WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear fusion propulsion

  1. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  2. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  3. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  4. Fusion propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.; Bourque, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The continuing and expanding national efforts in both the military and commercial sectors for exploration and utilization of space will require launch, assembly in space, and orbital transfer of large payloads. The currently available delivery systems, utilizing various forms of chemical propulsion, do not have the payload capacity to fulfill the planned missions. National planning documents such as Air Force Project Forecast II and the National Commission on Space Report to the President contain numerous missions and payload delivery schedules that are beyond the present capabilities of the available systems, such as the Space Shuttle and the Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The need, therefore, is very pressing to design, develop, and deploy propulsion systems that offer a quantum level increase in delivered performance. One such potential system is fusion propulsion. This paper summarizes the result of an Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) sponsored study of fusion propulsion conducted by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), and its subcontractor General Atomics This study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D- 3 He) were considered worthy of further consideration. D- 3 He was selected as the most attractive for this Air Force study. The colliding translating compact torus confinement concept was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the low mass and compactness required. Another possible concept is inertial confinement with the propellant surrounding the target. 5 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  6. Superconducting magnets for model ship propulsion and for material tests of a nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Monju, Y.; Tatara, I.; Hamada, M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactors, magnetically levitated trains, and MHD generators, etc., all need a very high magnetic field; which in order to be attained a means the application of superconductors is inevitable. This paper describes the development of ''CRYOZITT'', a superconductor featuring high current density and high mechanical strength. CRYOZITT has already been used in the manufacture of two race-track shaped superconducting magnets, and delivered to highly satisfied customers. (author)

  7. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  8. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  9. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  10. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  11. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  12. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  13. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  14. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  15. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  16. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  17. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons. 50 refs

  18. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  19. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades

  20. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  1. Performance Criteria of Nuclear Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    Future exploration of the solar system on a major scale will require propulsion systems capable of performance far greater than is achievable with the present generation of rocket engines using chemical propellants. Viable missions going deeper into interstellar space will be even more demanding. Propulsion systems based on nuclear energy sources, fission or (eventually) fusion offer the best prospect for meeting the requirements. The most obvious gain coming from the application of nuclear reactions is the possibility, at least in principle, of obtaining specific impulses a thousandfold greater than can be achieved in chemically energised rockets. However, practical considerations preclude the possibility of exploiting the full potential of nuclear energy sources in any engines conceivable in terms of presently known technology. Achievable propulsive power is a particularly limiting factor, since this determines the acceleration that may be obtained. Conventional chemical rocket engines have specific propulsive powers (power per unit engine mass) in the order of gigawatts per tonne. One cannot envisage the possibility of approaching such a level of performance by orders of magnitude in presently conceivable nuclear propulsive systems. The time taken, under power, to reach a given terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the engine's exhaust velocity and the inverse of its specific power. An assessment of various nuclear propulsion concepts suggests that, even with the most optimistic assumptions, it could take many hundreds of years to attain the velocities necessary to reach the nearest stars. Exploration within a range of the order of a thousand AU, however, would appear to offer viable prospects, even with the low levels of specific power of presently conceivable nuclear engines.

  2. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Hogan, W.J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed

  3. Nuclear thermal propulsion workshop overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is planning an Exploration Technology Program as part of the Space Exploration Initiative to return U.S. astronauts to the moon, conduct intensive robotic exploration of the moon and Mars, and to conduct a piloted mission to Mars by 2019. Nuclear Propulsion is one of the key technology thrust for the human mission to Mars. The workshop addresses NTP (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) technologies with purpose to: assess the state-of-the-art of nuclear propulsion concepts; assess the potential benefits of the concepts for the mission to Mars; identify critical, enabling technologies; lay-out (first order) technology development plans including facility requirements; and estimate the cost of developing these technologies to flight-ready status. The output from the workshop will serve as a data base for nuclear propulsion project planning

  4. Fusion Reactions and Matter-Antimatter Annihilation for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-13

    FUSION REACTIONS AND MATTER- ANTIMATTER ANNIHILATION FOR SPACE PROPULSION Claude DEUTSCH LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Bât. 210, UPS, 91405 Orsay...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE šFusion Reactions And Matter- Antimatter Annihilation For Space Propulsion 5a...which is possible with successful MCF or ICF. Appropriate vessel designs will be presented for fusion as well as for antimatter propulsion. In

  5. THE FUTURE OF SPACECRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  6. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  7. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  8. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  9. Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation

  10. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  11. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  12. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, Terry; Tang, Ricky

    2005-01-01

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust

  13. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 10 6 -10 9 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, I sp ∼10 6 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameterx10-meters length, magnetic field ∼7 Tesla, ion beam current ∼10 A, and fuels of either D-He 3 ,P-B 11 ,P-Li 6 ,D-Li 6 , etc

  14. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  16. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  17. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K.; Hasegawa, A.; Santarius, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The unique advantages of fusion rocket propulsion systems for distant missions are explored using the magnetic dipole configurations as an example. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power performance than nuclear electric fission systems. Possibilities to further increase the specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as is an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 20 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Philosophy for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy used for development of nuclear thermal propulsion will determine the cost, schedule and risk associated with the activities. As important is the impression of the decision makers. If the development cost is higher than the product value, it is doubtful that funding will ever be available. On the other hand, if the development supports the economic welfare of the country with a high rate of return, the probability of funding greatly increases. The philosophy is divided into: realism, design, operations and qualification. ''Realism'' addresses such items as political acceptability, potential customers, robustness-flexibility, public acceptance, decisions as needed, concurrent engineering, and the possible role of the CIS. ''Design'' addresses ''minimum requirement,'' built in safety and reliability redundancy, emphasize on eliminating risk at lowest levels, and the possible inclusion of electric generation. ''Operations'' addresses sately, environment, operations, design margins and degradation modes. ''Qualification'' addresses testing needs and test facilities

  19. NASA program planning on nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Miller, T.J.

    1992-03-01

    As part of the focused technology planning for future NASA space science and exploration missions, NASA has initiated a focused technology program to develop the technologies for nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear thermal propulsion. Beginning in 1990, NASA began a series of interagency planning workshops and meetings to identify key technologies and program priorities for nuclear propulsion. The high-priority, near-term technologies that must be developed to make NEP operational for space exploration include scaling thrusters to higher power, developing high-temperature power processing units, and developing high power, low-mass, long-lived nuclear reactors. 28 refs

  20. Plasma nuclear fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Miyanaga, Shoji; Wakaizumi, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactions are attained by plasma gas phase reactions using magnetic fields and microwaves, and the degree of the reactions is controlled. That is, deuterium (D 2 ) is introduced into a plasma container by utilizing the resonance of microwaves capable of generating plasmas at high density higher by more than 10 - 10 3 times as compared with the high frequency and magnetic fields, and an electric energy is applied to convert gaseous D 2 into plasmas and nuclear fusion is conducted. Further, the deuterium ions in the plasmas are attracted to a surface of a material causing nuclear fusion under a negatively biased electric field from the outside (typically represented by Pd or Ti). Then, deuterium nuclei (d) or deuterium ions collide to the surface of the cathode on the side of palladium to conduct nuclear reaction at the surface or the inside (vicinity) thereof. However, a DC bias is applied as an external bias with the side of the palladium being negative. The cold nuclear fusion was demonstrated by placing a neutron counter in the vicinity of the container and confirming neutrons generated there. (I.S.)

  1. Nuclear-microwave-electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordley, G.D.; Brown, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Electric propulsion can move more mass through space than chemical propulsion by virtue of the higher exhaust velocities achieved by electric propulsion devices. This performance is achieved at the expense of very heavy power sources or very long trip times, which in turn create technical and economic penalties of varying severity. These penalties include: higher operations costs, delayed availability of the payload, and increased exposure to Van Allen Belt radiation. It is proposed to reduce these penalties by physically separating the power source from the propulsion and use microwave energy beaming technology, recently explored and partially developed/tested for Solar Power Satellite concept studies, as an extension cord. This paper summarizes the state of the art of the technology needed for space based beam microwave power cost/performance trades involved with the use beamed microwave/electric propulsion for some typical orbit transfer missions and offers some suggestions for additional work

  2. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  3. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production

  4. Nuclear propulsion: to go to the moon in 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion is a necessary step to give to man the opportunity of developing activities in space. This technique enables rockets to go farther, more quickly and to transport more load than the classical chemical propulsion. Space travel requires huge quantities of energy. An equivalent quantity of energy can be extracted from 13 tons of liquid hydrogen-oxygen, from 20 g of uranium (fission), from 0.5 g of deuterium (fusion) and from 0.02 g of anti-hydrogen-hydrogen (annihilation). The concept of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is based on an embarked nuclear reactor whose purpose is to heat hydrogen to 3000 K temperature. The thrust can be increased by injecting liquid oxygen in the nozzle to react with supersonic hydrogen. (A.C.)

  5. Interplanetary space transport using inertial fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for interplanetary propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts

  6. Nuclear electric propulsion: An integral part of NASA's nuclear propulsion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has initiated a technology program to establish the readiness of nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This program was initiated with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. Although the Synthesis Group On America's SEI has identified NEP only as an option for cargo missions, recent studies conducted by NASA-Lewis show that NEP offers the potential for early manned Mars missions as well. Lower power NEP is also of current interest for outer planetary robotic missions. Current plans are reviewed for the overall nuclear propulsion project, with emphasis on NEP and those elements of NTP program which have synergism with NEP

  7. Nuclear propulsion for the space exploration initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    President Bush's speech of July 20, 1989, outlining a goal to go back to the moon and then Mars initiated the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The US Department of Defense (DOD), US Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA have been working together in the planning necessary to initiate a program to develop a nuclear propulsion system. Applications of nuclear technology for in-space transfer of personnel and cargo between Earth orbit and lunar or Martian orbit are being considered as alternatives to chemical propulsion systems. Mission and system concept studies conducted over the past 30 yr have consistently indicated that use of nuclear technology can substantially reduce in-space propellant requirements. A variety of nuclear technology options are currently being studied, including nuclear thermal rockets, nuclear electrical propulsion systems, and hybrid nuclear thermal rockets/nuclear electric propulsion concepts. Concept performance in terms of thrust, weight, power, and efficiency are dependent, and appropriate concept application is mission dependent (i.e., lunar, Mars, cargo, personnel, trajectory, transit time, payload). A comprehensive evaluation of mission application, technology performance capability and maturity, technology development programmatics, and safety characteristics is required to optimize both technology and mission selection to support the Presidential initiative

  8. Nuclear fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention pertains to the method and apparatus for the confining of a stream of fusible positive ions at values of density and high average kinetic energy, primarily of tightly looping motions, to produce nuclear fusion at a useful rate; more or less intimately mixed with the fusible ions will be lowerenergy electrons at about equal density, introduced solely for the purpose of neutralizing the positive space charge of the ions

  9. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities. 33 refs

  10. Muon nuclear fusion and low temperature nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    1990-01-01

    Low temperature (or normal temperature) nuclear fusion is one of the phenomena causing nuclear fusion without requiring high temperature. In thermal nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is overcome with the help of thermal energy, but in the low temperature nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is neutralized by the introduction of the particles having larger mass than electrons and negative charges, at this time, if two nuclei can approach to the distance of 10 -13 cm in the neutral state, the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction is expected. As the mass of the particles is heavier, the neutral region is smaller, and nuclear fusion is easy to occur. The particles to meet this purpose are the electrons within substances and muons. The research on muon nuclear fusion became suddenly active in the latter half of 1970s, the cause of which was the discovery of the fact that the formation of muons occurs resonantly rapidly in D-T and D-D systems. Muons are the unstable elementary particles having the life of 2.2 μs, and they can have positive and negative charges. In the muon catalyzed fusion, the muons with negative charge take part. The principle of the muon catalyzed fusion, its present status and future perspective, and the present status of low temperature nuclear fusion are reported. (K.I.)

  11. A development approach for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and time to develop nuclear thermal propulsion systems are very approach dependent. The objectives addressed are the development of an ''acceptable'' nuclear thermal propulsion system that can be used as part of the transportation system for people to explore Mars and the enhancement performance of other missions, within highly constrained budgets and schedules. To accomplish this, it was necessary to identify the cost drivers considering mission parameters, safety of the crew, mission success, facility availability and time and cost to construct new facilities, qualification criteria, status of technologies, management structure, and use of such system engineering techniques as concurrent engineering

  12. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  13. Nuclear Propulsion for Space (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R; Schwenk, Francis C

    1971-01-01

    The operation of nuclear rockets and a description of the development of nuclear rockets in the U.S. is given. Early developments and Project Rover, Project Pluto, and the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) Program are detailed. The Nuclear Rocket Development Station facilities in Nevada are described. The possibilities and advantages of using nuclear rockets for missions beginning from an earth orbit and moving outward toward higher earth orbits, the moon, and the planets are discussed.

  14. Nuclear propulsion tradeoffs for manned Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; Malloy, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conjunction class split/sprint manned Mars exploration mission was studied to evaluate tradeoffs in performance characteristics of nuclear thermal rockets. A Particle Bed Reactor-based nuclear thermal rocket was found to offer a 38% to 52% total mass savings compared with a NERVA-based nuclear thermal rocket for this mission. This advantage is primarily due to the higher thrust-to-weight ratio of the Particle Bed Reactor nuclear rocket. The mission is enabled by nuclear thermal rockets. It cannot be performed practically using chemical propulsion

  15. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  17. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  18. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  19. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus which can make a disorderly magnetic field due to shell current as small as possible, thereby enhancing efficiency. Structure: On each divided end of each shell is integrally projected an auxiliary shell which has thick greater than the other portion of shell. These auxiliary shells are made of a material of high electric conductivity, and the shape of the auxiliary shells may properly be selected so that electric resistance of the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to the shell current may be made smaller than the electric resistance of intermediate of the shell to the shell current. With this, the shell current is concentrated on the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to form an adjacent reciprocating current between it and the shell current opposite the auxiliary shell, thus reducing the disorderly magnetic field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Evolutionary use of nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, K.J.; George, J.A.; Riehl, J.P.; Gilland, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Evolving new propulsion technologies through a rational and conscious effort to minimize development costs and program risks while maximizing the performance benefits is intuitively practical. A phased approach to the evolution of nuclear electric propulsion from use on planetary probes, to lunar cargo vehicles, and finally to manned Mars missions with a concomitant growth in technology is considered. Technology levels and system component makeup are discussed for nuclear power systems and both ion and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Mission scenarios are described, which include analysis of a probe to Pluto, a lunar cargo mission, Martian split, all-up, and quick-trip mission options. Evolutionary progression of the use of NEP in such missions is discussed. 26 refs

  1. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  2. Advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This book comprised of two issues. The first one is a advanced nuclear reactor which describes nuclear fuel cycle and advanced nuclear reactor like liquid-metal reactor, advanced converter, HTR and extra advanced nuclear reactors. The second one is nuclear fusion for generation energy, which explains practical conditions for nuclear fusion, principle of multiple magnetic field, current situation of research on nuclear fusion, conception for nuclear fusion reactor and economics on nuclear fusion reactor.

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  4. Operational experience with propulsion nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.

    2000-01-01

    Russia possesses a powerful icebreaker transport fleet which offers a solution for important socio-economic tasks of the country's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic Sea route. The total operating record of the propulsion nuclear reactors till now exceeds 150 reactor-years, their main equipment items operating life amounted to 120,000 h. Progressive design-constructional solutions being perfected continuously during 40 years of nuclear-powered ships creation in Russia and well proven technology of all components used in the marine nuclear reactors give grounds to recommend marine Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSSs) of KLT-40 type as energy sources for heat and power cogeneration plants and sea water desalination complexes, particularly as floating installations. Co-generation stations are considered for deployment in the extreme north of Russia. Nuclear floating desalination complexes can be used for drinkable water production in coastal regions of Northern Africa, the Near East, India etc. (author)

  5. Status report on nuclear electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for a multipayload multimission vehicle needed in both deep-space missions and a variety of geocentric missions is reviewed. The space system power level is a function of the initial launch vehicle mass, but developments in out-of-core nuclear thermionic direct conversion have broadened design options. Cost, design, and performance parameters are compared for reusable chemical space tugs and NEP reusable space tugs. Improvements in heat pipes, ion engines, and magnetoplasmadynamic arc jet thrust subsystems are discussed.

  6. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.; Borowski, S.; Helms, I.; Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S.; Latham, T.

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a ''level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo; Yamada, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, said magnetic limiter being supported in such a manner so as to not to exert mechanical action upon said vacuum vessel, thereby minimizing a force applied to the vacuum vessel to easily manufacture the vacuum vessel. Structure: The magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel is connected to one end of a supporting post which extends through the wall of the vacuum vessel through a seal portion, the other end of the supporting post being secured to a structure such as a house outside the vacuum vessel. The seal portion comprises a bellows of high spring elasticity mounted on the vacuum vessel and a seal element comprised of an electric insulator such as ceramic for connecting the bellows to the supporting post, the supporting post extending through the wall of the vacuum vessel in vacuum-tight fashion, the force applied to the magnetic limiter exerting no influence upon the vacuum vessel. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.; Doherty, M.P.; Peecook, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed. 19 refs

  9. Nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinghee, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter, fusion is compared with other inexhaustible energy sources. Research is currently being conducted both within and outside the USA. The current confinement principles of thermonuclear reactions are reveiwed with the discussion of economics mainly focusing on the magnetic confinement concepts. Environmental, health and safety factors are of great concern to the public and measures are being taken to address them. The magnetic fusion program logic and the inertial fusion program logic are compared

  10. Nuclear propulsion: to go to the moon in 24 hours; Propulsion nucleaire: aller sur la lune en 24 heures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear propulsion is a necessary step to give to man the opportunity of developing activities in space. This technique enables rockets to go farther, more quickly and to transport more load than the classical chemical propulsion. Space travel requires huge quantities of energy. An equivalent quantity of energy can be extracted from 13 tons of liquid hydrogen-oxygen, from 20 g of uranium (fission), from 0.5 g of deuterium (fusion) and from 0.02 g of anti-hydrogen-hydrogen (annihilation). The concept of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is based on an embarked nuclear reactor whose purpose is to heat hydrogen to 3000 K temperature. The thrust can be increased by injecting liquid oxygen in the nozzle to react with supersonic hydrogen. (A.C.)

  11. Cold nuclear fusion. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or ''fuse'', to form a single heavier nucleus. During this process, matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. The binding energy of the resulting nucleus is greater than the binding energy of each of the nuclei that fused to produce it. Fusion is the process that powers active stars. Creating the required conditions for fusion on Earth is very difficult, to the point that it has not been accomplished at any scale for protium, the common light isotope of hydrogen that undergoes natural fusion in stars. In nuclear weapons, some of the energy released by an atomic bomb (fission bomb) is used for compressing and heating a fusion fuel containing heavier isotopes of hydrogen, and also sometimes lithium, to the point of ''ignition''. At this point, the energy released in the fusion reactions is enough to briefly maintain the reaction. Fusion-based nuclear power experiments attempt to create similar conditions using far lesser means, although to date these experiments have failed to maintain conditions needed for ignition long enough for fusion to be a viable commercial power source.

  12. Nuclear fusion - a strategic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of nuclear fusion research with particular reference to Europe are reviewed. The energy scenario with regard to nuclear fusion is considered including economic, political and scientific problems of energy policy in view of the long-term research effort required. Mention is also made of the need to phase out the use of fossil fuels for environmental reasons. Research into magnetic and inertial confinement fusion is considered. It is concluded that the development of thermonuclear reactors will eventually be brought to practical fruition. (UK)

  13. Energy by nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Daenner, W.; Herold, H.; Raeder, J.

    1976-12-01

    This report reviews the state of knowledge in a number of fields of fusion research up to autumn 1976. Section 1 gives a very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawson-type diagrams. Section 2 outlines the reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total energy available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availlability and handling of the fuels. In section 3 a survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of interial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented in section 4, which is followed in section 5 by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed in section 6. Section 7 and 8 treat the aspects of safety and environment. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  15. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, T.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: (a) means for compressing incoming air; (b) nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; (c) means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; (d) said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; (e) means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and (f) means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus. 12 claims

  16. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing thc plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement propenies of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enter the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  17. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K.; Hasegawa, A.; Santarius, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design is discussed for a fusion rocket propulsion system based on the magnetic dipole configuration. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Example parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of 1 kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as in an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 21 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Schulze, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fusion power to space propulsion requires rethinking the engineering-design solution to controlled-fusion energy. Whereas the unit cost of electricity (COE) drives the engineering-design solution for utility-based fusion reactor configurations; initial mass to low earth orbit (IMLEO), specific jet power (kW(thrust)/kg(engine)), and reusability drive the engineering-design solution for successful application of fusion power to space propulsion. Three design principles (DP's) were applied to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific jet power. The three candidate terrestrial fusion reactor configurations are: the thermal barrier tandem mirror (TBTM), field reversed mirror (FRM), and levitated dipole field (LDF). The resulting three candidate space fusion propulsion systems have their IMLEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. A preliminary rating of these configurations was performed, and it was concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS)

  19. Chemistry in and from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1989-01-01

    The time, of the realization of nuclear fusion reactor is not clear even now. However, it is generally believed that the nuclear fusion is only one candidate of the big power source for humanbeing. We may be not able to, but our children or grandchildren would be able to see the nuclear fusion reactors. The nuclear fusion development may be the last and biggest technology program for us, so it will take so long leading time. Now, we are in the first stage of this leading time, I think. As being found in the history of every technology, chemistry is essential to develop the fusion nuclear technology. To assure the safety of the nuclear fusion system, chemistry should play the main role. There have been already not a few advanced chemistry initiated by the connected technologies with the nuclear fusion researches. The nuclear fusion needs chemistry and the nuclear fusion leads some of the new phases of chemistry. (author)

  20. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  1. Reactor design for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, D.R.; Ranken, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of a nuclear power plant for electric propulsion of spacecrafts have been on going for several years. An attractive concept which has evolved from these studies and which has been described in previous publications, is a heat-pipe cooled, fast spectrum nuclear reactor that provides 3 MW of thermal energy to out-of-core thermionic converters. The primary motivation for using heat pipes is to provide redundancy in the core cooling system that is not available in gas or liquid-metal cooled reactors. Detailed investigation of the consequences of heat pipe failures has resulted in modifications to the basic reactor design and has led to consideration of an entirely different core design. The new design features an integral laminated core configuration consisting of alternating layers of UO 2 and molybdenum sheets that span the entire diameter of the core. Design characteristics are presented and compared for the two reactors

  2. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  3. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  4. Oxygen Containment System Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) ground testing conducted in the 1950s and 1960s during the ROVER/(Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program...

  5. Nuclear propulsion in high yield vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Aimone, Julio

    2000-01-01

    Current developments in advanced ship design brings high-speed maritime transportation closer to reality, aiming to create new markets and to recover a fraction of the high value goods now shipped only by air. High-speed transport is growing at a rate of 15% per year, higher than air transport and at a fraction of air tariffs. Although such growth rate is restricted to passengers and automobiles, there is a potential for high-speed cargo in some routes. A recent proposal is Fast Ship, a 260 m long, 40 m wide concept designed to cruise from Philadelphia to Cherbourg in less that 4 days, for a door-to-door timely cargo delivery of 7 days, thanks to an advanced hull design, and a high power propulsion plant to compensate for weather-related delays. However, almost 40% of the total operation cost would be fuel. This appears to be a natural application for nuclear power, in a similar way to the golden age of this technology. A nuclear Fast Ship would save almost 5000 tons of a fuel per trip, and about half of such spare might be available for additional cargo. Furthermore, operation costs would be smaller and very stable to resource price fluctuation, plus a few other advantages. For other ocean markets, such as the Asia-America route, nuclear power would become a much better choice. This paper discusses the reactor type and layout suitable for such application. The ship designer is aware of the current proposal, although the power pack is not readily available today and its political aspects have not been dealt with. The economy of our nation relies on exports and almost 90% of such flow goes by sea. It is also possible that in the future, Mercosur might have a dependency on such high-speed transport mode and propulsion system (au)

  6. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow. 10 refs., 1 tab

  7. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  8. A novel nuclear-powered propulsion system for ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Han Weishi

    2003-01-01

    A novel nuclear-powered propulsion system for ship is presented in this paper. In this system, a minitype liquid sodium-cooled reactor is used as power; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are utilized to transform the heat energy to electric energy and superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) work as propulsion. This nuclear-powered propulsion system has great advantages in low noise, high speed, long survivability and simple manipulation. It has great significance for the development of propulsion system. (author)

  9. NASA's nuclear thermal propulsion technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peecook, K.M.; Stone, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    The nonnuclear subsystem technologies required for incorporating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) into space-exploration missions are discussed. Of particular interest to planned missions are such technologies as materials, instrumentation and controls, turbomachinery, CFD modeling, nozzle extension designs and models, and analyses of exhaust plumes. NASA studies are described and/or proposed for refractory metals and alloys, robotic NTP controls, and turbopump materials candidates. Alternative nozzle concepts such as aerospikes and truncated plugs are proposed, and numerical simulations are set forth for studying heavy molecules and the backstreaming of highly reactive free-radical hydrogen in the exhaust plume. The critical technologies described in the paper are central to the development of NTP, and NTP has the potential to facilitate a range of space exploration activities. 3 refs

  10. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented

  11. Optimization of extended propulsion time nuclear-electric propulsion trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in optimizing extended propulsion time NEP missions considering realistic thruster lifetime constraints. These missions consist of a powered spiral escape from a 700-km circular orbit at the earth, followed by a powered heliocentric transfer with an optimized coast phase, and terminating in a spiral capture phase at the target planet. This analysis is most applicable to those missions with very high energy requirements such as outer planet orbiter missions or sample return missions where the total propulsion time could greatly exceed the expected lifetime of an individual thruster. This methodology has been applied to the investigation of NEP missions to the outer planets where examples are presented of both constrained and optimized trajectories.

  12. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  13. Legal Implications of Nuclear Propulsion for Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine nuclear propulsion concepts such as "Project Orion", "Project Daedalus", NERVA, VASIMIR, from the legal point of view. The UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space apply to nuclear power sources in outer space devoted to the generation of electric power on board space objects for non-propulsive purposes, and do not regulate the use of nuclear energy as a means of propulsion. However, nuclear propulsion by means of detonating atomic bombs (ORION) is, in principle, banned under the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water. The legality of use of nuclear propulsion will be analysed from different approaches - historical (i.e. the lawfulness of these projects at the time of their proposal, at the present time, and in the future - in the light of the mutability and evolution of international law), spatial (i.e. the legal regime governing peaceful nuclear explosions in different spatial zones - Earth atmosphere, Earth orbit, Solar System, and interstellar space), and technical (i.e, the legal regime applicable to different nuclear propulsion techniques, and to the various negative effects - e.g. damage to other space systems as an effect of the electromagnetic pulse, etc). The paper will analyse the positive law, and will also come with suggestions "de lege ferenda".

  14. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems

  15. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.lapointe@nasa.gov; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  16. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires the calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options in an iterative way by using simulations that run fast on a computer. As a consequence of a collaborative agreement between the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ORNL has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition, dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one

  17. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  18. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Warren, J.W.; Martinell, J.; Clark, J.S.; Perkins, D.

    1993-04-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies

  19. Tools for advanced simulations to nuclear propulsion systems in rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Sepulveda, A.; Perez Vara, R.

    2004-01-01

    While chemical propulsion rockets have dominated space exploration, other forms of rocket propulsion based on nuclear power, electrostatic and magnetic drive, and other principles besides chemical reactions, have been considered from the earliest days of the field. The goal of most of these advanced rocket propulsion schemes is improved efficiency through higher exhaust velocities, in order to reduce the amount of fuel the rocket vehicle needs to carry, though generally at the expense of high thrust. Nuclear propulsion seems to be the most promising short term technology to plan realistic interplanetary missions. The development of a nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft shall require the development of models to analyse the mission and to understand the interaction between the related subsystems (nuclear reactor, electrical converter, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion) during the different phases of the mission. This paper explores the modelling of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) spacecraft type using EcosimPro simulation software. This software is a multi-disciplinary simulation tool with a powerful object-oriented simulation language and state-of-the-art solvers. EcosimPro is the recommended ESA simulation tool for environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and has been used successfully within the framework of the European activities of the International Space Station programme. Furthermore, propulsion libraries for chemical and electrical propulsion are currently being developed under ESA contracts to set this tool as standard usage in the propulsion community. At present, there is not any workable NEP spacecraft, but a standardized-modular, multi-purpose interplanetary spacecraft for post-2000 missions, called ISC-2000, has been proposed in reference. The simulation model presented on this paper is based on the preliminary designs for this spacecraft. (Author)

  20. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  1. Superconducting Electric Boost Pump for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A submersible, superconducting electric boost pump sized to meet the needs of future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems in the 25,000 lbf thrust range is proposed....

  2. A cermet fuel reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Work on the cermet fuel reactor done in the 1960's by General Electric (GE) and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that had as its goal the development of systems that could be used for nuclear rocket propulsion as well as closed cycle propulsion system designs for ship propulsion, space nuclear propulsion, and other propulsion systems is reviewed. It is concluded that the work done in the 1960's has demonstrated that we can have excellent thermal and mechanical performance with cermet fuel. Thousands of hours of testing were performed on the cermet fuel at both GE and AGL, including very rapid transients and some radiation performance history. We conclude that there are no feasibility issues with cermet fuel. What is needed is reactivation of existing technology and qualification testing of a specific fuel form. We believe this can be done with a minimum development risk.

