restriction of GAGE protein expression to subpopulations of cancer cells is independent of genotype and may limit the use of GAGE proteins as targets for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Johansen, L E; Nielsen, O

    2006-01-01

    The GAGE cancer testis antigen gene family encodes products that can be recognized by autologous T cells, and GAGE proteins have been suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Analysis of GAGE expression in tumours has primarily been performed at the level of gene transcription, wh...

  18. Measurement of aerosol concentration with a beta-ray gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzac, G. d'; Dubillot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Because dusts in suspension are a dangerous polluting agent, several methods have been used to monitor their concentration. Among these, the beta-ray gage enjoys a privileged position. The authors describe such a gage and discuss the conditions to be observed for it to be capable of giving results comparable to those obtained with manual gravimetric methods. The satisfactory results obtained led to standardization of the method and a whole range of instruments based on this principle are employed in pollution supervising networks and for continuously monitoring industrial emissions [fr

  19. Development and application of the variable focus laser leveling gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Kun; Ma Jinglong

    2005-01-01

    The variable focus laser leveling gage was developed. The performance and structure were introduced. The several alignments and tests in KrF laser angle multi-path optical system were accomplished with them. Its application in other optical equipment was discussed too. (author)

  20. Latin-square three-dimensional gage master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    1981-05-12

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  1. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127. (5) If the PTLF becomes non-functional or is missing, the... and fastener requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127 provided that— (1) The track owner... the minimum design requirements of a GRMS vehicle which specify that— (1) Gage restraint shall be...

  2. Testing for moisture content in foods by neutron gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron gaging was applied to the testing for moisture content in bulk powdered foods and in canned Army field rations. The technique is based on the moderation or thermalization of fast neutrons by hydrogenous matter and the measurement of thermal neutron intensity as a function of moisture content. A small californium-252 capsule, of approximate output 10 7 neutrons per second, was used as the source of fast neutrons. It is concluded that a fast neutron moderation technique is feasible for the nondestructive measurement or control of moisture or both in near-dry bulk powdered foods. Samples must be measured under identical geometric conditions, that is, uniform bulk density and volume using a standard metal container or cell. For canned or otherwise prepacked rations, measurement of moisture is interfered with by variations in fill weight among cans or packages of the same product. A gamma-ray attenuation gaging method proved to be of insufficient sensitivity to correct for fill weight variation and was further complicated by nonuniformity in can wall dimensions. Neutron gaging, however, appears to be quite useful for monitoring a standard packaged item for fill weight since the neutron signal is virtually unaffected by variations in container dimensions. The radiation dose imparted to a sample or package of food subjected to such a test is judged to pose no threat to humans from subsequent consumption of the food. An estimate is given for the cost range of a commercial neutron gage and of encapsulated radioisotopic neutron sources

  3. Skin-friction measurements with hot-wire gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeville, R.; Juillen, J. C.; Cousteix, J.

    1983-11-01

    The development of two hot-wire gauges for implantation in wind-tunnel models and their application to the measurement of skin-friction phenomena are reported. The measurement principle is explained; the design and calibration of a single-wire gage containing a thermocouple for temperature determination (Cousteix and Juillen, 1982-1983) are summarized; and sample results for 2D and 3D flows with positive pressure gradients are shown. An advanced design employing a thin hot film deposited on an 80-micron-diameter quartz fiber extending into a 1-mm-sq 0.8-mm-deep cavity is characterized and demonstrated on a pulsed flow on a flat plate, Tollmien-Schlichting waves, and a turbulent boundary layer. Two cold-wire temperature sensors are added to this gage to permit detection of the skin of the skin friction in the separated flow over a cylinder.

  4. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  5. Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peizhi; Xu, Jiadi; Morris, Michael; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David

    2009-02-01

    We report the use of quantum dots (Qdots) as strain gages in the study of bone biomechanics using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have developed solid state NMR sample cells for investigation of deformations of bone tissue components at loads up to several Mega Pascal. The size constraints of the NMR instrumentation limit the bone specimen diameter and length to be no greater than 2-3 mm and 30 mm respectively. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR experiments require the use of non-metallic apparatus that can be rotated at kilohertz rates. These experimental constraints preclude the use of standard biomechanical measurement systems. In this paper we explore the use of quantum dot center of gravity measurement as a strain gage technology consistent with the constraints of solid state NMR. We use Qdots that bind calcium (625 nm emission) and collagen (705 nm emission) for measurement of strain in these components. Compressive loads are applied to a specimen in a cell through a fine pitch screw turned with a mini-torque wrench. Displacement is measured as changes in the positions of arrays of quantum dots on the surface of a specimen. Arrays are created by spotting the specimen with dilute suspensions of Qdots. Mineral labeling is achieved with 705 nm carboxylated dots and matrix labeling with 565 nm quantum dots conjugated to collagen I antibodies. After each load increment the new positions of the quantum dots are measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in Qdot center of gravity as a function of applied load can be measured with submicron accuracy.

  6. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of strain gages were made. The magnitude and variation of the magnetoresistance of a large number of strain gages were measured for the following conditions: (1) dc magnetic fields up to 12 T, (2) three orthogonal field directions, (3) increasing and decreasing fields, (4) a wide range of strain levels, and (5) liquid helium temperature

  7. CIVAC CV-01 type pressure gage for middle vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaru, Grigore; Aculai, Agustin

    1997-01-01

    The digital display pressure gage CIVAC CV-01 measures absolute pressures in vacuum range of 10 2 - 10 -3 mbar in any installation or equipment generating or using low pressures. It uses a transducer type PIRANI, model TR-02. It is a portable device, easy to exploit and handle. It is applied in research, chemistry, metallurgical industry, mechanical engineering. The system of coupling the transducer to the enclosure where the pressure is to be measured is of type ISO-PNEUROP with flange, collar and adjusting ring with a DN 25 ring gasket. The technical and functional features are: - Measuring error: ± 35% of real conventional value ; - Response time: 20 ms; - Number of measuring points: 1; - Output signal: 0 - 10 V d.c.; - Repeatability error: 5%; - Max weight: 1,600 Kg; Size: 91 x 117 x 187 mm. (authors)

  8. Soil moisture determination with Tesla NZK 203 neutron gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hally, J.

    1977-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured using the NZK 203 neutron probe manufactured by Tesla Premysleni. The individual measuring sites were spaced at a distance of 100 m. The NZK 203 set consists of a NPK 202 moisture gage and a NSK 301 scintillation detector and features the following specifications: moisture density measuring range 20 to 500 kg/m 3 , 241 Am-Be fast neutron source having a neutron flux of 7.5x10 4 n.sec -1 +-10%, operating temperature -10 to +45 degC. The measured counting rate was primarily affected by the statistical fluctuation of ionizing radiation and by instrument instability. In order that these effects should be limited each measurement was repeated 10 times with the optimum measurement time at an interval of 20 to 100 sec. The NZK 203 Tesla set was proven to be suitable for rapid and reproducible determination of moisture profiles. (J.P.)

  9. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  10. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel-chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high-magnetic-field (12 T), liquid-helium (4.2 K) environment. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. In this study, the magnetoresistance of a number of strain gages was measured in three orthogonal directions at mechanical strain levels to 8900 μm/m. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.2 K. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4.2 K with magnetic fields to 12 T

  11. Dynamic testing of POSI-SEAL motor-operated butterfly valves using strain gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.C.; Chiou, D.

    1994-01-01

    Utilities operating nuclear power plants recognize that the correct functioning of all motor-operated valves, and particularly those in safety-related systems, is of paramount importance. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Generic Letter 89-10 relative to this concern. Operability must be demonstrated under design-basis conditions. In order to demonstrate operability of motor-operated butterfly valves, the valve stem torque must be determined. The valve stem torque is a function of seat material, stem packing, stem bearing friction, and hydrodynamic lift and drag. The total valve operating hydrodynamic torque can be predicted using the valve manufacturer's data and the differential pressure. In order to validate the valve manufacturer's data, the actual total valve hydrodynamic torque is measured using strain gages mounted directly on the valve stem. This paper presents the results of comparing the predicted total valve operating hydrodynamic torque with the actual total valve operating hydrodynamic torque for six POSI-SEAL Class 150 high performance butterfly valves

  12. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  13. United States Geological Survey discharge data from five example gages on intermittent streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  14. An introduction to NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huaian; Jiang Yulan; Yin Xilin; Yu Peiying; Luo Pinjie

    1988-01-01

    NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage is an accurate instrument which can measure earth moisture rapidly and non-destructively and display moisture results immediately. The deviation is estimated at ±0.012g/cm

  15. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  16. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  17. Design of Gages for Direct Skin Friction Measurements in Complex Turbulent Flows with Shock Impingement Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-07

    100 kW/m2 for 0.1 s. Along with the material change, an oil leak problem required a geometric change. Initially, we considered TIG welding or...shear and moment, is addressed through the design, development, and testing of the CF1 and CF2 gages. Chapter 3 presents the evolutionary process ...a shock. Chapter 4 examines the performance of each gage to the nominal load conditions. Through this process , objective 2 is met. The best

  18. Expression, purification and characterization of the cancer-germline antigen GAGE12I: a candidate for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Besir, Hüseyin; Larsen, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    GAGE cancer-germline antigens are frequently expressed in a broad range of different cancers, while their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune privileged organs, testis and ovary. GAGE proteins are immunogenic in humans, which make them promising targets...... for immunotherapy and candidates for cancer vaccines. Recombinant proteins may be superior to peptides as immunogens, since they have the potential to prime both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and are not dependent on patient HLA-type. We have developed a method for production of highly pure recombinant GAGE12I...... filtration and formaldehyde cross-linking indicated that GAGE12I forms tetramers. The purified recombinant GAGE12I represents a candidate molecule for vaccination of cancer patients and will form the basis for further structural analysis of GAGE proteins....

  19. Improved Regression Analysis of Temperature-Dependent Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2015-01-01

    An improved approach is discussed that may be used to directly include first and second order temperature effects in the load prediction algorithm of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance. The improved approach was designed for the Iterative Method that fits strain-gage outputs as a function of calibration loads and uses a load iteration scheme during the wind tunnel test to predict loads from measured gage outputs. The improved approach assumes that the strain-gage balance is at a constant uniform temperature when it is calibrated and used. First, the method introduces a new independent variable for the regression analysis of the balance calibration data. The new variable is designed as the difference between the uniform temperature of the balance and a global reference temperature. This reference temperature should be the primary calibration temperature of the balance so that, if needed, a tare load iteration can be performed. Then, two temperature{dependent terms are included in the regression models of the gage outputs. They are the temperature difference itself and the square of the temperature difference. Simulated temperature{dependent data obtained from Triumph Aerospace's 2013 calibration of NASA's ARC-30K five component semi{span balance is used to illustrate the application of the improved approach.

  20. A new strain gage method for measuring the contractile strain ratio of Zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.K.; Sabol, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved strain gage method for determining the contractile strain ratio (CSR) of Zircaloy tubing was developed. The new method consists of a number of load-unload cyclings at approximately 0.2% plastic strain interval. With this method the CSR of Zircaloy-4 tubing could be determined accurately because it was possible to separate the plastic strains from the elastic strain involvement. The CSR values determined by use of the new method were in good agreement with those calculated from conventional post-test manual measurements. The CSR of the tubing was found to decrease with the amount of deformation during testing because of uneven plastic flow in the gage section. A new technique of inscribing gage marks by use of a YAG laser is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis Using a Weighted Least Squares Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach is presented that uses a weighted least squares fit to analyze wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The weighted least squares fit is specifically designed to increase the influence of single-component loadings during the regression analysis. The weighted least squares fit also reduces the impact of calibration load schedule asymmetries on the predicted primary sensitivities of the balance gages. A weighting factor between zero and one is assigned to each calibration data point that depends on a simple count of its intentionally loaded load components or gages. The greater the number of a data point's intentionally loaded load components or gages is, the smaller its weighting factor becomes. The proposed approach is applicable to both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Methods that are used for the analysis of strain-gage balance calibration data in the aerospace testing community. The Iterative Method uses a reasonable estimate of the tare corrected load set as input for the determination of the weighting factors. The Non-Iterative Method, on the other hand, uses gage output differences relative to the natural zeros as input for the determination of the weighting factors. Machine calibration data of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate benefits of the proposed weighted least squares fit. In addition, a detailed derivation of the PRESS residuals associated with a weighted least squares fit is given in the appendices of the paper as this information could not be found in the literature. These PRESS residuals may be needed to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the final regression models that result from a weighted least squares fit of the balance calibration data.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maine; a prototype for nationwide implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Moss, M.E.; Smath, J.A.; Thomas, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program in Maine. Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 51 continuous stream gages currently being operated in Maine with a budget of $211,000. Three stream gages were identified as producing data no longer sufficiently needed to warrant continuing their operation. Operation of these stations should be discontinued. Data collected at three other stations were identified as having uses specific only to short-term studies; it is recommended that these stations be discontinued at the end of the data-collection phases of the studies. The remaining 45 stations should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The current policy for operation of the 45-station program would require a budget of $180,300 per year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow records is 17.7 percent. It was shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 45 sites could be maintained with a budget of approximately $170,000 if resources were redistributed among the gages. A minimum budget of $155,000 is required to operate the 45-gage program; a smaller budget would not permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 25.1 percent. The maximum budget analyzed was $350,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 8.7 percent. Large parts of Maine's interior were identified as having sparse streamflow data. It was determined that this sparsity be remedied as funds become available.

