WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear fusion propulsion

  1. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  2. The Fusion Driven Rocket: Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fusion Driven rocket (FDR) represents a revolutionary approach to fusion propulsion where the power source releases its energy directly into the propellant, not...

  3. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  4. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  5. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a vastly more efficient propulsion architecture for in-space...

  6. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  7. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  8. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  9. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  10. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    surround ICF rocket concept. Calculated results of a typical propellant surround concept are shown in Figures 16 and 17 With this system, it appears...However, the time available to burn the fusion fuel to the specified burnup is also reduced. This is a minor problem with D-T fuel, but, as will be seen...TABLE 19 TCT FOR INPUT LIST NO. NAME DESCRIPTIQN 1 THRUST ROCKET THRUST, NEWTONS 2 ISP SPECIFIC IMPULSE, SECONDS 3 RATE FUSION REP RATE, HZ 4 BURNUP

  11. Nuclear Pulse Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Atanas, Dilov; Hasan, Osman; Nickolai, Larsen; Tom, Edwards

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive insight into the potential of nuclear fuels to accelerate spacecraft propulsion, shorten journey times and broaden our exploration of space. The current methods of space propulsion offer little in the way of efficiency in terms of cost, time and henceforth investment and research. The dwindling resources of the planet plus the exponential rise of overpopulation will ultimately push us towards exploration of worlds further afield ...

  12. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keaton, P.W.; Tubb, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems

  14. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  15. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  16. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  17. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  18. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades

  19. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  20. Performance Criteria of Nuclear Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    Future exploration of the solar system on a major scale will require propulsion systems capable of performance far greater than is achievable with the present generation of rocket engines using chemical propellants. Viable missions going deeper into interstellar space will be even more demanding. Propulsion systems based on nuclear energy sources, fission or (eventually) fusion offer the best prospect for meeting the requirements. The most obvious gain coming from the application of nuclear reactions is the possibility, at least in principle, of obtaining specific impulses a thousandfold greater than can be achieved in chemically energised rockets. However, practical considerations preclude the possibility of exploiting the full potential of nuclear energy sources in any engines conceivable in terms of presently known technology. Achievable propulsive power is a particularly limiting factor, since this determines the acceleration that may be obtained. Conventional chemical rocket engines have specific propulsive powers (power per unit engine mass) in the order of gigawatts per tonne. One cannot envisage the possibility of approaching such a level of performance by orders of magnitude in presently conceivable nuclear propulsive systems. The time taken, under power, to reach a given terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the engine's exhaust velocity and the inverse of its specific power. An assessment of various nuclear propulsion concepts suggests that, even with the most optimistic assumptions, it could take many hundreds of years to attain the velocities necessary to reach the nearest stars. Exploration within a range of the order of a thousand AU, however, would appear to offer viable prospects, even with the low levels of specific power of presently conceivable nuclear engines.

  1. Nuclear thermal propulsion workshop overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is planning an Exploration Technology Program as part of the Space Exploration Initiative to return U.S. astronauts to the moon, conduct intensive robotic exploration of the moon and Mars, and to conduct a piloted mission to Mars by 2019. Nuclear Propulsion is one of the key technology thrust for the human mission to Mars. The workshop addresses NTP (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) technologies with purpose to: assess the state-of-the-art of nuclear propulsion concepts; assess the potential benefits of the concepts for the mission to Mars; identify critical, enabling technologies; lay-out (first order) technology development plans including facility requirements; and estimate the cost of developing these technologies to flight-ready status. The output from the workshop will serve as a data base for nuclear propulsion project planning

  2. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  3. LASL nuclear rocket propulsion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.E.

    1956-04-01

    The immediate objective of the LASL nuclear propulsion (Rover) program is the development of a heat exchanger reactor system utilizing uranium-graphite fuel elements and ammonia propellant. This program is regarded as the first step in the development of nuclear propulsion systems for missiles. The major tasks of the program include the investigation of materials at high temperatures, development of fuel elements, investigation of basic reactor characteristics, investigation of engine control problems, detailed engine design and ground testing. The organization and scheduling of the initial development program have been worked out in some detail. Only rather general ideas exist concerning the projection of this work beyond 1958.

  4. Fusion Reactions and Matter-Antimatter Annihilation for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-13

    FUSION REACTIONS AND MATTER- ANTIMATTER ANNIHILATION FOR SPACE PROPULSION Claude DEUTSCH LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Bât. 210, UPS, 91405 Orsay...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE šFusion Reactions And Matter- Antimatter Annihilation For Space Propulsion 5a...which is possible with successful MCF or ICF. Appropriate vessel designs will be presented for fusion as well as for antimatter propulsion. In

  5. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  6. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  7. Nuclear gas core propulsion research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the nuclear gas core propulsion research program are presented. The objectives of this research are to develop models and experiments, systems, and fuel elements for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion rockets. The fuel elements under investigation are suitable for gas/vapor and multiphase fuel reactors. Topics covered include advanced nuclear propulsion studies, nuclear vapor thermal rocket (NVTR) studies, and ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuels and materials studies.