  3. A cermet fuel reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.

    1991-01-01

    Work on the cermet fuel reactor done in the 1960's by General Electric (GE) and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that had as its goal the development of systems that could be used for nuclear rocket propulsion as well as closed cycle propulsion system designs for ship propulsion, space nuclear propulsion, and other propulsion systems is reviewed. It is concluded that we can have excellent thermal and mechanical performance with cermet fuel. Thousands of hours of testing were performed on the cermet fuel at both GE and AGL, including very rapid transients and some radiation performance history. We conclude that there are no feasibility issues with cermet fuel. What is needed is reactivation of existing technology and qualification testing of a specific fuel form. We believe this can be done with a minimum development risk

  4. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  6. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  7. Nuclear structure and fusion at the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisdorf, W.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of measured fusion excitation functions in the vicinity of the barrier reveals nuclear structure effects, due in particular to the coupling of the fusion process to direct-reaction channels. (orig.)

  8. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  9. Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felt—honored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomable—would this paper follow the brilliant work

  10. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  11. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments

  12. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  13. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Earl Marmar in 1995, I installed a compact von Hamos type x-ray spectrometer (originally built with Elisabeth Rachlew and Jan Kallne) on a tangentially viewing port on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The spectrometer views the plasma through a 2 cm diameter hole, and is tuned to H-like argon, suitable for passive measurement of the core toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler shift. It soon became evident that the rotation in Ohmic L-mode discharges, while for the most part directed counter-current, depends in a very complicated fashion on plasma parameters, notably the electron density, current and magnetic configuration. The rotation can even flip sign for almost no apparent reason! In Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas the rotation is in the co-current direction and has a relatively simple dependence on plasma parameters, proportional to the stored energy normalized to the current. Rotation velocities as high as 130 km s-1 have been observed without external momentum input. In dimensionless terms this intrinsic (or spontaneous rotation) depends on the normalized plasma pressure. The association of toroidal rotation with plasma pressure in ICRF H-modes was first observed by Lars-Goran Eriksson in JET discharges. Similar results were subsequently reported for Tore Supra enhanced confinement plasmas. In the early 2000s concerns began to surface about the lack of substantial neutral beam driven rotation in ITER, and intrinsic rotation became a topic of interest in the ITPA Transport Group. Through that connection, similar observations from DIII-D, TCV and JT-60U were added to the growing list. A database of intrinsic rotation observations was assembled with the goal of extrapolating to the expected values for ITER. Both dimensional and dimensionless scalings were developed and formed the backbone of the 2007 Nuclear Fusion paper. I gratefully acknowledge the important contributions to this paper from

  14. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future

  15. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  16. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk; Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  17. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  18. The NASA-Lewis program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion, 1958-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, N.R.; Roth, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    An historical synopsis is provided of the NASA-Lewis research program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion systems. It was initiated to explore the potential applications of fusion energy to space power and propulsion systems. Some fusion related accomplishments and program areas covered include: basic research on the Electric Field Bumpy Torus (EFBT) magnetoelectric fusion containment concept, including identification of its radial transport mechanism and confinement time scaling; operation of the Pilot Rig mirror machine, the first superconducting magnet facility to be used in plasma physics or fusion research; operation of the Superconducting Bumpy Torus magnet facility, first used to generate a toroidal magnetic field; steady state production of neutrons from DD reactions; studies of the direct conversion of plasma enthalpy to thrust by a direct fusion rocket via propellant addition and magnetic nozzles; power and propulsion system studies, including D(3)He power balance, neutron shielding, and refrigeration requirements; and development of large volume, high field superconducting and cryogenic magnet technology

  19. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program: Propulsion for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, G.; Moody, J.; Kesaree, M.

    1993-01-01

    As mission requirements approach the limits of the chemical propulsion systems, new engines must be investigated that can meet the advanced mission requirements of higher payload fractions, higher velocities, and consequently higher specific Impulses (Isp). The propulsion system that can meet these high demands is a nuclear thermal rocket engine. This engine generates the thrust by expanding/existing the hydrogen, heated from the energy derived from the fission process in a reactor, through a nozzle. The Department of Defense (DoD), however, initiated a new nuclear rocket development program in 1987 for ballistic missile defense application. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program that seeks to improve on the technology of ROVER/NERVA grew out of this beginning and has been managed by the Air Force, with the involvement of DoE and NASA. The goal of the SNTP Program is to develop an engine to meet potential Air Force requirements for upper stage engine, bimodal propulsion/power applications, and orbital transfer vehicles, as well as the NASA requirements for possible missions to the Moon and Mars. During the entire life of the program, the DoD has considered safety to be of paramount importance, and is following all national environmental policies

  20. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  1. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  2. Development costs for a nuclear electric propulsion stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Development costs are presented for an unmanned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage based upon a liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic reactor. A total of 120 kWe are delivered to the thrust subsystem which employs mercury ion engines for electric propulsion. This study represents the most recent cost evaluation of the development of a reactor power system for a wide range of nuclear space power applications. These include geocentric, and outer planet and other deep space missions. The development program is described for the total NEP stage, based upon specific development programs for key NEP stage components and subsystems.

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  4. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown

  5. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  6. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Combining MHD Airbreathing and Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Earth-to-Orbit Flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. D. Jr; Yang, Yang; Momota, H.; Burton, E.; Miley, G. H.; Luo, Nie

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight. Similarly additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion. Thus this unusual combined cycle engine shows great promise for performance gains beyond contemporary combined-cycle airbreathing engines

  8. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion. The present status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest report of the Nuclear Ship Stearing Group which deals with three important aspects; economic assessments, international safety and operating procedures for nuclear ships, and the industrial capability of the UK shipbuilding and nuclear industries, is discussed. The integral design concept for a pressurised water reactor for use as a marine reactor is considered. The operational safety aspects of such reactors and of the attendant refuelling facilities are discussed. U.K. capability in the whole nuclear merchant ship propulsion project is considered; reference being made to the design and construction of small PWR reactors, the development, design and supply of the nuclear propulsion unit, financial aspects, and the requirement for cooperation between industrial interests and governmental research units. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear propulsion: an indispensable know-how to national sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Michel; Tertrais, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed presentation of the role nuclear-powered submarines in the French defence strategy, policy and security, and also a focus on the role of nuclear propulsion in these respects. The first part presents an overview of the role of submarines in the French strategy. It addresses the choice and interest of a deterrence policy for France, describes the role of submarines in this deterrence, and the role of SSNs in the French defence and security policy (support to deterrence, other strategic functions, protection). In the second part, the authors highlight the crucial role of nuclear propulsion by proposing an overview of a century of submarine evolution, by outlining their stealth and detection in above water and underwater warfare, by presenting SSBNs, by giving an overview of the different capacities of modern SSNs (weapons, above water warfare, under water warfare, ground strike capacities, special operations). It finally proposes an assessment of submarine operations. The last part addresses perspectives of evolution of operational requirements within the framework of the French strategy, its consequences on submarine acquisition programmes (for France and for the USA), its consequences in terms of numbers of SSNs and SSBNs, and its consequences in terms necessity of an industrial background. It also addresses European perspectives in terms of design, construction and abilities in the field of nuclear propulsion, and briefly other applications in marine nuclear propulsion. Issues of export and proliferation are also briefly addressed. Appendices propose presentations of the existing fleet of SSNs and SSBNs in the world

  10. PEGASUS: a multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, E.P.; Cuta, J.M.; Webb, B.J.; King, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    With the Space Transportation System (STS), the advent of space station Columbus and the development of expertise at working in space that this will entail, the gateway is open to the final frontier. The exploration of this frontier is possible with state-of-the-art hydrogen/oxygen propulsion but would be greatly enhanced by the higher specific impulse of electric propulsion. This paper presents a concept that uses a multi-megawatt nuclear power plant to drive an electric propulsion system. The concept has been named PEGASUS, PowEr GenerAting System for Use in Space, and is intended as a ''work horse'' for general space transportation needs, both long- and short-haul missions. The recent efforts of the SP-100 program indicate that a power system capable of producing upwards of 1 megawatt of electric power should be available in the next decade. Additionally, efforts in other areas indicate that a power system with a constant power capability an order of magnitude greater could be available near the turn of the century. With the advances expected in megawatt-class space power systems, the high specific impulse propulsion systems must be reconsidered as potential propulsion systems. The power system is capable of meeting both the propulsion system and spacecraft power requirements

  11. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  12. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs

  13. An historical collection of papers on nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present volume of historical papers on nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) encompasses NTP technology development regarding solid-core NTP technology, advanced concepts from the early years of NTP research, and recent activities in the field. Specific issues addressed include NERVA rocket-engine technology, the development of nuclear rocket propulsion at Los Alamos, fuel-element development, reactor testing for the Rover program, and an overview of NTP concepts and research emphasizing two decades of NASA research. Also addressed are the development of the 'nuclear light bulb' closed-cycle gas core and a demonstration of a fissioning UF6 gas in an argon vortex. The recent developments reviewed include the application of NTP to NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System, the use of NTP for the Space Exploration Initiative, and the development of nuclear rocket engines in the former Soviet Union.

  14. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis

  15. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion

  16. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~11.5) and a specific impulse of ~950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines.

  17. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼11.5) and a specific impulse of ∼950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines

  18. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  19. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  20. Overview on Fusion Nuclear Technology Experimental Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Kysela, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021018. ISSN 2332-8983 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * corrosion * thermohydraulic * LiPb * HHF * ITER Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  1. Assessment of Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Facility and Capability Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    The development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system rests heavily upon being able to fabricate and demonstrate the performance of a high temperature nuclear fuel as well as demonstrating an integrated system prior to launch. A number of studies have been performed in the past which identified the facilities needed and the capabilities available to meet the needs and requirements identified at that time. Since that time, many facilities and capabilities within the Department of Energy have been removed or decommissioned. This paper provides a brief overview of the anticipated facility needs and identifies some promising concepts to be considered which could support the development of a nuclear thermal propulsion system. Detailed trade studies will need to be performed to support the decision making process.

  2. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  3. Nuclear fusion power supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To use a hybrid power supply device, which comprises a thyristor power supply and a diode power supply, to decrease cost of a nuclear fusion power supply device. Structure: The device comprises a thyristor power supply connected through a closing unit and a diode power supply connected in parallel through a breaker, input of each power supply being applied with an output voltage of a flywheel AC generator. When a current transformer is excited, a disconnecting switch is turned on to close the diode power supply and a current of the current transformer is increased by an automatic voltage regulator to a set value within a predetermined period of time. Next, the current is cut off by a breaker, and when the breaker is in on position, the disconnecting switch is opened to turn on the closing unit. Thus, when a plasma electric current reaches a predetermined value, the breaker is turned on, and the current of the current transformer is controlled by the thyristor power supply. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Support of nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Tetsuo; Ito, Yutaka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To integrally form a bed for a body for supporting a vacuum container, coil and the like and a bed for a current transformer for supporting the current transformer prior to installation thereof on the floor thereby facilitating assembly and installation. Structure: To provide a base common to a current transformer bed and a body bed without direct installation thereof on the floor. Prior to installation of the current transformer bed and body bed, they are fastened to the base by means of bolts and welded integrally, and the thus formed base is fixed to the floor by means of anchor bolts. Since the current transformer bed and the body bed are formed integrally through the common base, apparatus may easily be carried in and disassembling and re-assembling of apparatus become unnecessary when installed. Further, since the positional relation of the current transformer bed and body bed does not depend on accuracy at the time of installation but depends on accuracy when apparatus manufactured, the toroidal type nuclear fusion apparatus of good accuracy may be obtained. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Nuclear data for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The meeting was organized in four sessions and four working groups devoted to the following topics: Requirements of nuclear data for fusion reactor technology (6 papers); Status of experimental and theoretical investigations of microscopic nuclear data (10 papers); Status of existing libraries for fusion neutronic calculations (5 papers); and Status of integral experiments and benchmark tests (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  6. Fusion Nuclear Data activities at FNL, IPR

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Prajapati; B. Pandey; S. Jakhar; C.V. S. Rao; T. K. Basu; B. K. Nayak; S. V. Suryanarayana; A. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the current fusion nuclear data activities at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, Institute for Plasma Research. It consist of infrastructure development for the cross-section measurements of structural materials with an accelerator based 14 MeV neutron generator and theoretical study of the cross-section using advanced nuclear reaction modular codes EMPIRE and TALYS. It will also cover the proposed surrogate experiment to measure 55Fe (n, p) 55Mn using BARC-TIFR Pel...

  7. Nuclear fusion: power for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The basis of fusion reactions is outlined, with special reference to deuterium and tritium (from lithium, by neutron reaction) as reactants, and the state of research worldwide is indicated. The problems inherent in fusion reactions are discussed, plasma is defined, and the steps to be taken to generate electricity from controlled nuclear fusion are stated. Methods of plasma heating and plasma confinement are considered, leading to a description of the tokamak plasma confinement system. Devices under construction include the JET (Joint European Torus) Undertaking in the UK. Plans and possibilities for fusion reactors are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear Fusion with Polarized Nucleons & PolFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Ralf; Büscher, Markus; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a detailed examination of the latest work on the potential of polarized fuel to realize the vision of energy production by nuclear fusion. It brings together contributions from nuclear physicists and fusion physicists with the aims of fostering exchange of information between the two communities, describing the current status in the field, and examining new ideas and projects under development. It is evident that polarized fuel can offer huge improvements for the first generation of fusion reactors and open new technological possibilities for future generations, including neutron lean reactors, which could be the most popular and sustainable energy production option to avoid environmental problems. Nevertheless, many questions must be resolved before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different reactor types. Readers will find this book to be a stimulating source of information on the key issues. It is based on contributions from leading scientists delivered at the meetin...

  9. Prospect of realizing nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Report describes the results of the research work on nuclear fusion, which CRIEPI has carried out for about ten years from the standpoint of electric power utilities, potential user of its energy. The principal points are; (a) economic analysis (calculation of costs) based on Japanese analysis procedures and database of commercial fusion reactors, including fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and (b) conceptual design of two types of hybrid reactors, that is, fission-fuel producing DMHR (Demonstration Molten-Salt Hybrid Reactor) and electric-power producing THPR (Tokamak Hybrid Power Reactor). The Report consists of the following chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Reactors. 3. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fusion Reactors. 4. Basic Studies Applicable Also to Nuclear Fusion Technology. 5. List of Published Reports and Papers; 6. Conclusion. Appendices. (author)

  10. Mars mission performance enhancement with hybrid nuclear propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Noffsinger, K. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segna, D. R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  11. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  12. Laser-induced nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, Claude

    1977-01-01

    Research programs on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion in the United States, in Europe and in USSR are reviewed. The principle of the fusion reactions induced is explained, together with the theoretical effects of the following phenomena: power and type of laser beams, shape and size of the solid target, shock waves, and laser-hydrodynamics coupling problems [fr

  13. Combining chemical and electric-nuclear propulsion for high speed flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.B.; Froning, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In the development of propulsion for the high speed (greater than Mach 8) regime of a SSTO vehicle, an alternative to a combination of scramjets and conventional chemical rockets is a nuclear system such as the dense plasma fusion engine operated with aneutronic fuels. Several variants are then possible in the manner of energizing the working fluid. An attempt has been made to compare the effectiveness of nuclear and scramjet engines with respect to weights and utilization of energy availability. It is shown that nuclear engines can be as effective as the optimized combustion engines, and will yield a considerable reduction in GTOW in earth-based missions, and have a special use in other planetary atmospheres in which combustion may be difficult but collection and processing of working fluid is feasible. 9 refs

  14. GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF NUCLEAR PROPULSION STAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    The results of studies on transportation problems associated with the development and testing of nuclear rocket powered space vehicles at the static test size are presented. Factors involved in selecting a transport mode are discussed. Radiation shutdown considerations and a conceptual transporter capable of handling test articles of foreseeable size are examined. (D.C.W.)

  15. Robotic planetary mission benefits from nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.H.; Yen, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several interesting planetary missions are either enabled or significantly enhanced by nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) in the 50 to 100 kW power range. These missions include a Pluto Orbiter/Probe with an 11-year flight time and several years of operational life in orbit versus a ballistic very fast (13 km/s) flyby which would take longer to get to Pluto and would have a very short time to observe the planet. (A ballistic orbiter would take about 40 years to get to Pluto.) Other missions include a Neptune Orbiter/Probe, a Jupiter Grand Tour orbiting each of the major moons in order, a Uranus Orbiter/Probe, a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous orbiting six selected asteroids, and a Comet Nucleus Sample Return. This paper discusses potential missions and compares the nuclear electric propulsion option to the conventional ballistic approach on a parametric basis

  16. IEC Based D-3He Fusion for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Richardson, N.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, Hiromu

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary system design is presented for a high performance 100-MWe manned space vehicle in the 500 metric ton class, based on Inertial Electrostatic Fusion (IEC), allowing trip times to the outer planets of several months. An IEC is chosen because it's simplified structure results in a very high power-to-weight ratio. D- 3 He fuel is used to give 14.7-MeV protons as a primary fusion reaction product. Direct conversion of proton energy to electricity is employed, providing a high efficiency. An IEC reactor with a proton energy gain (power in 14.7-MeV protons/input electric power) of 4 or better is assumed. Extrapolation of present laboratory scale IEC experiments to such conditions is possible theoretically, but faces several open issues that require further study such as stability under high-density conditions. The final thruster is based on an NSTAR-extrapolated krypton ion design with a specific impulse of 16,000 seconds and a total thrust of 1020 N. Round trip thrust time for mission set to Jupiter ΔV of 100 km/s is then ∼950 days. (authors)

  17. Concept for a shuttle-tended reusable interplanetary transport vehicle using nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, R. Y.; Elliot, J. C.; Spilker, T. R.; Grayson, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA has placed new emphasis on the development of advanced propulsion technologies including Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). This technology would provide multiple benefits including high delta-V capability and high power for long duration spacecraft operations.

  18. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as a propulsion concept which could provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for...

  19. Prospects for applications of ship-propulsion nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitenkov, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ship-propulsion nuclear power reactors in remote areas of Russia is examined. Two ship reactors were analyzed: the KLT-40, a 170 MW-thermal reactor; and the KN-3, a 300 MW-thermal reactor. The applications considered were electricity generation, desalination, and drinking water production. Analyses showed that the applications are technically justified and could be economically advantageous. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Reactor physics in support of the naval nuclear propulsion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisley, P.G.; Beeley, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reactor physics is a core component of all courses but in particular two postgraduate courses taught at the department in support of the naval nuclear propulsion programme. All of the courses include the following elements: lectures and problem solving exercises, laboratory work, experiments on the Jason zero power Argonaut reactor, demonstration of PWR behavior on a digital computer simulator and project work. This paper will highlight the emphasis on reactor physics in all elements of the education and training programme. (authors). 9 refs

  1. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A 100-kW reactor power system with a specific mass of 15 to 30 kg/kW/sub e/ and an electric thrust system with a specific mass of 5 to 10 kg/kW/sub e/ can be combined into a nuclear electric propulsion system. The system can be used for outer planet missions as well as earth orbital transfer vehicle missions. 5 refs

  2. Nuclear fusion, an energy source of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppendoerfer, W.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to obtain energy by nuclear fusion. It deals successively with: The physical bases of nuclear fusion, research and development with a view to harnessing nuclear fusion, properties of a fusion reactor, and programme and timetable to economic exploitation. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used

  4. Fusion of Nuclear and Emerging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khaer Alang Rashid

    2005-04-01

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: emerging technology; nuclear technology; fusion emerging and nuclear technology; progressive nature of knowledge; optically stimulated luminescence - application of luminescence technology to sediments; Biosystemics technology -convergence nanotechnology, ecological science, biotechnology, cognitive science and IT - prospective impact on materials science, the management of public system for bio-health, eco and food system integrity and disease mitigation

  5. SPACE MAINTENANCE OF NUCLEAR ROCKET PROPULSION VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    Maintenance and repair of spacecraft are discussed from the hardware viewpoint. Interior operations are rather straight forward, but study results show that space suits are not sufficient for exterior repair work. Evaluation of worker requirements leads to a maintenance capsule concept. Capsule application is depicted in contrasting situations: repair of meteoroid damage and nuclear engine replacement. Radiation shielding is also considered. (D.C.W.)

  6. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-11-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  7. Lightweight Radiator for in Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Paul; Tomboulian, Briana; SanSoucie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies may require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Game-changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow advances in operational efficiency and high temperature feasibility. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities making use of constrained input parameter space. A description of this effort is presented.

  8. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y.; McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF 4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (∼100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development

  9. Nuclear data needs for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear design of fusion components (e.g., first wall, blanket, shield, magnet, limiter, divertor, etc.) requires an accurate prediction of the radiation field, the radiation damage parameters, and the activation analysis. The fusion nucleonics for these tasks are reviewed with special attention to point out nuclear data needs and deficiencies which effect the design process. The main areas included in this review are tritium breeding analyses, nuclear heating calculations, radiation damage in reactor components, shield designs, and results of uncertainty analyses as applied to fusion reactor studies. Design choices and reactor parameters that impact the neutronics performance of the blanket are discussed with emphasis on the tritium breeding ratio. Nuclear data required for kerma factors, shielding analysis, and radiation damage are discussed. Improvements in the evaluated data libraries are described to overcome the existing problems. 84 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  11. New materials in nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    1988-01-01

    In the autumn of 1987, the critical condition was attained in the JET in Europe and Japanese JT-60, thus the first subject in the physical verification of nuclear fusion reactors was resolved, and the challenge to the next attainment of self ignition condition started. As the development process of nuclear fusion reactors, there are the steps of engineering, economical and social verifications after this physical verification, and in respective steps, there are the critical problems related to materials, therefore the development of new materials must be advanced. The condition of using nuclear fusion reactors is characterized by high fluence, high thermal flux and strong magnetic field, and under such extreme condition, the microscopic structures of materials change, and they behave much differently from usual case. The subjects of material development for nuclear fusion reactors, the material data base being built up, the materials for facing plasma and high thermal flux, first walls, blanket structures, electric insulators and others are described. The serious effect of irradiation and the rate of defect inducement must be taken in consideration in the structural materials for nuclear fusion reactors. (Kako, I.)

  12. The European programme for controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. The nuclear fusion reactors are presented with the two approaches: magnetic confinement and inertial confinement; are described: the place of fusion in the world energy scene and its importance for Europe, how research is at present organized, and the European programme with this next stage: the JET (Joint European Torus), the largest tokamak machine in Europe

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  14. Neutrons and fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Shoichi

    1991-01-01

    The strategy of the devolopment of the fusion reactor has been compared with the history of the development of the fission reactor. More than 50 neutron reactors (neutron sources for research and development of reactor components and materials, and for Pu production) have been constructed and operated before the introduction of demonstration power reactors. This fact suggests us to introduce a new path of neutron reactor in the strategy of the development of fusion power reactor in addition to the orthodox approach which goes through the break-even, self-ignition, ETR, and DEMO. One of the benefits of the introduction of such neutron reactor or into the strategy of the fusion reactor development has been studied numerically. The results demonstrate that the introduction of fission-fusion hybrid reactor in 2030, can save ∝20% of natural uranium by 2100 in Japan, in comparison with the case when the fast breeder reactor is introduced in 2030. This saving is recognized large enough to justify earlier construction of the fusion neutron reactor. (orig.)

  15. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  16. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  17. Progress of nuclear fusion research and review on development of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Set up in October 1971, the ad hoc Committee on Survey of Nuclear Fusion Reactors has worked on overall fusion reactor aspects and definition of the future problems under four working groups of core, nuclear heat, materials and system. The presect volume is intended to provide reference materials in the field of fusion reactor engineering, prepared by members of the committee. Contents are broadly the following: concept of the nuclear fusion reactor, fusion core engineering, fusion reactor blanket engineering, fusion reactor materials engineering, and system problems in development of fusion reactors. (Mori, K.)

  18. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications.

  19. Carbon-carbon turbopump concept for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-06-01

    The U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is placing high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio in the development of a practical high-performance nuclear rocket. The turbopump design is driven by these goals. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is from rapid heating of the propellant from 180 R to thousands of degrees in the particle bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. A high-performance approach is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. Carbon-carbon components are used throughout the TPA hot section to obtain the high-temperature capability. Several carbon-carbon components are in development including structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines and many other turbomachinery applications.

  20. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications

  1. Carbon-carbon turbopump concept for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    The U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is placing high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio in the development of a practical high-performance nuclear rocket. The turbopump design is driven by these goals. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is from rapid heating of the propellant from 180 R to thousands of degrees in the particle bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. A high-performance approach is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. Carbon-carbon components are used throughout the TPA hot section to obtain the high-temperature capability. Several carbon-carbon components are in development including structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines and many other turbomachinery applications. 3 refs

  2. Nuclear fusion research in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheetham, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the recently formed National Plasma Fusion Research Facility centred around the H-1NF Heliac, located at the Australian National University, the Institute of Advanced Studies is described in the context of the international Stellarator program and the national collaboration with the Australian Fusion Research Group. The objectives of the facility and the planned physics research program over the next five years are discussed and some recent results will be presented. The facility will support investigations in the following research areas: finite pressure equilibrium and stability, transport in high temperature plasmas, plasma heating and formation, instabilities and turbulence, edge plasma physics and advanced diagnostic development

  3. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway

  4. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  5. Nuclear Bi-Brayton system for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the desirability of new system concept for nuclear aircraft propulsion utilizing the Bi-Brayton system concept, permits coupling of a gas cooled reactor to the power transmission and conversion system in a manner such as to fulfill the safety criteria while eliminating the need for a high temperature intermediate heat exchanger or shaft penetrations of the containment vessel. This system has been shown to minimize the component development required and to allow reduction in total propulsion system weight. This paper presents a description of the system concept and the results of the definition and evaluation studies to date. Parametric and reference system definition studies have been performed. The closed-cycle Bi-Brayton system and component configurations and weight estimates have been derived. Parametric evaluation and cycle variation studies have been performed and interpreted. 7 refs

  6. Progress of laser nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraga, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and features of nuclear fusion using laser, as well as its basic concepts such as high-temperature / high-density implosion system and fast ignition of fuel. At present, researches aiming at nuclear fusion ignition have been developing. As the current state of researches, this paper reviews the situations of FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project of Japan focusing on direct irradiation implosion and fast ignition system, as well as NIF (National Ignition Facility) project of the U.S. aiming at ignition combustion based on indirect irradiation implosion and central ignition system. In collaboration with the National Institute for Fusion Science, Osaka University started FIREX-1 project in 2003. It built a heating laser LFEX of 10 kJ/1 to 10ps, and started an implosion/heating integration experiment in 2009. Currently, it is developing experiment to achieve heating to 5 keV. At NIF, the self-heating of central sparks via energy of α particles generated in the nuclear fusion reaction has been realized. This paper also overviews R and D issues surrounding the lasers for reactors for use in laser nuclear fusion power generators. (A.O.)

  7. Nuclear space power and propulsion requirements and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdling, M.; Isenberg, L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of nuclear power in space is going through a low point. The kinds of missions that would use nuclear power are expensive and there are few new expensive missions. Both NASA and DoD are in a mode of cheaper, faster, better, which means using what is available as much as possible and only incorporating new technology to reduce mission cost. NASA is performing Mission to Planet Earth and detailed exploration missions of Mars. These NASA missions can be done with solar-battery power subsystems and there is no need for nuclear power. The NASA mission to Pluto does require nuclear radioisotope power. Ways to reduce the power subsystem cost and the power level are being investigated. NASA is studying ways to explore beyond Mars with solar-battery power because of the cost and uncertainty in the availability and launchability of nuclear space power systems. The DoD missions are all in earth orbit and can be done with solar-battery systems. The major DoD requirement at present is to reduce costs of all their space missions. One way to do this is to develop highly efficient upper stage boosters that can be integrated with lower cost Earth to low orbit stages and still place their payloads in to higher orbits. One attractive upper stage is a nuclear bimodal (propulsion and power) engine to accomplished lower booster cost to place space assets in GEO. However this is not being pursued because of DOE's new policy not to fund nuclear space power research and development as well as the difficulty in obtaining launch approval for nuclear propulsion and power systems

  8. Feasibility study of a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Metzger, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The result of a feasibility analysis of a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion (CPNP) engine concept utilizing the enormously dense energy generated by small nuclear detonations is presented in this article. This concept was initially proposed and studied in the 1950s and 1960s under the program name HELIOS. The current feasibility of the concept is based upon materials technology that has advanced to a state that allows the design of pressure vessels required to contain the blast associated with small nuclear detonations. The impulsive nature of the energy source provides the means for circumventing the materials thermal barriers that are inherent in steady-state nuclear propulsion concepts. The rapid energy transfer to the propellant results in high thrust levels for times less than 1 s following the detonation. The preliminary feasibility analysis using off-the-shelf materials technology appears to indicate that the CPNP concept can have thrust-to-weight ratios on the order of 1 or greater. Though the specific impulse is not a good indicator for impulsive engines, an operating-cycle averaged specific impulse of approximately 1000 or greater seconds was calculated. 16 refs

  9. Feasibility of the recent Russian nuclear electric propulsion concept: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakirov, Vadim; Pavshook, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The paper focuses on feasibility of the Russian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept. → The Russian NEP concept is based on the past experience and is, therefore, technically feasible. → The big concern is that the program will be cancelled due to non-technical issues. - Abstract: The paper introduces recent Russian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept for space exploration. The concept advantages are listed along with future missions. The current development status for the two main enabling technologies is presented and the feasibility analysis of the up-to-date experience is performed. The main features of NEP concept are discussed. Revision of these features and available technologies demonstrates that the NEP concept is a logical continuation of the previous efforts by the former Soviet Union. Because no breakthrough technologies are needed for NEP development while the existing technologies only need to be adapted to the megawatt (MW) class NEP the development is considered technically feasible, low risk program likely to succeed unless cancelled by the listed non-technical reasons. Successful NEP space vehicle development is going to bring practical space exploration of solar system to the new level as well as require supplementary payload program, supporting monitoring and communication radar networks. Nuclear safety during future NEP missions can be ensured by adherence to the United Nations guidelines in the same way it was done during the Soviet Topaz Nuclear Power System (NPS) missions.