  3. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 7. Calibration studies on the carbon piezoresistive gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horning, R.R.; Isbell, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    The calibrations, time responses, and Hugoniot for carbon piezoresistive gages from two manufacturers are presented. These gages exhibit a high sensitivity of about --20 percent resistance change per GPa at 0.5 GPa. Their equilibrium times, when tested in fused silica, exceed 0.6 μs below 0.5 GPa but improve at higher stresses and under better impedance matching conditions. They can be made of low atomic number materials, making them interesting candidates for studying the mechanical responses of materials to electron and x-ray deposition. (U.S.)

  4. A Dual-Range Strain Gage Weighing Transducer Employing Automatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola

    1968-01-01

    Describes a dual-range strain gage transducer which has proven to be an excellent weight-sensing device for weighing trees and tree-length logs; discusses basic principals of the design and operation; and shows that a single transducer having two sensitivity ranges with automatic internal switching can sense weight with good repeatability and that one calibration curve...

  5. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  6. Arrangement for correcting values measured by mass per unit area or thickness gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volger, G.; Sandke, E.; Heinz, P.

    1985-01-01

    The described arrangement can be applied to gaged making use of beta radiation and of a protective screen for shielding the radiation source and the ionization chamber of the measuring instrument. It has been aimed at counterbalancing measuring inaccuracies caused by temperature fluctuations in the measuring slot

  7. Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis for Extended Independent Variable Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed that makes it possible to use an extended set of independent calibration variables for an iterative analysis of wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration data. The new method permits the application of the iterative analysis method whenever the total number of balance loads and other independent calibration variables is greater than the total number of measured strain gage outputs. Iteration equations used by the iterative analysis method have the limitation that the number of independent and dependent variables must match. The new method circumvents this limitation. It simply adds a missing dependent variable to the original data set by using an additional independent variable also as an additional dependent variable. Then, the desired solution of the regression analysis problem can be obtained that fits each gage output as a function of both the original and additional independent calibration variables. The final regression coefficients can be converted to data reduction matrix coefficients because the missing dependent variables were added to the data set without changing the regression analysis result for each gage output. Therefore, the new method still supports the application of the two load iteration equation choices that the iterative method traditionally uses for the prediction of balance loads during a wind tunnel test. An example is discussed in the paper that illustrates the application of the new method to a realistic simulation of temperature dependent calibration data set of a six component balance.

  8. Suitability of Strain Gage Sensors for Integration into Smart Sport Equipment: A Golf Club Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Anton; Zhang, Yuan; Tomažič, Sašo; Kos, Anton

    2017-04-21

    Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications. We tested two orthogonally affixed strain gage (SG) sensors, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 3-axis gyroscope. The strain gage sensors are calibrated and validated in the laboratory environment by a highly accurate Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) optical tracking system. Field test results show that different types of golf swing and improper movement in early phases of golf swing can be detected with strain gage sensors attached to the shaft of the golf club. Thus they are suitable for biofeedback applications to help golfers to learn repetitive golf swings. It is suggested that the use of strain gage sensors can improve the golf swing technical error detection accuracy and that strain gage sensors alone are enough for basic golf swing analysis. Our final goal is to be able to acquire and analyze as many parameters of a smart golf club in real time during the entire duration of the swing. This would give us the ability to design mobile and cloud biofeedback applications with terminal or concurrent feedback that will enable us to speed-up motor skill learning in golf.

  9. Data acquisition from vacuum gage controlled by RS-232 standard using LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandea, Iulian; Culcer, Mihai; Steflea, Dumitru

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of connecting a microcontroller-based vacuum gage to a personal computer, using the RS-232 hardware standard and the software LabVIEW and his collection of virtual instruments from National Instruments. To solve the problem an instrument driver was created. This provided the customer with a perfect solution for the remote control and data acquisition from an Intel 80CXX microcontroller-based vacuum gage. The remote control making use of an IBM-PC was design and manufactured in our institute. In order to make it intelligent the device was provided with a microprocessor or a microcontroller. To fulfill the requirements a vacuum gage with an 80C31 microcontroller and two Bayard-Alpert ion gauges, for very low pressures (10 -3 to 10 -7 mbar) and low pressure (10 mbar to 10 -3 mbar) was built. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC (Pentium -166 MHz) and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. Optimum selection of software development tools however, was not as straightforward. Most producers use the C/C ++ - language programming tool for developing instrument drivers for their intelligent devices. One of the advantages of C/C ++ is its speed, but the compilation and the high-level skill required for optimum programming do not fit well with some requirements, particularly those of versatility, upgradability and user friendliness. After careful evaluation of several options, a final decision was to develop a hybrid software package using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, presentation and storage. The assembly language for Intel 8051's microcontrollers family is used to write the firmware for the vacuum gage and arithmetic routines. (authors)

  10. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  11. Cost effective stream-gaging strategies for the Lower Colorado River basin; the Blythe field office operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical developments and illustrates the applications of techniques that recently have been assembled to analyze the cost-effectiveness of federally funded stream-gaging activities in support of the Colorado River compact and subsequent adjudications. The cost effectiveness of 19 stream gages in terms of minimizing the sum of the variances of the errors of estimation of annual mean discharge is explored by means of a sequential-search optimization scheme. The search is conducted over a set of decision variables that describes the number of times that each gaging route is traveled in a year. A gage route is defined as the most expeditious circuit that is made from a field office to visit one or more stream gages and return to the office. The error variance is defined as a function of the frequency of visits to a gage by using optimal estimation theory. Currently a minimum of 12 visits per year is made to any gage. By changing to a six-visit minimum, the same total error variance can be attained for the 19 stations with a budget of 10% less than the current one. Other strategies are also explored. (USGS)

  12. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components. (author)

  13. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Inst. Co. Ltd. (Japan)); Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki

    1982-08-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components.

  14. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  15. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  16. New approach for calibration and interpretation of IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.

    1986-05-01

    IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This paper discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring, and the subsequent post-test calibration of the stressmeters in the laboratory. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-test calibration data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. The Effect of Modeling Qualities, Tones and Gages in Ceramic Supply Chains' Master Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel MUNDI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic production processes are characterized by providing quantities of the same finished goods that differ in qualities, tones and gages. This aspect becomes a problem for ceramic supply chains (SCs that should promise and serve customer orders with homogeneous quantities of the same finished good. In this paper a mathematical programming model for the cen-tralized master planning of ceramic SC is proposed. Inputs to the master plan include demand forecasts in terms of customer order classes based on their order size and splitting percentages of a lot into homogeneous sub-lots. Then, the master plan defines the size and loading of lots to production lines and their distribution with the aim of maximizing the number of customer orders fulfilled with homogeneous quantities in the most efficient manner for the SC. Finally, the effect of modeling qualities, tones and gages in master planning is assessed.

  18. HydroCloud: A Web Application for Exploring Stream Gage Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Roberge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HydroCloud (hydrocloud.org is a mobile-friendly web application for visually browsing hydrology data from multiple sources. Data providers such as the US Geological Survey (USGS and the German 'Wasserstraßen- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes' (WSV currently serve stream discharge data from more than 10,000 stream gages around the world. HydroCloud allows users to plot these data while out in the field, while also providing contextual information such as the current NEXRAD weather imagery or descriptive information about the stream gage and its watershed. Additional features include a chat mechanism for contacting developers, and the use of local storage for saving data.   Funding Statement: This project was supported in part by a grant from the Towson University School of Emerging Technology.

  19. Evaluation of metal-foil strain gages for cryogenic application in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    The requirement for the design and construction of large superconducting magnet systems for fusion research has raised a number of new questions regarding the properties of composite superconducting conductors. One of these, the effect of mechanical stress on the current-carrying capacity of Nb 3 Sn, is of major importance in determining the feasibility of constructing large magnets with this material. A typical experiment for determining such data involves the measurement of critical current versus magnetic field while the conductor is being mechanically strained to various degrees. Techniques are well developed for the current and field measurements, but much less so for the accurate measurement of strain at liquid-helium temperature in a high magnetic field. A study was made of commercial, metal-foil strain gages for use under these conditions. The information developed can also be applied to the use of strain gages as diagnostic tools in superconducting magnets

  20. Nuclear fuel assembly grid sleeve/guide thimble bulge orientation gage and inspection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a method of inspecting a fuel assembly to determine the orientation of externally-projecting mated bulges connecting a grid sleeve to a guide thimble of the assembly, the method comprising the steps of: (a) inserting a radially-expandable tubular member within the guide thimble, the tubular member having externally-projecting embossments thereon spaced circumferentially from one another about the tubular member, the embossments being the same in number as the bulges of the guide thimble and configured to fit therewithin; (b) axially moving an elongated expansion member, which extends through and rotatably mounts the tubular member, relative to the tubular member from a first position in which the expansion member permits inward contraction of the tubular member and displacement of embossments thereon away from the interior of the guide thimble bulges for removing the embossments from registry therewith and a second position in which the expansion member produces radial expansion of the tubular member and displacement of the embossments thereon toward the interior of the guide thimble bulges for placing the embossments in registry therewith; (c) rotating the tubular member relative to the expansion member so as to bring the embossments on the tubular member into alignment with the guide thimble bulges as the embossments on the tubular member are being displaced toward and into registry with the interior of the bulges; and (d) responsive to rotation of the tubular member away from a reference position, providing an indication of the orientation of the guide thimble bulges relative to a reference point upon displacement of the embossments into registry therewith

  1. Low Cost Stream Gaging through Analysis of Stage Height Using Digital Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, C. K.; Royem, A. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Through the middle of the twentieth century, the US was relatively rich in active streamflow gages. Over the past four decades, the number of gages has decreased by approximately 10% (approx. 20 gages a year) and it is likely this trend will continue for the foreseeable future. Not only are streaflow data valuable for water resources planning and management, but they are invaluable for assessing how land use and climate changes are impacting the environment. Affordable, easy-to-use systems need to be developed to enable a wider community to establish and maintain streamflow observation sites. Currently USGS-like gauges cost 30,000 to 50,000 to build and $6,000/year to maintain. We are developing a system that uses digital images in conjunction with MATLAB for image post processing that has the potential to both accurately and cost effectively monitor stream gauge. We explored several different staff gauge designs in conjunction with associated image processing code. The most robust design so far consists of a brightly colored metal staff gauge and and code that allows a point-and-click method for training the image processing code to correctly identify the staff. We ultimately envision a system in which users can upload their images via the Internet and post-processing is done on a remote server, which also collates data and metadata for open-access downloading.

  2. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  3. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  4. Displacement gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns a position indicator for detecting and indicating the position of a remotely placed component mobile about an axis, such as valves located inside vessels and pipelines under pressure physically inaccessible when the reactor is working. A light source is channelled and aligned on the spindle of the valve wheel. It reaches a fixed reflector secured to this spindle. The reflected light is received on a light collector of which each collector composed of a photodiode sends back the signal by optical fibre to the display area. The position of the wheel is therefore determined by the lighting of one of the optical fibres [fr

  5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  6. Gage for gas flow measurement especially in gas-suction pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, K.; Stegmanns, W.