  8. Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation

  9. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  11. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  12. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  13. Philosophy for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy used for development of nuclear thermal propulsion will determine the cost, schedule and risk associated with the activities. As important is the impression of the decision makers. If the development cost is higher than the product value, it is doubtful that funding will ever be available. On the other hand, if the development supports the economic welfare of the country with a high rate of return, the probability of funding greatly increases. The philosophy is divided into: realism, design, operations and qualification. ''Realism'' addresses such items as political acceptability, potential customers, robustness-flexibility, public acceptance, decisions as needed, concurrent engineering, and the possible role of the CIS. ''Design'' addresses ''minimum requirement,'' built in safety and reliability redundancy, emphasize on eliminating risk at lowest levels, and the possible inclusion of electric generation. ''Operations'' addresses sately, environment, operations, design margins and degradation modes. ''Qualification'' addresses testing needs and test facilities

  14. Energy from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkau, K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fusion research is conducted for the long-term objective of developing a power plant generating energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei. In order for the fusion fire to be ignited the fuel, a hydrogen plasma, must be confined in magnetic fields and heated to high temperatures - a design principle resulting in good safety characteristics and environmental compatibility. As the source materials required for the fusion process are available in almost unlimited quantities and are distributed all over the world, nuclear fusion could make a sizeable contribution towards future energy supplies. Since its beginnings in the early fifties, fusion research has approached its ambitious goal in painstaking, detailed work. Sometimes unnoticed by the public, these activities have made considerable progress especially in the past few years. Such formerly critical problems as plasma heating, thermal insulation, prevention of plasma impurities, and energy extraction can now be considered nearly solved. It has been possible in the meantime to generate fusion powers of several megawatt. The results obtained so far allow a test reactor to be planned which, for the first time, is to produce a self-sustaining plasma with powers in the gigawatt range. (orig.) [de

  15. NASA program planning on nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the focused technology planning for future NASA space science and exploration missions, NASA has initiated a focused technology program to develop the technologies for nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear thermal propulsion. Beginning in 1990, NASA began a series of interagency planning workshops and meetings to identify key technologies and program priorities for nuclear propulsion. The high-priority, near-term technologies that must be developed to make NEP operational for space exploration include scaling thrusters to higher power, developing high-temperature power processing units, and developing high power, low-mass, long-lived nuclear reactors.

  16. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Hasegawa, A.; Santarius, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the unique advantages of fusion rocket propulsion systems for distant missions are explored using the magnetic dipole configuration as an example. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of 1 kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in 1 yr and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 yr. This is about ten times better specific power performance than nuclear electric fission systems. Possibilities to further increase the specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as is an approach to implementing the concept through proof testing on the moon

  17. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  18. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  19. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program is presented in graphic form. A program organizational chart is presented that shows the government and industry participants. Enabling technologies and test facilities and approaches are also addressed.

  20. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  1. Gradient Field Imploding Liner Fusion Propulsion System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative modification to magneto-inertial fusion is proposed in which the pulsed, high current magnetic field coil and stationary central fuel target are...

  2. A development approach for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and time to develop nuclear thermal propulsion systems are very approach dependent. The objectives addressed are the development of an ''acceptable'' nuclear thermal propulsion system that can be used as part of the transportation system for people to explore Mars and the enhancement performance of other missions, within highly constrained budgets and schedules. To accomplish this, it was necessary to identify the cost drivers considering mission parameters, safety of the crew, mission success, facility availability and time and cost to construct new facilities, qualification criteria, status of technologies, management structure, and use of such system engineering techniques as concurrent engineering

  3. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear Propulsion for Space (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R; Schwenk, Francis C

    1971-01-01

    The operation of nuclear rockets and a description of the development of nuclear rockets in the U.S. is given. Early developments and Project Rover, Project Pluto, and the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) Program are detailed. The Nuclear Rocket Development Station facilities in Nevada are described. The possibilities and advantages of using nuclear rockets for missions beginning from an earth orbit and moving outward toward higher earth orbits, the moon, and the planets are discussed.

  5. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  6. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (prior to FY15: Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key goal of the project is to address critical, long-term nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology challenges and issues through development, analysis, and...

  8. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  9. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  10. Nuclear data needs for fusion programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.

    1991-02-01

    A review is given in areas relevant to nuclear data needs for fusion programs. These areas address the motivation and direction of fusion nuclear data development activities and include fusion fuel cycles, nuclear data needs, low activation fusion motivations, and progress on fusion nuclear data development activities. A list of important activation cross sections is presented whose measured data are needed to help assess some fusion reactor design issues. 11 refs

  11. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo; Yamada, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, said magnetic limiter being supported in such a manner so as to not to exert mechanical action upon said vacuum vessel, thereby minimizing a force applied to the vacuum vessel to easily manufacture the vacuum vessel. Structure: The magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel is connected to one end of a supporting post which extends through the wall of the vacuum vessel through a seal portion, the other end of the supporting post being secured to a structure such as a house outside the vacuum vessel. The seal portion comprises a bellows of high spring elasticity mounted on the vacuum vessel and a seal element comprised of an electric insulator such as ceramic for connecting the bellows to the supporting post, the supporting post extending through the wall of the vacuum vessel in vacuum-tight fashion, the force applied to the magnetic limiter exerting no influence upon the vacuum vessel. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Disposal modes for Mars transfer nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Friedlander, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    A managed disposal approach is proposed that would place the nuclear stage or vehicle in a highly stable orbit at modest cost to mission performance. The approach requires only a small increase in initial mass in LEO, but should be included in preliminary trajectory design and performance calculations. The mass penalty is expected to be larger for all-up flight profiles, or in cases of high-thrust propulsion systems for the cargo vehicle.

  13. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as a propulsion concept which could provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for...

  14. Nuclear fusion - a strategic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of nuclear fusion research with particular reference to Europe are reviewed. The energy scenario with regard to nuclear fusion is considered including economic, political and scientific problems of energy policy in view of the long-term research effort required. Mention is also made of the need to phase out the use of fossil fuels for environmental reasons. Research into magnetic and inertial confinement fusion is considered. It is concluded that the development of thermonuclear reactors will eventually be brought to practical fruition. (UK)

  15. MSFC nuclear thermal propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swint, Shane

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on non-nuclear materials assessment, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) turbomachinery technologies, and high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing technology are presented. The objective of the materials task is to identify and evaluate candidate materials for use in NTP turbomachinery and propellant feed system applications. The objective of the turbomachinery technology task is to develop and validate advanced turbomachinery technologies at the component and turbopump assembly levels. The objective of the high temperature superconductors (HTS) task is to develop and validate advanced technology for HTS passive magnetic/hydrostatic bearing.