  10. Feasibility of the recent Russian nuclear electric propulsion concept: 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakirov, Vadim, E-mail: v.zakirov@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Room 3121, Yifu Building, School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Pavshook, Vladimir, E-mail: vap_ki@mail.r [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: The paper focuses on feasibility of the Russian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept. The Russian NEP concept is based on the past experience and is, therefore, technically feasible. The big concern is that the program will be cancelled due to non-technical issues. - Abstract: The paper introduces recent Russian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept for space exploration. The concept advantages are listed along with future missions. The current development status for the two main enabling technologies is presented and the feasibility analysis of the up-to-date experience is performed. The main features of NEP concept are discussed. Revision of these features and available technologies demonstrates that the NEP concept is a logical continuation of the previous efforts by the former Soviet Union. Because no breakthrough technologies are needed for NEP development while the existing technologies only need to be adapted to the megawatt (MW) class NEP the development is considered technically feasible, low risk program likely to succeed unless cancelled by the listed non-technical reasons. Successful NEP space vehicle development is going to bring practical space exploration of solar system to the new level as well as require supplementary payload program, supporting monitoring and communication radar networks. Nuclear safety during future NEP missions can be ensured by adherence to the United Nations guidelines in the same way it was done during the Soviet Topaz Nuclear Power System (NPS) missions.

  11. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  12. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  13. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  14. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  15. Hybrid fission-fusion nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid could contribute to all components of nuclear power - fuel supply, electricity production, and waste management. The idea of the fusion-fission hybrid is many decades old. Several ideas, both new and revisited, have been investigated by hybrid proponents. These ideas appear to have attractive features, but they require various levels of advances in plasma science and fusion and nuclear technology. As a first step towards the development of hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources can be considered as an option. Compact high-field tokamaks can be a candidate for being the neutron source in a fission-fusion hybrid, essentially due to their design characteristics, such as compact dimensions, high magnetic field, flexibility of operation. This study presents the development of a tokamak neutron source for a material testing facility using an Ignitor-based concept. The computed values show the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion materials testing. Some full-power months of operation are sufficient to obtain relevant radiation damage values in terms of dpa. (Author)

  16. Lightweight Damage Tolerant, High-Temperature Radiators for Nuclear Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Paul D.; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is increasingly emphasizing exploration to bodies beyond near-Earth orbit. New propulsion systems and new spacecraft are being built for these missions. As the target bodies get further out from Earth, high energy density systems, e.g., nuclear fusion, for propulsion and power will be advantageous. The mass and size of these systems, including supporting systems such as the heat exchange system, including thermal radiators, will need to be as small as possible. Conventional heat exchange systems are a significant portion of the total thermal management mass and size. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed, in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Heat from the reactor is converted to power for use in propulsion or for system power. The heat not used in the power conversion is then radiated to space as shown in figure 1. Advanced power conversion technologies will require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow significant decreases in the total mass of the radiators and significant increases in the operating temperature of the fins. A Center-funded project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has shown that high thermal conductivity, woven carbon fiber fins with no matrix material, can be used to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems and because of high specific power (kW/kg), will require less mass and possibly less total area than standard metal and composite radiator fins for radiating the same amount of heat. This project uses an innovative approach to reduce the mass and size required for the thermal radiators to the point that in-space NEP and power

  17. The NASA-Lewis program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion, 1958-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, N.R.; Roth, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a retrospective summary and bibliography of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration research program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion systems conducted at the Lewis Research Center. This effort extended over a 20-yr period ending in 1978, involved several hundred person-years of effort, and included theory, experiment, technology development, and mission analysis. This program was initiated in 1958 and was carried out within the Electromagnetic Propulsion Division. Within this division, mission analysis and basic research on high-temperature plasma physics were carried out in the Advanced Concepts Branch. Three pioneering high-field superconducting magnetic confinement facilities were developed with the support of the Magnetics and Cryophysics Branch. The results of this program serve as a basis for subsequent discussions of the space applications of fusion energy, contribute to the understanding of high-temperature plasmas and how to produce them, and advance the state of the art of superconducting magnet technology used in fusion research

  18. G8 decision on fusion would herald nuclear future

    CERN Multimedia

    Starck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fusion as a future abundant energy source would receive a boost if G8 leaders agree next month on the site for the world's first fusion test reactor, two nuclear scientists said on Wednesday (1 page)

  19. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear data requirements for experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactors are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the shield as well as major reactor components of concern to the nuclear performance. The nuclear data requirements are defined as a result of analyzing four key areas. These are the most likely candidate materials, energy range, types of needed nuclear data, and the required accuracy in the data. Deducing the latter from the target goals for the accuracy in prediction is also discussed. A specific proposal of measurements is recommended. Priorities for acquisition of data are also assigned. (author)

  20. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  1. Nuclear fusion and neutron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sherstnev, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of providing development of the design of an experimental fusion reactor with necessary neutron-physical data are discussed. Isotope composition of spent fuel in the blanket of a hybride fusion reactor (HFR) is given. Neutron balance of the reactor with Li-blanket and neutron balance of the reactor with Pb-multiplier are disclosed. A simplified scheme of neutron and energy balance in the HFR blanket is given. Development and construction of the experimental power reactor is shown to become the nearest problem of the UTS program. Alongside with other complex physical and technical problems solution of this problem requires realization of a wide program of neutron-physical investigations including measurements with required accuracy of neutron cross sections, development of methodical, program and constant basis of neutron calculations and macroscopic experiments on neutron sources

  2. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  3. History of controlled nuclear fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Eisui; Nishio, Shigeko; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    2001-01-01

    A research development of nuclear fusion was divided four periods: the first period as prehistory (until about 1955), the second period as begin of research (1955 to 1969), the third as the growth period (1970 to 1985) and the forth as the large tokamak age. In this paper I explained the second period, because general physicists and young plasma and controlled nuclear fusion researcher did not know about this period. The controlled nuclear fusion research was begun by the experiment of hydrogen bomb by USA and USSR in 1952 and 1953. In Japan, on the basis of many societies, 'The Controlled Nuclear Fusion Meeting' was established as an independent system and KAKEA (Journal of Fusion Research) was published in 1958. Japan government began to make the system by the Nuclear Commission in 1957. The main research devices in 1962 were linear pinch, mirror device, toroidal pinch, helical system, plasma gun and plasma measurement. USSR showed the excellent results of tokamak device in 1968. Ookawa spoke the effect of the average minimum-B, the best report in this period, at the second IAEA meeting, 1965. JAERI constructed JFT-1 and JFT-2, the latter was the first class device in the world and made the first step of Japanese research into the world, for examples, to attain the equilibrium of divertor plasma and to control impurity. Many research centers of controlled fusion were established in many universities in Japan from 1966 to 1980. Cooperation researchs between Japan and USA, USSR and many countries has been carried out after 1978: JIFT (Joint Institute for Fusion Theory) and FPPC (Fusion Power Coordinating Committee). The important results increased in this period. After 1985, the research activities are processing and data increased very fast depend on the larger devices and system, good measurement system and development of information system. JT-60 in JAERI opened to the large tokamak period. It led controlled fusion researchs in the world the same as TFTR (US

  4. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to achieve readiness of Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies of significant maturity: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nulcear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented herein for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  6. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Borowski, S.K.; Mcilwain, M.C.; Pellaccio, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the next generation of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration

  7. Nuclear propulsion: the way to mars is open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    A manned mission to mars will require the use of nuclear propulsion because of the efficiency of this technique in terms of high values for the momentum/weight ratio and the thrust. A period of 10 years will be necessary to develop nuclear-thermal or nuclear-electric propulsion systems able to bring a 5 member crew on mars. The go and return trip has to be optimized in terms of energy consumption: it may last 250 days and a time period of about 500 days, spent on mars, may be necessary before undertaking the return trip. The long stay on mars implies the existence of important structure so that life may be possible for the astronauts. The weight of equipment needed to be carried is assessed to reach 20 or 30 tonnes. Different scenarios have been considered by the Nasa in order to reduce the constraints on the launching: launching from either a lunar station or a space station has been proposed. (A.C.)

  8. Nuclear rockets: High-performance propulsion for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.W.

    1994-05-01

    A new impetus to manned Mars exploration was introduced by President Bush in his Space Exploration Initiative. This has led, in turn, to a renewed interest in high-thrust nuclear thermal rocket propulsion (NTP). The purpose of this report is to give a brief tutorial introduction to NTP and provide a basic understanding of some of the technical issues in the realization of an operational NTP engine. Fundamental physical principles are outlined from which a variety of qualitative advantages of NTP over chemical propulsion systems derive, and quantitative performance comparisons are presented for illustrative Mars missions. Key technologies are described for a representative solid-core heat-exchanger class of engine, based on the extensive development work in the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs (1955 to 1973). The most driving technology, fuel development, is discussed in some detail for these systems. Essential highlights are presented for the 19 full-scale reactor and engine tests performed in these programs. On the basis of these tests, the practicality of graphite-based nuclear rocket engines was established. Finally, several higher-performance advanced concepts are discussed. These have received considerable attention, but have not, as yet, developed enough credibility to receive large-scale development

  9. The development of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature conditions needed in a controlled nuclear fusion reactor are now being approached in experiments using magnetic fields to confine and isolate the plasma, especially in systems of the tokamak type. The underlying reasons for the successes are discussed and it is concluded that the remaining advances needed in temperature and thermal insulation may well be achieved in new large tokamak experiments now under construction. Comparable progress is being made also in inertial confinement systems; key experiments on achieving the required super-high densities with high-powered pulsed laser systems are about to commence. To achieve fusion reactors will require the combination of three major disciplines: plasma physics, electromechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. Proposals have been made for an international study group to be set up under the IAEA auspices to consider technical objectives and the nature of the next large fusion device which could be constructed internationally, and in which this synthesis could be attempted. (author)

  10. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  11. Smart built-in test for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombrozo, P.C.

    1992-03-01

    Smart built-in test (BIT) technologies are envisioned for nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft components which undergo constant irradiation and are therefore unsafe for manual testing. Smart BIT systems of automated/remote type allow component and system tests to be conducted; failure detections are directly followed by reconfiguration of the components affected. The 'smartness' of the BIT system in question involves the reduction of sensor counts via the use of multifunction sensors, the use of components as integral sensors, and the use of system design techniques which allow the verification of system function beyond component connectivity

  12. Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Manso, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion is presented. The experimental activity associated with the tokamak ISTTOK as well as the work carried out in the frame of international collaboration are summarized. The main technological features of ISTTOK are described along with studies on microwave reflectometry. Future plans are briefly described

  13. Confusion about nuclear fusion: a false report is laid bare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsches, E.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the inaccurate and precipitate news of alleged successful controlled nuclear fusion in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton University. The later modified published report indicated that in a first test, fractional second operation had produced plasma gas temperature of 100,000 0 C whereas 100 million degrees C is necessary for hydrogen nuclear fusion. Also power generation from nuclear fusion is still a long term goal. Problems of nuclear fusion are very briefly mentioned, and an impression of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor is illustrated. (H.V.H.)

  14. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam γ-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of 16 O and 40 Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on 10 B + 16 O and 12 C + 14 N → 26 Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table

  15. Nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application to Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.; Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Options for vehicle configurations are reviewed in which nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is used for a reference mission to Mars. The scenario assumes an opposition-class Mars transfer trajectory, a 435-day mission, and the use of a single nuclear engine with 75,000 lbs of thrust. Engine parameters are examined by calculating mission variables for a range of specific impulses and thrust/weight ratios. The reference mission is found to have optimal values of 925 s for the specific impulse and thrust/weight ratios of 4.0 and 0.06 for the engine and total stage ratios respectively. When the engine thrust/weight ratio is at least 4/1 the most critical engine parameter is engine specific impulse for reducing overall stage weight. In the context of this trans-Mars three-burn maneuver the NTR engine with an expander engine cycle is considered a more effective alternative than chemical/aerobrake and other propulsion options

  16. A feasibility study for a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Metzger, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of a pulsed propulsion concept is performed utilizing the enormously dense energy generated by small nuclear detonations. The concept feasibility is based on the premise that current materials technology has undergone significant breakthroughs, allowing design of pressure vessels capable of containing the blast associated with such detonations. Furthermore, the rapid energy transfer to the propellant, allows generation of high thrust levels for up to 10 ms following the detonation. Preliminary reevaluation of the concept using off-the-shelf materials technology appears to indicate that the contained pulsed nuclear propulsion concept has no major flaws, and it can provide thrust levels resulting in average thrust-to-weight ratios on the order of 2--2.5 over an engine operating cycle. Furthermore, even though the specific impulse is not a good performance indicator for impulsive engines, operating-cycle-averaged specific impulse of approximately 1800 s has been calculated. The engine mass associated with this performance is on the order of 50 Mg. The concept appears attractive for a number of missions planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, however, there are still a number of issues that must be addressed

  17. Shield design development of nuclear propulsion merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa

    1975-01-01

    Shielding design both in Japan and abroad for nuclear propulsion merchant ships is explained, with emphasis on the various technological problems having occurred in the shield design for one-body type and separate type LWRs as conceptual design. The following matters are described: the peculiarities of the design as compared with the case of land-based nuclear reactors, problems in the design standards of shielding, the present status and development of the design methods, and the instances of the design; thereby, the trends of shielding design are disclosed. The following matters are pointed out: Importance of the optimum design, of shielding, significance of radiation streaming through large voids, activation of the secondary water in built-in type steam generators, and the need of the guides for shield design. (Mori, K.)

  18. Present knowledge of nuclear cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.; Tripodi, P.; Lombardi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear cold fusion, disclosed with clamour in 1989, was successively deemed by most people a blunder. However, the research activities went on, even if softly, and they have been producing more convincing and reproducible results, as well as theoretical models capable of explaining the noticeable anomalies of this phenomenon with respect to the hot fusion. Then, now the demonstration of the phenomenon may be considered valid and accepted. More time is needed to know whether and how this new process may be exploitable to produce energy on an industrial scale [it

  19. Chemical engineering side of nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1976-10-01

    It is widely recognized that chemical engineering has important roles to play in the development of national and world wide energy resources through optimal utilization of fossil fuel reserves. It is much less appreciated that there are crucial chemical engineering problems in the development of energy production from other sources. In particular the successful development of nuclear fusion power generating systems will require the solution of many problems that are uniquely suited to chemical engineers. This article presents a brief overview of the fusion development program and an identification of the major technological problems remaining to be solved

  20. Scaling of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) for near-term thrusters and future fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.; Bromley, B.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; DeMora, J.; Chacon, L.; Gu, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a unique approach to fusion and plasma energy systems that was conceptualized in the 1960s (Hirsch 1967) and has been the focus of recent development in the 1990s (Miley et al. 1995a). In the interests of space power and propulsion systems, conceptual rocket design studies (Bussard and Jameson 1994, Miley et al. 1995b) using the IEC have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions, since the power unit avoids the use of magnets and heavy drives resulting in a very high, specific impulse compared to other fusion systems. In their recent survey of prior conceptual design studies of fusion rockets, Williams and Borowski (1997) found that the Bussard IEC conceptual study (the open-quotes QEDclose quotes engine) offered a thrust-to-weight ratio of 10 milli-g close-quote s, a factor of five higher than conventional magnetic confinement concepts and even slightly above anti-proton micro fission/fusion designs. Thus there is considerable motivation to study IEC concepts for eventual space applications. However, the physics feasibility of the IEC still requires experimental demonstration, and an expanded data base is needed to insure that a power unit can in fact be built. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Scaling of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) for near-term thrusters and future fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.; Bromley, B.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; DeMora, J.; Chacon, L.; Gu, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a unique approach to fusion and plasma energy systems that was conceptualized in the 1960s (Hirsch 1967) and has been the focus of recent development in the 1990s (Miley et al. 1995a). In the interests of space power and propulsion systems, conceptual rocket design studies (Bussard and Jameson 1994, Miley et al. 1995b) using the IEC have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions, since the power unit avoids the use of magnets and heavy drives resulting in a very high, specific impulse compared to other fusion systems. In their recent survey of prior conceptual design studies of fusion rockets, Williams and Borowski (1997) found that the Bussard IEC conceptual study (the ''QED'' engine) offered a thrust-to-weight ratio of 10 milli-g's, a factor of five higher than conventional magnetic confinement concepts and even slightly above anti-proton micro fission/fusion designs. Thus there is considerable motivation to study IEC concepts for eventual space applications. However, the physics feasibility of the IEC still requires experimental demonstration, and an expanded data base is needed to insure that a power unit can in fact be built

  2. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  3. Economic Experience in Creation and Operation of Commercial Propulsion Nuclear Plants. Annex VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This annex considers the reduction of capital costs in commercial nuclear power by employing commercial scale production and common technologies of equipment design and fabrication, based on the vast production and operation experience of Russian Federation nuclear propulsion plants. The performed consideration proves the expediency of adopting the most effective engineering solutions and approaches used for production of propulsion nuclear plants in the production of commercial nuclear power plants.

  4. Once more about cold nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritsky, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the experiments on the search for cold nuclear d-d fusion in chemically pure titanium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and for titanium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The saturation took place at the temperature of 77K and pressure of 50 and 150 atm. A round of experiments with temperature varying from 1 to 600 atm was carried out. The limiting values of the partial rate of the nuclear reaction of d-d fusion with neutron production were obtained per deuteron (at the 95% confidence level): λ f ≤4x10 -25 s -1 (experiment with electrolysis), λ f ≤7x10 -28 s -1 (experiment with gaseous deuterium). 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Nuclear thermal propulsion technology: Results of an interagency panel in FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Mcdaniel, P.; Howe, S.; Helms, I.; Stanley, M.

    1993-04-01

    NASA LeRC was selected to lead nuclear propulsion technology development for NASA. Also participating in the project are NASA MSFC and JPL. The U.S. Department of Energy will develop nuclear technology and will conduct nuclear component, subsystem, and system testing at appropriate DOE test facilities. NASA program management is the responsibility of NASA/RP. The project includes both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology development. This report summarizes the efforts of an interagency panel that evaluated NTP technology in 1991. Other panels were also at work in 1991 on other aspects of nuclear propulsion, and the six panels worked closely together. The charters for the other panels and some of their results are also discussed. Important collaborative efforts with other panels are highlighted. The interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) NTP Technology Panel worked in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion concepts on a consistent basis. Additionally, the panel worked to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Five meetings of the panel were held in 1991 to continue the planning for technology development of nuclear thermal propulsion systems. The state-of-the-art of the NTP technologies was reviewed in some detail. The major technologies identified were as follows: fuels, coatings, and other reactor technologies; materials; instrumentation, controls, health monitoring and management, and associated technologies; nozzles; and feed system technology, including turbopump assemblies

  6. Radio frequency system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozeki, Shoichiro; Sagawa, Norimoto; Takizawa, Teruhiro

    1987-01-01

    The importance of radio frequency waves has been increasing in the area of nuclear fusion since they are indispensable for heating of plasma, etc. This report outlines radio frequency techniques used for nuclear fusion and describes the development of radio frequency systems (radio frequency plasma heating system and current drive system). Presently, in-depth studies are underway at various research institutes to achieve plasma heating by injection of radio frequency electric power. Three ranges of frequencies, ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency), LHRF (lower hybrid range of frequency) and ECRF (electron cyclotron range of frequency), are considered promissing for radio frequency heating. Candidate waves for plasma current driving include ECW (electron cyclotron wave), LHW (lower hybrid wave), MSW (magnetic sound wave), ICW (ion cyclotron wave) with minority component, and FW (fast wave). FW is the greatest in terms of current drive efficiency. In general, a radio frequency system for nuclear fusion consists of a radio frequency power source, transmission/matching circuit component and plasma connection component. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Verification of cold nuclear fusion reaction, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zenko; Aratono, Yasuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    1991-01-01

    Can cold nuclear fusion reaction occur as is expected? If it occurs, what extent is its reaction probability? At present after 2 years elapsed since its beginning, the clear solution of these questions is not yet obtained. In many reaction systems employing different means, the experiments to confirm the cold nuclear fusion reaction have been attempted. In order to confirm that the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium mutually has occurred, the neutrons, He-3, protons, tritium or generated heat, which were formed by the reaction and released from the system, are measured. Since it is considered that the frequency of the occurrence at normal temperature of the reaction is very low, it is necessary to select the most suitable method upon evaluating the limit of detection peculiar to the measuring methods. The methods of measuring neutrons, protons, gamma ray and generated heat, and the reaction systems by electrolytic process and dry process are explained. The detection of plural kinds of the reaction products and the confirmation of synchronism of signals are important. (K.I.)

  8. Power source system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: When using an external system power source and an exclusive power source in a power source circuit for supplying power to the coils of a nuclear fusion apparatus, to minimize the capacity of the exclusive power source and provide an economical power source circuit construction. Structure: In the initial stage of the power supply, rectifying means provided in individual blocks are connected in parallel on the AC side, and power is supplied to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from an external system power source with the exclusive power source held in the disconnected state. Further, at an instant when the limit of permissible input is reached, the afore-mentioned parallel circuit consisting of rectifying means is disconnected, while at the same time the exclusive power source is connected to the input side of the rectifying means provided in a block corresponding to the exclusive power source side, thereby supplying power to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from both the external system power source and exclusive power source. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a high NASA technology priority area by the National Research Council because nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs)...

  10. Progress of research and development of nuclear fusion and development of large nuclear fusion device technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the last several years, the results of tokamak experiments were conspicuous, and the progress of plasma confinement performance, transport mechanism, divertors and impurities, helium transport and exhaust, electric current drive, magnetic field ripple effect and high speed particle transport and DT experiment are reported. The other confinement methods than tokamak, the related theories and reactor technology are described. The conceptual design of ITER was carried out by the cooperation of Japan, USA, EC and the former USSR. The projects of developing nuclear fusion in various countries, the design and the required research and development of ITER, the reconstruction and the required research and development of JT-60, JET and TFTR, the design and the required research and development of large helical device, the state of research and development of laser nuclear fusion and inversion magnetic field pinch nuclear fusion, the activities and roles of industrial circles in large nuclear fusion device technology, and the long term perspective of the technical development of nuclear fusion are described. (K.I.)

  11. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen

    2004-01-01

    - and fusion-based Nuclear Power and Propulsion system concepts and tries to compare these systems' different working principles and technical implementations with each other. The overview and comparison will be complemented by a closer look at ongoing activities related to research and development in this area and by an outlook on what kind of systems might be employed to carry the first astronauts to Mars and beyond. (authors)

  12. Applications of nuclear reactor power systems to electric propulsion missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaupp, R. W.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    The performance of nuclear electric propulsion systems (NEP) has been evaluated for a wide variety of missions in an attempt to establish the commonality of NEP system requirements. Emphasis was given to those requirements and system characteristics that serve as guidelines for current technology development programs. Various interactions and tradeoffs between NEP system and mission parameters are described. The results show that the most significant factors in selecting NEP system size are launch mode (direct or spiral escape) and, to a weaker extent, launch vehicle capability. Other factors such as mission, payload, and thrust time constraints, have little influence, thus allowing one NEP system to be used for many missions. The results indicated that a 100 kWe NEP would be suitable for most direct escape missions and a 250 kWe NEP system would be suitable for more demanding missions that use the spiral escape mode.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karns, J.J.; Fragola, J.R.; Kahan, L.; Pelaccio, D.

    1993-01-01

    The central purpose of this analysis is to assess the ''achievability'' of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system in a given mission. ''Achievability'' is a concept introduced to indicate the extent to which a system that meets or achieves its design goals might be implemented using the existing technology base. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to assess the achievability of an NEP system for a manned Mars mission as it pertains to operational reliability and crew safety goals. By varying design parameters, then examining the resulting system achievability, the design and mission risk drivers can be identified. Additionally, conceptual changes in design approach or mission strategy which are likely to improve overall achievability of the NEP system can be examined

  14. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes work being carried out to develop an IKBS for use in surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise, i.e. to return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information

  15. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Application: RASC Mission Robotic Exploration of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The following paper documents the mission and systems analysis portion of a study in which Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) is used as the in-space transportation system to send a series of robotic rovers and atmospheric science airplanes to Venus in the 2020 to 2030 timeframe. As part of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program, this mission analysis is meant to identify future technologies and their application to far reaching NASA missions. The NEP systems and mission analysis is based largely on current technology state of the art assumptions. This study looks specifically at the performance of the NEP transfer stage when sending a series of different payload package point design options to Venus orbit.

  16. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper describes work being carried out to develop an intelligent knowledge-based system (IKBS) for use in the surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise and return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information. (author)

  17. IMPULSE---an advanced, high performance nuclear thermal propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, L.J.; Disney, R.K.; Mangus, J.D.; Gunn, S.A.; Zweig, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    IMPULSE is an advanced nuclear propulsion engine for future space missions based on a novel conical fuel. Fuel assemblies are formed by stacking a series of truncated (U, Zr)C cones with non-fueled lips. Hydrogen flows radially inward between the cones to a central plenum connected to a high performance bell nozzle. The reference IMPULSE engine rated at 75,000 lb thrust and 1800 MWt weighs 1360 kg and is 3.65 meters in height and 81 cm in diameter. Specific impulse is estimated to be 1000 for a 15 minute life at full power. If longer life times are required, the operating temperature can be reduced with a concomitant decrease in specific impulse. Advantages of this concept include: well defined coolant paths without outlet flow restrictions; redundant orificing; very low thermal gradients and hence, thermal stresses, across the fuel elements; and reduced thermal stresses because of the truncated conical shape of the fuel elements

  18. Integrated System Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen W.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has long been identified as a key enabling technology for space exploration beyond LEO. From Wernher Von Braun's early concepts for crewed missions to the Moon and Mars to the current Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 and recent lunar and asteroid mission studies, the high thrust and specific impulse of NTP opens up possibilities such as reusability that are just not feasible with competing approaches. Although NTP technology was proven in the Rover / NERVA projects in the early days of the space program, an integrated spacecraft using NTP has never been developed. Such a spacecraft presents a challenging multidisciplinary systems integration problem. The disciplines that must come together include not only nuclear propulsion and power, but also thermal management, power, structures, orbital dynamics, etc. Some of this integration logic was incorporated into a vehicle sizing code developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) in the early 1990s called MOMMA, and later into an Excel-based tool called SIZER. Recently, a team at GRC has developed an open source framework for solving Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) problems called OpenMDAO. A modeling approach is presented that builds on previous work in NTP vehicle sizing and mission analysis by making use of the OpenMDAO framework to enable modular and reconfigurable representations of various NTP vehicle configurations and mission scenarios. This approach is currently applied to vehicle sizing, but is extensible to optimization of vehicle and mission designs. The key features of the code will be discussed and examples of NTP transfer vehicles and candidate missions will be presented.

  19. Pulsed fusion space propulsion : Computational Magneto-Hydro Dynamics of a multi-coil parabolic reaction chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanelli, G; Mignone, Andrea; Cervone, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed fusion propulsion might finally revolutionise manned space exploration by providing an affordable and relatively fast access to interplanetary destinations. However, such systems are still in an early development phase and one of the key areas requiring further investigations is the

  20. Advanced fuels for nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Should magnetic confinement of hot plasma prove satisfactory at high β (16 πnkT//sub B 2 / greater than 0.1), thermonuclear fusion fuels other than D.T may be contemplated for future fusion reactors. The prospect of the advanced fusion fuels D.D and 6 Li.D for fusion reactors is quite promising provided the system is large, well reflected and possesses a high β. The first generation reactions produce the very active, energy-rich fuels t and 3 He which exhibit a high burnup probability in very hot plasmas. Steady state burning of D.D can ensue in a 60 kG field, 5 m reactor for β approximately 0.2 and reflectivity R/sub mu/ = 0.9 provided the confinement time is about 38 sec. The feasibility of steady state burning of 6 Li.D has not yet been demonstrated but many important features of such systems still need to be incorporated in the reactivity code. In particular, there is a need for new and improved nuclear cross section data for over 80 reaction possibilities

  1. Nuclear fusion research at Tokamak Energy Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windridge, Melanie J.; Gryaznevich, Mikhail; Kingham, David

    2017-01-01

    Tokamak Energy's approach is close to the mainstream of nuclear fusion, and chooses a spherical tokamak, which is an economically developed form of Tokamak reactor design, as research subjects together with a high-temperature superconducting magnet. In the theoretical prediction, it is said that spherical tokamak can make tokamak reactor's scale compact compared with ITER or DEMO. The dependence of fusion energy multiplication factor on reactor size is small. According to model studies, it has been found that the center coil can be protected from heat and radiation damage even if the neutron shielding is optimized to 35 cm instead of 1 m. As a small tokamak with a high-temperature superconducting magnet, ST25 HTS, it demonstrated in 2015 continuous operation for more than 24 hours as a world record. Currently, this company is constructing a slightly larger ST40 type, and it is scheduled to start operation in 2017. ST40 is designed to demonstrate that it can realize a high magnetic field with a compact size and aims at attaining 8-10 keV (reaching the nuclear fusion reaction temperature at about 100 million degrees). This company will verify the startup and heating technology by the coalescence of spherical tokamak expected to have plasma current of 2 MA, and will also use 2 MW of neutral particle beam heating. In parallel with ST40, it is promoting a development program for high-temperature superconducting magnet. (A.O.)