    1978-01-01

    The gage utilizes the differential pressure given by a differential pressure producer to generate, in a bypass, a partial gas flow measured by means of a direct-reading anemometer of windmill type. The partial gas flow is generated between pressure pick-up openings in the gas-suction pipe in front of a venturi insert and pressure pick-up openings at the bottleneck of the venturi insert. The reading of the anemometer is proportional to the main gas flow and independent of the variables of state and the properties of the gases to be measured. (RW) [de

  7. Doses of personnel employed in the manufacture of radioisotope thickness gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenetskij, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Doses of the personnel of one of the plants manifacturing radioisotope thickness gages of different types are determined. Annual doses to the body protected by shielding screens are low and according to the data of individual dosimetry constitute 5x10 -3 -6x10 -3 J/kg (0.5-0.6 rem). A table of radiation doses to hands obtained during all kind of operations, is given. Measures for the further reduction of radiation doses of the personnel are suggested [ru

  8. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  9. Establishing a Multi-scale Stream Gaging Network in the Whitewater River Basin, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J.A.; Kean, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Investigating the routing of streamflow through a large drainage basin requires the determination of discharge at numerous locations in the channel network. Establishing a dense network of stream gages using conventional methods is both cost-prohibitive and functionally impractical for many research projects. We employ herein a previously tested, fluid-mechanically based model for generating rating curves to establish a stream gaging network in the Whitewater River basin in south-central Kansas. The model was developed for the type of channels typically found in this watershed, meaning that it is designed to handle deep, narrow geomorphically stable channels with irregular planforms, and can model overbank flow over a vegetated floodplain. We applied the model to ten previously ungaged stream reaches in the basin, ranging from third- to sixth-order channels. At each site, detailed field measurements of the channel and floodplain morphology, bed and bank roughness, and vegetation characteristics were used to quantify the roughness for a range of flow stages, from low flow to overbank flooding. Rating curves that relate stage to discharge were developed for all ten sites. Both fieldwork and modeling were completed in less than 2 years during an anomalously dry period in the region, which underscores an advantage of using theoretically based (as opposed to empirically based) discharge estimation techniques. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Optimization of protection and calibration of the moisture-density gages troxler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAKOTONDRAVANONA, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of the principle of optimization of the protection and calibration of moisture-density gages TROXLER. The main objectives are the application of radiation protection and the feasibility of a calibration laboratory design. The calibration of density and moisture may confirm the calibration of moisture-density gages TROXLER. The calibration of density consists of the assembly of measurements on three calibration blocks (magnesium, aluminium and magnesium/aluminium) built in the TRACKER. The value of density uncertainty is ±32 Kg.m -3 . The calibration of moisture is carried out on two calibration blocks (magnesium and magnesium/polyethylene)The value of moisture uncertainty is ±16 Kg.m -3 . The design of the laboratory returns to the dose limitation. The laboratory is designed mainly wall out of ordinary concrete, a good attenuator of the gamma radiations and neutron. For the design, the value of term source gamma is 25.77±0.20μSv.h -1 and the value of term source neutron is 7.88±0.35μSv.h -1 are used for the thickness of the walls. The importance of the design makes it possible to attenuate to the maximum doses and rates dose until the total absorption of the radiations. [fr

  11. Strain-gage signal-conditioning system for use in the LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strain-gage signal-conditioning system, providing wide-band noise rejection and isolation from high voltages that occur during emergency coil discharges, has been developed and tested. The multichannel system combines double-shielded transformers, neutralizing networks, and bandpass filters (with commercial 3-kHz carrier amplifier modules to isolate the strain gages to 5000 V) eliminate thermoelectric effects, and provide a signal bandwidth of 200 Hz. Common-mode interference occurs primarily as a result of beat-note effects between the carrier and the superimposed noise at frequencies near the odd harmonics of the carrier. The common-mode rejection of the test circuit was measured to be 120 dB for noise at 2750 and 3250 Hz, 135 dB at 3 kHz, and 135 dB and better at the odd harmonics of 9 kHz and above. The system has been successfully used in strain measurements on the toroidal field coils of the ISX-B tokamak and will be used in the Large Coil Test Facility to monitor strains in the energized coil conductors

  12. Problems in use and security of measurement of high temperature strain gages at various temperature limits up to 10000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, K.

    1982-01-01

    The examples given show the quality and use of manufacturers' data for a series of behaviour criteria for strain gages in the high temperature region. These results should not only be regarded critically. The manufacturer must appreciate that the very costly programme of investigations on the users' side represents a product development for large parts for the manufacturer of the strain gauges. It would therefore be desirable if these considerations were to initiate investigations on the manufacturer's part, in order to clear up the problematic are of the use of strain gages in the high temperature field, in order to provide the customer with more reliable and better strain gage characteristics for very expensive high temperature strain measurements. (orig.) [de

  13. Stress Measurement around a Circular Role in a Cantilever Beam under Bending Moment Using Strain Gage and Reflective Photoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error

  14. Stress Measurement around a Circular Role in a Cantilever Beam under Bending Moment Using Strain Gage and Reflective Photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error

  15. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    . This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...... of highly conserved tandem repeats, and more genes remain to be identified. These genes are likely the creation of unequal replication under positive selection after the divergence of primates from other mammals. The encoded products are predicted to be highly similar small acidic proteins involved in germ...

  16. Review of Trackside Monitoring Solutions: From Strain Gages to Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kouroussis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research on structural monitoring in railway industry is proposed in this paper, with a special focus on stress-based solutions. After a brief analysis of the mechanical behaviour of ballasted railway tracks, an overview of the most common monitoring techniques is presented. A special attention is paid on strain gages and accelerometers for which the accurate mounting position on the track is requisite. These types of solution are then compared to another modern approach based on the use of optical fibres. Besides, an in-depth discussion is made on the evolution of numerical models that investigate the interaction between railway vehicles and tracks. These models are used to validate experimental devices and to predict the best location(s of the sensors. It is hoped that this review article will stimulate further research activities in this continuously expanding field.

  17. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements at cryogenic temperature using the strain gage method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Huiming; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Huang, Chuangjun; Guo, Shibin; Shan, Yi; Li, Laifeng

    2018-03-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction, the strain responses of a material to temperature and a magnetic field, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely useful to study electronic and phononic properties, phase transitions, quantum criticality, and other interesting phenomena in cryogenic engineering and materials science. However, traditional dilatometers cannot provide magnetic field and ultra low temperature (<77 K) environment easily. This paper describes the design and test results of thermal expansion and magnetostriction at cryogenic temperature using the strain gage method based on a Physical Properties Measurements System (PPMS). The interfacing software and automation were developed using LabVIEW. The sample temperature range can be tuned continuously between 1.8 K and 400 K. With this PPMS-aided measuring system, we can observe temperature and magnetic field dependence of the linear thermal expansion of different solid materials easily and accurately.

  18. Spiking Phineas Gage: a neurocomputational theory of cognitive-affective integration in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Brandon M; Thagard, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a neurological theory of how cognitive information and emotional information are integrated in the nucleus accumbens during effective decision making. They describe how the nucleus accumbens acts as a gateway to integrate cognitive information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus with emotional information from the amygdala. The authors have modeled this integration by a network of spiking artificial neurons organized into separate areas and used this computational model to simulate 2 kinds of cognitive-affective integration. The model simulates successful performance by people with normal cognitive-affective integration. The model also simulates the historical case of Phineas Gage as well as subsequent patients whose ability to make decisions became impeded by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

  19. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...

  20. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  1. Indium tin oxide thin film strain gages for use at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing

    A robust ceramic thin film strain gage based on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) has been developed for static and dynamic strain measurements in advanced propulsion systems at temperatures up to 1400°C. These thin film sensors are ideally suited for in-situ strain measurement in harsh environments such as those encountered in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. A novel self-compensation scheme was developed using thin film platinum resistors placed in series with the active strain element (ITO) to minimize the thermal effect of strain or apparent strain. A mathematical model as well as design rules were developed for the self-compensated circuitry using this approach and close agreement between the model and actual static strain results has been achieved. High frequency dynamic strain tests were performed at temperatures up to 500°C and at frequencies up to 2000Hz to simulate conditions that would be encountered during engine vibration fatigue. The results indicated that the sensors could survive extreme test conditions while maintaining sensitivity. A reversible change in sign of the piezoresistive response from -G to +G was observed in the vicinity of 950°C, suggesting that the change carrier responsible for conduction in the ITO gage had been converted from a net "n-carrier" to a net "p-carrier" semiconductor. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) of the ITO films suggested they experienced an interfacial reaction with the Al2O3 substrate at 1400°C. It is likely that oxygen uptake from the substrate is responsible for stabilizing the ITO films to elevated temperatures through the interfacial reaction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of ITO films on alumina at elevated temperatures showed no sublimation of ITO films at temperature up to 1400°C. The surface morphology of ITO films heated to 800, 1200 and 1400°C were also evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A linear current-voltage (I--V) characteristic indicated that the contact interface

  2. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig

  3. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pipa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit and SS (semisubmersible platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs adaptive filter.

  4. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-10-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  5. Tubular gage for a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, E.; Tuma, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Spring-loaded plungers are arranged about a housing for insertion into a polygonal tube, one plunger for each side of the tube. Each plunger has a locking cam and sliding wedge mechanism which can overcome the spring force associated with the plunger and lock it in any position. The wedges are operated by a rod movable axially in the housing. Several housings with their associated plungers can be stacked. The stack is lowered into the polygonal tube with all of the plungers locked in a fully inward position. When the stack is in the tube, each wedge is moved to release its locking cam, allowing each of the plungers to spring outward against an inner side of the tube. Each housing will thus gage the internal dimensions of the tube at its elevation. The plungers are locked in position, the entire stack is rotated to bring the plungers into the corners described by the intersections of the flat sides, and the stack is removed from the tube whereupon the dimensions across opposite locked plungers may be read by a micrometer

  6. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, anairplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  7. Ten years of real-time streamflow gaging of turkey creek - where we have been and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Conrads; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    The Turkey Creek watershed is a third-order coastal plain stream system draining an area of approximately 5,240 hectares of the Francis Marion National Forest and located about 37 miles northwest of Charleston near Huger, South Carolina. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service maintained a streamflow gaging station on Turkey Creek from 1964 to 1981....

  8. Precipitation data for water years 1992 and 1993 from a network of nonrecording gages at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambos, D.S.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents precipitation data collected in a storage gage network at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1993. The measured values indicate total accumulated precipitation for specified time intervals approximately corresponding to separate storm events. Installation of a precipitation monitoring network was initiated in January 1990, and was continually expanded and upgraded throughout the period ending in September 1993. The final network included 3 different gage types for a total of 133 gages at 108 locations within the three drainages overlying the potential repository site. Measured precipitation indicated above average accumulations for water years 1992 and 1993 relative to the most recent estimate of 6.7 inches for long-term average annual precipitation over the area of the network. The total precipitation averaged over the network in 1992 was about 8.2 inches with a maximum of about 11.2 inches measured at borehole USW GA-1. The total precipitation averaged over the network in 1993 was about 10.3 inches with a maximum of about 12.1 inches at neutron-access borehole UE-25 UZN number-sign 4

  9. Comparison of NEXRAD multisensor precipitation estimates to rain gage observations in and near DuPage County, Illinois, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Ryan R.; Over, Thomas M.; Ortel, Terry W.

    2018-05-21

    In this report, precipitation data from 2002 to 2012 from the hourly gridded Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD)-based Multisensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE) precipitation product are compared to precipitation data from two rain gage networks—an automated tipping bucket network of 25 rain gages operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and 51 rain gages from the volunteer-operated Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow (CoCoRaHS) network—in and near DuPage County, Illinois, at a daily time step to test for long-term differences in space, time, and distribution. The NEXRAD–MPE data that are used are from the fifty 2.5-mile grid cells overlying the rain gages from the other networks. Because of the challenges of measuring of frozen precipitation, the analysis period is separated between days with or without the chance of freezing conditions. The NEXRAD–MPE and tipping-bucket rain gage precipitation data are adjusted to account for undercatch by multiplying by a previously determined factor of 1.14. Under nonfreezing conditions, the three precipitation datasets are broadly similar in cumulative depth and distribution of daily values when the data are combined spatially across the networks. However, the NEXRAD–MPE data indicate a significant trend relative to both rain gage networks as a function of distance from the NEXRAD radar just south of the study area. During freezing conditions, of the USGS network rain gages only the heated gages were considered, and these gages indicate substantial mean undercatch of 50 and 61 percent compared to the NEXRAD–MPE and the CoCoRaHS gages, respectively. The heated USGS rain gages also indicate substantially lower quantile values during freezing conditions, except during the most extreme (highest) events. Because NEXRAD precipitation products are continually evolving, the report concludes with a discussion of recent changes in those products and their potential for improved precipitation estimation. An appendix

  10. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  11. Force Reconstruction from Ejection Tests of Stores from Aircraft Used for Model Predictions and Missing/Bad Gages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Michael; Cap, Jerome S.; Starr, Michael J.; Urbina, Angel; Brink, Adam Ray

    2015-12-01

    One of the more severe environments for a store on an aircraft is during the ejection of the store. During this environment it is not possible to instrument all component responses, and it is also likely that some instruments may fail during the environment testing. This work provides a method for developing these responses from failed gages and uninstrumented locations. First, the forces observed by the store during the environment are reconstructed. A simple sampling method is used to reconstruct these forces given various parameters. Then, these forces are applied to a model to generate the component responses. Validation is performed on this methodology.