  16. High Efficiency RF Heating for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power nuclear fusion propulsion systems will require high efficiency radio-frequency heating systems in the MHz range for plasma heating. This proposal is for a...

  17. Nuclear Propulsion for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Bechtel, R. D.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Basics of Nuclear Systems: Long history of use on Apollo and space science missions. 44 RTGs and hundreds of RHUs launched by U.S. during past 4 decades. Heat produced from natural alpha (a) particle decay of Plutonium (Pu-238). Used for both thermal management and electricity production. Used terrestrially for over 65 years. Fissioning 1 kg of uranium yields as much energy as burning 2,700,000 kg of coal. One US space reactor (SNAP-10A) flown (1965). Former U.S.S.R. flew 33 space reactors. Heat produced from neutron-induced splitting of a nucleus (e.g. U-235). At steady-state, 1 of the 2 to 3 neutrons released in the reaction causes a subsequent fission in a "chain reaction" process. Heat converted to electricity, or used directly to heat a propellant. Fission is highly versatile with many applications.

  18. Shielding Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Gomez, Carlos F.; Scharber, Luke L.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation shielding analysis and development for the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) effort is currently in progress and preliminary results have enabled consideration for critical interfaces in the reactor and propulsion stage systems. Early analyses have highlighted a number of engineering constraints, challenges, and possible mitigating solutions. Performance constraints include permissible crew dose rates (shared with expected cosmic ray dose), radiation heating flux into cryogenic propellant, and material radiation damage in critical components. Design strategies in staging can serve to reduce radiation scatter and enhance the effectiveness of inherent shielding within the spacecraft while minimizing the required mass of shielding in the reactor system. Within the reactor system, shield design is further constrained by the need for active cooling with minimal radiation streaming through flow channels. Material selection and thermal design must maximize the reliability of the shield to survive the extreme environment through a long duration mission with multiple engine restarts. A discussion of these challenges and relevant design strategies are provided for the mitigation of radiation in nuclear thermal propulsion.

  19. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  20. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.; Borowski, S.; Helms, I.; Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S.; Latham, T.

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a ''level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Chemistry in and from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1989-01-01

    The time, of the realization of nuclear fusion reactor is not clear even now. However, it is generally believed that the nuclear fusion is only one candidate of the big power source for humanbeing. We may be not able to, but our children or grandchildren would be able to see the nuclear fusion reactors. The nuclear fusion development may be the last and biggest technology program for us, so it will take so long leading time. Now, we are in the first stage of this leading time, I think. As being found in the history of every technology, chemistry is essential to develop the fusion nuclear technology. To assure the safety of the nuclear fusion system, chemistry should play the main role. There have been already not a few advanced chemistry initiated by the connected technologies with the nuclear fusion researches. The nuclear fusion needs chemistry and the nuclear fusion leads some of the new phases of chemistry. (author)

  2. Normal temperature nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroshige.

    1991-01-01

    In a normal temperature nuclear fusion device, electromagnetic waves such as laser beams are irradiated to nuclear fusion fuels made of specific material to which heavy water, etc. are impregnated or adsorbed. That is, nuclear fusion fuels in the form of high pressure gas are sealed in a high pressure vessel and the specific material such as of palladium is made into a small spherical shape. Further, a storage vessel capable of supplying the specific material is provided and cooled if required. Lasers at a wavelength longer than that of sub-millimeter waves are used for the irradiation of the electromagnetic waves. If lasers are irradiated to the deuterium-adsorbing specific material, deuterium is rapidly applied with a kinetic energy to increase the cross sectional area of the nuclear fusion reaction. The adsorbing efficiency of deuterism to the specific material is improved by placing the specific material in the atmosphere of the nuclear fusion fuels in the form of the high pressure gas and making it into the small spherical shape. Further, cooling also improves the adsorbing efficiency of deuterium. In view of the above, continuous combustion can be conducted. (I.S.)

  3. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  4. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  5. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  6. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing thc plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement propenies of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enter the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  7. Oxygen Containment System Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) ground testing conducted in the 1950s and 1960s during the ROVER/(Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program...

  8. Nuclear propulsion in high yield vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Aimone, Julio

    2000-01-01

    Current developments in advanced ship design brings high-speed maritime transportation closer to reality, aiming to create new markets and to recover a fraction of the high value goods now shipped only by air. High-speed transport is growing at a rate of 15% per year, higher than air transport and at a fraction of air tariffs. Although such growth rate is restricted to passengers and automobiles, there is a potential for high-speed cargo in some routes. A recent proposal is Fast Ship, a 260 m long, 40 m wide concept designed to cruise from Philadelphia to Cherbourg in less that 4 days, for a door-to-door timely cargo delivery of 7 days, thanks to an advanced hull design, and a high power propulsion plant to compensate for weather-related delays. However, almost 40% of the total operation cost would be fuel. This appears to be a natural application for nuclear power, in a similar way to the golden age of this technology. A nuclear Fast Ship would save almost 5000 tons of a fuel per trip, and about half of such spare might be available for additional cargo. Furthermore, operation costs would be smaller and very stable to resource price fluctuation, plus a few other advantages. For other ocean markets, such as the Asia-America route, nuclear power would become a much better choice. This paper discusses the reactor type and layout suitable for such application. The ship designer is aware of the current proposal, although the power pack is not readily available today and its political aspects have not been dealt with. The economy of our nation relies on exports and almost 90% of such flow goes by sea. It is also possible that in the future, Mercosur might have a dependency on such high-speed transport mode and propulsion system (au)

  9. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow. 10 refs., 1 tab

  10. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow.