  2. Nuclear fusion in a solid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romodanov, V.A.; Savin, V.I.; Shakhurin, M.V.; Chernyavskij, V.T.; Pustovit, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The present work was aimed at investigating a possibility to have a fusion reaction during the interaction of gaseous deuterium with various metals under conditions of glow discharge. It is shown that neutron flux which presumably occurs due to the reaction of nuclear fusion exceeded the background level two times maximum for such materials as Cr, Pd, B, Li. A conclusion is made that for the recording of neutrons which can be generated under bombardment of material surfaces with accelerated ions an additional shielding of standard recorders is required against electromagnetic oscillations both in the input circuits and power supply circuits. A significant increase of tritium concentration in deuterium was recorded (by mass spectrometry and β activity measurement) during the passage of the latter through the metal being bombarded with accelerated ions from glow discharge plasma

  3. Who works with nuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, H.

    1977-01-01

    Humanity today, and especially the youth in industrial nations, undergoes a trend towards a 'post-industrial society'. This may be due to the resignation of those who think themselves unable to meet the increasing demands made on social production. The paper draws up a concept to give humanity a new interest in life. First, the paradox educational situation in the FRG today is outlined. Nuclear fusion technology and the industrial development necessary for its implementation are offered as a way out of the paradox situation of the present educational system. The demands to be made on an educational system for fusion technology are discussed. This strategy for world-wide economic growth integrates the intelligence potential of the industrial nations and the potential labour force of the Third World. (GG) [de

  4. Present status of nuclear fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions are included on the following topics: (1) plasma confinement theoretical research, (2) torus plasma research, (3) plasma measurement research, (4) technical development of equipment, (5) plasma heating, (6) vacuum wall surface phenomena, (7) critical plasma test equipment design, (8) noncircular cross-sectional torus test equipment design, (9) nuclear fusion reactor design, (10) nuclear fusion reactor engineering, (11) summary of nuclear fusion research in foreign countries, and (12) long range plan in Japan

  5. Nuclear data for fusion technology – the European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European approach for the development of nuclear data for fusion technology applications is presented. Related R&D activities are conducted by the Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion to satisfy the nuclear data needs of the major projects including ITER, the Early Neutron Source (ENS and DEMO. Recent achievements are presented in the area of nuclear data evaluations, benchmarking and validation, nuclear model improvements, and uncertainty assessments.

  6. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  7. Coil for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Kenzo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a thin nuclear fusion coil having good thermal insulation and insulating properties in which mica and glass materials are wound round conductors subjected to varnish treatment and hardened, which is then sealed into a metallic case along with negative gases of more than two atmospheric pressures. Structure: A plurality of conductors impregnated with varnish are hardened by a rare insulating layer, after which it is coated with a layer of mica not impregnated with varnish and a layer of glass substance and is then received into a metallic case and filled under pressure with negative gases at a pressure more than two atmospheric pressures. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author) [es

  9. Protector in a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masayuki; Yamane, Katsumi; Niwa, Sadahiko; Ogata, Fumio; Masuda, Jun-ichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To block an abnormal voltage, which shifts from plasma to coil or power supply by means of action of mutual induction, by a circuit utilizing non-linear impedance elements. Structure: The nuclear fusion device includes a current transformer coil, a vertical field coil and a plasma circuit, with a non-linear impedance element disposed in parallel with at least the current transformer coil, said impedance element being disposed in parallel with a short-circuiting switch, relative to the abnormal voltage moving from the plasma by means of action of mutual induction. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  11. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  12. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  13. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Japanese perspective of fusion nuclear technology from ITER to DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The world fusion community is now launching construction of ITER, the first nuclear-grade fusion machine in the world. In parallel to the ITER program, Broader Approach (BA) activities are to be initiated in this year by EU and Japan, mainly at Rokkasho BA site in Japan, as complementary activities to ITER toward DEMO. The BA activities include IFMIFEVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) and DEMO design activities with generic technology R and Ds, both of which are critical to the rapid development of DEMO and commercial fusion power plants. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reviewed on-going third phase fusion program and issued the results of the review, 'On the policy of Nuclear Fusion Research and Development' in November 2005. In this report, it is anticipated that the ITER will be made operational in a decade and the programmatic objective can be met in the succeeding seven or eight years. Under this condition, the report presents a roadmap toward the DEMO and beyond and R and D items on fusion nuclear technology, indispensable for fusion energy utilization, are re-aligned. In the present paper, Japanese view and policy on ITER and beyond is summarized mainly from the viewpoints of nuclear fusion technology, and a minimum set of R and D elements on fusion nuclear technology, essential for fusion energy utilization, is presented. (orig.)

  15. Fabrication and Testing of Nuclear-Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Hardware, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient nuclear-thermal propulsion requires heating a low molecular weight gas, typically hydrogen, to high temperature and expelling it through a nozzle. The...

  16. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as an approach that can provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for human space...

  17. Improved CVD Coatings for Carbide Based Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Fuel Elements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the great hurdles to further development and evaluation of nuclear thermal propulsion systems is the issue surrounding the release of radioactive material...

  18. Proceedings of the Tenth Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium included topics on space nuclear power. Various aspectsof design of propulsion and power systems were presented. From theProceedings, two hundred and twelve papers were abstracted for the database

  19. Extreme Temperature Radiation Tolerant Instrumentation for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop and commercialize a high reliability, high temperature smart neutron flux sensor for NASA Nuclear Thermal Propulsion...

  20. Use of nuclear fusion systems for spent nuclear fuel degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.; Ramos, G.; Herrera V, J. J. E.

    2009-10-01

    One of the severe problems of the nuclear industry that should be resolved to facilitate its acceptance like viable energy alternative is of the wastes. In spite of having alternative of fuel reprocessing, many of them have been abandoned by economic or security reasons. In the present work, the alternative is described for using reactors of nuclear fusion as sources of fast neutrons with two important applications in mind: the plutonium burning and the transmutation of the elements that contribute in way more important to their radioactivity, mainly the smaller actinides and the fission products of long half life. (Author)

  1. Fabrication of High Temperature Cermet Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Processing techniques are being developed to fabricate refractory metal and ceramic cermet materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Significant advances have been made in the area of high-temperature cermet fuel processing since RoverNERVA. Cermet materials offer several advantages such as retention of fission products and fuels, thermal shock resistance, hydrogen compatibility, high conductivity, and high strength. Recent NASA h d e d research has demonstrated the net shape fabrication of W-Re-HfC and other refractory metal and ceramic components that are similar to UN/W-Re cermet fuels. This effort is focused on basic research and characterization to identify the most promising compositions and processing techniques. A particular emphasis is being placed on low cost processes to fabricate near net shape parts of practical size. Several processing methods including Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) and conventional PM processes are being evaluated to fabricate material property samples and components. Surrogate W-Re/ZrN cermet fuel materials are being used to develop processing techniques for both coated and uncoated ceramic particles. After process optimization, depleted uranium-based cermets will be fabricated and tested to evaluate mechanical, thermal, and hot H2 erosion properties. This paper provides details on the current results of the project.

  2. Nuclear data for structural materials of fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.

    1989-06-01

    The document presents the status of nuclear reaction theory concerning optical model development, level density models and pre-equilibrium and direct processes used in calculation of neutron nuclear data for structural materials of fission and fusion reactors. 6 refs

  3. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kW/sub e/ to 1MW/sub e/ output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere

  4. Closed loop control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, de M.R.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear fusion the sawtooth instability is an important plasma phenomenon, having both positive and negative effects on the tokamak plasma. Control of its period is essential in future nuclear fusion reactors. This paper presents a control oriented model of the sawtooth instability, with current

  5. Controllers for high-performance nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, de M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A succesful nuclear fusion reactor will confine plasma at hig temperatures and densities, with low thermal losses. The workhorse of the nuclear fusion community is the tokamak, a toroidal device in which plasmas are confined by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. Ideally, the confirming magnetic

  6. ANNETTE Project: Contributing to The Nuclearization of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, W.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.; Jaspers, R.; Noterdaeme, J.; Scheffer, M.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise) is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new training courses, based on identified nuclear competences needs of the work force of (future) fusion reactors and on the current availability of suitable training courses. From interaction with stakeholders involved in the ITER design and construction or the JET D-T campaign, it became clear that the lack of nuclear safety culture awareness already has an impact on current projects. Through the collaboration between the European education networks in fission (ENEN) and fusion (FuseNet) in the ANNETTE project, this project is well positioned to support the development of nuclear competences for ongoing and future fusion projects. Thereby it will make a clear contribution to the realization of fusion energy.

  7. ANNETTE Project: Contributing to The Nuclearization of Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini W.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new training courses, based on identified nuclear competences needs of the work force of (future fusion reactors and on the current availability of suitable training courses. From interaction with stakeholders involved in the ITER design and construction or the JET D-T campaign, it became clear that the lack of nuclear safety culture awareness already has an impact on current projects. Through the collaboration between the European education networks in fission (ENEN and fusion (FuseNet in the ANNETTE project, this project is well positioned to support the development of nuclear competences for ongoing and future fusion projects. Thereby it will make a clear contribution to the realization of fusion energy.

  8. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1990-01-01

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  9. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  10. Nuclear fusion - Inexhaustible source of energy for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.; Demchenko, V.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general description of nuclear fusion as an energy option for the future and to clarify to some extent the various issues - scientific, technological, economic and environmental - which are likely to be relevant to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Section 1 describes the world energy problem and some advantages of nuclear fusion compared to other energy options. Sections 2 and 3 describe the fundamentals of fusion energy, plasma confinement, heating and technological aspects of fusion researches. Some plasma confinement schemes (tokamak, stellarator, inertial confinement fusion) are described. The main experimental results and parameter devices are cited to illustrate the state of the art as of 1989. Various engineering problems associated with reactor design, magnetic systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, environment, economics and safety are discussed. A description of both bilateral and multilateral efforts in fusion research under the auspices of the IAEA is presented in Section 4. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. Distinct roles for key karyogamy proteins during yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; Rose, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    During yeast mating, cell fusion is followed by the congression and fusion of the two nuclei. Proteins required for nuclear fusion are found at the surface (Prm3p) and within the lumen (Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8p) of the nuclear envelope (NE). Electron tomography (ET) of zygotes revealed that mutations in these proteins block nuclear fusion with different morphologies, suggesting that they act in different steps of fusion. Specifically, prm3 zygotes were blocked before formation of membrane bridges, whereas kar2, kar5, and kar8 zygotes frequently contained them. Membrane bridges were significantly larger and occurred more frequently in kar2 and kar8, than in kar5 mutant zygotes. The kinetics of NE fusion in prm3, kar5, and kar8 mutants, measured by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, were well correlated with the size and frequency of bridges observed by ET. However the kar2 mutant was defective for transfer of NE lumenal GFP, but not diffusion within the lumen, suggesting that transfer was blocked at the NE fusion junction. These observations suggest that Prm3p acts before initiation of outer NE fusion, Kar5p may help dilation of the initial fusion pore, and Kar2p and Kar8p act after outer NE fusion, during inner NE fusion.

  12. Sono-luminescence and nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seife, Ch.; Hilgenfeldt, S.; Lohse, D.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents multi-bubble and single-bubble luminescence. Since long scientists have known that ultra-sound waves could trigger the formation of bubbles in water (phenomenon called cavitation) but in 1930, for the first time experiments showed that these bubbles could emit light in particular conditions. In 1989 F. Gaitan succeeded in trapping a single bubble by using stationary ultra-sound waves, this bubble was exploding 20.000 times per second according to the frequency of the wave while emitting a series of flashes of light. Some scientists thought that the gas inside the bubble could reach very high values of temperature and pressure, and proposed the possibility of nuclear fusion to explain the excess of neutrons that has been evidenced in a cavitation experiment with deuterated acetone. The last part of this article describes the controversy triggered by the article describing this experiment, that was published by 'Science' in march 2002. (A.C.)

  13. Vacuum vessel for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Sato, Hiroshi; Owada, Koro.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a reinforcing member on a bellows portion to reduce a stress at the bellows portion thereby increasing the strength of a vessel. Structure: A vacuum vessel for a nuclear fusion device has a bellows portion and a wall thick portion. A support extended toward the bellows portion is secured inside of a toroidal section in order to reduce the stress at the bellows portion. An insulator is interposed between the support and the bellows portion and is retained on the support by a bolt. Since the stress may be reduced by the support, the wall thick of the bellows portion may be decreased to sufficiently secure the low electric resistance value. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Remp, K.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed

  15. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  16. REIMR - A Process for Utilizing Liquid Rocket Propulsion-Oriented 'Lessons Learned' to Mitigate Development Risk in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary overview of a study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) during the initial phases of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program to evaluate a large number of technical problems associated with the design, development, test, evaluation and operation of several major liquid propellant rocket engine systems (i.e., SSME, Fastrac, J-2, F-1). One of the primary results of this study was the identification of the 'Fundamental Root Causes' that enabled the technical problems to manifest, and practices that can be implemented to prevent them from recurring in future propulsion system development efforts, such as that which is currently envisioned in the field of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). This paper will discus the Fundamental Root Causes, cite some examples of how the technical problems arose from them, and provide a discussion of how they can be mitigated or avoided in the development of an NTP system

  17. REIMR - A Process for Utilizing Liquid Rocket Propulsion-Oriented 'Lessons Learned' to Mitigate Development Risk in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, RIchard O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary overview of a study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) during the initial phases of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program to evaluate a large number of technical problems associated with the design, development, test, evaluation and operation of several major liquid propellant rocket engine systems (i.e., SSME, Fastrac, J-2, F-1). One of the primary results of this study was the identification of the Fundamental Root Causes that enabled the technical problems to manifest, and practices that can be implemented to prevent them from recurring in future propulsion system development efforts, such as that which is currently envisioned in the field of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTF). This paper will discuss the Fundamental Root Causes, cite some examples of how the technical problems arose from them, and provide a discussion of how they can be mitigated or avoided in the development of an NTP system

  18. Nuclear engineering questions: power, reprocessing, waste, decontamination, fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the chemical engineering symposium on nuclear questions. Specific questions addressed by the speakers included: nuclear power - why and how; commercial reprocessing - permanent death or resurrection; long-term management of commercial high-level wastes; long-term management of defense high-level waste; decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, engineering aspects of laser fusion I; and engineering aspects of laser fusion II. Individual papers have been input to the Energy Data Base previously

  19. Nuclear fusion energy for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film explains the principles of nuclear fusion and how it differs from nuclear fission. Culham Laboratory in Oxfordshire has been the UK centre for research into fusion power for over 20 years. In addition Britain and other European countries are working on JET -the Joint European Torus. The film explains how, since 1978, Culham has been the centre of this joint European research project on fusion and it traces the development of fusion research that has led to the construction of JET. (author)

  20. Self-sustaining nuclear pumped laser-fusion reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boody, F.P.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The features of a neutron feedback nuclear pumped (NFNP) laser-fusion reactor equipment were studied with the intention of establishing the feasibility of the concept. The NFNP laser-fusion concept is compared schematically to electrically pumped laser fusion. The study showed that, once a method of energy storage has been demonstrated, a self-sustaining fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a ''blanket multiplication'' of two would be feasible using nuclear pumped Xe F* excimer lasers having efficiencies of 1 to 2 percent and D-D-T pellets with gains of 50 to 100

  1. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  2. The Nuclear Department, Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering - Provision of nuclear education and training to the naval nuclear propulsion programme and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trethewey, K.R.; Beeley, P.A.; Lockwood, R.S.; Harrop, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Department at HMS SULTAN provides education, training and research support to the Royal Navy Nuclear Propulsion Programme, as well as a growing number of civilian programmes within the wider British nuclear industry. As an aspiring centre of excellence in nuclear engineering, the Department will play an important role as a repository of nuclear knowledge for the foreseeable future. (author)

  3. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, R. E-mail: roberto.andreani@tech.efda.org; Gasparotto, M. E-mail: maurizio.gasparotto@tech.efda.org

    2002-11-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy.

  4. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Gasparotto, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy

  5. Will nuclear fusion be able to power the next century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is widely regarded as potentially the ultimate energy-generation concept. Although an enormous amount of work and resources has already been committed throughout the world on nuclear fusion research, controlled nuclear fusion has so far proved largely elusive and the difficulties to be overcome before the first commercial fusion reactor is put into operation remain daunting and formidable. In Australia there are three main nuclear fusion research efforts. Sydney University's School of Physics operates a tokamak and a team there has been studying plasma properties in general and in particular radio frequency wave heating of the plasma. At the Australian National University a group has pioneered the construction and operation of an advanced stellarator model called a heliac while at Flinders University in Adelaide a team has developed a rotamak model. The US, Europe, Japan and the USSR each has a frontline fusion research tokamak with Princeton University's TFTR and Culham's JET closest to reactor operation conditions. Although several questions remain to be answered about the safety of a fusion reactor, all experts agree that these problems would be easier to solve than those of conventional fission reactors and there would be no major radioactive waste disposal problem. Some argue that fusion would contribute to the greenhouse effect but most authorities have expressed optimism that fusion, once the technical hurdles are overcome, could economically provide virtually unlimited energy with minimal environmental hazards and at a high safety level

  6. Introduction to the 'CAS' nuclear propulsion plant for ships: specific safety options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeau, J.J.; Baujat, J.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief review of the development of nuclear propulsion in FRANCE (Land Based Prototype PAT 1964 - Navy nuclear ships - Advanced Nuclear Boiler Prototype CAP 1975 and now the CAS nuclear plant), the specific safety options of CAS are presented: cold, compartmented fuel (plates); reduced flow during LOCA; permanent cooling of fuel during LOCA; pressurized, entirely passive containment; no control rod ejection and possibility of temporary storage of spent fuel on board [fr

  7. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor -powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  8. A review of the Los Alamos effort in the development of nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, F.P.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the Los Alamos nuclear rocket propulsion program and describes some specific reactor design and testing problems encountered during the development program along with the progress made in solving these problems. The relevance of these problems to a renewed nuclear thermal rocket development program for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is discussed. 11 figs

  9. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants

  10. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia

    2009-03-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p

  11. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials

  12. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  13. MOA: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster and its Application for Nuclear Electric and Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2006-01-01

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. (authors)

  14. Nuclear fusion an energetic option to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medialdea Utande, A.; Sanchez Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the Sun and the rest of starts. The great availability of deuterium on Earth, the inherent safety of the reactions involved and the intrinsic environmental respect make fusion an attractive energy source for the future of making of man king. International promising contributions are making Fusion Science and Technology progress by leaps and bounds to achieve its long term goal of cost-effective energy-producing plasmas. (Author)

  15. Measurement of nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis for measuring nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions at energies above barrier is reviewed. It is argued that because of experimental and conceptual problems fusion excitation functions at high energies cannot lead to model independent measurements of internuclear potential at small separations. The Al 27 + Ne 20 reaction previously analyzed by others is used as an example of problems arising from the inability to distinguish complete and incomplete fusion in experimental data

  16. Nuclear fusion experimental study on 16 O + 60 Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion cross section measurements were performed in the energy range near The Coulomb Barrier (E Lab -> 40-72 MeV), for the system 16 O + 60 Ni, aiming the study of Fusion Process involving heavy ions. (L.C.J.A.)

  17. Canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, T.I.; Mikhajlov, I.N.; Do Dang, G.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from equations of motion describing the fusion process in symmetrical nuclear systems of low angular momenta we reconstruct the collective Lagrangian and dissipation Rayleigh functions. This opens new perspectives in studying the dynamical effects in the heavy nuclei collisions. In particular, it provides a basis for a quantal description of the fusion process and accompanying its effects

  18. The U.S. program for fusion nuclear technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.; Haas, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT) research and development program in the United States is shaped by a hierarchy of documents and by the environment for nuclear energy existing in the United States. The fission nuclear industry in the United States has suffered problems with public perception of safety, waste disposal issues, and economics as influenced by safety and environmental issues. For fusion to be a viable energy alternative, it must offer significant improvements in these areas. The hierarchy of documents defining objectives, plans, and strategy of the U.S. FNT program consists of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan (MFPP) (February 1985), the Technical Planning Activity Final Report (January 1987), the Finesse Program Report (January 1987), and the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study Final Report (September 1984). In addition, two other documents are also significant in shaping FNT policy. These are the IEA report on Material for Fusion (December 1986) and the Summary of the Report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (September 1987). The U.S. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan defines four key technical issues (magnetic confinement systems, properties of burning plasmas, fusion nuclear technology, and fusion materials). (orig./KP)

  19. The Fight for Fusion: A Modern Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam; Sereda, David

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of Bogdan Maglich with helium-based fusion and barriers to its development resulting from lack of government support, competition for funding, and political pet projects. Compares tritium-based to helium-based fusion and the potential for nonradioactive nuclear power to supply the world's energy requirements with no negative…

  20. Brief history and current developments of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The history of nuclear fusion is briefly outlined, the ITER project is described, the advantages of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator are described, alternative projects and mentioned, and prospects for the nearest time to come are shown. (P.A.)

  1. Small Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests requires high performance propulsion systems to support missions beyond low Earth orbit. A robust space exploration program will include robotic outer planet and crewed missions to a variety of destinations including the moon, near Earth objects, and eventually Mars. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option for the human exploration of Mars because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (∼900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. The recently announced national space policy2 supports the development and use of space nuclear power systems where such systems safely enable or significantly enhance space exploration or operational capabilities. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted under the Rover/NERVA, GE-710 and ANL nuclear rocket programs (1955-1973). Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. The primary and significantly larger Rover/NERVA program focused on graphite type fuels. Research, development, and testing of high temperature graphite fuels was conducted. Reactors and engines employing these fuels were designed, built, and ground tested. The GE-710 and ANL programs focused on an alternative ceramic-metallic 'cermet' fuel type consisting of UO2 (or UN) fuel embedded in a refractory metal matrix such as tungsten. The General Electric program examined closed loop concepts for space or terrestrial applications as well as

  2. Optimization of the availability and safety relationship: case study of naval nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between energy generation availability and the safety of the nuclear installation which produces this energy assumes a very special characteristic when we are dealing with naval propulsion plants. This relationship has no parallel with commercial nuclear power plants. A ship at sea is in safety only if she could dispose quickly of the energy produced by your nuclear propulsion plant. If the nuclear steam production is not assured, specially due to safety reasons, the ship maneuverability, and so its own safety it is seriously affected. We could then perceive that safety of the nuclear installation is depends on safety of the ship, which depends by its side on the availability of nuclear power. This paper intends to present briefly the main aspects of this relation. (author)

  3. Nuclear fusion: a dream in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the construction of ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, in which will be produced nuclear fusion reactions of the same type as those occurring in the sun. As only foundations have been built, physicists are working on component design, on material improvement, on monitoring and maintenance robots, on the simulation of plasma behaviour, a critical aspect of the operation. Experiments are performed in an older and smaller experimental reactor, Tore Supra. It is used to test plasma heating modes, the injection mode of deuterium and tritium which will fuse in ITER. Some parts of this installation are used to extract heat from plasma and must sustain huge heat fluxes (10 millions of Watt per square meter). In order to maintain ITER without stopping it, robots will be used to control and repair the installation. A virtual reality room has been designed to check in advance the construction process as well as the operation. ITER must be completed in 2018 and the first plasmas be produced in 2019. Tritium is to be introduced in 2026. Then, scientists hope to produce a power which will be ten times the input power

  4. Magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Takano, Hirohisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide an electrical-insulatively stabilized magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device, restraining an increase in voltage when plasma current is rapidly changed. Structure: A magnetic field coil comprises coils arranged coaxial with respective vacuum vessels, said coils being wound in positive and reverse polarities so as to form a vertical magnetic field within the plasma. The coils of the positive polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel inside of an axis vertical in section of the annular plasma and are arranged symmetrically up and down of a horizontal axis. On the other hand, the coils of the reverse polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel outside of a vertical axis and arranged symmetrically up and down of the horizontal axis. These positive and reverse polarity coils are alternately connected in series, and lead portions of the coils are connected to a power source by means of connecting wires. In this case, lead positions of the coils are arranged in one direction, and the connecting wires are disposed in closely contact relation to offset magnetic fields formed by the connecting wires each other. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  6. Nuclear Fusion Research Understanding Plasma-Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Robert E.H

    2005-01-01

    It became clear in the early days of fusion research that the effects of the containment vessel (erosion of "impurities") degrade the overall fusion plasma performance. Progress in controlled nuclear fusion research over the last decade has led to magnetically confined plasmas that, in turn, are sufficiently powerful to damage the vessel structures over its lifetime. This book reviews current understanding and concepts to deal with this remaining critical design issue for fusion reactors. It reviews both progress and open questions, largely in terms of available and sought-after plasma-surface interaction data and atomic/molecular data related to these "plasma edge" issues.

  7. The MOA thruster. A high performance plasma accelerator for nuclear power and propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2009-01-01

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other, terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R and D activities at QASAR, the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the Alfven wave technology and its applications. (author)

  8. On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K.H.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes a method of cost and construction energy estimation for tokamak fusion power stations conforming to the present, early stage of fusion development. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than β limitations, which, however, might eventually be the more critical of the two. It is used to discuss the economic efficiency of pure fusion, with particular reference to the European study entitled 'Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion'. It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of the present-day technology, do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects. Support for the stated method is even derived when it is properly applied for cost estimation of advanced gascooled and Magnox reactors, the two very examples presented by the European study to 'disprove' it. (orig.)

  9. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for fusion power measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöstrand Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron measurements using neutron activation systems are an essential part of the diagnostic system at large fusion machines such as JET and ITER. Nuclear data is used to infer the neutron yield. Consequently, high-quality nuclear data is essential for the proper determination of the neutron yield and fusion power. However, uncertainties due to nuclear data are not fully taken into account in uncertainty analysis for neutron yield calibrations using activation foils. This paper investigates the neutron yield uncertainty due to nuclear data using the so-called Total Monte Carlo Method. The work is performed using a detailed MCNP model of the JET fusion machine; the uncertainties due to the cross-sections and angular distributions in JET structural materials, as well as the activation cross-sections in the activation foils, are analysed. It is found that a significant contribution to the neutron yield uncertainty can come from uncertainties in the nuclear data.

  10. [Two-nuclear neurons: sincitial fusion or amitotic division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Frumkina, L E; Lactionova, A A; Paramonova, N M; Novakovskaia, S A

    2011-01-01

    In the review the history of research two-nuclear neurons is stated and two hypotheses about mechanisms of their formation are analysed: by sincitial fusion or amytotic divisions. The facts of discrepancy of the former orthodox cellular theory categorically denying possibility sincitial of communications in nervous system and of sincitial fusion neurons are mentioned. As an example results of ultrastructural researches of occurrence sincitium in a cortex of the big brain of rats, in autonomic ganglions, in hypocampus and a cerebellum of adult animals are presented. The video data of the sincitial fusion of live neurons and the mechanism of formation multinuclear neurons in tissue culture are analyzed. Existing data about amytotic a way of formation two-nuclear neurons are critically considered. The conclusion becomes, that the mechanism of formation two-nuclear neurons is cellular fusion. Simultaneously the review confirms our representations about existence in nervous system sincitial interneural communications.

  11. Conceptual design of light ion beam inertia nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Light ion beam, inertia nuclear fusion system drew attention recently as one of the nuclear fusion systems for power reactors in the history of the research on nuclear fusion. Its beginning seemed to be the judgement that the implosion of fusion fuel pellets with light ions can be realized with the light ions which can be obtained in view of accelerator techniques. Of course, in order to generate practically usable nuclear fusion reaction by this system and maintain it, many technical difficulties must be overcome. This research was carried out for the purpose of discovering such technical problems and searching for their solution. At the time of doing the works, the following policy was adopted. Though their is the difference of fine and rough, the design of a whole reactor system is performed conformably. In order to make comparison with other reactor types and nuclear fusion systems, the design is carried out as the power plant of about one million kWe output. As the extent of the design, the works at conceptual design stage are performed to present the concept of design which satisfies the required function. Basically, the design is made from conservative standpoint. This research of design was started in 1981, and in fiscal 1982, the mutual adjustment among the design of respective parts was performed on the basis of the results in 1981, and the possible revision and new proposal were investigated. (Kako, I.)