  12. Improving snow water equivalent simulations in an alpine basin using blended gage precipitation and snow pillow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack is a critical freshwater reservoir that sustains ecosystem, natural habitat, hydropower, agriculture, and urban water supply in many areas around the world. Accurate estimation of basin scale snow water equivalent (SWE), through both measurement and modeling, has been significantly recognized to improve regional water resource management. Recent advances in remote data acquisition techniques have improved snow measurements but our ability to model snowpack evolution is largely hampered by poor knowledge of inherently variable high-elevation precipitation patterns. For a variety of reasons, majority of the precipitation gages are located in low and mid-elevation range and function as drivers for basin scale hydrologic modeling. Here, we blend observed gage precipitation from low and mid-elevation with point observations of SWE from high-elevation snow pillow into a physically based snow evolution model (SnowModel) to better represent the basin-scale precipitation field and improve snow simulations. To do this, we constructed two scenarios that differed in only precipitation. In WTH scenario, we forced the SnowModel using spatially distributed gage precipitation data. In WTH+SP scenario, the model was forced with spatially distributed precipitation data derived from gage precipitation along with observed precipitation from snow pillows. Since snow pillows do not directly measure precipitation, we uses positive change in SWE as a proxy for precipitation. The SnowModel was implemented at daily time step and 100 m resolution for the Kings River Basin, USA over 2000-2014. Our results show an improvement in snow simulation under WTH+SP as compared to WTH scenario, which can be attributed to better representation in high-elevation precipitation patterns under WTH+SP. The average Nash Sutcliffe efficiency over all snow pillow and course sites was substantially higher for WTH+SP (0.77) than for WTH scenario (0.47). The maximum difference in observed and simulated

  13. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  14. Fast recovery strain measurements in a nuclear test environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, W.R.; Nauman, W.J.; Vollmer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of early-time (50 μs or less) strain gage data on structural response experiments in underground nuclear tests has been a continuing problem for experimenters at the Nevada Test Site. Strain measurement is one of the primary techniques used to obtain experimental data for model verification and correlation with predicted effects. Peak strains generally occur within 50 to 100 μs of the radiation exposure. Associated with the exposure is an intense electromagnetic impulse that produces potentials of kilovolts and currents of kiloamperes on the experimental structures. For successful operation, the transducer and associated recording system must recover from the initial noise overload and accurately track the strain response within about 50 μs of the nuclear detonation. A gaging and fielding technique and a recording system design that together accomplish these objectives are described. Areas discussed include: (1) noise source model; (2) experimental cassette design, gage application, grounding, and shielding; (3) cable design and shielding between gage and recorder; (4) recorder design including signal conditioner/amplifier, digital encoder, buffer memory, and uphole data transmission; and (5) samples of experimental data

  15. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2013-01-01

    The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC. Tumor biopsies from normal lung tissue and from a large cohort (n = 169) of NSCLC patients were examined for GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of these antigens was further matched to clinical and pathological features using univariate cox regression analysis. GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens were not expressed in normal lung tissue, while SP17 was expressed in ciliated lung epithelia. The frequency of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 expression in NSCLC tumors were 26.0% (44/169), 11.8% (20/169) and 4.7% (8/169), respectively, and 33.1% (56/169) of the tumors expressed at least one of these antigens. In general, the expression of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was not significantly associated with a specific histotype (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), but high-level GAGE expression (>50%) was more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the frequency of GAGE expression was demonstrated to be significantly higher in stage II-IIIa than stage I NSCLC (17.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.02). Analysis of the relation between tumor expression of GAGE and NY-ESO-1 and survival endpoints revealed no significant associations. Our study demonstrates that GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigens are candidate targets for immunotherapy of NSCLC and further suggest that multi-antigen vaccines may be beneficial

  16. Application of nuclear techniques in Poland; Perspektywy wykorzystania atomistyki w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Owczarczyk, A.; Urbanski, P. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Warsaw (Poland); Romanowski, M. [Biuro Studiow i Projektow Techniki Jadrowej `Proatom`, Warsaw (Poland); Stegowski, Z. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, K. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Pachan, A. [Instytut Problemow Jadrowych, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tanczyk, R. [Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, R. [Zaklad Techniki Izotopowej `Polon-Izot`, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial applications of nuclear techniques in Poland have been presented. The special attention have been paid at: radiation technologies, application of radiometric gages in different branches of industry, tracer techniques, production and application of radiation sources in medicine, industry and material testing. 10 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  17. A photoelastic study of the effects of an impulsive seismic wave on a nuclear containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, C.P.

    1981-01-01

    A dynamic photoelastic study of the progressive movement of a dilatational P-wave into a model of a nuclear containment vessel,is studied. The reflections at the dome abutments are observed and the strong flexural wave that deforms the dome itself is studied with photoelasticity and with dynamic strain gage procedures. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  19. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry...... and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...... with expression of the neuroectodermal markers beta-tubulin 3, Pax6 and nestin. A widespread expression of MAGE-A was also observed in neurons of the early developing central nervous system and peripheral nerves. G antigen (GAGE) expression was present in the early ectoderm of embryos, including cells...

  20. Footprints of phineas gage: Historical beginnings on the origins of brain and behavior and the birth of cerebral localizationism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara P Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual revolution led by ancient Greek philosophers and physicians witnessed the extraordinary evolution of the birth of neuroscience from speculations of cardiocentrism (Aristotelism and encephalocentrism (Galenism. Later further development of neurosciences was hallmarked by the development of anatomic theories of phrenology by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796. Although phrenology was a pseudoscience, it was Gall who laid the foundations for the subsequent biologically based doctrine of brain behavior localization. The amazing story of Phineas Gage is a classic case in the nineteenth-century neurosciences literature that played a pivotal role in the concept of cerebral localizationism, a theory that moved beyond phrenology. This iconic case marked the historical beginnings of brain origins of human behavior and elucidated a link between brain trauma, prefrontal brain damage and personality change.

  1. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  2. Evaluating a slope-stability model for shallow rain-induced landslides using gage and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatheendradas, S.; Kirschbaum, D.; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Improving prediction of landslide early warning systems requires accurate estimation of the conditions that trigger slope failures. This study tested a slope-stability model for shallow rainfall-induced landslides by utilizing rainfall information from gauge and satellite records. We used the TRIGRS model (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis) for simulating the evolution of the factor of safety due to rainfall infiltration. Using a spatial subset of a well-characterized digital landscape from an earlier study, we considered shallow failure on a slope adjoining an urban transportation roadway near the Seattle area in Washington, USA.We ran the TRIGRS model using high-quality rain gage and satellite-based rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results with parameterized soil depth values suggest that the steeper slope values in this spatial domain have factor of safety values that are extremely close to the failure limit within an extremely narrow range of values, providing multiple false alarms. When the soil depths were constrained using a back analysis procedure to ensure that slopes were stable under initial condtions, the model accurately predicted the timing and location of the landslide observation without false alarms over time for gage rain data. The TRMM satellite rainfall data did not show adequately retreived rainfall peak magnitudes and accumulation over the study period, and as a result failed to predict the landslide event. These preliminary results indicate that more accurate and higher-resolution rain data (e.g., the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission) are required to provide accurate and reliable landslide predictions in ungaged basins.

  3. Guidelines for using sensitivity analysis and auto-calibration tools for multi-gage or multi-step calibration in SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autocalibration of a water quality model such as SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) can be a powerful, labor-saving tool. When multi-gage or multi-pollutant calibration is desired, autocalibration is essential because the time involved in manual calibration becomes prohibitive. The ArcSWAT Interf...

  4. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  5. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends; Techniki jadrowe i radiacyjne - stan obecny oraz kierunki rozwoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig.

  6. Nuclear energy: benefits versus risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Of the benefits of nuclear power three are described briefly. 1. It offers virtually an inexhaustible supply of cheap electricity, so the real reason for its installation in the U.S. (80 nuclear power plants on order and 15 in operation) is to save money. (2) Nuclear power would offer a chance to clean up the atmosphere; it has been observed that the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is increasing at about 2 percent per decade, a change that may have implications for long-term effects on climate. (3) Power reactors will undoubtedly be the major producers of radioisotopes in the future; estimates of the benefits of these isotopes are of the order of $1000 million a year from such applications as fluid flow measurements, thickness gages, leak detection, well logging, deformation determinations, agricultural application, biological applications, and in medicine. Risks of operating nuclear power plants can be classified as: thermal pollution of the rivers and lakes; low level release of radioactivity into the air and ground waters caused by the normal operation of nuclear power and reprocessing plants; and the accidental release of large amounts of radioactivity. These risks are put in perspective by comparing them with common risks that man accepts daily--transportation, cigarette smoking, mountain climbing, etc.-- after which nuclear power seems not so risky after all

  7. Water level monitoring device in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kiyohide; Otake, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the water level in a pressure vessel of BWR type nuclear reactors at high accuracy by improving the compensation functions. Constitution: In the conventional water level monitor in a nuclear reactor, if the pressure vessel is displaced by the change of the pressure in the reactor or the temperature of the reactor water, the relative level of the reference water head in a condensation vessel is changed to cause deviation between the actual water level and the indicated water level to reduce the monitoring accuracy. According to the invention, means for detecting the position of the reference water head and means for detection the position in the condensation vessel are disposed to the pressure vessel. Then, relative positional change between the condensation vessel and the reference water head is calculated based on detection sinals from both of the means. The water level is compensated and calculated by water level calculation means based on the relative positional change, water level signals from the level gage and the pressure signals from the pressure gage. As a result, if the pressure vessel is displaced due to the change of the temperature or pressure, it is possible to measure the reactor water level accurately thereby remakably improve the reliability for the water level control in the nuclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Regional Relations in Bankfull Channel Characteristics determined from flow measurements at selected stream-gaging stations in West Virginia, 1911-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Three bankfull channel characteristics?cross-sectional area, width, and depth?were significantly correlated with drainage area in regression equations developed for two regions in West Virginia. Channel characteristics were determined from analysis of flow measurements made at 74 U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times bankfull flow between 1911 and 2002. Graphical and regression analysis were used to delineate an 'Eastern Region' and a 'Western Region,' which were separated by the boundary between the Appalachian Plateaus and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces. Streams that drained parts of both provinces had channel characteristics typical of the Eastern Region, and were grouped with it. Standard error for the six regression equations, three for each region, ranged between 8.7 and 16 percent. Cross-sectional area and depth were greater relative to drainage area for the Western Region than they were for the Eastern Region. Regression equations were defined for streams draining between 46.5 and 1,619 square miles for the Eastern Region, and between 2.78 and 1,354 square miles for the Western Region. Stream-gaging stations with two or more cross sections where flow had been measured at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times the 1.5-year flow showed poor replication of channel characteristics compared to the 95-percent confidence intervals of the regression, suggesting that within-reach variability for the stream-gaging stations may be substantial. A disproportionate number of the selected stream-gaging stations were on large (drainage area greater than 100 square miles) streams in the central highlands of West Virginia, and only one stream-gaging station that met data-quality criteria was available to represent the region within about 50 miles of the Ohio River north of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Many of the cross sections were at bridges, which can change channel shape. Although the data discussed in this report may not be

  9. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  10. Improving Streamflow Simulation in Gaged and Ungaged Areas Using a Multi-Model Synthesis Combined with Remotely-Sensed Data and Estimates of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support coordinated, comprehensive and consistent hydrologic model development, and facilitate the application of hydrologic simulations within the conterminous United States (CONUS). More than 1,700 gaged watersheds across the CONUS were modeled to test the feasibility of improving streamflow simulations in gaged and ungaged watersheds by linking statistically- and physically-based hydrologic models with remotely-sensed data products (i.e. - snow water equivalent) and estimates of uncertainty. Initially, the physically-based models were calibrated to measured streamflow data to provide a baseline for comparison. As many stream reaches in the CONUS are either not gaged, or are substantially impacted by water use or flow regulation, ancillary information must be used to determine reasonable parameter estimations for streamflow simulations. In addition, not all ancillary datasets are appropriate for application to all parts of the CONUS (e.g. - snow water equivalent in the southeastern U.S., where snow is a rarity). As it is not expected that any one data product or model simulation will be sufficient for representing hydrologic behavior across the entire CONUS, a systematic evaluation of which data products improve simulations of streamflow for various regions across the CONUS was performed. The resulting portfolio of calibration strategies can be used to guide selection of an appropriate combination of simulated and measured information for model development and calibration at a given location of interest. In addition, these calibration strategies have been developed to be flexible so that new data products or simulated information can be assimilated. This analysis provides a foundation to understand how well models work when streamflow data is either not available or is limited and could be used to further inform hydrologic model parameter development for ungaged areas.

  11. Strain measurement on a compact nuclear reactor steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Pozzo, Renato del; Mola, Jairo

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the strain measurement procedures applied to a compact nuclear reactor steam generator, during a hydrostatic test, using strain gage technology. The test was divided in two steps: primary side test and secondary side test. In the primary side test twelve points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, three points (two external and one internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. In the secondary side test 18 points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, four points (two external and two internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. The measurement points on both internal and external pressurizer walls were established from pre-calculated stress distribution by means of numerical approach (finite elements modeling). Strain values using a quarter Wheatstone bridge circuit were obtained. Stress values, from experimental strain were determined, and to numerical calculation results were compared. (author)

  12. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  13. Analysis of residual transverse stresses in a thick UD glass/polyester pultruded profile using hole drilling with strain gage and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko

    2018-05-01

    Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.

  14. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  15. Two BASIC computer programs for the determination of in situ stresses using the CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell and the USBM borehole deformation gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical method of determining in-situ stresses by overcoring, using either the U.S. Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gage or the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Hollow Inclusion Stress Cell, is summarized, and data reduction programs for each type of instrument, written in BASIC, are presented. The BASIC programs offer several advantages over previously available FORTRAN programs. They can be executed on a desk-top microcomputer at or near the field site, allowing the investigator to assess the quality of the data and make decisions on the need for additional testing while the crew is still in the field. Also, data input is much simpler than with currently available FORTRAN programs; either English or SI units can be used; and standard deviations of the principal stresses are computed as well as those of the geographic components.