  11. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  12. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented

  13. A novel nuclear-powered propulsion system for ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Han Weishi

    2003-01-01

    A novel nuclear-powered propulsion system for ship is presented in this paper. In this system, a minitype liquid sodium-cooled reactor is used as power; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are utilized to transform the heat energy to electric energy and superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) work as propulsion. This nuclear-powered propulsion system has great advantages in low noise, high speed, long survivability and simple manipulation. It has great significance for the development of propulsion system. (author)

  14. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  15. Legal Implications of Nuclear Propulsion for Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine nuclear propulsion concepts such as "Project Orion", "Project Daedalus", NERVA, VASIMIR, from the legal point of view. The UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space apply to nuclear power sources in outer space devoted to the generation of electric power on board space objects for non-propulsive purposes, and do not regulate the use of nuclear energy as a means of propulsion. However, nuclear propulsion by means of detonating atomic bombs (ORION) is, in principle, banned under the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water. The legality of use of nuclear propulsion will be analysed from different approaches - historical (i.e. the lawfulness of these projects at the time of their proposal, at the present time, and in the future - in the light of the mutability and evolution of international law), spatial (i.e. the legal regime governing peaceful nuclear explosions in different spatial zones - Earth atmosphere, Earth orbit, Solar System, and interstellar space), and technical (i.e, the legal regime applicable to different nuclear propulsion techniques, and to the various negative effects - e.g. damage to other space systems as an effect of the electromagnetic pulse, etc). The paper will analyse the positive law, and will also come with suggestions "de lege ferenda".

  16. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  18. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  19. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  20. Study on the Feasibility of Direct Fusion Energy Conversion for Deep-Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Miley, George H.; Scott, John H.

    2012-10-01

    A significant change in the current space mission capabilities can be achieved with a highly efficient integration of a fusion energy source with an advanced space propulsion thruster, both with low specific mass. With aneutronic nuclear fusion as the high-density primary energy source, this study considers first electric energy extraction from the fusion reaction products via direct energy conversion to recirculate power as required for the operation of the fusion core. Then the beam of remaining reaction products is conditioned to achieve the optimal thrust and specific impulse for the mission. The research is specifically focused on two key issues: (i) Efficiency improvement of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) by achieving a higher ion beam density and optimization of the electrode coupling and of the neutralizing electron flow. (ii) A fast-particle kinetic energy-to-thrust conversion process based on collective interaction between ion bunches well separated in space [2]. Computer simulation results and a design for a basic physics experiment currently under development are reported. [4pt] [1] H. Momota et al., Fus. Tech., 35, 60(1999)[0pt] [2] A. G. Tarditi et al. Proc. NETS 2012 Conf., Woodlands, TX (2012)

  1. Superconducting Electric Boost Pump for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A submersible, superconducting electric boost pump sized to meet the needs of future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems in the 25,000 lbf thrust range is proposed....

  2. Book no.9. Nuclear naval propulsion: a comprehensive inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the nuclear reactors and fuels used for ship propulsion. A review is made of the present day condition of the fleet of nuclear submarines and other ships worldwide with an assessment of the related risks. An inventory is given of the known submarine accidents between 1960 and 2002. Finally the design of the future nuclear submarines is presented. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felt—honored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomable—would this paper follow the brilliant work

  4. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  5. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Earl Marmar in 1995, I installed a compact von Hamos type x-ray spectrometer (originally built with Elisabeth Rachlew and Jan Kallne) on a tangentially viewing port on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The spectrometer views the plasma through a 2 cm diameter hole, and is tuned to H-like argon, suitable for passive measurement of the core toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler shift. It soon became evident that the rotation in Ohmic L-mode discharges, while for the most part directed counter-current, depends in a very complicated fashion on plasma parameters, notably the electron density, current and magnetic configuration. The rotation can even flip sign for almost no apparent reason! In Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas the rotation is in the co-current direction and has a relatively simple dependence on plasma parameters, proportional to the stored energy normalized to the current. Rotation velocities as high as 130 km s-1 have been observed without external momentum input. In dimensionless terms this intrinsic (or spontaneous rotation) depends on the normalized plasma pressure. The association of toroidal rotation with plasma pressure in ICRF H-modes was first observed by Lars-Goran Eriksson in JET discharges. Similar results were subsequently reported for Tore Supra enhanced confinement plasmas. In the early 2000s concerns began to surface about the lack of substantial neutral beam driven rotation in ITER, and intrinsic rotation became a topic of interest in the ITPA Transport Group. Through that connection, similar observations from DIII-D, TCV and JT-60U were added to the growing list. A database of intrinsic rotation observations was assembled with the goal of extrapolating to the expected values for ITER. Both dimensional and dimensionless scalings were developed and formed the backbone of the 2007 Nuclear Fusion paper. I gratefully acknowledge the important contributions to this paper from

  6. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles (POSTPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knecht, Sean D; Mead, Franklin B; Thomas, Robert E; Miley, George H; Froning, David

    2005-01-01

    ...) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced "waverider"-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle...

  7. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  8. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future

  9. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  10. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  11. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  12. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments

  13. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  14. Theory of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1991-01-01

    In order to cause nuclear fusion reaction, it is necessary to bring the nuclei having positive charges to the distance at which the reaction occurs, overcoming the Coulomb barrier. For the purpose, the thermo-nuclear fusion process is considered to be most promising, and the research and development have been advanced. Except the case of muon catalyst nuclear fusion, it has been considered that nuclear fusion does not occur near normal temperature. In order to clarify the existence of cold nuclear fusion reaction and its mechanism, several basic questions must be answered, but in spite of many theoretical attempts, the answer is not yet obtained. In this report, the research of seeking the factors which heighten the effect of shielding of Coulomb field and explaining the phenomena by two-body collision, the research of explaining the phenomena by collective nuclear reactions, and the research which considers that the phenomena observed while doubting the existence of cold nuclear fusion arose due to other causes than the cold nuclear fusion are described. (K.I.)