  12. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  13. Direct Energy Conversion for Nuclear Propulsion at Low Specific Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The project will continue the FY13 JSC IR&D (October-2012 to September-2013) effort in Travelling Wave Direct Energy Conversion (TWDEC) in order to demonstrate its potential as the core of a high potential, game-changing, in-space propulsion technology. The TWDEC concept converts particle beam energy into radio frequency (RF) alternating current electrical power, such as can be used to heat the propellant in a plasma thruster. In a more advanced concept (explored in the Phase 1 NIAC project), the TWDEC could also be utilized to condition the particle beam such that it may transfer directed kinetic energy to a target propellant plasma for the purpose of increasing thrust and optimizing the specific impulse. The overall scope of the FY13 first-year effort was to build on both the 2012 Phase 1 NIAC research and the analysis and test results produced by Japanese researchers over the past twenty years to assess the potential for spacecraft propulsion applications. The primary objective of the FY13 effort was to create particle-in-cell computer simulations of a TWDEC. Other objectives included construction of a breadboard TWDEC test article, preliminary test calibration of the simulations, and construction of first order power system models to feed into mission architecture analyses with COPERNICUS tools. Due to funding cuts resulting from the FY13 sequestration, only the computer simulations and assembly of the breadboard test article were completed. The simulations, however, are of unprecedented flexibility and precision and were presented at the 2013 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference. Also, the assembled test article will provide an ion current density two orders of magnitude above that available in previous Japanese experiments, thus enabling the first direct measurements of power generation from a TWDEC for FY14. The proposed FY14 effort will use the test article for experimental validation of the computer simulations and thus complete to a greater fidelity the

  14. Nuclear hydrogen production: re-examining the fusion option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baindur, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for nuclear hydrogen production by fusion. The basic idea is to use nuclear energy of the fuel (hydrogen plasma) to produce molecular hydrogen fro carbon-free hydrogen compounds. The hydrogen is then stored and utilized electrochemically in fuel cells or chemically as molecular hydrogen in internal combustion engines

  15. ANNETTE Project : contributing to the nuclearization of fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosini, W.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.; Jaspers, R.; Noterdaeme, J.; Scheffer, M.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise) is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new

  16. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: During the last decade, growing efforts have been devoted to studying the possible forms an electricity-producing thermonuclear reactor might take and the various technical problems that will have to be overcome. Previous IAEA Conferences took place in Salzburg (1961), Culham (1965), Novosibirsk (1968), Madison (1971), Tokyo (1974), Berchtesgaden (1976) and Innsbruck (1978) The exchange of information that has characterized this series of meetings is an important example of international co-operation and has contributed substantially to progress in controlled fusion research. The results of experiments in major research establishments, as well as the growing scientific insights in the field of plasma physics, give hope that the realization of nuclear fusion will be made possible on a larger scale and beyond the laboratory stage by the end of this century. The increase of the duration of existing tokamak discharges requires solution of the impurity control problem. First results from the new big machines equipped with the poloidal divertor recently came into operation. PDX (USA) and ASDEX (F.R. of Germany) show that various divertor configurations can be established and maintained and that the divertors function in the predicted manner. The reduction of high-Z impurities on these machines by a factor 10 was achieved. As a result of extensive research on radio-frequency (RF) plasma heating on tokamaks: PLT (USA), TFR (France), JFT-2 (Japan), the efficiency of this attractive method of plasma heating comparable to neutral beam heating was demonstrated. It was shown that the density of the input power of about 5-10 kW/cm 2 is achievable and this limit is high enough for application to reactor-like machines. One of the inspiring results reported at the conference was the achievement of value (the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) of ∼ 3% on tokamaks T-11 (USSR) and ISX-B (USA). It is important to note that this value exceeds the

  17. Conceptual Design of Electrical Propulsion System for Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    A design concept of the electric propulsion system for the Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventure (NOVA) is presented. NOVA employs Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS), a liquid metal cooled small fast integral reactor, and Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS), a supercritical CO 2 (SCO 2 ) Brayton cycle as power converter to Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS)

  18. Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA, NA [ORNL

    1957-03-12

    This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory. The report is divided into five major parts: 1) Aircraft Reactor Engineering, 2) Chemistry, and 3) Metallurgy, 4) Heat Transfer and Physical Properties, Radiation Damage, and Fuel Recovery and Reprocessing, and 5) Reactor Shielding.

  19. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  20. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  1. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  2. Direct Estimation of Power Distribution in Reactors for Nuclear Thermal Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Tunc; Miller, Don W.; Burghelea, Andrei

    2004-02-01

    A recently proposed constant temperature power sensor (CTPS) has the capability to directly measure the local power deposition rate in nuclear reactor cores proposed for space thermal propulsion. Such a capability reduces the uncertainties in the estimated power peaking factors and hence increases the reliability of the nuclear engine. The CTPS operation is sensitive to the changes in the local thermal conditions. A procedure is described for the automatic on-line calibration of the sensor through estimation of changes in thermal .conditions.

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power

  4. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios

  5. An Overview of Facilities and Capabilities to Support the Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Werner; Sam Bhattacharyya; Mike Houts

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. The future of American space exploration depends on the ability to rapidly and economically access locations of interest throughout the solar system. There is a large body of work (both in the US and the Former Soviet Union) that show that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is the most technically mature, advanced propulsion system that can enable this rapid and economical access by its ability to provide a step increase above what is a feasible using a traditional chemical rocket system. For an NTP system to be deployed, the earlier measurements and recent predictions of the performance of the fuel and the reactor system need to be confirmed experimentally prior to launch. Major fuel and reactor system issues to be addressed include fuel performance at temperature, hydrogen compatibility, fission product retention, and restart capability. The prime issue to be addressed for reactor system performance testing involves finding an affordable and environmentally acceptable method to test a range of engine sizes using a combination of nuclear and non-nuclear test facilities. This paper provides an assessment of some of the capabilities and facilities that are available or will be needed to develop and test the nuclear fuel, and reactor components. It will also address briefly options to take advantage of the greatly improvement in computation/simulation and materials processing capabilities that would contribute to making the development of an NTP system more affordable. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Fuel fabrication, nuclear testing, test facilities.

  6. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.; Anderson, M.; Calderoni, P.; Kurtz, R.J.; Nygren, R.; Raffray, R.; Sawan, M.; Sharpe, P.; Smolentsev, S.; Willms, S.; Ying, A.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion nuclear technology (FNT) research in the United States encompasses many activities and requires expertise and capabilities in many different disciplines. The US Enabling Technology program is divided into several task areas, with aspects of magnet fusion energy (MFE) fusion nuclear technology being addressed mainly in the Plasma Chamber, Neutronics, Safety, Materials, Tritium and Plasma Facing Component Programs. These various programs work together to address key FNT topics, including support for the ITER basic machine and the ITER Test Blanket Module, support for domestic plasma experiments, and development of DEMO relevant material and technological systems for blankets, shields, and plasma facing components. In addition, two inertial fusion energy (IFE) research programs conducting FNT-related research for IFE are also described. While it is difficult to describe all these activities in adequate detail, this paper gives an overview of critical FNT activities

  7. Heat transfer and mechanical interactions in fusion nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    This general review of design issues in heat transfer and mechanical interactions of the first wall, blanket and shield systems of tokamak and mirror fusion reactors begins with a brief introduction to fusion nuclear systems. The design issues are summarized in tables and the following examples are described to illustrate these concerns: the surface heating of limiters, heat transfer from solid breeders, MHD effects in liquid metal blankets, mechanical loads from electromagnetic transients and remote maintenance

  8. Rocket propulsion by nuclear microexplosions and the interstellar paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterberg, F

    1979-11-01

    Magnetic insulation is discussed with regard to generating ultra-intense ion beams (IIBs) for thermonuclear microexplosion ignition. With energies up to 10 to the 9th Joule reached by IIB pulses or target staging, the ignition of the hydrogen/boron-11 (HB-11) thermonuclear reaction by the addition of DT and fissionable material is considered. In addition, the possibility of HB-11 as a rocket propulsion system utilizing a magnetic mirror whose magnetic field is generated with high field superconductors is discussed in terms of interstellar travel at up to 1/10 the velocity of light. Attention is also given to the possibility of a relatively unique advanced civilization on earth caused by a rare, near-Roche limit capture of the moon and the subsequent tidal effects resulting in a land/water combination favorable for rapid evolution of life forms.

  9. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  10. Nuclear Power Plants Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Data Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chunli; Liu Yongkuo; Xia Hong

    2009-01-01

    The data fusion is a method suit for complex system fault diagnosis such as nuclear power plants, which is multisource information processing technology. This paper uses data fusion information hierarchical thinking and divides nuclear power plants fault diagnosis into three levels. Data level adopts data mining method to handle data and reduction attributes. Feature level uses three parallel neural networks to deal with attributes of data level reduction and the outputs of three networks are as the basic probability assignment of Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. The improved D-S evidence theory synthesizes the outputs of neural networks in decision level, which conquer the traditional D-S evidence theory limitation which can't dispose conflict information. The diagnosis method was tested using correlation data of literature. The test results indicate that the data fusion diagnosis system can diagnose nuclear power plants faults accurately and the method has application value. (authors)

  11. Nuclear fusion and genome encounter during yeast zygote formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakoff, Alan Michael; Jaiswal, Purnima

    2009-06-01

    When haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are crossed, parental nuclei congress and fuse with each other. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we have developed assays that evaluate the impact of drugs and mutations. Nuclear congression is inhibited by drugs that perturb the actin and tubulin cytoskeletons. Nuclear envelope (NE) fusion consists of at least five steps in which preliminary modifications are followed by controlled flux of first outer and then inner membrane proteins, all before visible dilation of the waist of the nucleus or coalescence of the parental spindle pole bodies. Flux of nuclear pore complexes occurs after dilation. Karyogamy requires both the Sec18p/NSF ATPase and ER/NE luminal homeostasis. After fusion, chromosome tethering keeps tagged parental genomes separate from each other. The process of NE fusion and evidence of genome independence in yeast provide a prototype for understanding related events in higher eukaryotes.

  12. Naval nuclear propulsion and the international nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear powered attack submarine (SSN) acquisition by Non-Proliferation Treaty No- Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NNWS) Navies does not imply nuclear weapon proliferation risks higher than those related to stationary research and power reactors. It must then be recognized that stringent restraints on supplies and political pressures on governments, both exercised very effectively by No-Proliferation Treaty - Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NWS) against NPT-NNWS indigenous development of SSN and associated fuel cycle facilities, are fundamentally based on geopolitical and military strategic objectives. This practice is far from being related exclusively to the NPT spirit: in fact, it is a matter of freedom at seas and not of nuclear proliferation. (author)

  13. Controlled nuclear fusion, a challenging task with a big payoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion carries the promise of providing the world with a new source of energy, the same energy that powers the stars. Research in this area has progressed steadily for several decades now, and is ready to move into a new phase. The probability is high that a new international experimental machine (ITER) which will prove the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy, will be built. This paper introduces nuclear fusion for people familiar with the fission process. It starts from the basic principles common to fusion and fission. It moves on to point out the differences, explains the reasons for those differences and the consequences. Controlled thermonuclear fusion can be obtained in several ways, which have led to different research lines. One line, on which this talk focuses, is by confining the reacting particles with magnetic fields. Another, which is the subject of a different talk, relies on the inertia of the particles to create the conditions necessary for fusion. The progress of the magnetic confinement research is shown, with examples of major hurdles, which have occurred and have been overcome. Recent results, which make us optimistic that the next machine can prove the feasibility of fusion energy, are highlighted. The talk also addresses the challenges that remain before us, and suggests that the promise of fusion energy opens up new perspectives and opportunities for the development and the use of fission energy. (author)

  14. Design and development of the MITEE-B bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ∼1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  15. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1993-05-01

    The report contains the proceedings of a conference on plasma physics. A fraction of topics included MHD instabilities, magnetic confinement and plasma heating in the field of fusion plasmas, in 8 papers falling in the INIS scope have been abstracted and indexed for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  16. Some theories of cold nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the main theoretical attempts to describe the phenomenology of cold fusion, whose general structure begins to clearly unravel. The main conclusion is that the approaches that are likely to be of relevance must invoke processes where the elementary components (nuclei and electrons) of condensed matter act in a coherent fashion

  17. Proposal of space reactor for nuclear electric propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Takaaki; Nagata, Hidetaka; Nakashima, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    A nuclear reactor installed in spacecrafts is considered here. The nuclear reactor could stably provide an enough amount of electric power in deep space missions. Most of the nuclear reactors that have been developed up to now in the United States and the former Soviet Union have used uranium with 90% enrichment of 235 U as a fuel. On the other hand, in Japan, because the uranium that can be used is enriched to below 20%, the miniaturization of the reactor core is difficult. A Light-water nuclear reactor is an exception that could make the reactor core small. Then, the reactor core composition and characteristic are evaluated for the cases with the enrichment of the uranium fuel as 20%. We take up here Graphite reactor, Light-water reactor, and Sodium-cooled one. (author)

  18. Collective dynamics of nuclear fusion: deformation changes and heating during the fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, I.N.; Mikhailova, T.I.; Toro, M. di; Baran, V.; Briancon, C.

    1996-01-01

    The formalism developed elsewhere for the theoretical description of the dynamics involved in the heavy nucleus fusion is applied in this paper to study the history of the fusion of two identical heavy nuclei experiencing central collision. The evolution of the shape and of the temperature of symmetrical fusing systems is studied. The role of the elastoplasticity of nuclear matter in the nonmonotonical changes of the shape is elucidated in this way. A tentative explanation of the ''extra push'' phenomenon is given in terms of the competition between elastic properties of fusing systems driving to the re-separation of colliding nuclei and the dissipative (plastic) properties of nuclear matter transforming the energy of collective motion into the energy of statistical excitation and thus leading to the fusion. The fingerprints of the heavy-nucleus fusion history as it is depicted by the model are traced in the anisotropy of the dipole and quadrupole γ-radiation emitted during the fusion. The parallels in the description of the fusion dynamics given by the simple model used in this paper and by the more fundamental approaches based on the kinetic equation are emphasised. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  20. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Thomas, Robert E.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, ηprop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and ηprop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons

  1. Data fusion and sensor management for nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1996-05-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the data-sensor fusion and sensor management technology for accident management through simulated severe accident (SA) scenarios subjected to study. By means of accident management the appropriate prompt actions to be taken to avoid nuclear accident (SA) scenarios subjected to study. By means of accident management the appropriate prompt actions to be taken to avoid nuclear accidents are meant, while such accidents are deemed to somehow be imminent during plant operation. The organisation of the present paper is as follows. As the data-sensor fusion and sensor management is an emerging technology which is not widely known, in Sec. 2, the definition and goals of data-sensor fusion and sensor management technology is described. In Sec. 3 first, with reference to Kalman filtering as an information filter, statistical data-sensor fusion technology is described. This is followed by the examples of deterministic data-sensor fusion technology using gross plant state variables and neural networks (NN) and the implementation for severe accident management in NPPs. In Sec. 4, the sensor management technology is described. Finally, the performance of the data-sensor fusion technology for NPP safety is discussed. (orig./WL)

  2. Scoping of oil shale retorting with nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    An engineering scoping study was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's request to see if a feasible concept could be developed for using nuclear fusion heat to improve in situ extraction by retorting of underground oil shale. It was found that a fusion heated, oxygen-free inert gas could be used for driving modified, in situ retorts at a higher yield, using lower grade shale and producing less environmental problems than present-day processes. It was also found to be economically attractive with return on investments of 20 to 30%. Fusion blanket technology required was found to be reasonable at hot gas delivery temperatures of about650 0 C (920 K). The scale of a fusion reactor at 2.8 GW(thermal) producing 45 000 Mg/day (335 000 barrel/day) was also found to be reasonable

  3. Nuclear dynamics around the barrier: from fusion to evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to aspects of nuclear dynamics around the barrier. It is shown that for fusion reactions, the Coulomb field couples relative motion of nuclei to rotation of a deformed projectile independently of the energy and the charge of the nuclei. An experimental study of the reaction 6 He + 190 Os via gamma spectroscopy of product nuclei has shown that the break up of the 6 He is coupled to the relative motion too, a strong hindrance resulting in the fusion around and above the fusion barrier. The path to fusion after overcoming the barrier, especially the charge equilibration, have been studied in the framework of the TDHF theory via the preequilibrium GDR excited in N/Z asymmetric reactions. An application to formation of the super-heavy elements has been proposed. Finally, couplings between protons and neutrons have been shown up in mean field calculations. Their main expected effect is an emission of protons under the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  4. Nuclear characteristics of D-D fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Ohta, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Fusion reactors operating on deuterium (D-D) cycle are considered to be of long range interest for their freedom from tritium breeding in the blanket. The present paper discusses the various possibilities of D-D fusion reactor blanket designs mainly from the standpoint of the nuclear characteristics. Neutronic and photonic calculations are based on presently available data to provide a basis of the optimal blanket design in D-D fusion reactors. It is found that it appears desirable to design a blanket with blanket/shield (BS) concept in D-D fusion reactors. The BS concept is designed to obtain reasonable shielding characteristics for superconducting magnet (SCM) by using shielding materials in the compact blanket. This concept will open the possibility of compact radiation shield design based on assured technology, and offer the advantage from the system economics point of view. (auth.)

  5. 50 years of controlled nuclear fusion in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenplas, P.; Wolf, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The author presents the history of fusion energy since its official birth in 1955 during the first conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy to the expectations put on the ITER project. Nuclear fusion became a major component of the newly created European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The milestones that were: magnetic mirror machines, pinch versions, stellarators and tokamaks are examined. The construction of the first fusion machines were decisive and gave fusion energy enough momentum to overcome greater and greater technological difficulties. At the scale of the world, major machines that were built like TFTR, Princeton (1974), JET, Culham (1977) or JT60, Tokai (1977), appear like a scientific and necessary strategy towards the demonstration reactor. The ITER project is detailed

  6. A closed Brayton power conversion unit concept for nuclear electric propulsion for deep space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, Claude Russell II; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt and Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level

  7. Atomic resonances in nuclear fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, C. F.; Barrachina, R. O.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of zero energy resonances of photoionization and radiative recombination cross section for the different species in a fusion reactor. In this context, the interaction potential is screened and its typical length depends on the plasma density and temperature. Due to the nature of these resonances, we propose other atomic processes in which they can take place. Finally, we show the density and temperature conditions where these resonances occur and their probable consequence on the reactor performance. (author)

  8. 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, D.

    2015-01-01

    I would like to express gratitude to the IAEA, the journal Nuclear Fusion and its board for this acknowledgement of work carried out at the MIT Alcator C-Mod tokamak. I must begin by making it clear that this is in no way an award to an individual. The experiments, data analysis and paper were a true collaborative effort from the C-Mod team. It is a honor to work with them and to accept the award on their behalf. I would also like to thank the US Department of Energy for their support in funding this research. The paper describes the exploration of the 'improved' confinement regime dubbed 'I-mode'. The distinguishing feature of this operational mode is a robust boundary pedestal in temperature with the somewhat surprising lack of any form of density pedestal. Thus the regime exhibits an enhanced energy confinement similar to H-mode, roughly double of L-mode at fixed input power, yet has global fuel and impurity particle transport of L-mode. These features are intriguing from a scientific and practical point of view. On the science side it is extremely useful to obtain such a clear demarcation between the energy and particle transport. For example, soon after its discovery, the I-mode was used to extract the observation that the edge T pedestal is the strongest determinant for intrinsic rotation in work by John Rice, Pat Diamond and colleagues. Recent results regarding core transport by Anne White, Nate Howard and colleagues show that I-mode has intriguing properties with respect to core response of fluctuations and profile stiffness. Mike Churchill's recent Ph. D study on C-Mod shows that I-mode exhibits no strong poloidal impurity asymmetry, unlike H-mode. The I-mode posed an interesting test for the peeling-ballooning-KBM model of the pedestal, the subject of the 2014 Nuclear Fusion award of Phil Snyder, and was examined by John Walk and Jerry Hughes showing that in fact the lack of the density pedestal pushed the I-mode far away from the P-B limit, and thus the

  9. Nuclear fusion: technology development and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ana, G.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.; Spiridon, I.; Vijulie, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for reducing the enhanced greenhouse effect, affecting our planet and the increasing energy demand caused by global growth of population, as well, is, certainly, that of adopting, all the three long-term carbon-free options for energy: renewable sources, fission and fusion reactions. All of them should be further explored and developed for the welfare of future generations, thus leaving them the option of a clean and green energy. From all those available options, the fusion is viewed as an energy source that would be effective in solving future demands, referring to the amount of the energy that can be produced taking into account spent fuel to obtain it. The slow (but steady) progress of fusion development linked with the need for large and expensive experimental devices is remarkable; all available technical and scientific information from experiment shows that progress is being made towards a successful reactor (ITER). The desired objective of this intensive research is obtaining of an industrial reactor able to cover energy future requirements. For the construction of this desired reactor, special designs systems are required. The TRF (TRITIUM RECOVERY FACILITY) is one of the installations that have a major importance maintaining an efficient fuel cycle of the reactor in proper function stage. A test model of TRF for implementation in reactor systems, proposed and developed at ICIT Ramnicu Valcea is presented. (authors)

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion R and D and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R and D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  11. Nuclear design of a very-low-activation fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Hopkins, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the nuclear design aspects of using very-low-activation materials, such as SiC, MgO, and aluminum for fusion-reactor first wall, blanket, and shield applications. In addition to the advantage of very-low radioactive inventory, it was found that the very-low-activation fusion reactor can also offer an adequate tritium-breeding ratio and substantial amount of blanket nuclear heating as a conventional-material-structured reactor does. The most-stringent design constraint found in a very-low-activation fusion reactor is the limited space available in the inboard region of a tokamak concept for shielding to protect the superconducting toroidal field coil. A reference design was developed which mitigates the constraint by adopting a removable tungsten shield design that retains the inboard dimensions and gives the same shield performance as the reference STARFIRE tokamak reactor design

  12. Pulsed fusion space propulsion: Computational Magneto-Hydro Dynamics of a multi-coil parabolic reaction chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Gherardo; Mignone, Andrea; Cervone, Angelo

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed fusion propulsion might finally revolutionise manned space exploration by providing an affordable and relatively fast access to interplanetary destinations. However, such systems are still in an early development phase and one of the key areas requiring further investigations is the operation of the magnetic nozzle, the device meant to exploit the fusion energy and generate thrust. One of the last pulsed fusion magnetic nozzle design is the so called multi-coil parabolic reaction chamber: the reaction is thereby ignited at the focus of an open parabolic chamber, enclosed by a series of coaxial superconducting coils that apply a magnetic field. The field, beside confining the reaction and preventing any contact between hot fusion plasma and chamber structure, is also meant to reflect the explosion and push plasma out of the rocket. Reflection is attained thanks to electric currents induced in conductive skin layers that cover each of the coils, the change of plasma axial momentum generates thrust in reaction. This working principle has yet to be extensively verified and computational Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD) is a viable option to achieve that. This work is one of the first detailed ideal-MHD analysis of a multi-coil parabolic reaction chamber of this kind and has been completed employing PLUTO, a freely distributed computational code developed at the Physics Department of the University of Turin. The results are thus a preliminary verification of the chamber's performance. Nonetheless, plasma leakage through the chamber structure has been highlighted. Therefore, further investigations are required to validate the chamber design. Implementing a more accurate physical model (e.g. Hall-MHD or relativistic-MHD) is thus mandatory, and PLUTO shows the capabilities to achieve that.

  13. Robust adaptive control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, J.J.; Witvoet, G.; Baar, de M.R.; Wouw, van de N.; Haring, M.A.M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sawtooth instability is a repetitive phenomenon occurring in plasmas of tokamak nuclear fusion reactors. Experimental studies of these instabilities and the effect they have on the plasma (notably the drive of secondary instabilities and consequent performance reduction) for a wide variety of

  14. Security of nuclear materials using fusion multi sensor wavelett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Hari Nugroho

    2010-01-01

    Security of a nuclear material in an installation is determined by how far the installation is to assure that nuclear material remains at a predetermined location. This paper observed a preliminary design on nuclear material tracking system in the installation for decision making support based on multi sensor fusion that is reliable and accurate to ensure that the nuclear material remains inside the control area. Capability on decision making in the Management Information System is represented by an understanding of perception in the third level of abstraction. The second level will be achieved with the support of image analysis and organizing data. The first level of abstraction is constructed by merger between several CCD camera sensors distributed in a building in a data fusion representation. Data fusion is processed based on Wavelett approach. Simulation utilizing Matlab programming shows that Wavelett fuses multi information from sensors as well. Hope that when the nuclear material out of control regions which have been predetermined before, there will arise a warning alarm and a message in the Management Information System display. Thus the nuclear material movement time event can be obtained and tracked as well. (author)

  15. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James R.; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified.

  16. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Maise, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified

  17. Thermal radiation in gas core nuclear reactors for space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Gauntt, R.O.; Harms, G.A.; Latham, T.; Roman, W.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A diffusive model of the radial transport of thermal radiation out of a cylindrical core of fissioning plasma is presented. The diffusion approximation is appropriate because the opacity of uranium is very high at the temperatures of interest (greater than 3000 K). We make one additional simplification of assuming constant opacity throughout the fuel. This allows the complete set of solutions to be expressed as a single function. This function is approximated analytically to facilitate parametric studies of the performance of a test module of the nuclear light bulb gas-core nuclear-rocket-engine concept, in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. Our findings indicate that radiation temperatures in range of 4000-6000 K are attainable, which is sufficient to test the high specific impulse potential (approximately 2000 s) of this concept. 15 refs

  18. The future of nuclear propulsion in merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a number of issues which must be resolved before any firm commitment to build a commercial nuclear powered ship will be made. Basically, these can be grouped into three major problem areas: first, economic; second, indemnification and liability; and third, port entry and international clearance. It is concluded that there is reason for guarded optimism, as concerted efforts to solve the important issues are now underway. Some examples are briefly discussed

  19. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  20. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: leonardo_paredes@icloud.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  1. Feasibility of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel for Space Nuclear Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this initial study is to create a baseline with which to perform further analysis and to build a solid understanding of the neutronic characteristics of a solid core for the nuclear thermal rocket. Once consistency with work done at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is established, this paper will provide a study of other fuel types, such as low and medium-enriched uranium fuels. This paper will examine how the implementation of each fuel type affects the multiplication factor of the reactor, and will then explore different possibilities for alterations needed to accommodate their successful usage. The reactor core analysis was done using the MCNP5 code. While this study has not shown that the SNRE can be easily retrofitted for low-enriched U fuel, it has made a detailed study of the SNRE, and identified the difficulties of the implementation of low-enriched fuels in small nuclear rockets. These difficulties are the need for additional moderation and fuel mass in order to achieve a critical mass. Neither of these is insurmountable. Future work includes finding the best method by which to increase the internal moderation of the reactor balanced with appropriate sizing to prevent neutron leakage. Both of these are currently being studied. This paper will present a study of the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) and the feasibility of using low enriched Uranium (LEU) instead of the traditional high enriched Uranium (HEU) fuels.

  2. Nuclear fusion TORE SUPRA, a new stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, M.; Laurent, L.

    1995-01-01

    Since almost forty years, the scientists try and neutralize in a pacific aim thermonuclear fusion energy and therefore they use the magnetic confinement of hot plasmas.In France, since 1960 the achieved studies permitted in 1988 to bring into service the TORE SUPRA TOKAMAK, which used, for the first time a superconducting magnet to generate the confinement magnetic field. TORE SUPRA, which didn't still explore its maximal potentialities, will be one of the apparatuses which will be used as basis of the international project ITER development. 5 figs

  3. Nuclear structure in cold rearrangement processes in fission and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.

    1998-11-01

    In fission and fusion of heavy nuclei large numbers of nucleons are rearranged at a scale of excitation energy very small compared to the binding energy of the nuclei. The energies involved are less than 40 MeV at nuclear temperatures below 1.5 MeV. The shapes of the configurations in the rearrangement of a binary system into a monosystem in fusion, or vice versa in fission, change their elongations by as much as 8 fm, the radius of the monosystem. The dynamics of the reactions macroscopically described by a potential energy surface, inertia parameters, dissipation, and a collision energy is strongly modified by the nuclear structure of the participating nuclei. Experiments showing nuclear structure effects in fusion and fission of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The reaction kinematics and the multitude of isotopes involved are investigated by detector techniques and by recoil spectrometers. The advancement of the latter allows to find very small reaction branches in the range of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10}. The experiments reveal nuclear structure effects in all stages of the rearrangement processes. These are discussed pointing to analogies in fusion and fission on the microscopic scale, notwithstanding that both processes macroscopically are irreversible. Heavy clusters, as 132Sn, 208Pb, nuclei with closed shell configurations N=82,126, Z=50,82 survive in large parts of the nuclear rearrangement. They determine the asymmetry in the mass distribution of low energy fission, and they allow to synthesise superheavy elements, until now up to element 112. Experiments on the cold rearrangement in fission and fusion are presented. Here, in the range of excitation energies below 12 MeV the phenomena are observed most convincingly. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear propulsion - A vital technology for the exploration of Mars and the planets beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1989-01-01

    The physics and technology issues and performance potential of various direct thrust fission and fusion propulsion concepts are examined. Next to chemical propulsion the solid core fission thermal rocket (SCR) is the only other concept to be experimentally tested at the power (approx 1.5 to 5.0 GW) and thrust levels (approx 0.33 to 1.11 MN) required for manned Mars missions. With a specific impulse of approx 850 s, the SCR can perform various near-earth, cislunar and interplanetary missions with lower mass and cost requirements than its chemical counterpart. The gas core fission thermal rocket, with a specific power and impulse of approx 50 kW/kg and 5000 s offers the potential for quick courier trips to Mars (of about 80 days) or longer duration exploration cargo missions (lasting about 280 days) with starting masses of about 1000 m tons. Convenient transportation to the outer Solar System will require the development of magnetic and inertial fusion rockets (IFRs). Possessing specific powers and impulses of approx 100 kW/kg and 200-300 kilosecs, IFRs will usher in the era of the true Solar System class spaceship. Even Pluto will be accessible with roundtrip times of less than 2 years and starting masses of about 1500 m tons.