  16. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-03-07

    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers to identify the outstanding workload categorized as in-office datum transformations or offset applications versus out

  17. New constraints on slip rates and locking depths of the San Andreas Fault System from Sentinel-1A InSAR and GAGE GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. A.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Higa, J. T.; Xu, X.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    After over a decade of operation, the EarthScope (GAGE) Facility has now accumulated a wealth of GPS and InSAR data, that when successfully integrated, make it possible to image the entire San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) with unprecedented spatial coverage and resolution. Resulting surface velocity and deformation time series products provide critical boundary conditions needed for improving our understanding of how faults are loaded across a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Moreover, our understanding of how earthquake cycle deformation is influenced by fault zone strength and crust/mantle rheology is still developing. To further study these processes, we construct a new 4D earthquake cycle model of the SAFS representing the time-dependent 3D velocity field associated with interseismic strain accumulation, co-seismic slip, and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation. This high-resolution California statewide model, spanning the Cerro Prieto fault to the south to the Maacama fault to the north, is constructed on a 500 m spaced grid and comprises variable slip and locking depths along 42 major fault segments. Secular deep slip is prescribed from the base of the locked zone to the base of the elastic plate while episodic shallow slip is prescribed from the historical earthquake record and geologic recurrence intervals. Locking depths and slip rates for all 42 fault segments are constrained by the newest GAGE Facility geodetic observations; 3169 horizontal GPS velocity measurements, combined with over 53,000 line-of-sight (LOS) InSAR velocity observations from Sentinel-1A, are used in a weighted least-squares inversion. To assess slip rate and locking depth sensitivity of a heterogeneous rheology model, we also implement variations in crustal rigidity throughout the plate boundary, assuming a coarse representation of shear modulus variability ranging from 20-40 GPa throughout the (low rigidity) Salton Trough and Basin and Range and the (high rigidity) Central

  18. Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

  19. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  20. Heat-flux gage measurements on a flat plate at a Mach number of 4.6 in the VSD high speed wind tunnel, a feasibility test (LA28). [wind tunnel tests of measuring instruments for boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of employing thin-film heat-flux gages was studied as a method of defining boundary layer characteristics at supersonic speeds in a high speed blowdown wind tunnel. Flow visualization techniques (using oil) were employed. Tabulated data (computer printouts), a test facility description, and photographs of test equipment are given.

  1. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  2. Strain measurements of nuclear power plant steam generator antiseismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants steam generators have different types of structural supports. One of these types are the antiseismic supports, which are intended to be under stress only if a seismic event takes place. Nevertheless, the antiseismic supports lugs, that are welded to the steam generator vessel, are subjected to thermal fatigue because of the temperature cycles related with the shut down and start up operations performed during the life of the nuclear power plant. In order to evaluate the stresses that the lugs are subjected to, several strain gages were welded on two supports lugs, positioned at two heights of one of the Embalse nuclear power plant steam generators. In this paper, the instrumentation used and the strain measurements obtained during two start up operations are presented. The influence of the plant start up operation parameters on the lugs strain evolution is also analyzed. (author) [es

  3. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  4. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D B [ed.; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  5. Application of AFINCH as a tool for evaluating the effects of streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the southeast Lake Michigan hydrologic subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.; Holtschlag, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Bootstrapping techniques employing random subsampling were used with the AFINCH (Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels) model to gain insights into the effects of variation in streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the 0405 (Southeast Lake Michigan) hydrologic subregion. AFINCH uses stepwise-regression techniques to estimate monthly water yields from catchments based on geospatial-climate and land-cover data in combination with available streamflow and water-use data. Calculations are performed on a hydrologic-subregion scale for each catchment and stream reach contained in a National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) subregion. Water yields from contributing catchments are multiplied by catchment areas and resulting flow values are accumulated to compute streamflows in stream reaches which are referred to as flow lines. AFINCH imposes constraints on water yields to ensure that observed streamflows are conserved at gaged locations.  Data from the 0405 hydrologic subregion (referred to as Southeast Lake Michigan) were used for the analyses. Daily streamflow data were measured in the subregion for 1 or more years at a total of 75 streamflow-gaging stations during the analysis period which spanned water years 1971–2003. The number of streamflow gages in operation each year during the analysis period ranged from 42 to 56 and averaged 47. Six sets (one set for each censoring level), each composed of 30 random subsets of the 75 streamflow gages, were created by censoring (removing) approximately 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 75 percent of the streamflow gages (the actual percentage of operating streamflow gages censored for each set varied from year to year, and within the year from subset to subset, but averaged approximately the indicated percentages).Streamflow estimates for six flow lines each were aggregated by censoring level, and results were analyzed to assess (a) how the

  6. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  7. Simulation of daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations within the Cedar River Basin, Iowa, using a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to examine techniques for estimation of daily streamflows using hydrological models and statistical methods. This report focuses on the use of a hydrologic model, the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, to estimate daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The Cedar River Basin was selected to construct a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model that simulates the period from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. The calibration period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004, and the validation periods were from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010 and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. A Geographic Information System tool was used to delineate the Cedar River Basin and subbasins for the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and to derive parameters based on the physical geographical features. Calibration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model was completed using a U.S. Geological Survey calibration software tool. The main objective of the calibration was to match the daily streamflow simulated by the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model with streamflow measured at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages. The Cedar River Basin daily streamflow model performed with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.82 to 0.33 during the calibration period, and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.77 to -0.04 during the validation period. The Cedar River Basin model is meeting the criteria of greater than 0.50 Nash-Sutcliffe and is a good fit for streamflow conditions for the calibration period at all but one location, Austin, Minnesota

  8. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  9. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  10. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  11. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  12. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  13. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  14. Oceanographic data collected from Hammond Tide Gage by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2005-06-24 to 2013-02-08 (NCEI Accession 0162194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162194 contains navigational and physical data collected at Hammond Tide Gage, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon....

  15. Low-flow analysis and selected flow statistics representative of 1930-2002 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Five time periods between 1930 and 2002 are identified as having distinct patterns of annual minimum daily mean flows (minimum flows). Average minimum flows increased around 1970 at many streamflow-gaging stations in West Virginia. Before 1930, however, there might have been a period of minimum flows greater than any period identified between 1930 and 2002. The effects of climate variability are probably the principal causes of the differences among the five time periods. Comparisons of selected streamflow statistics are made between values computed for the five identified time periods and values computed for the 1930-2002 interval for 15 streamflow-gaging stations. The average difference between statistics computed for the five time periods and the 1930-2002 interval decreases with increasing magnitude of the low-flow statistic. The greatest individual-station absolute difference was 582.5 percent greater for the 7-day 10-year low flow computed for 1970-1979 compared to the value computed for 1930-2002. The hydrologically based low flows indicate approximately equal or smaller absolute differences than biologically based low flows. The average 1-day 3-year biologically based low flow (1B3) and 4-day 3-year biologically based low flow (4B3) are less than the average 1-day 10-year hydrologically based low flow (1Q10) and 7-day 10-year hydrologic-based low flow (7Q10) respectively, and range between 28.5 percent less and 13.6 percent greater. Seasonally, the average difference between low-flow statistics computed for the five time periods and 1930-2002 is not consistent between magnitudes of low-flow statistics, and the greatest difference is for the summer (July 1-September 30) and fall (October 1-December 31) for the same time period as the greatest difference determined in the annual analysis. The greatest average difference between 1B3 and 4B3 compared to 1Q10 and 7Q10, respectively, is in the spring (April 1-June 30), ranging between 11.6 and 102.3 percent

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  17. Pressure gages for aggressive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolenko, V.L.; Levchuk, N.F.; Nikolaev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The device for measuring the pressure in agressive media, designed using the K140UD1B and K140UD8A integrated microelectronic circuits is described. The device sensitivity in conjunction with the membrane zero-indicator constitutes 10 Pa, in case of automated counterpressure control by magnetic valves it is equal to 50 Pa per one device scale mark

  18. "Fuel Gage" for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-emmission and time-integrated-current measurements indicate battery charge state. Tests indicate possibility of monitoring state of charge of lead/acid batteries at any stage in charging cycle by measuring charging current and either gas evolution or electrode potential. Data then processed by microcomputer. Uses include cell voltage, cell pressure, cell temperature and rate of gas recombination on catalyst.

  19. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet answers specific questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant number sign 1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  20. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report answers questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant No.1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  2. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  3. Nuclear resisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet contains six papers by different authors, under the headings: dangers along the nuclear fuel cycle; the nuclear profiteers; the nuclear state is a police state; a non-disposable future (renewable energy sources, energy conservation); nuclear weapons - out of control; man made madness. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  5. Examination of Direct Discharge Measurement Data and Historic Daily Data for Selected Gages on the Middle Mississippi River, 1861-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An examination of data from two continuous stage and discharge streamgages and one continuous stage-only gage on the Middle Mississippi River was made to determine stage-discharge relation changes through time and to investigate cause-and-effect mechanisms through evaluation of hydraulic geometry, channel elevation and water-surface elevation data. Data from discrete, direct measurements at the streamgages at St. Louis, Missouri, and Chester, Illinois, during the period of operation by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1933 to 2008 were examined for changes with time. Daily stage values from the streamgages at St. Louis (1861-2008) and Chester (1891-2008) and the stage-only gage at Cape Girardeau, Missouri (1896-2008), throughout the historic period of record also were examined for changes with time. Stage and discharge from measurements and stage-discharge relations at the streamgages at St. Louis and Chester indicate that stage for a given discharge has changed with time at both locations. An apparent increase in stage for a given discharge at increased flows (greater than flood stage) likely is caused by the raising of levees on the flood plains, and a decrease in stage for a given discharge at low flows (less than one-half flood stage) likely is caused by a combination of dikes in the channel that deepen the channel thalweg at the end of the dikes, and reduced sediment flux into the Middle Mississippi River. Since the 1960s at St. Louis, Missouri, the stage-discharge relations indicated no change or a decrease in stage for a given discharge for all discharges, whereas at Chester, Illinois, the stage-discharge relations indicate increasing stage for a given discharge above bankfull because of sediment infilling of the overflow channel. Top width and average velocity from measurements at a given discharge for the streamgage at St. Louis, Missouri, were relatively constant through time, with the only substantial change in top width resulting from the change in

  6. Analysis of flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  7. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  8. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  9. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  10. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  11. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  16. Nuclear alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Anti-nuclear demonstrations against the deployment of new US missiles were held in Nato Europe. As no agreement has yet been reached at the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces talks in Geneva, the deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe has started

  17. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  18. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  3. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  4. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  5. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  6. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  7. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  8. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  9. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  10. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  11. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  12. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  13. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The following motion was put before the United Kingdom House of Commons on 3rd February 1992 and agreed; that this House, recognising the potential dangers of the rapidly changing world order, welcomes the recent proposals for substantial reductions in nuclear weaponry, the growing support for the non-proliferation treaty and progress in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions concerning the dismantling of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities; urges the Government to play their full part in helping the relevant authorities in the Commonwealth of Independent States to dismantle their nuclear devices, to safeguard their nuclear components and to discourage the proliferation of nuclear expertise; and believes it is of the first importance that Britain retains an effective and credible minimum nuclear deterrent as security in a world where there remain many sources of instability. The record of arguments for and against the motion in the debate is presented. (author)

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  17. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  18. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Joseph; Tarleton, Gael

    2004-01-01

    .... This event was an opportunity for policy makers, security analysts, nuclear scientists and engineers, regional experts, and military planners to share perspectives and identify those issues requiring...

  1. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and software, including myocardial perfusion imaging, offer increased accuracy in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  3. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  4. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  5. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  6. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  7. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  8. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  9. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  10. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  11. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  12. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  14. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  15. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  16. Nuclear facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: the case for using nuclear energy (Britain's energy needs; energy policy); safety; transport of spent fuel; radiation (natural radioactivity); environment (land use of nuclear power plants; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes). (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  18. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  19. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  20. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  1. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  2. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  4. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  5. Nuclear haematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjhur, J S

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used {sup 32}P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used {sup 32}P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  6. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  7. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  8. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  9. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  10. Nuclear inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the East-West confronting, the nuclear weapon issue has been focused in an international debate with obvious repercussions in Europe, because it is the European continent which indicated first the significance of nuclear deterrence. This debate refers first upon the past, as the German unification allowed capturing numerous documents of Warsaw treaty which revealed the intentions and the plans of Soviet Union during the cold war, and secondly concerns the future, since the role of nuclear weapons must be re-thought in a new context. This is the subject of this book, which refers also to the problem of the nuclear proliferation in the world and evolution of different countries in a political and regional context. The extension of the non-proliferation treaty for an undefined duration, in May 1995, is a incontestable victory because this treaty rules the renouncement to nuclear weapons of 185 countries. However, it does not solve most sensible problems like the Iraq case, for which a specific inspection regime has been instituted, or the case of Iran, which is suspected to acquire the bomb, although no clear evidence has been provided up to now. This is also the case of Israel, India and Pakistan which allege plainly their willingness of keeping open, from security reasons, their nuclear option. The content is displayed in five chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The role of the nuclear weapons after the cold war; 3. The nuclear proliferation at crossroads; 4. Undefined extension of the NPT, a striking but fragile victory; 5. Conclusions. An appendix containing the text of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and a chronology are added

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  12. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  14. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  15. Rotterdam Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In 1965 Rotterdam Nuclear received an order for the design, supply of materials, manufacture, testing, inspection and preparation for shipment of one 450MW Boiling Water Reactor pressure vessel. This was one of the first orders for a reactor pressure vessel, ever obtained by a European Manufacturer. The Company has since supplied 19 reactor pressure vessels for nuclear power stations, having a total weight of about 10,000,000kg. The nuclear power stations in which these are installed represent an electrical output of about 15,000MW and they are located in seven different countries (USA, Spain, Switzerland, Argentina, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands). (Auth.)