  15. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  16. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  17. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown

  18. Nuclear propulsion: an indispensable know-how to national sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Michel; Tertrais, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed presentation of the role nuclear-powered submarines in the French defence strategy, policy and security, and also a focus on the role of nuclear propulsion in these respects. The first part presents an overview of the role of submarines in the French strategy. It addresses the choice and interest of a deterrence policy for France, describes the role of submarines in this deterrence, and the role of SSNs in the French defence and security policy (support to deterrence, other strategic functions, protection). In the second part, the authors highlight the crucial role of nuclear propulsion by proposing an overview of a century of submarine evolution, by outlining their stealth and detection in above water and underwater warfare, by presenting SSBNs, by giving an overview of the different capacities of modern SSNs (weapons, above water warfare, under water warfare, ground strike capacities, special operations). It finally proposes an assessment of submarine operations. The last part addresses perspectives of evolution of operational requirements within the framework of the French strategy, its consequences on submarine acquisition programmes (for France and for the USA), its consequences in terms of numbers of SSNs and SSBNs, and its consequences in terms necessity of an industrial background. It also addresses European perspectives in terms of design, construction and abilities in the field of nuclear propulsion, and briefly other applications in marine nuclear propulsion. Issues of export and proliferation are also briefly addressed. Appendices propose presentations of the existing fleet of SSNs and SSBNs in the world

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for the Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, M.; Polk, J. E.; Lenard, R.

    2001-01-01

    New power and propulsion technology efforts such as the DS-1 ion propulsion system demonstration and renewed interest in space nuclear power sources call for a reassessment of the mission benefits of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). In this study, a large emphasis has been placed in defining the NEP vehicle configuration and corresponding subsystem elements in order to produce an estimate of the vehicle's payload delivery capability which is as credible as possible. Both a 100 kWe and a 1 MWe system are defined. Various Outer Planet missions are evaluated using NEP, such as a Pluto Orbiter, a Europa Lander and Sample Return, attain/Saturn Sample Return and a Neptune Orbiter. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  1. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  2. Overview on Fusion Nuclear Technology Experimental Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Kysela, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021018. ISSN 2332-8983 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * corrosion * thermohydraulic * LiPb * HHF * ITER Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  3. Nuclear data for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The meeting was organized in four sessions and four working groups devoted to the following topics: Requirements of nuclear data for fusion reactor technology (6 papers); Status of experimental and theoretical investigations of microscopic nuclear data (10 papers); Status of existing libraries for fusion neutronic calculations (5 papers); and Status of integral experiments and benchmark tests (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  4. Fusion Nuclear Data activities at FNL, IPR

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Prajapati; B. Pandey; S. Jakhar; C.V. S. Rao; T. K. Basu; B. K. Nayak; S. V. Suryanarayana; A. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the current fusion nuclear data activities at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, Institute for Plasma Research. It consist of infrastructure development for the cross-section measurements of structural materials with an accelerator based 14 MeV neutron generator and theoretical study of the cross-section using advanced nuclear reaction modular codes EMPIRE and TALYS. It will also cover the proposed surrogate experiment to measure 55Fe (n, p) 55Mn using BARC-TIFR Pel...

  5. Nuclear reactor plant development for submarine propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkov, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    History of creating nuclear submarines in the USSR is considered. The above-mentioned works began in 1952. Water cooled and moderated reactor was chosen for the submarine propulsion system. Small-sized high-intensity and high-mobile power facility meeting the submarine requirements was created

  6. An historical collection of papers on nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present volume of historical papers on nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) encompasses NTP technology development regarding solid-core NTP technology, advanced concepts from the early years of NTP research, and recent activities in the field. Specific issues addressed include NERVA rocket-engine technology, the development of nuclear rocket propulsion at Los Alamos, fuel-element development, reactor testing for the Rover program, and an overview of NTP concepts and research emphasizing two decades of NASA research. Also addressed are the development of the 'nuclear light bulb' closed-cycle gas core and a demonstration of a fissioning UF6 gas in an argon vortex. The recent developments reviewed include the application of NTP to NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System, the use of NTP for the Space Exploration Initiative, and the development of nuclear rocket engines in the former Soviet Union.

  7. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  8. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis

  9. Nuclear fusion: power for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The basis of fusion reactions is outlined, with special reference to deuterium and tritium (from lithium, by neutron reaction) as reactants, and the state of research worldwide is indicated. The problems inherent in fusion reactions are discussed, plasma is defined, and the steps to be taken to generate electricity from controlled nuclear fusion are stated. Methods of plasma heating and plasma confinement are considered, leading to a description of the tokamak plasma confinement system. Devices under construction include the JET (Joint European Torus) Undertaking in the UK. Plans and possibilities for fusion reactors are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear radiation problems, unmanned thermionic reactor ion propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Sawyer, C. D.; Nakashima, A.

    1972-01-01

    A nuclear thermionic reactor as the electric power source for an electric propulsion spacecraft introduces a nuclear radiation environment that affects the spacecraft configuration, the use and location of electrical insulators and the science experiments. The spacecraft is conceptually configured to minimize the nuclear shield weight by: (1) a large length to diameter spacecraft; (2) eliminating piping penetrations through the shield; and (3) using the mercury propellant as gamma shield. Since the alumina material is damaged by the high nuclear radiation environment in the reactor it is desirable to locate the alumina insulator outside the reflector or develop a more radiation resistant insulator.

  11. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~11.5) and a specific impulse of ~950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines.