  5. Nuclear propulsion: A vital technology for the exploration of Mars and the planets beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1988-01-01

    The physics and technology issues and performance potential of various direct thrust fission and fusion propulsion concepts are examined. Next to chemical propulsion the solid core fission thermal rocket (SCR) is the olny other concept to be experimentally tested at the power (approx 1.5 to 5.0 GW) and thrust levels (approx 0.33 to 1.11 MN) required for manned Mars missions. With a specific impulse of approx 850 s, the SCR can perform various near-Earth, cislunar and interplanetary missions with lower mass and cost requirements than its chemical counterpart. The gas core fission thermal rocket, with a specific power and impulse of approx 50 kW/kg and 5000 s offers the potential for quick courier trips to Mars (of about 80 days) or longer duration exploration cargo missions (lasting about 280 days) with starting masses of about 1000 m tons. Convenient transportation to the outer Solar System will require the development of magnetic and inertial fusion rockets (IFRs). Possessing specific powers and impulses of approx 100 kW/kg and 200-300 kilosecs, IFRs will usher in the era of the true Solar System class speceship. Even Pluto will be accessible with roundtrip times of less than 2 years and starting masses of about 1500 m tons.

  6. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  7. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo

  8. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  9. Towards abundant and pollution-free energy. Laser nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robieux, J.

    2008-01-01

    This book shows that it is now practically certain that by the year 2080 laser nuclear fusion will allow to produce an abundant and relatively cheap energy. Thanks to this energy, it will be possible to convert a mixture of CO 2 , H 2 and water into an automotive fuel or a food product. Laser nuclear fusion will use deuterium as fuel and thus oil and gas will become useless. Also, thanks to this new energy source, global warming and starvation will be overcome. The laser fusion concept was introduced by J. Robieux in 1962 just after the discovery of the laser. This idea was immediately accepted and sustained by the French President De Gaulle. The research on laser fusion was initially undertaken at the Marcoussis research centre from the Compagnie Generale d'Electricite (General Electricity Company - CGE). In 1967, the lasers built at Marcoussis were 30 times more powerful than any other laser in the rest of world. A cooperation with the USA started at that time and is still going on today. In 1969, the CEA centre of Limeil realized the world premiere experiments of laser fusion. This book presents the historical aspects and the state-of-the-art of this technology today. It is written in two parts, the first part does not require any scientific knowledge and is accessible to everybody, while the second part can be understood only by readers having a basic scientific background. (J.S.)

  10. Summaries of special research project on nuclear fusion 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1981-09-01

    This is a report of the research project entitled ''Nuclear fusion'', supported by the grant in aid for fusion research from the Ministry of Education in the fiscal year 1980. The research project was started in April, 1980, and comprises the following seventeen subjects of nuclear fusion research. 1) Heavy irradiation effects, 2) plasma-wall interaction, 3) neutronics, 4) welding engineering, 5) science and technology of tritium, 6) biological effects of tritium, 7) diagnostics of high temperature plasma, 8) new lasers, 9) fundamentals of plasma heating, 10) high efficiency energy conversion, 11) theory and computer simulation, 12) superconducting materials, 13) fundamental phenomena of superconductivity, 14) magnet technology, 15) heat transfer and structural engineering, 16) system design, and 17) resources and assessment of fusion energy. 43 summaries concerning reactor materials and plasma-wall interaction, 29 summaries concerning the science, technology and biological effects of tritium, 41 summaries concerning the fundamentals of reactor plasma control, 15 summaries concerning the technology of superconducting magnets, and 14 summaries concerning the design of fusion reactors and its evaluation are collected in this report, and their results and progress can be known. (Kako, I.)

  11. Concept evaluation of nuclear fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renier, J.P.; Hoffman, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes systems based on D-T and semi-catalyzed D-D fusion-powered U233 breeders. Two different blanket types were used: metallic thorium pebble-bed blankets with a batch reprocessing mode and a molten salt blanket with on-line continuous or batch reprocessing. All fusion-driven blankets are assumed to have spherical geometries, with a 85% closure. Neutronics depletion calculations were performed with a revised version of the discrete ordinates code XSDRN-PM, using multigroup (100 neutron, 21 gamma-ray groups) coupled cross-section libraries. These neutronics calculations are coupled with a scenario optimization and cost analysis code. Also, the fusion burn was shaped so as to keep the blanket maximum power density below a preset value, and to improve the performance of the fusion-driven systems. The fusion-driven symbiotes are compared with LMFBR-driven energy systems. The nuclear fission breeders that were used as drivers have parameters characteristic of heterogeneous, oxide LMFBRs. They are net plutonium users - the plutonium is obtained from the discharges of LWRs - and U233 is bred in the fission breeder thorium blankets. The analyses of the symbiotic energy systems were performed at equilibrium, at maximum rate of grid expansion, and for a given nuclear power demand

  12. Study of a Tricarbide Grooved Ring Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Emrich, Bill; Tucker, Dennis; Barnes, Marvin; Donders, Nicolas; Benensky, Kelsa

    2018-01-01

    Deep space exploration, especially that of Mars, is on the horizon as the next big challenge for space exploration. Nuclear propulsion, through which high thrust and efficiency can be achieved, is a promising option for decreasing the cost and logistics of such a mission. Work on nuclear thermal engines goes back to the days of the NERVA program. Currently, nuclear thermal propulsion is under development again in various forms to provide a superior propulsion system for deep space exploration. The authors have been working to develop a concept nuclear thermal engine that uses a grooved ring fuel element as an alternative to the traditional hexagonal rod design. The authors are also studying the use of carbide fuels. The concept was developed in order to increase surface area and heat transfer to the propellant. The use of carbides would also raise the operating temperature of the reactor. It is hoped that this could lead to a higher thrust to weight nuclear thermal engine. This paper describes the modeling of neutronics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics of this alternative nuclear fuel element geometry. Fabrication experiments of grooved rings from carbide refractory metals are also presented along with material characterization and interactions with a hot hydrogen environment. Results of experiments and associated analysis are discussed. The authors demonstrated success in reaching desired densities with some success in material distribution and reaching a solid solution. Future work is needed to improve distribution of material, minimize oxidation during the milling process, and define a fabrication process that will serve for constructing grooved ring fuel rods for large system tests.

  13. An integrated pusher-guide-boat for ship nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The pusher guide-boat is characterized in that it comprises a streamlined enclosure with a front surface and an upper surface, containing a nuclear-power generating plant and means for converting the thus-generated power into mechanical energy used for actuating the pusher-boat propelling parts situated rearwardly, and in that the streamlined enclosure comprises, on its front surface and on at least a portion of its upper surface, areas for the contact thereof with respective portions of the vessel driven by said pusher-boat and means for fastening the latter to the vessel, said pusher-boat being also provided with water-ballasts [fr

  14. Nuclear characteristics of D-D fusion reactor blankets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Ohta, Masao; Seki, Yasushi.

    1977-01-01

    Fusion reactors operating on the deuterium (D-D) cycle are considered promising for their freedom from tritium breeding in the blanket. In this paper, neutronic and photonic calculations are undertaken covering several blanket models of the D-D fusion reactor, using presently available data, with a view to comparing the nuclear characteristics of these models, in particular, the nuclear heating rates and their spatial distributions. Nine models are taken up for the study, embodying various combinations of coolant, blanket, structural and reflector materials. About 10 MeV is found to be a typical value for the total nuclear energy deposition per source neutron in the models considered here. The realization of high energy gain is contingent upon finding a favorable combination of blanket composition and configuration. The resulting implications on the thermal design aspect are briefly discussed. (auth.)

  15. Nuclear fusion rate of the muonic T3 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Eskandari, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The ground state binding energy, size and effective nuclear charge of the muonic T 3 molecule are calculated using Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation. The system possesses two minimum positions, one at typically muonic and the second at the atomic distances. A symmetric planar vibrational model between two minima is assumed and the approximated potential are calculated. Moreover, nuclear fusion rate calculations of the short-life molecule is carried out due to the overlap integral of the resonance nuclear compound nucleus and the molecular wave functions

  16. Controlled nuclear fusion. Theoretical and technical-physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, T.; Oomens, N.

    1995-01-01

    It is stated that the realization of controlled fusion is not only a matter of solving technical problems. Also theoretical research in the field of plasma physics is required. A brief state-of-the-art is given of theoretical and technical-physical aspects of nuclear fusion. Attention is paid to magnetic confinement, the importance of theoretical research, plasma heating, plasma diagnostics, and the control of plasma transport. Throughout the article special attention is paid to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. 5 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  17. A conceptual study of the use of a particle bed reactor nuclear propulsion module for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, J.; Potekhen, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a particle bed reactor nuclear engine for direct thrust in a spacecraft based on the NASA/TRW orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). It presents the conceptual design of a 500 lb thrust engine that matches critical design features of the existing OMV bi-propellant propulsion system. This application contrasts with the usual tendency to consider a nuclear heat source either for high thrust direct propulsion or as a power source for electric propulsion. A nuclear propulsion module adapted to the OMV could potentially accomplish several Department of Defense missions, such as multiple round trips from a space-based support platform at 280 NM to service a constellation of satellites orbiting at 1800 NM

  18. The near future of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this short article the author tries to find an explanation about the withdraw of the Usa from the ITER project. According to the author the American economy is not so flourishing as it seems, it is only the IT (information technologies) sector that is attracting huge foreign investments. Moreover state agencies such as Nasa have difficulties to recruit talented people because they are lured by easy money earned in the new economy. The whole of the ITER project has been reduced: the volume of plasma will be 840 m 3 (instead of 2000 m 3 ) for a fusion power of 500 MW (instead of 1500 MW). Canada is standing for hosting the building site. (A.C.)

  19. The survey of nuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion research evaluation model for analyzing various R and D sinarios, the trend analysis of Tokamak research, and the near-term technologies are discussed. The results of the present study are as follows: A computer code, FUSREV, has been developed based on ECON Inc.'s approach. It consists of the plasma power model and the cost/benefit model. Since the State-of-the Knowledges, which are expected to achieve as the result of subproject R and D's, can only be obtained in the form of probability distribution function, Monte-Carlo method is employed. The test computation of the code shows acceptable results. However, FUSREV has been continuously modified employing new models for both technology and economics

  20. Burning nuclear wastes in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldner, H.W.; Howard, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made up of actinide burn-up in ICF reactor pellets; i.e. 14 Mev neutron fission of the very long-lived actinides that pose storage problems. A major advantage of pellet fuel region burn-up is safety: only milligrams of highly toxic and active material need to be present in the fusion chamber, whereas blanket burn-up requires the continued presence of tons of actinides in a small volume. The actinide data tables required for Monte Carlo calculations of the burn-up of /sup 241/Am and /sup 243/Am are discussed in connection with a study of the sensitivity to cross section uncertainties. More accurate and complete cross sections are required for realistic quantitative calculations. 13 refs

  1. Nuclear transmutation. The reality of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tadahiko

    1997-01-01

    The book is introducing the quest on the way to reality of cold fusion. Another point of author is interaction between the quest and social impacts. After the first report on cold fusion by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons on March 1989, the inspired author started a series of following experiments based on his own characteristic background of electrochemistry. The first experiment from March 25 to April 7, 1989 did not show any indications on neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, and heat. The second experiment was initiated at the underground experimental hall of the linear accelerator facilities. This means the shielding of noises coming from outsides. The neutron of about 2.45 MeV was observed after the 1-month continuation of the experiment. The intensity of neutron was nearly 10 to 20 times of the background noise. Furthermore, there were no changes of signals on heat and tritium before and after the experiments. The closed cell experiment was conducted to keep reliability of the experiment. The experiment started on June 1990. In this case, Tritium signals of 100 times of background noise were observed, however, no meaningful signal on neutrons. Anomalous heat was observed after March 24, 1991, where the electric current was increased up to 6 A. On the other hand, there were no appreciable change in neutron and tritium signals. The solid electrolysis was used in the experiment after May 1992, for its high temperature characteristics, where anomalous heat was observed with a certain probability. The experimental system was upgraded in diagnostic methods after 1994. As a result, particular isotopes related to fission reaction were detected. This fact indicates some kinds of transmutations at very local area of the solid surfaces. The author has also pointed out many reactions for a series of this scientific results responded by, for example, well known professors, scientific societies, mass media, and international conferences. Consequently the reactions had almost smeared

  2. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  3. Statements on Energy from Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

    2006-07-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (KVA) is an independent non-governmental organization, with expertise in most of the sciences as well as in the economical, social and humanistic fields. The KVA has appointed an Energy Committee that will summarize scientific knowledge on supply and use of energy over the coming fifty years. The Energy Committee has selected a number of subjects to be studied in some depth, one of these being nuclear energy from the fission process. The Energy Committee's key issues concerning nuclear energy: We have identified six key issues which require very careful analysis during the coming years. Safety remains a key issue. It is one of the major activities of OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. 40 years of multilateral cooperation has led to improvements in the analysis and management of accidents and in the assessment of safety margins in the fuel cycle. In particular, attention is focused on ageing and structural integrity as the lifetime of reactors is extended to up to 60 years. The new Gen III reactors have improved safety features such as double containment, better separation of critical safety systems and improved possibilities to handle steam explosions and core meltdown. The Gen IV reactors will be designed with a goal to further improve safety features. Handling of the nuclear waste: Today, in most light water reactors, the fuel is used once only ('once through') and then sent directly to repositories. After some cooling time, the waste will be buried in underground repositories. Another important aspect is that a final decision for waste disposal is of great importance to the public's acceptance of any new nuclear ventures. The waste handling in future reactors is an important item for research and its solution will also influence how the waste from current reactors is managed. Non-proliferation: With increased use of nuclear energy, more countries may build up facilities for the whole fuel cycle, thus also, at least theoretically

  4. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  5. Compilation of benchmark results for fusion related Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Oyama, Yukio; Ichihara, Chihiro; Makita, Yo; Takahashi, Akito

    1998-11-01

    This report compiles results of benchmark tests for validation of evaluated nuclear data to be used in nuclear designs of fusion reactors. Parts of results were obtained under activities of the Fusion Neutronics Integral Test Working Group organized by the members of both Japan Nuclear Data Committee and the Reactor Physics Committee. The following three benchmark experiments were employed used for the tests: (i) the leakage neutron spectrum measurement experiments from slab assemblies at the D-T neutron source at FNS/JAERI, (ii) in-situ neutron and gamma-ray measurement experiments (so-called clean benchmark experiments) also at FNS, and (iii) the pulsed sphere experiments for leakage neutron and gamma-ray spectra at the D-T neutron source facility of Osaka University, OKTAVIAN. Evaluated nuclear data tested were JENDL-3.2, JENDL Fusion File, FENDL/E-1.0 and newly selected data for FENDL/E-2.0. Comparisons of benchmark calculations with the experiments for twenty-one elements, i.e., Li, Be, C, N, O, F, Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, W and Pb, are summarized. (author). 65 refs

  6. Interim report of working group of Nuclear Fusion Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    The conclusion of the working group was presented as an interim report to the general meeting of Nuclear Fusion Committee, which became the base for deciding the future plan. The report was the result of the hard work for about a half year by five Committee experts and 23 researchers, and has the rich contents. At present, the supply of petroleum relaxed, and the trend that a large amount of investment for a long period for nuclear fusion research is problematical has become strong. Of course, the importance of the nuclear fusion research never changes. The research projects of Heliotron E, Gekko 12, Gamma 10 and so on have advanced, and the base for synthetically promoting the research has been completed. It is indispensable to decide the most effective plan for the next stage. The working group discussed on the five year plan, especially on the research based on a large project. The policy of the works and problems, the progress of the works of respective subgroups, and the summarization are reported. The researches on nuclear burning simulation, no current plasma using an external conductor system and making an axisymmetrical high-beta torus steady were proposed. (Kako, I.)

  7. LLNL nuclear data libraries used for fusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Physical Data Group of the Computational Physics Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has as its principal responsibility the development and maintenance of those data that are related to nuclear reaction processes and are needed for Laboratory programs. Among these are the Magnetic Fusion Energy and the Inertial Confinement Fusion programs. To this end, we have developed and maintain a collection of data files or libraries. These include: files of experimental data of neutron induced reactions; an annotated bibliography of literature related to charged particle induced reactions with light nuclei; and four main libraries of evaluated data. We also maintain files of calculational constants developed from the evaluated libraries for use by Laboratory computer codes. The data used for fusion calculations are usually these calculational constants, but since they are derived by prescribed manipulation of evaluated data this discussion will describe the evaluated libraries

  8. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: braz@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  9. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  10. ITER, a major step toward nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, K.; Holtkamp, N.; Pick, M.; Gauche, F.; Garin, P.; Bigot, B.; Luciani, J.F.; Mougniot, J.C.; Watteau, J.P.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Libeyre, P.; Beaumont, B.; Simonin, A.; Giancarli, L.; Rosenvallon, S.; Gastaldi, O.; Marbach, G.; Boudot, C.; Ioki, K.; Mitchell, N.; Girard, J.Ph.; Giraud, B.; Lignini, F.; Giguet, E.; Bofusch, E.; Friconneau, J.P.; Di Pace, L.; Pampin, R.; Cook, I.; Maisonnier, D.; Campbell, D.; Hayward, J.; Li Puma, A.; Norajitra, P.; Sardain, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Ward, D.; Moslang, A.; Carre, F.; Serpantie, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers together a series of articles dedicated to ITER. They are organized into 5 parts. The first part describes the potential of fusion as a source of energy that will be able to face the challenge of a continuously increasing demand. After a reminder of the main fusion reactions and the conditions to obtain fusion, the second part focuses on the magnetic fusion based concepts with a special emphasis on the tokamak configuration. In the third part the main components of ITER are described: first the plasma facing components, then the vacuum vessel, the superconducting magnets and the heating systems. In the fourth part short papers concerning ITER safety, the maintenance through remote handling systems, the tritium breeding blanket, are given, along with a full article on the waste management. It is interesting to notice that the nuclear wastes will represent: -) between 1600 and 3800 tons of housekeeping and process wastes produced during the 20 years of operation of ITER (20% very low level waste, 75% low or medium activity with short life and 5% medium activity with long life), -) about 750 tons from component replacement during ITER active operation, and -) about 30000 tons from the decommissioning of ITER. The last part presents the European concepts for a power plant based on a fusion reactor. A basic design is given along with a state of the art of the research on the materials that will be used for the structures. It is highlighted that synergies between fission and fusion technologies exist in at least 4 areas: nuclear design code system, high temperature materials, safety approach, and in-service inspection, maintenance and dismantling. (A.C.)

  11. Current Ground Test Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    About 20 different NTP engines/ reactors were tested from 1959 to 1972 as part of the Rover and Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program. Most were tested in open air at test cell A or test cell C, at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Even after serious engine breakdowns of the reactor (e.g., Phoebus 1A), the test cells were cleaned up for other engine tests. The engine test stand (ETS) was made for high altitude (approximately 1 psia) testing of an NTP engine with a flight configuration, but still had the exhaust released to open air. The Rover/NERVA program became aware of new environmental regulations which would prohibit the release of any significant quantity of radioactive particulates and noble gases into the open air. The nuclear furnace (NF-1) was the last reactor tested before the program was cancelled in 1973, but successfully demonstrated a scrubber concept on how to filter the NTP exhaust. The NF-1 was demonstrated in the summer of 1972. The NF-1 used a 44MW reactor and operated each run for approximately 90 minutes. The system cooled the hot hydrogen exhaust from the engine with a water spray before entering a particle filter. The exhaust then passed through a series of heat exchangers and water separators to help remove water from the exhaust and further reduce the exhaust temperatures. The exhaust was next prepared for the charcoal trap by passing through a dryer and effluent cooler to bring exhaust temperatures close to liquid nitrogen. At those low temperatures, most of the noble gases (e.g., Xe and Kr made from fission products) get captured in the charcoal trap. The filtered hydrogen is finally passed through a flare stack and released to the air. The concept was overall successful but did show a La plating on some surfaces and had multiple recommendations for improvement. The most recent detailed study on the NTP scrubber concept was performed by the ARES Corporation in 2006. The concept is based on a 50,000 lbf thrust engine

  12. Controlled energy generation from nuclear fusion. 60th year atw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Georg [Pintsch Bamag AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Prospects increase, that with a controlled process of nuclear fusion one day an additional nuclear energy source will be commercially exploitable. In what follows, scientific principles according to the most recent research will be presented. Since approximately 30 years we are aware of the fact, that energy in form of light and heat provided by the sun and other fixed stars since over four billions years resulted from reactions of atomic nuclei. A series of such reactions became known which are considered for 'thermonuclear' processes, for example the carbon cycle by Bethe, where hydrogen is converted into helium. Most of the reflections and experiments dealt until 1938 with the reaction between nuclei of light elements. The possibility of splitting heavy nuclei was not anticipated. Its discovery by Hahn and Strassmann was a complete surprise - so to speak a rash reaction to release energy at the end of the element row. This 'way out' captured the interest of nuclear physicist for more than a decade. Only today, by starting to construct big nuclear power plants - only today, being able to assess the possibilities and limitations of this technology, the idea of energy generation through nuclear fusion steps into the foreground of nuclear research.

  13. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  14. Outline of research project on nuclear fusion, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1985-08-01

    When the advance of nuclear fusion research during 10 years hereafter is predicted, the next project should start the research toward nuclear burning, adopt the diversified ways, and develop the research in wide related fields. The central subject such as the containment of plasma is studies with large experimental facilities, but in the related fields, the research subsidies must be utilized positively. The organization to perform the research compries 6 groups, 1) reactor materials and plasma-wall interactions 2) science and engineering of tritium, and influence on living things, 4) development of superconducting magnets, 5) fusion blanket engineering, and 6) design and assessment of thermonuclear reactors. The distribution and management of the scientific research subsidy are explained. All of the subjects of planned and publicly invited research a listed, and the researchers concerned, the amount of subsidy, the objective and the plan of execution in fiscal year 1984 of each research are outlined. (J.P.N.)

  15. Outline of research project on nuclear fusion, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1984-08-01

    When the advance of nuclear fusion research during 10 years hereafter is predicted, the next project should start the research toward nuclear burning, adopt the diversified ways, a nd develop the research in wide related fields. The central subject such as the containment of plasma is studies with large experimental facilities, but in the related fields, the research subsidies must be utilized positively. The organization to perform the research compries 6 groups, 1) reactor materials and plasma-wall interaction, 2) science and engineering of tritium and influence on living things, 3) fundamentals of core control, 4) development of superconducting magnets, 5) fusion blanket engineering, and 6) design and assessment of thermonuclear reactors. The distribution and management of the scientific research subsidy are explained. All of the subjects of planned and publicly invited research a listed, and the researchers concerned, the amount of subsidy, the objective and the plan of execution in fiscal 1983 of each research are outlined. (J.P.N.)

  16. Nuclear fusion induced by x rays in a crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. B.; Miller, M. B.; Otto, J.; Rakityansky, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclei that constitute a crystalline lattice oscillate relative to each other with a very low energy that is not sufficient to penetrate through the Coulomb barriers separating them. An additional energy, which is needed to tunnel through the barrier and fuse, can be supplied by external electromagnetic waves (x rays or synchrotron radiation). Exposing the solid compound LiD (lithium deuteride) to x rays for the duration of 111 h, we detect 88 events of nuclear fusion d +6Li→8Be* . Our theoretical estimate agrees with what we observed. One possible application of the phenomenon we found is in measurements of the rates of various nuclear reactions (not necessarily fusion) at extremely low energies inaccessible in accelerator experiments.

  17. Nuclear fusion apparatus and method for operating the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, the magnetic limiter having a limiter coil whose outer periphery is vacuumized to thereby facilitate insulating treatment of the coil and to prevent the coil from lowering of insulation, and to minimize the force applied to a protective pipe for the limiter coil and the bellows. Structure: A lengthwise exhaust groove is provided in the outer periphery of a coil conductor of the magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel and a lateral exhaust groove in communication with the first-mentioned exhaust groove is provided, said exhaust grooves being connected to an exhaust pipe. Since operation is performed so as to produce nuclear fusion reaction while exhausted by the exhaust pipe, the coil is not required to be vacuum-impregnated with resin or the like, thus facilitating insulating treatment. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Overview of principles and challenges of fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion offers very attractive features as a sustainable, broadly available energy source: no emissions of greenhouse gases, no risk of severe accident, and no long-lived radioactive waste. Significant advances in the science and technology of fusion have been realized in the past decades. Seven countries (EU, Japan, USA, Russia, S. Korea, China, and India) comprising about half the world population are constructing a major magnetic fusion facility, called ITER, in France. The objectives of ITER are to demonstrate self-sustaining burning fusion plasma and to test fusion technologies relevant to fusion reactor. Many challenges to the practical utilization of fusion energy remain ahead. Among these challenges is the successful development of Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT). FNT includes those fusion system components circumscribing the plasma and responsible for tritium production and processing, heat removal at high temperature and power density, and high heat flux components. FNT components face a new and more challenging environment than experienced by any previous nuclear application. Beyond plasma physics, FNT has most of the remaining feasibility and attractiveness issues in the development of fusion as an energy source. The blanket, a key FNT component, determines the critical path to DEMO. The blanket is exposed to an intense radiation environment. Radioactivity and decay heat can be produced in the structure and other blanket elements. Hence, material choices have a large impact on safety and environmental attractiveness. The unique conditions of the fusion environment include high radiation flux, high surface heat flux, strong 3-D-component magnetic field with large gradients, and ultra-low vacuum. These conditions, together with the requirements for high-temperature operation and tritium self-sufficiency, make blanket design and development challenging tasks. The blanket concepts being considered worldwide can be classified into solid breeders and liquid

  19. Developments and needs in nuclear analysis of fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin, R., E-mail: raul.pampin@f4e.europa.eu [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Davis, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, J. [F4E Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Leichtle, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Sanz, J. [UNED, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Turner, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Engineering Department, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Complex fusion nuclear analyses require detailed models, sophisticated acceleration and coupling of cumbersome tools. • Progress on development of tools and methods to meet specific needs of fusion nuclear analysis reported. • Advances in production of reference models and in preparation and QA of acceleration and coupling algorithms shown. • Evaluation and adaptation studies of alternative transport codes presented. • Discussion made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs. -- Abstract: Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case of fusion technology in current experiments, ITER, next-step devices and power plant studies. Calculations are intricate and computer-intensive, typically requiring detailed geometry models, sophisticated acceleration algorithms, high-performance parallel computations, and coupling of large and complex transport and activation codes and databases. This paper reports progress on some key areas in the development of tools and methods to meet the specific needs of fusion nuclear analyses. In particular, advances in the production and modernisation of reference models, in the preparation and quality assurance of acceleration algorithms and coupling schemes, and in the evaluation and adaptation of alternative transport codes are presented. Emphasis is given to ITER-relevant activities, which are the main driver of advances in the field. Discussion is made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs and requirements. In some cases, they call for a more efficient and coordinated use of the scarce resources available.

  20. Combined development of international nuclear fusion test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Ambassadors of the four most important partners (Common Market, Japan, USA and USSR) in the IAEA sponsored INTOR project, met on the 15 and 16 March 1987 in Vienna under the auspices of the IAEA. A press release was issued acknowledging the considerable technical progress made in magnetic nuclear fusion research. Future design concepts, assistance in research and development work and other activities towards the provision of an international experimental thermonuclear reactor were discussed. (G.T.H.)

  1. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Development of materials of low activation for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    Unlike nuclear fission, in nuclear fusion, it is a feature that activated products are not formed, but this merit is to be lost if the structural materials of the equipment are activated by generated neutrons. Accordingly, the elements which are activated by neutrons must be excluded from the structural materials in nuclear fusion reactors and fusion experiment apparatuses. As the result of evaluating the materials for low induced activation, aluminum alloys are the most promising. Aluminum alloys have also excellent properties in gas release, the thermal stress of first walls due to the temperature distribution, vaporizing quantity at the time of disruption and so on. However, in the existing aluminum alloys, the lowering of strength above 150 deg C is remarkable, and when the aluminum walls of vacuum vessels are too thick, the rate of tritium breeding may lower. The Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, carried out the total design of a tokamak made of an aluminum alloy for the first time in the world. In this paper, the properties of the aluminum alloy and the feasibility of its industrial manufacture are described, and the course of improving this alloy is pointed out. Improved 5083 alloy and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li alloy were investigated. The industrial manufacture of large plates with this Al-Mg-Li alloy is possible now. (Kako, I.)