  16. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  19. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  20. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  2. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  3. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  4. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

  5. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  9. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  11. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  12. Nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% from the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed

  13. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  14. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  19. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  3. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  4. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  5. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.C.C. de.

    1978-04-01

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  6. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  8. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  10. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  12. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  13. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  15. Nuclear cardiac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques

  16. Nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1967-01-01

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.

  17. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  18. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  19. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  20. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  1. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  2. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  4. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Nuclear watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Parish, T.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979 the accident at Three Mile Island brought nuclear power to the forefront of national attention. Over the last five years there have been no new orders for nuclear plants, construction costs and lead times have increased drastically, and numerous plants have been cancelled. In the coming years many new plants will come on line, and the first round of nuclear plant retirements will begin. Thus, the new set of issues faced by utilities are whether to complete plants currently under construction, how to recover the cost of abandoned plants, how to handle the potential rate shock of bringing costly plants into rate base, and how to accomplish decommissioning and retirement of nuclear plants. This paper presents and analyzes these issues. First, the history of the nuclear electric generation industry is reviewed. Next a case study illustrating the cost momentum built into nuclear power plant construction is presented. The issues involved in plant cancellation are discussed. Finally, a case study involving rate phase-in strategies is analyzed. 1 reference, 7 figures

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  9. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  10. Nuclear recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speth, G.

    1978-01-01

    The private sector's growing doubts about nuclear power plants, as reflected in the decline in new orders and the number of rescinded orders, will result in an estimated total of under 300 nuclear power plants by the year 2000 rather than the 1200 to 1500 that were projected several years ago. The decline is a result of construction and equipment costs and a lower operating efficiency than anticipated. The growth of electricity demand also declined after 1974 and, although it is increasing again, there are concerns about future growth rates. Besides its noncompetitive position relative to coal, nuclear plant construction suffers from restrictive policies based on the uncertainties of safety, security, waste disposal, and proliferation. Unless these problems can be resolved, many consider nuclear power to be an impractical option as an energy source. The Council on Environmental Quality supports policies that will permit further nuclear or coal development only after a clear demonstration of technical and institutional capacity to handle these problems. A commitment to solar technology is urged

  11. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  12. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  13. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  14. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  15. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  17. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  18. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  19. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Tony.

    1986-01-01

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.

    Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit. On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war.

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  2. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, T.M.; Shaffer, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The birth of nuclear cardiology has generally been attributed to a 1927 experiment during which a radium salt was injected in one arm vein and the circulation time calculated by recording the arrival of the radioactivity in the opposite arm. This simple experiment lead to the radiocardiogram in the late 1940s that was used to measure left ventricular function and, later, cardiac output. This chapter provides a brief overview of nuclear cardiology. Methodology is presented when it is important for the understanding of test results. The use of these studies in the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease is emphasized

  3. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  4. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  5. The nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of knowledge and technical aspects regarding nuclear energy. It presents the phenomenon of radioactivity and its measurement and thresholds, describes the fuel cycle, presents the different principles and types of nuclear reactors, and more precisely the pressurized water reactors and their various models (900, 1300, 1400 and 1600 MW). It presents other reactors: boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature reactors, fourth generation reactors. It addresses the issues of wastes and releases, presents the OSPAR convention, the issues of management and safety. It presents the national safety bodies (ASN, IRSN, HCTISM) and international bodies

  6. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  7. Effects of rainstorms and runoff on consequences of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Brown, W.D.; Wayland, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    A preliminary model describing the effects of washout and runoff on the consequences of a nuclear reactor accident is presented. The most important new feature of this stratified model relative to the model in WASH-1400 is the spatial structure of rainstorms and runoff consisting of four levels of rain activity that are normalized by rain gage data. The predicted concentrations of radioactivity and resultant health consequences of the stratified model are compared with those of the model in WASH-1400 for simplified rainstorms with fixed meteorological conditions, an actual rainstorm, and a stratified sample run consisting of 91 separate reactor accidents. In the case of individual storms, runoff and the spatial structure of the rain in the new model can result in health consequences that are significantly different from those of the WASH-1400 model. The differences between the predictions of the two models are small for the stratified sample run

  8. Experimental analysis of a nuclear reactor prestressed concrete pressure vessels model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallin, C.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensible analysis was made of the performance of each set of sensors used to measure the strain and displacement of a 1/20 scale Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel (PCPV) model tested at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). Among the three Kinds of sensors used (strain gage, displacement transducers and load cells) the displacement transducers showed the best behavior. The displacemente transducers data was statistically analysed and a linear behavior of the model was observed during the first pressurizations tests. By means of a linear statistical correlation between experimental and expected theoretical data it was found that the model looses the linearity at a pressure between 110-125 atm. (Author) [pt

  9. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  10. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  11. Nuclear crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Ferchland, B.

    1993-01-01

    The article discusses the legal provisions (Criminal Code (StGB), weapons Control Act) applicable in Germany to combat illegal trading of nuclear fuels and other readioactive materials. The authors conclude that part of the provisions are not in live with the rights and duties of the police, and they evolve near-practice proposals for remedy and legal improvement. (hP) [de

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  15. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman B, O.; Vallejo M, J.I.; Cardenas C, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A historical review of the evolution of the Nuclear Physics Section at the IAN is presented along the 30 years of existence of the Institute. Objectives, structure, programs and goal are historically examined. Present status of the section and its projection on national development is also analyzed

  17. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  18. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  19. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  20. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  2. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  3. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  4. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  5. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  6. Nuclear power without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.; Klein, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study leading experts summarize the work of a working group meeting during several years, and they represent the state of the art of the international discussion about the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The technical basis of proliferation, the relations between energy policy and nuclear energy, as well as the development of the non-proliferation system up to the present are thoroughly studied. Special attention is paid to the further development of the instruments of the non-proliferation policy, and approaches and ways to improving the control of the fuel cycle, e.g. by means of multinational methods or by improving the control requirements are analyzed. Also the field of positive inducements and negative sanctions to prevent the proliferation as well as the question of ensured supply are elucidated in detail. A further section then analyzes the functions of the international organizations active in this field and the nuclear policy of the most important western industrial nations, the RGW-states and the threshold countries of the Third World. This volume pays special attention to the nuclear policy of the Federal Republic of Germany and to the possibilities and necessities of a further development of the non-proliferation policy. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  8. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  9. National symposium: nuclear technique in industry, medicine, agriculture and environment protection. Abstracts of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The National Symposium 'Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection' has been held in Rynia near Warsaw from 24 to 27 April 1995. Totally 94 lectures have been presented. The actual state of art in Polish investigations have been shown in all branches of applied nuclear sciences. The plenary session devoted to general topics has began the symposium. Further conference has been divided into 18 subject sessions. There were: 1) radiation technologies in environment protection; 2) radiation technologies in materials engineering; 3) radiation preservation in food; 4) radiation techniques for medical use; 5) radiotracers in industrial investigations; 6) radiotracers in water and sewage management and leak control; 7) tracers in hydrology; 8) radiotracers in materials testing; 9) instruments for environment protection, 10) radiometric industrial gages; 11) diagnostic and testing instruments; 12) application of nuclear techniques in materials testing; 13) applications of nuclear techniques in geology and hydrogeology; 14) radioanalytical methods; 15) radiation detectors; 16) radiation measurements; 17) data processing from radiometric experiments; 18) accelerators, isotopes manufacturing, INIS

  10. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  12. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  13. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  18. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Aitken, T.W.; Rowley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The many diverse programmes of fundamental research and technical development at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) have continued at their usual hectic pace throughout the period 1988/89. An overview of the overall programme and of the Facility has been presented in the first volume of this report, along with an expanded discussion of some of the highlights of the year's work. This second volume presents the more technical and detailed reports on the progress and results of individuals proposals and hence will be of most interest to the more expert reader. The reports are grouped in terms of experimental studies aimed at probing the structure of individual nuclei or series of nuclei, studies devoted to probing the primary nuclear reaction mechanism itself, theoretical work and research devoted to the development of the accelerator, and experimental equipment/techniques. Overall, they provide a concise summary of the year's work at the NSF. (author)

  19. Nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrampres, J.

    2010-01-01

    Close cooperation with the Ministry of Industry with representation from the UNESA Safeguards Group, has meant that, after almost two years of intense meetings and negotiations, Spain has a specific plant to plant agreement for the application of Safeguards under this new method. This is an agreement which aims to be a benchmark for all other EU countries, as the IAEA tends to apply a generic agreement that, in many cases, majority interferes in the nuclear power plants own processes. (Author).

  20. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, T.; Price, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    The appendix to the Daresbury Annual report contains detailed summaries of experiments carried out, or in progress, for the period 1983/84, using the Nuclear Structure Facility tandem accelerator. The experimental work is carried out by University groups from the UK and abroad, and Daresbury Staff. Developments in instrumentation, and a report on the first year of scheduled operation of the Facility, are also given. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  2. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.

    1998-01-01

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  3. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  4. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown (Australia))

    1983-05-14

    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed.

  5. Nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, L.; Prendergast, P.; Prendergast, E.J.; Prendergast, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    An underground nuclear shelter, fabricated from a series of transverse metal hoop frames connected by longitudinal metal members and plates, is described. The shelter chamber has two hatches in the roof each with a shaft fitted with a shield cover. One shaft houses an air inlet and filter, the other is used for access. Two or more shelter units can be linked. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-02-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level.

  7. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  9. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Nuclear therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Having first recalled the biological action of ionizing radiations, the main problems relating to the therapeutical use of radioelements were analyzed. Stressing the good results recorded with this method for the treatment of some diseases, the present limits were also defined, stating however that the progress made in biochemistry in the direction of metabolism, combined with the progress made in nuclear medicine, still allows some hope [fr

  11. Nuclear Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyard, P

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: (preface) the new resistance; (1) the weapons connection; (2) the AGR - a bungled programme; (3) reactor choice - a fearful dilemma; (4) the deadly atom (uranium - mining, processing, enrichment of U-235, political and international aspects); (5) the fast reactor - how safe; (6) radiation risk and cancer; (7) atomic waste - the industry's Achilles Heel; (8) accidents - the ever-present threat; (9) the growing opposition; (10) the nuclear state.

  12. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.; Farmer, F.R.; Gaines, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Correspondence section of this issue of Nature three letters are published each of which has a bearing on the article by P. Taylor in the issue of 22 February. In that article Taylor calls for changes in the way decisions are taken on nuclear energy matters. The three articles are by H.J. Dunster of the UKAEA Health and Safety Executive, F.R. Farmer, Safety Adviser to the UKAEA, and M.J. Gaines, National Radiological Protection Board. (UK)

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacre, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book fills a gap in current literature by covering the increasing nuclear physics content of various A-level syllabuses. In section 1 we outline the background and early development of the subject, in section 2 we deal with nuclear properties and theories at a level suitable for the pre-university student. The majority of topics have been treated with the limited use of mathematics, this necessitating some simplification which we hope to have accomplished without undue error. A few topics have been developed mathematically, to some extent, e.g. series decay. While it is the purpose of a book at this level to introduce the reader to the facts and theories of nuclear physics, we have to recognise that any teacher of science, at any level, must attempt to instill in the young scientist a sense of responsibility and an understanding of the problems attendant on the technological applications are important. These problems have been touched on in the text but we hope the student will be persuaded to read further; for this purpose we have added a short list of suggested additional reading. A selection of A-level past paper questions has been included. (author)

  16. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 15 events were recorded on the first grade and 1 on the second grade of the INES scale. The second grade event is in fact a re-classification of an incident that occurred on the second april 2001 at Dampierre power plant. This event happened during core refueling, a shift in the operation sequence led to the wrong positioning of 113 assemblies. A preliminary study of this event shows that this wrong positioning could have led, in other circumstances, to the ignition of nuclear reactions. Even in that case, the analysis made by EDF shows that the consequences on the staff would have been limited. Nevertheless a further study has shown that the existing measuring instruments could not have detected the power increase announcing the beginning of the chain reaction. The investigation has shown that there were deficiencies in the control of the successive operations involved in refueling. EDF has proposed a series of corrective measures to be implemented in all nuclear power plants. The other 15 events are described in the article. During this period 121 inspections have been made in nuclear facilities. (A.C.)

  17. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  18. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  19. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  20. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  1. Nuclear danger and nuclear history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the books Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years written by McGeorge Bundy, and War and Peace in the Nuclear Age written by John Newhouse. A history of political decisions on weapon development is given, along with a what if analysis of other options. The lesson of these two books is that it has proved considerably easier to live with nuclear weapons and the Soviet Union than anyone expected forty years ago. It is all the easier if arms control issues, based on worst case analyses, are kept in their place, which is firmly in the background of the overall conduct of foreign policy

  2. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  3. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  4. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  5. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  6. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Du Hwan

    1987-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of explanations of terminologies concerning to nuclear energy such as analysis of financial safety of nuclear energy, radwaste disposal, fast breeder reactor, nuclear reactor and device, nuclear fuel and technique for concentration, using of nuclear energy radiation and measurement, plan for development of nuclear energy and international institution. This book includes 160 terms on nuclear energy and arranges in Korean alphabetical order.