  12. Prospect of realizing nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Report describes the results of the research work on nuclear fusion, which CRIEPI has carried out for about ten years from the standpoint of electric power utilities, potential user of its energy. The principal points are; (a) economic analysis (calculation of costs) based on Japanese analysis procedures and database of commercial fusion reactors, including fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and (b) conceptual design of two types of hybrid reactors, that is, fission-fuel producing DMHR (Demonstration Molten-Salt Hybrid Reactor) and electric-power producing THPR (Tokamak Hybrid Power Reactor). The Report consists of the following chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Reactors. 3. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fusion Reactors. 4. Basic Studies Applicable Also to Nuclear Fusion Technology. 5. List of Published Reports and Papers; 6. Conclusion. Appendices. (author)

  13. Nuclear Fusion with Polarized Nucleons & PolFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Ralf; Büscher, Markus; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a detailed examination of the latest work on the potential of polarized fuel to realize the vision of energy production by nuclear fusion. It brings together contributions from nuclear physicists and fusion physicists with the aims of fostering exchange of information between the two communities, describing the current status in the field, and examining new ideas and projects under development. It is evident that polarized fuel can offer huge improvements for the first generation of fusion reactors and open new technological possibilities for future generations, including neutron lean reactors, which could be the most popular and sustainable energy production option to avoid environmental problems. Nevertheless, many questions must be resolved before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different reactor types. Readers will find this book to be a stimulating source of information on the key issues. It is based on contributions from leading scientists delivered at the meetin...

  14. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  15. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  16. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  17. Assessment of Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Facility and Capability Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    The development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system rests heavily upon being able to fabricate and demonstrate the performance of a high temperature nuclear fuel as well as demonstrating an integrated system prior to launch. A number of studies have been performed in the past which identified the facilities needed and the capabilities available to meet the needs and requirements identified at that time. Since that time, many facilities and capabilities within the Department of Energy have been removed or decommissioned. This paper provides a brief overview of the anticipated facility needs and identifies some promising concepts to be considered which could support the development of a nuclear thermal propulsion system. Detailed trade studies will need to be performed to support the decision making process.

  18. Nuclear fusion, an energy source of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppendoerfer, W.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to obtain energy by nuclear fusion. It deals successively with: The physical bases of nuclear fusion, research and development with a view to harnessing nuclear fusion, properties of a fusion reactor, and programme and timetable to economic exploitation. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Fusion of Nuclear and Emerging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khaer Alang Rashid

    2005-04-01

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: emerging technology; nuclear technology; fusion emerging and nuclear technology; progressive nature of knowledge; optically stimulated luminescence - application of luminescence technology to sediments; Biosystemics technology -convergence nanotechnology, ecological science, biotechnology, cognitive science and IT - prospective impact on materials science, the management of public system for bio-health, eco and food system integrity and disease mitigation

  20. Revisiting Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Thomas K.; Rodriguez, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has long been considered as a viable in-space transportation alternative for delivering crew and cargo to the Martian system. While technology development work in nuclear propulsion has continued over the year, general interest in NTP propulsion applications has historically been tied directly to the ebb and flow of interest in sending humans to explore Mars. As far back as the 1960’s, plans for NTP-based human Mars exploration have been proposed and periodically revisited having most recently been considered as part of NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0. NASA has been investigating human Mars exploration strategies tied to its current Journey to Mars for the past few years however, NTP has only recently been added into the set of alternatives under consideration for in-space propulsion under the Mars Study Capability (MSC) team, formerly the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) team. The original charter of the EMC was to find viable human Mars exploration approaches that relied heavily on technology investment work already underway, specifically related to the development of large Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) systems. The EMC team baselined several departures from traditional Mars exploration ground rules to enable these types of architectures. These ground rule changes included lower energy conjunction class trajectories with corresponding longer flight times, aggregation of mission elements in cis-Lunar space rather than Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and, in some cases, the pre-deployment of Earth return propulsion systems to Mars. As the MSC team continues to refine the in-space transportation trades, an NTP-based architecture that takes advantage of some of these ground rule departures is being introduced.

  1. Nuclear data needs for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear design of fusion components (e.g., first wall, blanket, shield, magnet, limiter, divertor, etc.) requires an accurate prediction of the radiation field, the radiation damage parameters, and the activation analysis. The fusion nucleonics for these tasks are reviewed with special attention to point out nuclear data needs and deficiencies which effect the design process. The main areas included in this review are tritium breeding analyses, nuclear heating calculations, radiation damage in reactor components, shield designs, and results of uncertainty analyses as applied to fusion reactor studies. Design choices and reactor parameters that impact the neutronics performance of the blanket are discussed with emphasis on the tritium breeding ratio. Nuclear data required for kerma factors, shielding analysis, and radiation damage are discussed. Improvements in the evaluated data libraries are described to overcome the existing problems. 84 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Mars mission performance enhancement with hybrid nuclear propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Noffsinger, K. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segna, D. R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  3. The European programme for controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. The nuclear fusion reactors are presented with the two approaches: magnetic confinement and inertial confinement; are described: the place of fusion in the world energy scene and its importance for Europe, how research is at present organized, and the European programme with this next stage: the JET (Joint European Torus), the largest tokamak machine in Europe

  4. Robotic planetary mission benefits from nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.H.; Yen, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several interesting planetary missions are either enabled or significantly enhanced by nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) in the 50 to 100 kW power range. These missions include a Pluto Orbiter/Probe with an 11-year flight time and several years of operational life in orbit versus a ballistic very fast (13 km/s) flyby which would take longer to get to Pluto and would have a very short time to observe the planet. (A ballistic orbiter would take about 40 years to get to Pluto.) Other missions include a Neptune Orbiter/Probe, a Jupiter Grand Tour orbiting each of the major moons in order, a Uranus Orbiter/Probe, a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous orbiting six selected asteroids, and a Comet Nucleus Sample Return. This paper discusses potential missions and compares the nuclear electric propulsion option to the conventional ballistic approach on a parametric basis

  5. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-11-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  6. Reactor physics in support of the naval nuclear propulsion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisley, P.G.; Beeley, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reactor physics is a core component of all courses but in particular two postgraduate courses taught at the department in support of the naval nuclear propulsion programme. All of the courses include the following elements: lectures and problem solving exercises, laboratory work, experiments on the Jason zero power Argonaut reactor, demonstration of PWR behavior on a digital computer simulator and project work. This paper will highlight the emphasis on reactor physics in all elements of the education and training programme. (authors). 9 refs

  7. Democritos: preparing demonstrators for high power nuclear electric space propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Frederic; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Worms, Jean-Claude; Detsis, Emmanouil; Beaurain, André; Lassoudiere, Francois; Gaia, Enrico; Tosi, Maria -Christina; Jansen, Frank; Bauer, Waldemar; Semenkin, Alexander; Tinsley, Tim; Hodgson, Zara

    2015-01-01

    The Democritos project aims at preparing demonstrators for a megawatt class nuclearelectric space propulsion. It is funded by Horizon 2020, the R&T program of the European Community. It is a new European and Russian project, including as partners: Nuclear National Laboratory (U.K.), DLR (Germany), The Keldysh Research Center (Russia), Thales Alenia Space Italia (Italy), Snecma (France), ESF (France) and CNES (France). IEAV (Brazil) will join as an observer. Democritos is the follo...