  3. Cell-fusion method to visualize interphase nuclear pore formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Funakoshi, Tomoko; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is a complex and sophisticated organelle that organizes genomic DNA to support essential cellular functions. The nuclear surface contains many nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), channels for macromolecular transport between the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is well known that the number of NPCs almost doubles during interphase in cycling cells. However, the mechanism of NPC formation is poorly understood, presumably because a practical system for analysis does not exist. The most difficult obstacle in the visualization of interphase NPC formation is that NPCs already exist after nuclear envelope formation, and these existing NPCs interfere with the observation of nascent NPCs. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a novel system using the cell-fusion technique (heterokaryon method), previously also used to analyze the shuttling of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, to visualize the newly synthesized interphase NPCs. In addition, we used a photobleaching approach that validated the cell-fusion method. We recently used these methods to demonstrate the role of cyclin-dependent protein kinases and of Pom121 in interphase NPC formation in cycling human cells. Here, we describe the details of the cell-fusion approach and compare the system with other NPC formation visualization methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Technical requirement of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Tillak, M.; Gierszwski, P.; Grover, J.; Puigh, R.; Sze, D.K.; Berwald, D.

    1986-06-01

    The technical issues and requirements of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology (FNT) have been investigated. The nuclear subsystems addressed are: a) blanket, b) radiation shield, c) tritium processing system, and d) plasma interactive components. Emphasis has been placed on the important and complex development problems of the blanket. A technical planning process for FNT has been developed and applied, including four major elements: 1) characterization of issues, 2) quantification of testing requirements, 3) evaluation of facilities, and 4) development of a test plan to identify the role, timing, characteristics and costs of major experiments and facilities

  5. Inner/Outer nuclear membrane fusion in nuclear pore assembly: biochemical demonstration and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtman, Boris; Ramos, Corinne; Rasala, Beth; Harel, Amnon; Forbes, Douglass J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in double nuclear membranes, which carry out nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The mechanism of nuclear pore assembly involves a unique challenge, as it requires creation of a long-lived membrane-lined channel connecting the inner and outer nuclear membranes. This stabilized membrane channel has little evolutionary precedent. Here we mapped inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion in NPC assembly biochemically by using novel assembly intermediates and membrane fusion inhibitors. Incubation of a Xenopus in vitro nuclear assembly system at 14°C revealed an early pore intermediate where nucleoporin subunits POM121 and the Nup107-160 complex were organized in a punctate pattern on the inner nuclear membrane. With time, this intermediate progressed to diffusion channel formation and finally to complete nuclear pore assembly. Correct channel formation was blocked by the hemifusion inhibitor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not if a complementary-shaped lipid, oleic acid (OA), was simultaneously added, as determined with a novel fluorescent dextran-quenching assay. Importantly, recruitment of the bulk of FG nucleoporins, characteristic of mature nuclear pores, was not observed before diffusion channel formation and was prevented by LPC or OA, but not by LPC+OA. These results map the crucial inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion event of NPC assembly downstream of POM121/Nup107-160 complex interaction and upstream or at the time of FG nucleoporin recruitment.

  6. The use of engineering features and schematic solutions of propulsion nuclear steam supply systems for floating nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achkasov, A.N.; Grechko, G.I.; Pepa, V.N.; Shishkin, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years many countries and the international community represented by the IAEA have shown a notable interest in designing small and medium size nuclear power plants intended for electricity and heat generation for remote areas. These power plants can be also used for desalination purposes. As these nuclear plants are planned for use in areas without a well-developed power grid, the design shall account for their transportation to the site in complete preparedness for operation. Since the late 80s, the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) has carried out active efforts in designing reactor facilities for floating nuclear power plants. This work relies on the long-term experience of RDIPE engineers in designing the propulsion NSSS. Advantages can be gained from the specific engineering solutions that are already applied in the design of propulsion Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) or from development of new designs based on the proven technologies. Successful implementation of the experience has been made easier owing to rather similar design requirements prescribed to ship-mounted NSSS and floating NPP. The common design targets are, in particular, minimization of mass and dimensions, resistance to such external impacts as rolling, heel and trim, operability in case of running aground or collision with other ships, etc. (author)

  7. A Review of Carbide Fuel Corrosion for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Butt, Darryl P.

    1994-07-01

    At the operation conditions of interest in nuclear thermal propulsion reactors, carbide materials have been known to exhibit a number of life limiting phenomena. These include the formation of liquid, loss by vaporization, creep and corresponding gas flow restrictions, and local corrosion and fuel structure degradation due to excessive mechanical and/or thermal loading. In addition, the radiation environment in the reactor core can produce a substantial change in its local physical properties, which can produce high thermal stresses and corresponding stress fractures (cracking). Time-temperature history and cyclic operation of the nuclear reactor can also accelerate some of these processes. The University of New Mexico's Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, under NASA sponsorship has recently initiated a study to model the complicated hydrogen corrosion process. In support of this effort, an extensive review of the open literature was performed, and a technical expert workshop was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of this review.

  8. A review of carbide fuel corrosion for nuclear thermal propulsion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    At the operation conditions of interest in nuclear thermal propulsion reactors, carbide materials have been known to exhibit a number of life limiting phenomena. These include the formation of liquid, loss by vaporization, creep and corresponding gas flow restrictions, and local corrosion and fuel structure degradation due to excessive mechanical and/or thermal loading. In addition, the radiation environment in the reactor core can produce a substantial change in its local physical properties, which can produce high thermal stresses and corresponding stress fractures (cracking). Time-temperature history and cyclic operation of the nuclear reactor can also accelerate some of these processes. The University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, under NASA sponsorship has recently initiated a study to model the complicated hydrogen corrosion process. In support of this effort, an extensive review of the open literature was performed, and a technical expert workshop was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of this review.

  9. Fabrication and Testing of CERMET Fuel Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar

    2012-01-01

    A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is currently being developed for Advanced Space Exploration Systems. The overall goal of the project is to address critical NTP technology challenges and programmatic issues to establish confidence in the affordability and viability of NTP systems. The current technology roadmap for NTP identifies the development of a robust fuel form as a critical near term need. The lack of a qualified nuclear fuel is a significant technical risk that will require a considerable fraction of program resources to mitigate. Due to these risks and the cost for qualification, the development and selection of a primary fuel must begin prior to Authority to Proceed (ATP) for a specific mission. The fuel development is a progressive approach to incrementally reduce risk, converge the fuel materials, and mature the design and fabrication process of the fuel element. A key objective of the current project is to advance the maturity of CERMET fuels. The work includes fuel processing development and characterization, fuel specimen hot hydrogen screening, and prototypic fuel element testing. Early fuel materials development is critical to help validate requirements and fuel performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and status of the work at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    The particle-bed reactor (PBR) system is being developed for use in the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program. This reactor system is characterized by a highly heterogeneous, compact configuration with many streaming pathways. The neutronics analyses performed for this system must be able to accurately predict reactor criticality, kinetics parameters, material worths at various temperatures, feedback coefficients, and detailed fission power and heating distributions. The latter includes coupled axial, radial, and azimuthal profiles. These responses constitute critical inputs and interfaces with the thermal-hydraulics design and safety analyses of the system

  11. Design of particle bed reactors for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Todosow, M.; Maise, G.; Barletta, R.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) that was considered for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program. The methods of analysis and their validation are outlined first. Monte Carlo methods were used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms were developed for the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and transient analysis; and commercial codes were used for the stress analysis. We carried out a critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR to validate the reactor physics; blowdown experiments with beds of prototypic dimensions were undertaken to validate the power-extraction capabilities from particle beds. In addition, materials and mechanical design concepts for the fuel elements were experimentally validated. (author)

  12. Nuclear propulsion systems for orbit transfer based on the particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Horn, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The technology of nuclear direct propulsion orbit transfer systems based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. A 200 megawatt illustrative design is presented for LEO to GEO and other high ΔV missions. The PBR-NOTV can be used in a one-way mode with the shuttle or an expendable launch vehicle, e.g., the Titan 34D7, or as a two-way reusable space tug. In the one-way mode, payload capacity is almost three times greater than that of chemical OTV's. PBR technology status is described and development needs outlined

  13. A review of the status of, and prospects for, nuclear marine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the matter of nuclear marine propulsion has been under consideration in the UK since 1957, at which time the Royal Navy commenced studies into the possibility of a nuclear powered 65,000 ton fleet support tanker. Nuclear warship studies started earlier in the USA, where studies were started in 1946 on the application of nuclear power to submarines and surface warships. The present position is that five nuclear merchant ships have been built, whereas 290 nuclear warships are either operational or building. Reference is made to a lecture given by the author in February 1974, in which the position at that time was reviewed, the present lecture up-dating that lecture with regard to subsequent events and their effects on the present prospects for nuclear merchant ships. Headings include the following: situation in early 1974; present situation; economic analyses; the energy situation; problems and prospects (economic assessments, inflation effects, safety requirements, construction time, refuelling requirements, ship residual value and decommissioning costs, training costs, insurance and indemnity, essential documentation, safety acceptance and port entry, licensing and legislative problems, accidents and their consequences); developments in marine reactor designs; and conclusions. The discussions are reproduced in full. (U.K.)

  14. Development of Fusion Nuclear Technologies and the role of MTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Schaaf, B. van der

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power plant operation will strongly depend on the economy and reliability of crucial components, such as first wall modules, tritium breeding blankets and divertors. Their operating temperature shall be high to accomplish high plant efficiency. The materials properties and component fabrication routes shall also assure long reliable operation to minimize plant outage. The components must be fabricated in large quantities based on demonstrations with a limited amount of test beds. Mock-ups and test loops will, through iteration processes, demonstrate the reliable operation under reference thermal-hydraulic conditions. Although 14 MeV neutrons dominate the nuclear conditions near the first wall, neutron transport analyses have shown that large portions of the components near the plasma have to cope with a neutron spectrum resembling a fission core. Present Materials Test Reactors, MTR's, offer fluxes relevant for large parts of the fusion major components. The mixed and fast fission spectra though is not representative for all fusion conditions. The strong point of MTR's is their ability to generate sufficient displacement damage in the materials in a relatively short time. The cores of MTR's provide sufficient space for irradiation of representative cut-outs of components to allow integrated functional and materials tests in a high flux neutron field. The MTR's are the primary test bed for structural and functional fusion relevant materials. The MTR space and dose rates provide a valuable base line for the developments and demonstrations of fusion key components in a neutron field. In recent years the pebble bed assembly, PBA, irradiated in the HFR, Petten, has shown the feasibility of the helium-cooled concept with lithium ceramics and beryllium multiplier pebble beds. The irradiations produce a wealth of process parameters for the control of the tritium release of the pebbles. The PBA packaging, cooling and tritium purging arrangements closely resemble the

  15. Nuclear fusion research and plasma application technologies in SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, X.W.

    1990-01-01

    A brief introduction of nuclear fusion research and plasma application technologies in SWIP is reported in this paper. The SWIP focuses its fusion efforts mainly on Tokamak with mirror as the supplemental experiments and fusion reactor conceptual design as preparation for future application of fusion energy. SWIP is making great efforts on fusion technology spin-off to make contribution towards national economic construction. (Author)

  16. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutered polyethylene (CD2n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over threshold fusion effects, in agreement with the high D-D cross-section valuesaround 3 MeV energy. At the first instants of the plasma generation, during which high temperature, density and ionacceleration occur, the D-D fusions occur as confirmed by the detection of mono-energetic protonsand neutrons with a kinetic energy of 3.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV, respectively, produced by the nuclear reaction. The number of fusion events depends strongly on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the laser parameters (intensity, wavelength, focal spot dimension, target conditions (thickness, chemical composition, absorption coefficient, presence of secondary targets and used geometry (incidence angle, laser spot, secondary target positions.A number of D-D fusion events of the order of 106÷7 per laser shot has been measured.

  17. Nuclear Fusion Blast and Electrode Lifetimes in a PJMIF Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cruz, E.; Luna, M.; Hsu, S. C.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis and numerical simulation of the nuclear blast from the micro-explosion following the completion of the fusion burn for a baseline design of a PJMIF fusion reactor with a fusion gain of 20. The stagnation pressure from the blast against the chamber wall defines the engineering requirement for the structural design of the first wall and the plasma guns. We also present an analysis of the lifetimes of the electrodes of the plasma guns which are exposed to (1) the high current, and (2) the neutron produced by the fusion reactions. We anticipate that the gun electrodes are made of tungsten alloys as plasma facing components reinforced structurally by appropriate steel alloys. Making reasonable assumptions about the electrode erosion rate (100 ng/C transfer), the electrode lifetime limited by the erosion rate is estimated to be between 19 and 24 million pulses before replacement. Based on known neutron radiation effects on structural materials such as steel alloys and plasma facing component materials such as tungsten alloys, the plasma guns are expected to survive some 22 million shots. At 1 Hz, this equal to about 6 months of continuous operation before they need to be replaced. Work supported by Strong Atomics, LLC.

  18. The role of nuclear data for fusion technology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. → Data libraries cover: experiments (EXFOR), theory (RIPL) and evaluations (ENDF). → Libraries are general purpose or special purpose (decay, dosimetry and activation). → Activation files contain many reactions, only a fraction needs to be known precisely. → Covariance data are important, but details of formatting are being worked out. - Abstract: Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. In these studies, experiments to measure cross sections and decay properties and simulations of the design of fission power plants, fusion devices and accelerators are included. The large amount of data required is stored in computer readable formats in data libraries and the most common of these are the general purpose files used for neutronics or transport calculations. These files also contain the standards against which most measurements are made. The other class of libraries are the special purpose ones containing decay data, fission yields and cross section data for dosimetry and activation. This paper gives examples of what data are available and describes their use for various fusion applications. The focus will be on neutron-induced activation data with examples of how the reactions of particular importance can be identified. All data should be accompanied by estimates of the uncertainty. This is best achieved by including covariance data; however, this is extremely challenging and only a subset of the available data has such uncertainty data. The general principles of how covariance matrices are used are outlined.

  19. 'Bimodal' Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion for an artificial gravity HOPE mission to Callisto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James H.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a year long, multi-center NASA study which examined the viability of nuclear fission propulsion systems for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE). The HOPE mission assumes a crew of six is sent to Callisto. Jupiter's outermost large moon, to establish a surface base and propellant production facility. The Asgard asteroid formation, a region potentially rich in water-ice, is selected as the landing site. High thrust BNTR propulsion is used to transport the crew from the Earth-Moon L1 staging node to Callisto then back to Earth in less than 5 years. Cargo and LH2 'return' propellant for the piloted Callisto transfer vehicle (PCTV) is pre-deployed at the moon (before the crew's departure) using low thrust, high power, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) cargo and tanker vehicles powered by hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The PCTV is powered by three 25 klbf BNTR engines which also produce 50 kWe of power for crew life support and spacecraft operational needs. To counter the debilitating effects of long duration space flight (∼855 days out and ∼836 days back) under '0-gE' conditions, the PCTV generates an artificial gravity environment of '1-gE' via rotation of the vehicle about its center-of-mass at a rate of ∼4 rpm. After ∼123 days at Callisto, the 'refueled' PCTV leaves orbit for the trip home. Direct capsule re-entry of the crew at mission end is assumed. Dynamic Brayton power conversion and high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten metal ''cermet'' fuel is used in both the BNTR and NEP vehicles to maximize hardware commonality. Technology performance levels and vehicle characteristics are presented, and requirements for PCTV reusability are also discussed

  20. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear data section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron-photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon-atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2 million

  1. Status and development plan of nuclear fusion research in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Weihong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the background of nuclear fusion research and current status of major devices with accomplishments in the US, as well as the national fusion plans and budgets for fusion energy development by the US government. As a fusion power in the world, the US has made significant contributions to the development of international fusion research. The strategy of fusion research developments and the accomplishments may exert a subtle influence on international fusion development situation. Withdrawing from the ITER partnership for 2 times, the US rejoined it subsequently. This paper gives a brief introduction of changes in the US fusion research policy, summarizes the implementation of ITER procurement packages undertaken by the US, and the overview of the US inertial confinement fusion re- search. The US future energy development plan is the development of magnetic confinement fusion approach in parallel with inertial confinement fusion approach. (author)

  2. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ENDF/B-VI nuclear data evaluations for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.; Larson, D.C.; Young, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The next release of the ENDF/B data library planned for 1989 contains improved data evaluations of interest to the fusion neutronics community. New data formats permit inclusion of energy-angle correlated particle emission spectra and recoil nucleus energy spectra. Enhanced formats for covariance information have been developed. Many new isotopic evaluations will lead to improved energy conservation and kerma factor calculations. Improved nuclear model calculations will provide reliable particle emission data where experimental information is sparse. Improved Bayssian fitting codes will provide more accurate evaluations for data rich reactions such as Li(n,nt)α. All of the most important fusion material evaluations contain these new features. 32 refs., 8 figs

  4. Development of materials for the fusion nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, W. J.; Jung, C. H.; Jun, B. H.; Maeng, W. Y.; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, H. P.; Hong, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art on the nuclear material development has been reviewed based on the each component of the Tokamak typed fusion reactor. The current status of the development of structural materials such as FM steels, ODS steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites are introduced. The application of Li-based ceramics as a ceramic breeder and W-based alloys and C/C composites as plasma facing components for the divertor were also investigated, respectively. Some evaluation methods and results of the computational material simulation for irradiation damages and the compatibility between materials and coolant are described. Additionally, the material related research activities of ITER and ITER TBM and the collaboration activities on fusion materials between Japan and USA are briefly summarized

  5. The promise and challenges of cermet fueled nuclear thermal propulsion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brengle, R.G.; Harty, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1993-06-01

    The use of cermet fuels in nuclear thermal propulsion systems was examined and the characteristics of systems using these fuel forms is discussed in terms of current mission and safety requirements. For use at high temperatures cermet fueled reactors utilize ceramic fuels with refractory metals as the matrix material. Cermet fueled reactors tend to be heavy when compared to concepts that utilize graphite as the fuel matrix because of the high density of the refractory metal matrix which makes up 20-40 percent of the total volume. On the positive side the metal matrix is strong and more resistant to loads from either the launch or flow induced vibration. The compatibility of the tungsten cermet with hydrogen is excellent and lifetimes of several hours is certainly achievable. Probably the biggest drawback to cermet nuclear thermal propulsion concepts is that the amount of actual data to support the theoretical conclusions is small. In fact there is no data under representative conditions of temperature, propellant and flux for the required fuel burnup. Although cermet systems appear to be attractive, the lack of fuel data at representative conditions does not allow reliable comparisons of cermet systems to systems where fuel data is available. 10 refs

  6. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  7. Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program: Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1956, Part 1 - 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cramer, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, A. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1957-03-12

    This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into five major parts: 1. Aircraft Reactor Engineering, 2. Chemistry, 3. Metallurgy, 4. Heat Transfer and Physical Properties, Radiation Damage, and Fuel Recovery and Reprocessing, and 5. Reactor Shielding. The ANP Project is comprised of about 550 technical and scientific personnel engaged in many phases of research directed toward the achievement of nuclear propulsion of aircraft. A considerable portion of this research is performed in support of the work of other organizations participating in the national ANP effort. However, the bulk of the ANP research at ORNL is directed toward the development of a circulating-fuel type of reactor. The design, construction, and operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART), with the cooperation of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, are the current objectives of the project. The ART is to be a power plant system that will include a 60-Mw circulating fuel reflector-moderator reactor and adequate means for heat disposal. Operation of the system will be for the purpose of determining feasibility and for studying the problems associated with the design, construction, and operation of a high-power circulating-fuel refIector-moderated aircraft reactor system.

  8. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  9. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage

  10. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal

  11. Mission needs and system commonality for space nuclear power and propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Zuppero, A.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear power enables or significantly enhances a variety of space missions whether near-Earth, or for solar system exploration, lunar-Mars exploration and recovery of near-Earth resources. Performance optimizations for individual missions leads to a large number of power and propulsion systems to be developed. However, the realities of the budget and schedules indicates that the number of nuclear systems that will be developed are limited. One needs to seek the ''minimum requirements'' to do a job rather than the last ounce of performance, and areas of commonality. To develop a minimum number of systems to meet the overall DoD, NASA, and commercial needs, the broad spectrum of requirements has been examined along with cost drivers

  12. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  13. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  14. Physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project; La physique de la fusion thermonucleaire et le projet ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, P [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee - DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the 6 contributions to the workshop 'the physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project': 1) the feasibility of magnetic confinement and the issue of heat recovery, 2) heating and current generation in tokamaks, 3) the physics of wall-plasma interaction, 4) recent results at JET, 5) inertial confinement and fast ignition, and 6) the technology of fusion machines based on magnetic confinement. This document presents the principles of thermo-nuclear fusion machines and gives a lot of technical information about JET, Tore-Supra and ITER.

  15. Magnet Design Considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kessel, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); El-Guebaly, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Fusion Technology Institute; Titus, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility that provides a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared with ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, i.e., 30 times higher neutron fluence with three orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center with a plasma major radius of 4.8 m and a minor radius of 1.2 m and a peak field of 15.5 T on the toroidal field (TF) coils for the FNSF. Both low-temperature superconductors (LTS) and high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high-performance ternary restacked-rod process Nb3Sn strands for TF magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high-aspect-ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets, but low-activation-jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. The material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.

  16. Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore

    2006-07-11

    Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 10(15)-10(20) W.cm(-2)). Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C(4+)(D(+))(4))(n) and (D(+)I(22+))(n) at I(M) = 10(18) W.cm(-2), that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D(2))(n), (HT)(n), (CD(4))(n), (DI)(n), (CD(3)I)(n), and (CH(3)I)(n) clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D(2))(n) clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., (12)C(P,gamma)(13)N driven by CE of (CH(3)I)(n) clusters, were explored.

  17. International ITER fusion energy organization. Paving the way to power generation from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuschen-Liebenstein, R. von

    2006-01-01

    ITER (Latin: the way) is the acronym of a new international large research facility gradually taking shape after the meeting of Gorbachev and Reagan in Reykjavik in 1985. Under the auspices of the IAEA, worldwide scientific and industrial cooperation with 'home teams' of each of the ITER partners began at that time which were commissioned to accumulate the knowledge and the technology of nuclear fusion in the participating countries. At the end of the preparation and decisionmaking process, the design draft of the ITER reactor was elaborated in international cooperation as the basis of the ITER Convention. After lengthy negotiations among the international ITER partners, a European site for the ITER organization and its reactor was found at Cadarache, France. As the first ITER member, Europe now initiated worldwide cooperation in research and development, seeking to demonstrate the technical and scientific feasibility of tapping fusion power for peaceful purposes. The Council of the European Union (competitiveness), at its meeting on September 25, 2006, decided to sign the ITER Convention about the establishment of the International ITER Fusion Energy Organization ('ITER Organization') and about the mutual obligation to make the necessary contributions towards the construction of ITER. (orig.)

  18. Core fusion accidents in nuclear power reactors. Knowledge review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This reference document proposes a large and detailed review of severe core fusion accidents occurring in nuclear power reactors. It aims at presenting the scientific aspects of these accidents, a review of knowledge and research perspectives on this issue. After having recalled design and operation principles and safety principles for reactors operating in France, and the main studied and envisaged accident scenarios for the management of severe accidents in French PWRs, the authors describe the physical phenomena occurring during a core fusion accident, in the reactor vessel and in the containment building, their sequence and means to mitigate their effects: development of the accident within the reactor vessel, phenomena able to result in an early failure of the containment building, phenomena able to result in a delayed failure with the corium-concrete interaction, corium retention and cooling in and out of the vessel, release of fission products. They address the behaviour of containment buildings during such an accident (sizing situations, mechanical behaviour, bypasses). They review and discuss lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) and simulation tests (Phebus-PF). A last chapter gives an overview of software and approaches for the numerical simulation of a core fusion accident

  19. A nuclear powered pulsed inductive plasma accelerator as a viable propulsion concept for advanced OTV space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapper, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electric propulsion concept suitable for delivering heavy payloads from low earth orbit (LEO) to high energy earth orbit is proposed. The system consists of a number of pulsed inductive plasma thrusters powered by a 100 kWe space nuclear power system. The pulsed plasma thruster is a relatively simple electrodeless device. It also exhibits adequate conversion to thrust power in the desired I sub sp regime of 1500 to 3000 seconds for optimal payload transfer from low earth to high earth orbit. Because of these features and the fact that the nuclear power unit will be capable of delivering sustained high power levels throughout the duration of any given mission, the system presented appears to be a very promising propulsion candidate for advanced orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) applications. An OTV, which makes use of this propulsion system and which has been designed to lift a 9000-lb payload into geosynchronous earth orbit, (GEO) is also examined

  20. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalick, S.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1980-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  1. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrides are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpaint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  2. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  3. A review of the status of and prospects for nuclear marine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1976-01-01

    The review relates particularly to commercial nuclear merchant ships. The effects of the oil price escalation on world trade recession and price inflation are shown in relation to the rapid decrease in demand for new shipping and inflation in costs of any new construction. Economic analyses which began to be accepted as in favour of nuclear ships of relatively high power and high load factor have become somewhat less favourable, particularly from the point of view of higher investment costs and the presumed reluctance of shipowners to risk having these ships idle. On the other hand it is pointed out that the overall energy crisis remains and it is considered prudent to identify and seek solutions to those problems in nuclear ship propulsion which either still leave important uncertainties or which are likely to inhibit its use on a wide commercial scale. These are discussed under the following headings: economic assessments; safety acceptance and port entry; licensing and legislative problems; accidents and their consequences; decommissioning a nuclear ship; developments in the marine reactor designs. (U.K.)

  4. Modeling, analysis and experiments for fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Hadid, A.H.; Raffray, A.R.; Tillack, M.S.; Iizuka, T.

    1988-01-01

    Selected issues in the development of fusion nuclear technology (FNT) have been studied. These relate to (1) near-term experiments, modeling, and analysis for several key FNT issues, and (2) FNT testing in future fusion facilities. A key concern for solid breeder blankets is to reduce the number of candidate materials and configurations for advanced experiments to emphasize those with the highest potential. Based on technical analysis, recommendations have been developed for reducing the size of the test matrix and for focusing the testing program on important areas of emphasis. The characteristics of an advanced liquid metal MHD experiment have also been studied. This facility is required in addition to existing facilities in order to address critical uncertainties in MHD fluid flow and heat transfer. In addition to experiments, successful development of FNT will require models for interpreting experimental data, for planning experiments, and for use as a design tool for fusion components. Modeling of liquid metal fluid flows is a particular area of need in which substantial progress is expected, and initial efforts are reported here. Preliminary results on the modeling of tritium transport and inventory in solid breeders are also summarized. Finally, the thermo-mechanical behavior of liquid-metal-cooled limiters is analyzed and the parameter space for feasible designs is explored. Because of the renewed strong interest in a fusion engineering facility, a critical review and analysis of the important FNT testing requirements have been performed. Several areas have been emphasized due to their strong impact on the design and cost of the test facility. These include (1) the length of the plasma burn and the mode of operation (pulsed vs. steady-state), and (2) the need for a tritium-producing blanket and its impact on the availability of the device. (orig.)

  5. Mars mission opportunity and transit time sensitivity for a nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.; Nishimuta, E.L.; Emrich, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    President George Bush's 1989 challenge to America to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of ''Back to the Moon and Human Mission to Mars'' gives the space industry an opportunity to develop effective and efficient space transportation systems. This paper presents stage performance and requirements for a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars transportation system to support the human Mars mission of the SEI. Two classes of Mars mission profiles are considered in developing the NTR propulsion vehicle performance and requirements. The two Mars mission classes include the opposition class and conjunction class. The opposition class mission is associated with relatively short Mars stay times ranging from 30 to 90 days and total mission duration of 350 to 600 days. The conjunction class mission is associated with much longer Mars stay times ranging from 500 to 600 days and total mission durations of 875 to 1,000 days. Vehicle mass scaling equations are used to determine the NTR stage mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission opportunities and for different Mars mission durations. Mission opportunities considered include launch years 2010 to 2018. The 2010 opportunity is the most demanding launch opportunity and the 2018 opportunity is the least demanding opportunity. NTR vehicle mass and size sensitivity to NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio, and Mars surface payload are presented. NTR propulsion parameter ranges include those associated with NERVA, particle bed reactor (PBR), low-pressure, and ceramic-metal-type engine design

  6. Mars mission opportunity and transit time sensitivity for a nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Archie C.; Mulqueen, John A.; Nishimuta, Ena L.; Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    President George Bush's 1989 challenge to America to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of ``Back to the Moon and Human Mission to Mars'' gives the space industry an opportunity to develop effective and efficient space transportation systems. This paper presents stage performance and requirements for a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars transportation system to support the human Mars mission of the SEI. Two classes of Mars mission profiles are considered in developing the NTR propulsion vehicle performance and requirements. The two Mars mission classes include the opposition class and conjunction class. The opposition class mission is associated with relatively short Mars stay times ranging from 30 to 90 days and total mission duration of 350 to 600 days. The conjunction class mission is associated with much longer Mars stay times ranging from 500 to 600 days and total mission durations of 875 to 1,000 days. Vehicle mass scaling equations are used to determine the NTR stage mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission opportunities and for different Mars mission durations. Mission opportunities considered include launch years 2010 to 2018. The 2010 opportunity is the most demanding launch opportunity and the 2018 opportunity is the least demanding opportunity. NTR vehicle mass and size sensitivity to NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio, and Mars surface payload are presented. NTR propulsion parameter ranges include those associated with NERVA, particle bed reactor (PBR), low-pressure, and ceramic-metal-type engine design.