  7. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  8. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  9. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  10. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  12. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  13. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Single Channel Trip System for the Dungeness B AGRs in the United Kingdom has enabled Nuclear Electric to enhance the performance of each of the twin reactors progressively towards the design figure of 660MW. The unique self-testing dynamic nature of the microprocessor-based ISAT system was one of the key factors in satisfying the UK Regulator that the system met the demanding requirements of the Dungeness B application, and current operational and maintenance experience is very encouraging. Systems based on the ISAT principle have application in reactor protection systems throughout the world. (Author)

  14. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable.

  15. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  18. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  19. Nuclear dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the Department of Energy's (DOE) procedures for annually assessing the adequacy of the fee that utilities pay for disposal of spent (used) nuclear fuel. In a June 1990 report, it was recommended, among other things, that the Congress authorize DOE to automatically adjust the fee each year on the basis of an inflation index. At that time, DOE also favored fee indexing; however, it subsequently reversed its position. Because of this change, it is now believe that Congress should require DOE to index the fee to the rate of inflation

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  2. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with two topics in nuclear cardiology. In the first, left ventricular wall motion assessment using Fourier transform of local left ventricular time-activity curves in gated blood pool studies is evaluated. In the second, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigrams is assessed which are obtained with thallium-201 or with another radiopharmaceutical with different physical, but identical biological properties. In all these investigations data acquisition and analysis by computer played an essential role. In chapter 1 the desirable properties of a nuclear medicine computer system are given and the computer system used for this work is described. Wall motion analysis of the left ventricle using Fourier transform of local time-activity curves in the left ventricular region in gated blood pool studies is described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 detection of non-perfused lesions in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201 is described. Detection of partly perfused lesions and the influence of scatter and photon energy on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is described in chapter 4. (Auth.)

  3. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to auxiliary means of cooling the nuclear fuel clusters used in light or heavy water cooled nuclear reactors. One method is to provide one or more spray cooling tubes. From holes in the side walls of those tubes coolant water may be sprayed laterally into the cluster against the rods. The flow of main coolant may thus be supplemented or even replaced by the auxiliary coolant. A difficulty, however, is that only those fuel rods close to a spray cooling tube can readily be reached by the auxiliary coolant. In the arrangement described, where the fuel rods are spaced apart by transverse grids, at least one of the interspaces between the grids is provided with an axially extending auxiliary coolant conduit having lateral holes through which an auxiliary coolant is sprayed into the cluster. A deflector is provided that extends from a transverse grid into a position in front of the holes and deflects auxiliary coolant on to parts of the fuel rods otherwise inaccessible to the auxiliary coolant. The construction of the deflector is described. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  5. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  6. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  7. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  8. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  9. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelley, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book is aimed at undergraduates in their final year, to give the student a thorough understanding of the principal features of nuclei, nuclear decays and nuclear reactions. Several models are described and used to explain nuclear properties with many illustrative examples. Sections follow on α-, β- and γ-decay, fission, thermonuclear fusion, reactions, nuclear forces and nuclear collective motion. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy basic knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmer, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Atoms, nuclear decays and radioactivity, energy, nuclear fission and the chain reaction, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, safety installations in nuclear power plants, fuel supply and disposal, radiation measurement and radiation exposition of man. (HSI)

  11. The nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Colin.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses nuclear war, disarmament and national defence policies. The author argues that in spite of the obvious advantages of nuclear power in many parts of the world, the world cannot afford the risk of continuing with it because of the demonstrated close and deadly association of nuclear power and nuclear reactors with nuclear weapons

  12. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  13. Nuclear safety and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovitz, A.

    1983-01-01

    To an extent, public opinion is against Koeberg, inspite of the fact that Escom, Koeberg's prospective licensee, are liable for damages caused in the event of an accident, that they carry public liability insurance bought in the market place to the maximum of ten million rand, and if that is not enough the government will take over responsibility for the rest. A question is put that if this kind of protection carries on, won't there always be a minority of the public who will find nuclear power socially, psychologically and politically unacceptable

  14. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  15. Residual stress measurements in the dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Paula, Raphael G.; Souto, Joao P.R.S.; Carvalho Junior, Ideir T.

    2013-01-01

    Weld residual stresses have a large influence on the behavior of cracking that could possibly occur under normal operation of components. In case of an unfavorable environment, both stainless steel and nickel-based weld materials can be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Stress corrosion cracks were found in dissimilar metal welds of some pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear plants. In the nuclear reactor primary circuit the presence of tensile residual stress and corrosive environment leads to so-called Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The PWSCC is a major safety concern in the nuclear power industry worldwide. PWSCC usually occurs on the inner surface of weld regions which come into contact with pressurized high temperature water coolant. However, it is very difficult to measure the residual stress on the inner surfaces of pipes or nozzles because of inaccessibility. A mock-up of weld parts of a pressurizer safety nozzle was fabricated. The mock-up was composed of three parts: an ASTM A508 C13 nozzle, an ASTM A276 F316L stainless steel safe-end, an AISI 316L stainless steel pipe and different filler metals of nickel alloy 82/182 and AISI 316L. This work presents the results of measurements of residual strain from the outer surface of the mock-up welded in base metals and filler metals by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. (author)

  16. Nuclear dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Sizewell 'B' Nuclear Power Station, the first in a new family of PWR (Pressurised Water Reactor) stations in the UK, is currently under construction on the Suffolk coast. One of the first civil engineering tasks associated with the power station construction was the necessity to lower the water table by 17-18 m over an area of approximately 8 hectares to allow the excavation for the foundations to be carried out in the dry. The way chosen to do this was to construct a diaphragm wall around the site area. This had the least effect on surrounding sites -the Sizewell-A station and various nature reserves and wetlands. The reasons for the choice of method are discussed. Following the construction of the wall the water was pumped out from within the diaphragm wall in January 1988. (author)

  17. Nuclear prophecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four instances known of reasonably accurate forecasts of the benefits and dangers of nuclear energy. H.G. Wells' atomic bomb of 1914, A.W. Stewart's chain reaction of 1923, Olaf Stapeldon's mushroom cloud of 1930 and Hans Dominik's tactical atomic weapon of 1927 are briefly reviewed as well as a forecast of the Three Mile island accident. These examples show that although the trained imagination of writers can approach the truth none can claim accuracy in predicting the facts. Where they do approach the truth is in the prediction of the consequences of the discoveries, social as well as military, of unlimited energy and of unlimited disasters. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  19. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  20. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  3. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  4. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  5. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  9. Nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, A

    1993-12-31

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures 15 figs, 14 tabs

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  11. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.

    1992-01-01

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures

  12. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  14. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  15. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  17. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  18. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  19. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear ... nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x-rays ...

  1. NATO's Nuclear Glue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    .... nuclear weapons prepositioned in Europe? This paper reviews the past and current role of US nuclear forces in NATO, considers future nuclear policy options, and discusses potential consequences of those decisions...

  2. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  3. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  4. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  5. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  6. Essay about nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    1994-01-01

    The present essay treat about all Uruguaian Nuclear Energy legislation. Nuclear energy history, international treaties, agreements, national programs, nuclear government politics, radiation protection regulations, wastes, radioactive materials transport, environment and safeguards has been given in this compilation

  7. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  8. Nuclear reaction data and nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paver, N [University of Trieste (Italy); Herman, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Gandini, A [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-15

    These two volumes contain the lecture notes of the workshop 'Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety', which was held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in the Spring of 2000. The workshop consisted of five weeks of lecture courses followed by practical computer exercises on nuclear data treatment and design of nuclear power systems. The spectrum of topics is wide enough to timely cover the state-of-the-art and the perspectives of this broad field. The first two weeks were devoted to nuclear reaction models and nuclear data evaluation. Nuclear data processing for applications to reactor calculations was the subject of the third week. On the last two weeks reactor physics and on-going projects in nuclear power generation, waste disposal and safety were presented.

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  10. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  11. The Iranian nuclear diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    While assuming that civil nuclear means progress, and that military nuclear means danger, the author explains why Iran had decided to perform nuclear research and to implement electro-nuclear science, why Iran emphasises its willingness to develop uranium enrichment, what is the Iranian policy in terms of civil nuclear industry, why Iran does not want any shift of its nuclear programme towards military purposes

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-01

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  13. Nuclear Deterrence in a New Nuclear Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraillet, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Within an unstable international environment and an unpredictable future, nuclear weapons will continue to play a major role in defense policies. Indeed, since disarmament currently seems an unlikely objective, nuclear weapons remain as a security guarantee. Within this context, talk of the global abolition of nuclear weapons remains essentially rhetorical and the supposed link between disarmament and non-proliferation is a tenuous one. The foremost purpose of both disarmament and nuclear deterrence must be security

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-01

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  16. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.

    2009-06-01

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  17. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  18. Nuclear safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-03-01

    This book contains 12 chapters, which are atom and radiation, nuclear reactor and kinds of nuclear power plant, safeguard actuation system and stability evaluation for rock foundation of nuclear power plant, nuclear safety and principle, safety analysis and classification of incident, probabilistic safety assessment and major incident, nuclear safety regulation, system of nuclear safety regulation, main function and subject of safety regulation in nuclear facilities, regulation of fuel cycle and a nuclear dump site, protection of radiation and, safety supervision and, safety supervision and measurement of environmental radioactivity.

  19. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  20. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactors, nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; atomic and materials studies; nuclear theory; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  1. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  2. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  3. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  4. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  5. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  6. Nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Because of an accidental release in 1986 of low-level waste stored at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, several individuals inhaled small amounts of a radioactive substance. GAO examined the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's oversight of the Department of Defense's use, handling, and disposal of radioactive material and found that no comprehensive DOD waste disposal program exists and none of the three services knows the full extent of its low-level radioactive waste disposal problems. Throughout the 1980s, the Army and the Air Force had, on occasion, been banned from disposal sites for failing to comply with federal and state requirements. By December 1992, two of the three sites now used by DOD to disposed of waste will close, and only a limited number of new sites may be available for several years. In the interim, DID will pay substantial surcharges to dispose of waste. After January 1993, DOD will have to comply with disposal requirements for as many as 16 sites or store waste on-site pending the availability of new sites. This report discusses how GAO believes DOD needs to take full advantage of the time between now and January 1993 to establish a low-level radioactive waste disposal program. DOD also needs to work with other federal agencies, compacts, and states to determine the feasibility of dedicating a portion of one or more disposal sites for the government's use

  7. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  8. Nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that despite their crucial importance to national security, safeguards at the Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons facilities may be falling short. DOE security inspections have identified many weaknesses, including poor performance by members of DOE's security force, poor accountability for quantities of nuclear materials, and the inability of personnel to locate documents containing classified information. About 13 percent of the 2,100 identified weakness resulted in DOE inspectors giving out unsatisfactory security ratings; another 38 percent led to marginal ratings. In addition, DOE's centralized safeguards and security information tracking system lacks current data on whether DOE field offices have corrected the identified weaknesses. Without reliable information, DOE has no way of knowing whether timely action was taken to correct problems, nor can it determine whether weaknesses are systematic. DOE has tried to minimize the impact of these security weaknesses at its facilities by establishing multiple layers of protection measures and instituting interim and compensatory measures for identified weaknesses. DOE is planning enhancements to the centralized tracking system that should improve its reliability and increase its effectiveness

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor (e.g. one having coolant down-flow through a core to a hearth below) thermal insulation (e.g. of a floor of the hearth) comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles thereon, with smaller clearances between the tiles than between the bricks but with the bricks being of reduced cross-section immediately adjacent the tiles so as to be surrounded by interconnected passages, of relatively large dimensions, constituting a continuous chamber extending behind the layer of tiles. By this arrangement, lateral coolant flow in the inter-brick clearances is much reduced. The reactor core is preferably formed of hexagonal columns, supported on diamond-shaped plates each supported on a pillar resting on one of the hearth-floor tiles. Each plate has an internal duct, four upper channels connecting the duct with coolant ducts in four core columns supported by the plate, and lower channels connecting the duct to a downwardly-open recess common to three plates, grouped to form a hexagon, at their mutually-adjacent corners. This provides mixing, and temperature-averaging, of coolant from twelve columns

  10. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  11. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A built-up image illustrating heart activity within the cardiac cycle is produced by simultaneously displaying a plurality of memory channels which accumulate respectively the amount of radioactivity detected within a cardiac chamber during successive intervals throughout the cardiac cycle. The parallel lines of a raster scan display correspond respectively to the memory channels. The count stored in a particular memory channel causes the video signal for the corresponding line to be maintained at a binary level for a corresponding time interval thus generating a bar graph in which the length of each bar indicates the amount of radioactivity sensed during the corresponding interval of the cardiac cycle. As each memory channel accumulates radioactivity data with each successive cardiac cycle, each bar displayed in the bar graph lengthens to indicate the cumulative activity until an interpretable curve is obtained. The invention relates generally to the field of nuclear medicine and, more specifically, to diagnostic techniques of analyzing blood flow through the heart by detecting radioactivity from radioisotopes injected into the bloodstream