  8. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  9. Nuclear fusion research in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheetham, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the recently formed National Plasma Fusion Research Facility centred around the H-1NF Heliac, located at the Australian National University, the Institute of Advanced Studies is described in the context of the international Stellarator program and the national collaboration with the Australian Fusion Research Group. The objectives of the facility and the planned physics research program over the next five years are discussed and some recent results will be presented. The facility will support investigations in the following research areas: finite pressure equilibrium and stability, transport in high temperature plasmas, plasma heating and formation, instabilities and turbulence, edge plasma physics and advanced diagnostic development

  10. Progress of laser nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraga, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and features of nuclear fusion using laser, as well as its basic concepts such as high-temperature / high-density implosion system and fast ignition of fuel. At present, researches aiming at nuclear fusion ignition have been developing. As the current state of researches, this paper reviews the situations of FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project of Japan focusing on direct irradiation implosion and fast ignition system, as well as NIF (National Ignition Facility) project of the U.S. aiming at ignition combustion based on indirect irradiation implosion and central ignition system. In collaboration with the National Institute for Fusion Science, Osaka University started FIREX-1 project in 2003. It built a heating laser LFEX of 10 kJ/1 to 10ps, and started an implosion/heating integration experiment in 2009. Currently, it is developing experiment to achieve heating to 5 keV. At NIF, the self-heating of central sparks via energy of α particles generated in the nuclear fusion reaction has been realized. This paper also overviews R and D issues surrounding the lasers for reactors for use in laser nuclear fusion power generators. (A.O.)

  11. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as a propulsion concept which could provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for...

  12. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  13. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  14. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Fuel Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar; Webb, Jon; Qualls, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) is a game changing technology for space exploration. Goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS includes these overall tasks: (1) Pre-conceptual design of the NCPS and architecture integration (2) NCPS Fuel Design and Testing (3) Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) (4) Affordable NCPS Development and Qualification Strategy (5) Second Generation NCPS Concepts. There is a critical need for fuels development. Fuel task objectives are to demonstrate capabilities and critical technologies using full scale element fabrication and testing.

  15. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government

  16. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  17. Hybrid fission-fusion nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid could contribute to all components of nuclear power - fuel supply, electricity production, and waste management. The idea of the fusion-fission hybrid is many decades old. Several ideas, both new and revisited, have been investigated by hybrid proponents. These ideas appear to have attractive features, but they require various levels of advances in plasma science and fusion and nuclear technology. As a first step towards the development of hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources can be considered as an option. Compact high-field tokamaks can be a candidate for being the neutron source in a fission-fusion hybrid, essentially due to their design characteristics, such as compact dimensions, high magnetic field, flexibility of operation. This study presents the development of a tokamak neutron source for a material testing facility using an Ignitor-based concept. The computed values show the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion materials testing. Some full-power months of operation are sufficient to obtain relevant radiation damage values in terms of dpa. (Author)

  18. G8 decision on fusion would herald nuclear future

    CERN Multimedia

    Starck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fusion as a future abundant energy source would receive a boost if G8 leaders agree next month on the site for the world's first fusion test reactor, two nuclear scientists said on Wednesday (1 page)

  19. Technology of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of the following topics treated at the meeting (invited papers and sessions): international programs (Japanese, Joint European Tokamak, Euratom non-JET, ERDA magnetic, ERDA laser, and Electric Power Research Institute programmes); non-commercial reactor designs; commercial reactor designs; radiation damage; plasma engineering; tritium and neutronics; confinement system technology; environment and safety; blanket engineering and materials testing; fusion-fission hybrid reactors

  20. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications.

  1. Carbon-carbon turbopump concept for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-06-01

    The U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is placing high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio in the development of a practical high-performance nuclear rocket. The turbopump design is driven by these goals. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is from rapid heating of the propellant from 180 R to thousands of degrees in the particle bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. A high-performance approach is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. Carbon-carbon components are used throughout the TPA hot section to obtain the high-temperature capability. Several carbon-carbon components are in development including structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines and many other turbomachinery applications.

  2. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  3. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  4. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  5. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway

  6. Feasibility of the recent Russian nuclear electric propulsion concept: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakirov, Vadim; Pavshook, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The paper focuses on feasibility of the Russian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept. → The Russian NEP concept is based on the past experience and is, therefore, technically feasible. → The big concern is that the program will be cancelled due to non-technical issues. - Abstract: The paper introduces recent Russian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept for space exploration. The concept advantages are listed along with future missions. The current development status for the two main enabling technologies is presented and the feasibility analysis of the up-to-date experience is performed. The main features of NEP concept are discussed. Revision of these features and available technologies demonstrates that the NEP concept is a logical continuation of the previous efforts by the former Soviet Union. Because no breakthrough technologies are needed for NEP development while the existing technologies only need to be adapted to the megawatt (MW) class NEP the development is considered technically feasible, low risk program likely to succeed unless cancelled by the listed non-technical reasons. Successful NEP space vehicle development is going to bring practical space exploration of solar system to the new level as well as require supplementary payload program, supporting monitoring and communication radar networks. Nuclear safety during future NEP missions can be ensured by adherence to the United Nations guidelines in the same way it was done during the Soviet Topaz Nuclear Power System (NPS) missions.