  7. The nuclear thermal electric rocket: a proposed innovative propulsion concept for manned interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujarric, C.; Santovincenzo, A.; Summerer, L.

    2013-03-01

    Conventional propulsion technology (chemical and electric) currently limits the possibilities for human space exploration to the neighborhood of the Earth. If farther destinations (such as Mars) are to be reached with humans on board, a more capable interplanetary transfer engine featuring high thrust, high specific impulse is required. The source of energy which could in principle best meet these engine requirements is nuclear thermal. However, the nuclear thermal rocket technology is not yet ready for flight application. The development of new materials which is necessary for the nuclear core will require further testing on ground of full-scale nuclear rocket engines. Such testing is a powerful inhibitor to the nuclear rocket development, as the risks of nuclear contamination of the environment cannot be entirely avoided with current concepts. Alongside already further matured activities in the field of space nuclear power sources for generating on-board power, a low level investigation on nuclear propulsion has been running since long within ESA, and innovative concepts have already been proposed at an IAF conference in 1999 [1, 2]. Following a slow maturation process, a new concept was defined which was submitted to a concurrent design exercise in ESTEC in 2007. Great care was taken in the selection of the design parameters to ensure that this quite innovative concept would in all respects likely be feasible with margins. However, a thorough feasibility demonstration will require a more detailed design including the selection of appropriate materials and the verification that these can withstand the expected mechanical, thermal, and chemical environment. So far, the predefinition work made clear that, based on conservative technology assumptions, a specific impulse of 920 s could be obtained with a thrust of 110 kN. Despite the heavy engine dry mass, a preliminary mission analysis using conservative assumptions showed that the concept was reducing the required

  8. Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, Koji; Fujino, Jun'ichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamaji, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. This is because the prospects for nuclear fusion are quite uncertain and the investments therefore carry the risk of quite large regrets, even though investment is needed in order to develop the technology. The timeframe by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we identify three roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: (i) a portion of the electricity market in 2100, (ii) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and (iii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO 2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction timeframe for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO 2 target in 2100, capacity utilization ratio of options in energy/environment technologies, and utility discount rates. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO 2 concentration constraint

  9. N + 1 redundancy on ATCA instrumentation for Nuclear Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, António P.; Batista, António J.N.; Combo, Álvaro; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Gonçalves, Bruno [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA standard features desirable redundancy features for Fusion instrumentation. ► The developed control and data acquisition hardware modules support additional redundancy schemes. ► Implementation of N + 1 redundancy of host processor and I/O data modules. -- Abstract: The role of redundancy on control and data acquisition systems has gained a significant importance in the case of Nuclear Fusion, as demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. IPFN's control and data acquisition system hardware is based on an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) set of I/O (DAC/ADC endpoints) and data/timing switch modules, which handle data and timing from all I/O endpoints. Modules communicate through Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), established over the ATCA backplane and controlled by one or more external hosts. The developed hardware modules were designed to take advantage of ATCA specification's redundancy features, namely at the hardware management level, including support of: (i) multiple host operation with N + 1 redundancy – in which a designated failover host takes over data previously assigned to a suddenly malfunctioning host and (ii) N + 1 redundancy of I/O and data/timing switch modules. This paper briefly describes IPFN's control and data acquisition system, which is being developed for ITER fast plant system controller (FPSC), and analyses the hardware implementation of its supported redundancy features.

  10. Effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution on plasma nuclear fusion rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution derived by Galitskii and Yakimets (GY) on nuclear reaction rates in plasma. We derive an approximate semi-analytical formula for nuclear fusion reaction rate between nuclei in a plasma (quantum plasma nuclear fusion; or QPNF). The QPNF formula is applied to calculate deuteron-deuteron fusion rate in a plasma, and the results are compared with the results calculated with the conventional Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. As an application, we investigate the deuteron-deuteron fusion rate for mobile deuterons in a deuterated metal/alloy. The calculated deuteron-deuteron fusion rates at low energies are enormously enhanced due to the modified tail of the GY's generalized momentum distribution. Our preliminary estimates indicate also that the deuteron-lithium (D+Li) fusion rate and the proton-lithium (p+Li) fusion rate in a metal/alloy at ambient temperatures are also substantially enhanced. (author)

  11. Multi-reactor power system configurations for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A modular, multi-reactor power system and vehicle configuration for piloted nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars is presented. Such a design could provide enhanced system and mission reliability, allowing a comfortable safety margin for early manned flights, and would allow a range of piloted and cargo missions to be performed with a single power system design. Early use of common power modules for cargo missions would also provide progressive flight experience and validation of standardized systems for use in later piloted applications. System and mission analysis are presented to compare single and multi-reactor configurations for piloted Mars missions. A conceptual design for the Hydra modular multi-reactor NEP vehicle is presented.

  12. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Schmidt, E.; Todosow, M.; Parma, E.J.; Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors

  13. Application of a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion and power system to military missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of arms technology and space access combined with current economic realities in the United States are creating ever greater demands for more capable space-based military assets. The paper illustrates that bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is a high-leverage tehcnology that can maximize utility while minimizing cost. Mission benefits offered by the bi-modal PBR, including enhanced maneuverability, lifetime, survivability, payload power, and operational flexibility, are discussed. The ability to deliver desired payloads on smaller boosters is also illustrated. System descriptions and parameters for 10 kWe and 100 kWe power output levels are summarized. It is demonstrated via design exercise that bi-modal PBR dramtically enhances performance of a military satellite in geosynchronous orbit, increasing payload mass, payload power, and maneuverability.

  14. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.; Ludewig, Hans; Mughabghab, Said F.; Schmidt, Eldon; Todosow, Michael; Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors.

  15. Kinetic---a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode

  16. Kinetic—a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  17. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  18. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  19. Nuclear fusion project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, G.

    1987-05-01

    This semi-annual report gives 36 short descriptions of the work done in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project and outlines studies for NET/INTOR and for ECRH power sources at 150 GHz. Tables of fusion technology contracts, of NET contracts, of KfK departments contributing to the Fusion Project, and of the Fusion Project management staff complete this report. (GG)

  20. Contribution to the actual discussion on the technological problems of nuclear fusion energy exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1982-02-01

    Recently increased criticism has been raised from many sides as to the technical realization of fusion reactors. The basic argument is continually stated whether it is really sensible to invest the enormous sums of money in order to produce a commercial fusion reactor. In this article, the principle problems facing nuclear fusion are presented and it is outlined which priorities should be set for the realization of fusion energy in the near future. (Auth.)

  1. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  2. Nuclear dynamics in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy ion induced fission and fission-like reactions evolve through a complex nuclear dynamics encountered in the medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the recent years, measurements of the fragment-neutron and fragment-charged particle angular correlations in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions, have provided new information on the dynamical times of nuclear deformations of the initial dinuclear complex to the fission saddle point and the scission point. From the studies of fragment angular distributions in heavy ion induced fission it has been possible to infer the relaxation times of the dinuclear complex in the K-degree of freedom and our recent measurements on the entrance channel dependence of fragment anisotropies have provided an experimental signature of the presence of fissions before K-equilibration. This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical status of the above studies with particular regard to the questions relating to dynamical times, nuclear dissipation and the effect of nuclear dissipation on the K-distributions at the fission saddle in completely equilibrated compound nucleus. (author). 19 refs., 9 figs

  3. Nuclear-fusion research. To bring the sun on the earh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The course treats first the foundations of nuclear fusion. In the second part the concepts for the realization of nuclear fusion in the laboratory are described. Finally in the last part a survey on the present status of the research as well an outlook on future work is given

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    A program has been proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a high-temperature particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system to be used to power an advanced second stage nuclear rocket engine. The purpose of this Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) is to assess the potential environmental impacts of component development and testing, construction of ground test facilities, and ground testing. Major issues and goals of the program include the achievement and control of predicted nuclear power levels; the development of materials that can withstand the extremely high operating temperatures and hydrogen flow environments; and the reliable control of cryogenic hydrogen and hot gaseous hydrogen propellant. The testing process is designed to minimize radiation exposure to the environment. Environmental impact and mitigation planning are included for the following areas of concern: (1) Population and economy; (2) Land use and infrastructure; (3) Noise; (4) Cultural resources; (5) Safety (non-nuclear); (6) Waste; (7) Topography; (8) Geology; (9) Seismic activity; (10) Water resources; (11) Meteorology/Air quality; (12) Biological resources; (13) Radiological normal operations; (14) Radiological accidents; (15) Soils; and (16) Wildlife habitats.

  5. Technology Implementation Plan: Irradiation Testing and Qualification for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rader, Jordan D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This document is a notional technology implementation plan (TIP) for the development, testing, and qualification of a prototypic fuel element to support design and construction of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine, specifically its pre-flight ground test. This TIP outlines a generic methodology for the progression from non-nuclear out-of-pile (OOP) testing through nuclear in-pile (IP) testing, at operational temperatures, flows, and specific powers, of an NTP fuel element in an existing test reactor. Subsequent post-irradiation examination (PIE) will occur in existing radiological facilities. Further, the methodology is intended to be nonspecific with respect to fuel types and irradiation or examination facilities. The goals of OOP and IP testing are to provide confidence in the operational performance of fuel system concepts and provide data to program leadership for system optimization and fuel down-selection. The test methodology, parameters, collected data, and analytical results from OOP, IP, and PIE will be documented for reference by the NTP operator and the appropriate regulatory and oversight authorities. Final full-scale integrated testing would be performed separately by the reactor operator as part of the preflight ground test.

  6. Nuclear inner membrane fusion facilitated by yeast Jem1p is required for spindle pole body fusion but not for the first mitotic nuclear division during yeast mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Hirata, Aiko; Endo, Toshiya

    2008-11-01

    During mating of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse to produce a diploid nucleus. The process of nuclear fusion requires two J proteins, Jem1p in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and Sec63p, which forms a complex with Sec71p and Sec72p, in the ER membrane. Zygotes of mutants defective in the functions of Jem1p or Sec63p contain two haploid nuclei that were closely apposed but failed to fuse. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of nuclei in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes using electron microscope with the freeze-substituted fixation method. Three-dimensional reconstitution of nuclear structures from electron microscope serial sections revealed that Jem1p facilitates nuclear inner-membrane fusion and spindle pole body (SPB) fusion while Sec71p facilitates nuclear outer-membrane fusion. Two haploid SPBs that failed to fuse could duplicate, and mitotic nuclear division of the unfused haploid nuclei started in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes. This observation suggests that nuclear inner-membrane fusion is required for SPB fusion, but not for SPB duplication in the first mitotic cell division.

  7. Nuclear fusion: sixty years of efforts, great advances and challenges. May nuclear fusion replace fossil energies? The Grail which makes start-ups dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, Sylvain; Pajot, Philippe; Delbecq, Denis

    2016-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of sixty years of researches, investments and realisations aimed at a better knowledge and control of nuclear fusion to solve the Planet's energy problems. After a brief overview of the Sun as an example, and while presenting the principle of magnetic fusion in a tokamak, some key figures illustration the development of ITER, the authors describe magnetic fusion as the royal road to nuclear fusion (challenges for the ITER project, development of Stellarator as a concurrent of tokamaks), and inertial fusion as an alternate approach (principle, military interest, plasma physics). They also indicate other approaches based on a change of energy source, a change in ignition process, or a change in fuel. In a second article, the author discusses the economic perspectives of nuclear fusion: a supposed unlimited fuel, existence of radioactive releases and pollution, operation risks and costs, technical challenges to be faced, a development to be amortised on more than a century except if more compact processes are elaborated and developed. The author also discusses issues of profitability and of proliferation. The third and last article comments the existence of many start-ups, notably financed by Silicon Valley rich companies, which invest in researches and projects on nuclear fusion. They try to develop more compact systems, and aim at manufacturing their first prototypes by 2020. On the other side, academics remain doubtful about their ability to reach their objectives

  8. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system

  9. Nuclear challenges and progress in designing stellarator fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Tautges, T.; Slaybaugh, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Ibrahim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 5-6 decades, stellarator power plants have been studied in the US, Europe, and Japan as an alternate to the mainline magnetic fusion tokamaks, offering steady-state operation and eliminating the risk of plasma disruptions. The earlier 1980s studies suggested large-scale stellarator power plants with an average major radius exceeding 20 m. The most recent development of the compact stellarator concept delivered ARIES-CS - a compact stellarator with 7.75 m average major radius, approaching that of tokamaks. For stellarators, the most important engineering parameter that determines the machine size and cost is the minimum distance between the plasma boundary and mid-coil. Accommodating the breeding blanket and necessary shield within this distance to protect the ARIES-CS superconducting magnet represents a challenging task. Selecting the ARIES-CS nuclear and engineering parameters to produce an economic optimum, modeling the complex geometry for 3D nuclear analysis to confirm the key parameters, and minimizing the radwaste stream received considerable attention during the design process. These engineering design elements combined with advanced physics helped enable the compact stellarator to be a viable concept. This paper provides a brief historical overview of the progress in designing stellarator power plants and a perspective on the successful integration of the nuclear activity into the final ARIES-CS configuration

  10. Recent developments of the MOA thruster, a high performance plasma accelerator for nuclear power and propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, N.; Hettmer, M.; Grassauer, A.; Bartusch, T.; Koudelka, O.

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA -Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilization strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R and D activities at QASAR, the company in

  11. Coil supporting device in a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Sasaki, Katsutoki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To slide a vacuum vessel in the nuclear fusion device and a coil within the vacuum vessel and to mount the coil within the vacuum vessel in a manner that it may not be moved by an electromagnetic force, thereby preventing stress from being produced in the coil. Structure: A coil supporting plate mounted at upper and lower parts prevents damage to an insulation of the coil, said coil being held in a U-shaped groove, and can be moved integral with the coil by the action of a roller bearing with a plurality of needle-like rollers arranged in parallel. The coil supporting plate has a plurality of projections disposed on the lower surface thereof, and flat springs are placed in the projections one over another so that the spring action exerted in the lower plate causes the coil to be resiliently bias in a direction of an electromagnetic force applied thereto and to support the coil. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. A proposal of nuclear fusion power plant equipped with SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsukawa, Tatsuya; Makamura, Hirokazu; Molinas, Marta; Nomura, Shinichi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    2000-01-01

    When we intend to operate the nuclear fusion power plant (NFPP) under the economically efficient conditions as an independent power plant, it is desirable that the generated electric power should be sent to network according to the power demand. With such strategy being expanded, some energy storage system is available. In this paper, NFPP equipped with the superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) as electric power storage device is proposed. The advantages of NFPP equipped with SMES are discussed and a case study of 500 MW NFPP equipped with 6 GWh SMES is done with estimating its operational value. For SMES coil, the concept of Force Balanced Coil (FBC) is applied and 6 GWh class FBC is briefly designed

  13. The role of nuclear power and nuclear propulsion in the peaceful exploration of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This publication has been produced within the framework of the IAEA's innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development activities. It elucidates the role that peaceful space related nuclear power research and development could play in terrestrial innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development initiatives. This review is a contribution to the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities, and reflects the stepped up efforts of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to further strengthen cooperation between international organizations in space related activities. Apart from fostering information exchange within the United Nations organizations, this publication aims at finding new potential fields for innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development. In assessing the status and reviewing the role of nuclear power in the peaceful exploration of space, it also aims to initiate a discussion on the potential benefits of space related nuclear power technology research and development to the development of innovative terrestrial nuclear systems

  14. The NASA program on nuclear electric propulsion: Preparing for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Doherty, M.P.; Miller, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990 NASA reestablished its nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) program with the overall objective of developing the technology to support piloted missions to Mars, cargo missions to Mars and the Moon, and robotic science missions. With changing mission requirements and fiscal constraints the NEP program is now focused on studies of robotic science missions which are enabled or enhanced by NEP. These studies are closely coupled with the ongoing work on the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system and, as such, include consideration of an early, low-power flight to demonstrate the technology and to perform a science missions. These studies have identified some possible mission candidates such as missions to Mars (including a study of Phobos and Deimos), missions to near-Earth asteroids, and missions to the Jovian Trojan asteroids. In addition, work proceeded on high-temperature components for power processing units and on high-power magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. The paper will summarize the work and indicate future directions being considered for the program

  15. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C

    2012-08-03

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IAEA specialists' meeting on the fusion evaluated nuclear data library related to the ITER activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.; Lorenz, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the summary report of an IAEA Specialists' Meeting on the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Related to the ITER Activity, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna from 16 to 18 November 1987. The objective of the meeting was to formulate a detailed programme and time schedule for the development of the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) to meet the future needs of the ITER activity

  17. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF). Dynamic application of atomic and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1995-01-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; 1) so-called cold fusion (CF), 2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and 3) accelerator-based D-T(D) neutron source. Details of the LCF reactor physics require dynamics of atomic data as well as nuclear data; interaction of ions with matters in solid and the problems of radiation damage. (author)

  18. Nuclear Fusion Rate Study of a Muonic Molecule via Nuclear Threshold Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Eskandari, M. R.

    This work follows our previous calculations of the ground state binding energy, size, and the effective nuclear charge of the muonic T3 molecule, using the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation. In our past articles, we showed that the system possesses two minimum positions, the first one at the muonic distance and the second at the atomic distance. Also, the symmetric planner vibrational model assumed between the two minima and the approximated potential were calculated. Following from the previous studies, we now calculate the fusion rate of the T3 muonic molecule according to the overlap integral of the resonance nuclear compound nucleus and the molecular wave functions.

  19. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    of fixed fuel configurations that would normally require a computationally burdensome number of depletion zones. Alternatively, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) adjusts the depletion zone size according to the variation in flux across the zone or fractional contribution to total absorption or fission. A parametric analysis on a fully mixed fuel core was performed using the LNC and ABL code suites. The resulting system parameters are found to optimize performance metrics using a 20 MT DU fuel load with a 20% TRISO packing and a 300 μm kernel radius operated with a fusion input power of 500 MW and a fission blanket gain of 4.0. LFFH potentially offers a proliferation resistant technology relative to other nuclear energy systems primarily because of no need for fuel enrichment or reprocessing. A figure of merit of the material attractiveness is examined and it is found that the fuel is effectively contaminated to an unattractive level shortly after the system is started due to fission product and minor actinide build up.

  20. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.7--nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear electronics, nuclear detecting technology, pulse power technology, nuclear fusion and plasma

  1. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  2. MITEE-B: A compact ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine for robotic planetary science missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources

  3. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  4. Technological forecasting a long time of the scientific-technological development of the nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettert, Plinio G.; Oliveira, Wagner S.; Aquino, Afonso R.

    2009-01-01

    With base in the introduction in long time of the nuclear fusion inside of a system of viable energy, taking in consideration economic factors, would imply on investment in a long period. The objective of this project utilizing the method of the Delphi technique is the technological forecast a long time of the scientific-technological development of the nuclear fusion and its impact. This research project will be carried through different stages of improvement of variables. A questionnaire based on information and analysis of the literature validated for specialists in nuclear fusion becomes this project a tool in the elaboration future of a database contends variables on the theme nuclear fusion and its perspectives. The database will be composed for the answers and suggestions obtained, with exploratory and extrapolatory elements, on the theme a great number of specialists involving in the nuclear fusion area. The database is analyzed for the configuration of variables that represent elements as scientific-technological factors, economical, political, social and environmental among others. As final result of the research with the Delphi technique, different scenes obtained with the variables will be indicated by convergent factors or not on the approached perspectives. The analysis of the data will be possible through of improve of statistical analysis tools. This is the first analyzes of the answers. The questionnaire was validated with nuclear fusion specialists from the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil and the Center of Nuclear Fusion of the Technical University of Lisbon in Portugal. (author)

  5. Thought Experiment to Examine Benchmark Performance for Fusion Nuclear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Kusaka, Sachie; Sato, Fuminobu; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    There are many benchmark experiments carried out so far with DT neutrons especially aiming at fusion reactor development. These integral experiments seemed vaguely to validate the nuclear data below 14 MeV. However, no precise studies exist now. The author's group thus started to examine how well benchmark experiments with DT neutrons can play a benchmarking role for energies below 14 MeV. Recently, as a next phase, to generalize the above discussion, the energy range was expanded to the entire region. In this study, thought experiments with finer energy bins have thus been conducted to discuss how to generally estimate performance of benchmark experiments. As a result of thought experiments with a point detector, the sensitivity for a discrepancy appearing in the benchmark analysis is "equally" due not only to contribution directly conveyed to the deterctor, but also due to indirect contribution of neutrons (named (A)) making neutrons conveying the contribution, indirect controbution of neutrons (B) making the neutrons (A) and so on. From this concept, it would become clear from a sensitivity analysis in advance how well and which energy nuclear data could be benchmarked with a benchmark experiment.

  6. Thought Experiment to Examine Benchmark Performance for Fusion Nuclear Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murata Isao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many benchmark experiments carried out so far with DT neutrons especially aiming at fusion reactor development. These integral experiments seemed vaguely to validate the nuclear data below 14 MeV. However, no precise studies exist now. The author’s group thus started to examine how well benchmark experiments with DT neutrons can play a benchmarking role for energies below 14 MeV. Recently, as a next phase, to generalize the above discussion, the energy range was expanded to the entire region. In this study, thought experiments with finer energy bins have thus been conducted to discuss how to generally estimate performance of benchmark experiments. As a result of thought experiments with a point detector, the sensitivity for a discrepancy appearing in the benchmark analysis is “equally” due not only to contribution directly conveyed to the deterctor, but also due to indirect contribution of neutrons (named (A making neutrons conveying the contribution, indirect controbution of neutrons (B making the neutrons (A and so on. From this concept, it would become clear from a sensitivity analysis in advance how well and which energy nuclear data could be benchmarked with a benchmark experiment.

  7. Nuclear fusion during yeast mating occurs by a three-step pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; McIntosh, J Richard; Rose, Mark D

    2007-11-19

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating culminates in nuclear fusion to produce a diploid zygote. Two models for nuclear fusion have been proposed: a one-step model in which the outer and inner nuclear membranes and the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) fuse simultaneously and a three-step model in which the three events occur separately. To differentiate between these models, we used electron tomography and time-lapse light microscopy of early stage wild-type zygotes. We observe two distinct SPBs in approximately 80% of zygotes that contain fused nuclei, whereas we only see fused or partially fused SPBs in zygotes in which the site of nuclear envelope (NE) fusion is already dilated. This demonstrates that SPB fusion occurs after NE fusion. Time-lapse microscopy of zygotes containing fluorescent protein tags that localize to either the NE lumen or the nucleoplasm demonstrates that outer membrane fusion precedes inner membrane fusion. We conclude that nuclear fusion occurs by a three-step pathway.

  8. Prm3p is a pheromone-induced peripheral nuclear envelope protein required for yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Tobery, Cynthia E; Rose, Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear membrane fusion is the last step in the mating pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We adapted a bioinformatics approach to identify putative pheromone-induced membrane proteins potentially required for nuclear membrane fusion. One protein, Prm3p, was found to be required for nuclear membrane fusion; disruption of PRM3 caused a strong bilateral defect, in which nuclear congression was completed but fusion did not occur. Prm3p was localized to the nuclear envelope in pheromone-responding cells, with significant colocalization with the spindle pole body in zygotes. A previous report, using a truncated protein, claimed that Prm3p is localized to the inner nuclear envelope. Based on biochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and live cell microscopy, we find that functional Prm3p is a peripheral membrane protein exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the outer nuclear envelope. In support of this, mutations in a putative nuclear localization sequence had no effect on full-length protein function or localization. In contrast, point mutations and deletions in the highly conserved hydrophobic carboxy-terminal domain disrupted both protein function and localization. Genetic analysis, colocalization, and biochemical experiments indicate that Prm3p interacts directly with Kar5p, suggesting that nuclear membrane fusion is mediated by a protein complex.

  9. Fusion power by magnetic confinement: plans and the associated need for nuclear engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Beard, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    An essential ingredient in the fusion development plan will be the training of appropriate scientific and technical manpower. In examining the need for fusion-trained nuclear engineers, it is projected that an additional 120 to 250 engineers at the MS and PhD levels will be needed between now and 1980. To be most effective, these graduates must not only be trained in the ''classic'' physical, nuclear, mechanical, and electrical sciences, but they will need specialized training in fusion plasma physics and fusion materials science. To help develop the appropriate educational programs, close cooperation between U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) headquarters, ERDA laboratories, private industry, and the universities will be essential. An emerging need for a carefully structured ''fusion technology'' option in nuclear engineering departments is plainly evident and is already beginning to be developed at leading institutions

  10. Nuclear elastic scattering effects on fusion product transport in compact tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVeaux, J.; Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper seeks to advance previous work including the effects of nuclear elastic scattering (NES) on fusion-product transport. We have found that NES may dominate the slowing-down process for high-temperature, advance-fuel plasmas which burn Cat.D or D- 3 He. A modified version of the Monte Carlo fusion product transport code, MCFRM, was used to evaluate the effects of NES on discrete fusion-product orbits in the FRM

  11. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  12. An overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Early in 1992 the idea of purchasing a Russian designed and fabricated space reactor power system and integrating it with a US designed satellite went from fiction to reality with the purchase of the first two Topaz II reactors by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (now the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO)). The New Mexico Alliance was formed to establish a ground test facility in which to perform nonnuclear systems testing of the Topaz II, and to evaluate the Topaz II system for flight testing with respect to safety, performance, and operability. In conjunction, SDIO requested that the Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD propose a mission and design a satellite in which the Topaz II could be used as the power source. The outcome of these two activities was the design of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite which combines a modified Russian Topaz II power system with a US designed satellite to achieve a specified mission. Due to funding reduction within the SDIO, the Topaz II flight program was postponed indefinitely at the end of Fiscal year 1993. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the NEPSTP mission and the satellite design at the time the flight program ended

  13. Summary of particle bed reactor designs for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1993-09-01

    A summary report of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) designs considered for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program has been prepared. The first chapters outline the methods of analysis, and their validation. Monte Carlo methods are used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms are used for the fluid dynamics heat transfer and engine system analysis, and commercially available codes are used for the stress analysis. A critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR was used for the physics validation, and blowdown experiments using fuel beds of prototypic dimensions were used to validate the power extraction capabilities from particle beds. In all four different PBR rocket reactor designs were studied to varying degrees of detail. They varied in power from 400 MW to 2000 MW. These designs were all characterized by a negative prompt coefficient, due to Doppler feedback, and the feedback due to moderator heat up varied from slightly negative to slightly positive. In all practical cases, the coolant worth was positive, although core configurations with negative coolant worth could be designed. In all practical cases the thrust/weight ratio was greater than 20.

  14. Nuclear electric propulsion /NEP/ spacecraft for the outer planet orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, P.W.; Nock, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    The design, operating features, and a possible Neptune orbit for the spacecraft powered by the SP-100 nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system under study by NASA and the DOE are described. The system features a reactor and a payload situated on opposite ends of a 0.5 m diam, 11 m long astromast. Mercury-ion thrusters are located beneath the reactor for side thrusting, and no contamination of the payload or obstruction of the viewing angles for scientific objectives occurs with the system, which would not degrade in performance even under high insolation during near-sun maneuvers. Results of a theoretical study of earth escapes are presented to show that an NEP powered spiral trajectory out of a 700 km Shuttle orbit and using a Triton gravity assist would be superior to departing from a 300 km orbit with a Centaur boost. The mission profile includes a 1249 kg Galileo payload. The SP-100 has a 1.4 MWth reactor with UO2 fuel tiles and weighs 19,904 kg

  15. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, μ-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session

  16. Nuclear fusion ion beam source composed of optimum channel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukaw, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Numerical and experimental researches of the hall-type beam accelerator was conducted by highlighting both neutral species and material of acceleration channel wall. The hall-type beam accelerator is expected as ion beam source for nuclear fusion since it could product ion beam density over 10 3 times as high as that of electrostatic accelerator, which is used regularly as beam heating device, because it is proven that the beam heating method could accelerate ion to high energy beam by electric field and heat plasma to ultra high temperature of 100 million degrees or more. At high-voltage mode of DC regime that is normal operational condition, however, the various plasma MHD (magneto-hydrodynamic) instabilities are generated. In particular, the large-amplitude and low-frequency plasma MHD instability in the tens of kHz among them has been a serious problem that should be solved to improve the operational stability and the system durability. So, we propose a hall-type beam accelerator with new design concepts; both acquisition of simultaneous solution for reducing the plasma MHD instability and the accelerator core overheating and optimum combination of the acceleration channel wall material. The technologies for this concept are as follows: 1) To increase neutral species velocity-inlet in acceleration channel by preheating propellant through circularly propellant conduit line inside accelerator system could bring about the lower amplitude of the instability. 2) Through this method, the accelerator system is cooled, and the higher thrust and specific-impulse is produced with hardly changing thrust efficiency at the same time. 3) To select BN (Boron- Nitride) and Al 2 O 3 as wall material of ionization- and acceleration-zone in acceleration channel respectively having different secondary-electron emission-coefficient could achieve the higher-efficiency and -durability. The hall-type beam accelerator designed using these technologies

  17. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Trkov, A.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations

  18. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  19. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)