  12. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain an optimum structural arrangement of IRM having a satisfactory responsibility to the inoperable state of a nuclear reactor and capable of detecting the reactor power in an averaged manner. Constitution: As the structural arrangement of IRM, from 6 to 16 even number of IRM are bisected into equial number so as to belong two trip systems respectively, in which all of the detectors are arranged at an equal pitch along a circumference of a circle with a radius rl having the center at the position of the central control rod in one trip system, while one detector is disposed near the central control rod and other detectors are arranged substantially at an equal pitch along the circumference of a circle with a radius r2 having the center at the position for the central control rod in another trip system. Furthermore, the radius r1 and r2 are set such that r1 = 0.3 R, r2 = 0.5 R in the case where there are 6 IRM and r1 = 0.4 R and R2 = 0.8 R where there are eight IRM where R represents the radius of the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: mass asymmetry and total kinetic energy release in the spontaneous fission of 262 105; calculation of spontaneous fission properties of very heavy nuclei - 98 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106 and 150 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 164; energy losses for 84 Kr ions in nickel, aluminium and titanium; differences in compound nuclei formed with 40 Ar and 84 Kr projectiles; measurement of the energy division vs. mass in highly damped reactions; ambiguities in the inference of precompound emission from excitation function analysis; selective laser one-atom detection of neutral prompt fission fragments; laser induced nuclear polarization - application to the study of spontaneous fission isomers; quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations in the actinide nuclei; high-spin states in 164 Yb; contrasting behavior of h/sub 9/2/ and i/sub 13/2/ bands in 185 Au; multiple band crossings in 164 Er; recoil-distance measurement of lifetimes of rotational states in 164 Dy, lifetimes of ground-band states in 192 Pt and 194 Pt and application of the rotation-alignment model; coulomb excitation of vibrational nuclei with heavy ions; surface structure of deformed nuclei; valency contribution to neutron capture in 32 S; neutron capture cross section of manganese; search for superheavy elements in natural samples by neutron multiplicity counting; and gamma-ray studies on the geochemistry of achondritic meteorites

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The spleen is a sinusoidal vascular filter that is an integral part of the reticuloendothelial system and is the largest single lymphoid organ in the body. Thus it has important scavenging and immunologic functions in humans. It is also a site for normal hematopoiesis in humans during the third to sixth months of gestation. Solenic hematopoiesis does occur normally in adult animals of other species (for instance, mouse, rat, rabbit), but it is seen postnatally in humans only when they have certain hematologic disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia and severe hemolytic anemias. In its role as a reticuloendothelial organ the adult human spleen serves as a vascular scavenger. Arterial blood filters through a network of arterioles, cords, and sinuses in a closed system that requires the blood cells to be pliable and brings them into intimate contact with macrophages suspended on the reticulin stroma of the cords. Erythrocyte culling and pitting functions as described by Crosby result in a transient retention of immature circulating erythroid cells until residual intracellular nuclear fragments have been extruded. The increased risk for overwhelming infection in children and adults whose spleen have been removed for reasons other than acute trauma would appear to be caused by the loss of both its phagocytic and its immunologic (antibody-producing) contributions to the monitoring of the circulating blood. This paper reports that the ability of the spleen to phagocytose intravascular foreign particles and to recognize and destroy damaged erythrocytes is the basis for the current use of radiopharmaceuticals in spleen scintigraphy

  15. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The state of Nevada opposed DOE's development of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As a result, disputes have arisen over how Nevada has spent financial assistance provided by DOE to pay the state's repository program costs. This report reviews Nevada's use of about $32 million in grant funds provided by DOE through June 1989 and found that Nevada improperly spent about $1 million. Nevada used as much as $683,000 for lobbying and litigation expenses that were unauthorized or were expressly prohibited by law, court decision, or grant terms; exceeded a legislative spending limit on socioeconomic studies by about $96,000; and used, contrary to grant terms, about $275,000 from one grant period to pay expenses incurred in the prior year. Also, Nevada did not always exercise adequate internal controls over grant funds, such as timely liquidation of funds advanced to contractors. A permissive approach to grant administration by DOE contributed to Nevada's inappropriate use of grant funds

  17. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  18. Nuclear disarmament and peaceful nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, it remains to be seen whether nuclear disarmament can reduce the risks of nuclear war sufficiently for the residual risks to be acceptable to a majority of the world's population, while at the same time vigorous growth in the world's dependence on nuclear energy for peaceful purposes continues. This paper discusses how use of nuclear materials from dismantled weapons as fuel for peaceful purposes may help progress to be made towards that goal, by stimulating considerable improvements in the effectiveness of arrangements for preventing diversion of the materials from peaceful to military purposes, while at the same time eliminating large numbers of nuclear weapons

  19. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  20. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  1. Handling system for nuclear fuel pellet inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; McLemore, D.R.; Sturges, R.H.

    1978-11-01

    HEDL is developing automated fabrication equipment for fast reactor fuel. A major inspection operation in the process is the gaging of fuel pellets. A key element in the system has been the development of a handling system that reliably moves pellets at the rate of three per second without product damage or excessive equipment wear

  2. Nuclear theory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research performed at University of Washington in nuclear theory. Some of the topics discussed are: nuclear astrophysics; symmetry; time reversal invariance; quark matter; superallowed beta decay; exclusive reactions; nuclear probes; soliton model; relativistic heavy ion collisions; supernova explosions; neutrino processes in dense matter; field theories; weak interaction physics; and nuclear structure

  3. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  4. Nuclear power publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This booklet lists 69 publications on nuclear energy available free from some of the main organisations concerned with its development and operation in the UK. Headings are: general information; the need for nuclear energy; the nuclear industry; nuclear power stations; fuel cycle; safety; waste management. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  6. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  7. Review of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.)

  8. Nuclear literacy - Hungarian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants and the related environmental sentiments make basic nuclear education to a precondition of modern democratic decision making. Nuclear chapters of the curriculum used to treat the topics in historical and descriptive, thus less convincing way. The question arises: how to offer nuclear literacy to the youth in general, to show its empirical aspects and relevance to citizens. (author)

  9. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)

  11. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  12. Security with nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental questions about their purpose. Why have some states chosen to acquire nuclear weapons? How and why have these decisions been maintained over time? Why have some states elected to approach, but not cross, the nuclear threshold? This book examines the commonalities and differences in political approaches to nuclear weapons both within and between three groups of states: nuclear, non-nuclear and threshold. The chapters explore the evolution of thinking about nuclear weapons and the role these weapons play in national security planning, and question the official security rationales offered by the nuclear weapon states for the maintenance of nuclear capabilities. For the non-nuclear weapon states, the book presents an analysis of alternative ways of assuring security and foreign policy effectiveness. For the threshold states, it examines the regional contexts within which these states maintain their threshold status. This book transcends traditional East-West approaches to analysis of nuclear issues by giving equal prominence to the issues of nuclear proliferation and non-nuclearism. The book also provides a comprehensive analysis of how current approaches to nuclear weapons have evolved both within and among the groups of countries under study

  13. Nuclear power revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grear, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues - high capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear wastes and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry - that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power.

  14. Argentina's nuclear red herring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with Argentina's nuclear power programme over the last 30 years, including the country's efforts to be nuclear independent of the United States, as well as its aspirations to be a nuclear supplier to latin America. The latter policy on economic, rather than military grounds for nuclear weapons, has led to Argentina's decision to build a uranian enrichment plant. (U.K.)

  15. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  16. Climatic change and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    One of the main priorities of the WWF is to increase the implementing of solutions relative to the greenhouse effect fight. In this framework the foundation published a study on the nuclear facing the climatic change problem. The following chapters are detailed: the nuclear and the negotiations on the climatic change; the nuclear close; the unrealistic hypothesis of the nuclear forecast; the nuclear facing other energy supplying options; supplying efficiency for heating, electric power, gas and renewable energies; the consumption efficiency facing the nuclear; the economical aspects; the deregulation effect; the political aspects; the nuclear AND the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy from nuclear fission()

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripani, M.

    2015-08-01

    The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  18. Collective nuclear dynamics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyuk, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects:liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities

  19. IAEA nuclear security program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. IAEA nuclear security program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, D.

    2006-01-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. The nuclear nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.

    1990-01-01

    Although United States Customs recently prevented 40 krytrons, fast triggers to start a nuclear fission detonation, from being exported, other countries have been able to acquire similar items without questions being asked. Nuclear power plants have been exported to Pakistan and it is expected that this will enable Pakistan to become the world's ninth nuclear weapons state. Not all current or potential nuclear weapons states have signed and ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Some nuclear plant have been built in developing countries without proper International Atomic Energy Authority Control. It would seem that there is a general indifference to nuclear proliferation by some of the western nuclear countries. (UK)

  2. Collective nuclear dynamics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, V.I.; Kolomietz, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects: liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities

  3. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.

    1979-12-01

    The main areas of nuclear safety are considered in this paper, recalling the laws and resolutions in force and also the appropriate authority in each case. The following topics are reviewed: radiological protection, protection of workers, measures to be taken in case of an accident, radioactive effluents, impact on the environment of non-nuclear pollution, nuclear plant safety, protection against malicious acts, control and safeguard of nuclear materials, radioisotopes, transport of radioactive substances, naval propulsion, waste management, nuclear plant decommissioning and export of nuclear equipment and materials. Finally, the author describes the role of the general Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nuclear Safety

  4. Collective nuclear dynamics. Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyuk, F A [eds.

    1994-12-31

    The Fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects:liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities.

  5. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1977-05-01

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  6. What is nuclear forensics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information

  7. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  8. Ontario Hydro's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCredie, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report briefly describes Ontario Hydro's nuclear program, examining the design and construction status, and the future from Ontario Hydro's perspective. Ontario Hydro relies heavily on nuclear power. Nuclear fuel was responsible for approximately 34% of Ontario Hydro's energy production in 1983. The nuclear proportion was supplied by twelve operating units located: NPD, Douglas Point, Pickering A and B. It is expected that by approximately 1992, 65% of the total energy needs will be generated through nuclear power

  9. Introduction to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pasques, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    In the 14 chapters of this text book intended for Spanish speaking university students, basic information is given on the different topics of Nucleonics, subdivided into: nuclear structure, stable and radioactive nucleids, nuclear and secondary radiations, radioactivity measurements, bombarding particles (accelerated ions, neutrons, photons), accelerators, elements of radiological physics, nuclear reactions, fissionable materials, nuclear reactors, production of radioactive materials, nucleonic applications, and a description of nuclear activities in Latin America. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. Nuclear benefits and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P

    1987-03-01

    The paper reviews the broader issues that affect nuclear power in a world energy context. The importance of nuclear power as an energy source is described, as well as the environmental effects of different energy sources. The risks associated with the nuclear industry are discussed with respect to: risks due to radiation exposure, risks to workers in the nuclear industry, and risks to the public due to discharges from nuclear installations. (U.K.).

  11. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  12. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (authors)

  13. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  15. Porter with nuclear reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ontario Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning, chaired by Arthur Porter is reviewed. This interim report on nuclear power is relevant to nuclear power planning far beyond the confines of Ontario and discusses nuclear issues in the explicit context of electricity generation and use. Problems considered in the report include safety aspects of uranium mining, milling, and spent fuel disposal, the economic issues which affect nuclear planning and nuclear industry, and the proliferation issue. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear terrorism and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Sauver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Unlike conventional terrorist violence, bona-fide nuclear terrorism is a self-publicizing phenomenon. It is a public event by the very scope of its impact. Apocalyptic and catastrophically destructive, a nuclear explosion is the ideal instrument of mass terror. Rational nuclear insurgents would not inform authorities that a nuclear device is about to be detonated. Advance warning of an impending nuclear explosion would reduce the maximum potential effectiveness of any response to such an event

  17. The nuclear era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a guide in the space and in the time, along the nuclear energy history and through all the industrial installations such as nuclear power plants and the associated plants. The main points developed in this book are the following ones: the nuclear energy in its historic perspective, the variety of reactors, safety and environment, architecture and large engineering, installation of the reactor components and associated machines, nuclear fuels, and the nuclear energy in the electricity service [fr

  18. Nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Shin, Young Jun

    1989-08-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of chemical engineering and related chemistry on an atomic reactor, foundation of the chemistry nuclear chemical engineering, theory on nuclear engineering, the cycle of uranium and nuclear fuel, a product of nuclear division, nuclear reprocessing, management of spent fuel separation of radioisotope, materials of an atomic reactor, technology and chemistry related water in atomic reactors and utilization of radioisotope and radiation. This book has the exercises and reference books for the each chapter.

  19. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  20. Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment ('Official Gazette' No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act ('Official Gazette' No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, submitting the application for the issue of a licence to perform nuclear activities, and the procedure for issuing decisions on granting a licence to perform a nuclear activity. The Ordinance also regulates the content of the forms for notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, as well as of the application for the issue of a licence to perform the nuclear activity and the method of keeping the register of nuclear activities. According to the Nuclear Safety Act, nuclear activities are the production, processing, use, storage, disposal, transport, import, export, possession or other handling of nuclear material or specified equipment. The Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, State Office for Nuclear Safety finalized the text of new Ordinance on conditions for nuclear safety and protection with regard to the siting, design, construction, use and decommissioning of a facility in which a nuclear activity is