  7. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  8. Confusion about nuclear fusion: a false report is laid bare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsches, E.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the inaccurate and precipitate news of alleged successful controlled nuclear fusion in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton University. The later modified published report indicated that in a first test, fractional second operation had produced plasma gas temperature of 100,000 0 C whereas 100 million degrees C is necessary for hydrogen nuclear fusion. Also power generation from nuclear fusion is still a long term goal. Problems of nuclear fusion are very briefly mentioned, and an impression of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor is illustrated. (H.V.H.)

  9. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  10. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  11. Lightweight Damage Tolerant, High-Temperature Radiators for Nuclear Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Paul D.; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is increasingly emphasizing exploration to bodies beyond near-Earth orbit. New propulsion systems and new spacecraft are being built for these missions. As the target bodies get further out from Earth, high energy density systems, e.g., nuclear fusion, for propulsion and power will be advantageous. The mass and size of these systems, including supporting systems such as the heat exchange system, including thermal radiators, will need to be as small as possible. Conventional heat exchange systems are a significant portion of the total thermal management mass and size. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed, in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Heat from the reactor is converted to power for use in propulsion or for system power. The heat not used in the power conversion is then radiated to space as shown in figure 1. Advanced power conversion technologies will require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow significant decreases in the total mass of the radiators and significant increases in the operating temperature of the fins. A Center-funded project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has shown that high thermal conductivity, woven carbon fiber fins with no matrix material, can be used to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems and because of high specific power (kW/kg), will require less mass and possibly less total area than standard metal and composite radiator fins for radiating the same amount of heat. This project uses an innovative approach to reduce the mass and size required for the thermal radiators to the point that in-space NEP and power

  12. Chemical engineering side of nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1976-10-01

    It is widely recognized that chemical engineering has important roles to play in the development of national and world wide energy resources through optimal utilization of fossil fuel reserves. It is much less appreciated that there are crucial chemical engineering problems in the development of energy production from other sources. In particular the successful development of nuclear fusion power generating systems will require the solution of many problems that are uniquely suited to chemical engineers. This article presents a brief overview of the fusion development program and an identification of the major technological problems remaining to be solved

  13. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Borowski, S.K.; Mcilwain, M.C.; Pellaccio, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the next generation of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration

  14. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  15. Smart built-in test for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombrozo, P.C.

    1992-03-01

    Smart built-in test (BIT) technologies are envisioned for nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft components which undergo constant irradiation and are therefore unsafe for manual testing. Smart BIT systems of automated/remote type allow component and system tests to be conducted; failure detections are directly followed by reconfiguration of the components affected. The 'smartness' of the BIT system in question involves the reduction of sensor counts via the use of multifunction sensors, the use of components as integral sensors, and the use of system design techniques which allow the verification of system function beyond component connectivity

  16. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  17. Nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application to Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.; Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Options for vehicle configurations are reviewed in which nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is used for a reference mission to Mars. The scenario assumes an opposition-class Mars transfer trajectory, a 435-day mission, and the use of a single nuclear engine with 75,000 lbs of thrust. Engine parameters are examined by calculating mission variables for a range of specific impulses and thrust/weight ratios. The reference mission is found to have optimal values of 925 s for the specific impulse and thrust/weight ratios of 4.0 and 0.06 for the engine and total stage ratios respectively. When the engine thrust/weight ratio is at least 4/1 the most critical engine parameter is engine specific impulse for reducing overall stage weight. In the context of this trans-Mars three-burn maneuver the NTR engine with an expander engine cycle is considered a more effective alternative than chemical/aerobrake and other propulsion options

  18. Forty years on: the UK Naval nuclear propulsion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.

    1997-01-01

    The naval nuclear power propulsion programme in the United Kingdom had its origins in the appointment of navy personnel to the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in 1946. Atomic power was seen from the outset to be particularly applicable to submarines. It was not till 1955 that work started in earnest, however, and a naval section was established at Harwell. A land-based prototype was seen to be essential and Dounreay was selected as the site for its development. A PWR reactor system was chosen and submarine plant initial criticality by mid-1962 was the objective. However, an agreement with the USA in 1958 to use an American propulsion plant meant that it was possible to build and launch HMS Dreadnought by October 1960. Subsequent submarines were built to all-British designs and the Dounreay prototype contributed for over 35 years to their successful evolution. These submarines, which culminated in the Trafalgar class, are briefly described. In the early 1980s the decision was taken to replace the Polaris strategic weapon system by the Trident system which required a larger and more powerful submarine. The original Dounreay prototype was too small to be useful for the development of the Trident submarine and a new prototype was installed at Dounreay at the Naval Nuclear Reactor Test Establishment. (UK)

  19. Verification of cold nuclear fusion reaction, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zenko; Aratono, Yasuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    1991-01-01

    Can cold nuclear fusion reaction occur as is expected? If it occurs, what extent is its reaction probability? At present after 2 years elapsed since its beginning, the clear solution of these questions is not yet obtained. In many reaction systems employing different means, the experiments to confirm the cold nuclear fusion reaction have been attempted. In order to confirm that the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium mutually has occurred, the neutrons, He-3, protons, tritium or generated heat, which were formed by the reaction and released from the system, are measured. Since it is considered that the frequency of the occurrence at normal temperature of the reaction is very low, it is necessary to select the most suitable method upon evaluating the limit of detection peculiar to the measuring methods. The methods of measuring neutrons, protons, gamma ray and generated heat, and the reaction systems by electrolytic process and dry process are explained. The detection of plural kinds of the reaction products and the confirmation of synchronism of signals are important. (K.I.)

  20. Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.

    1989-08-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in cooperation with national laboratories and other interested institutions, has begun to assemble, process, and test the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) for use in international (ITER) and national/regional fusion reactor designs. This report includes a summary report on the second IAEA Specialists' Meeting on FENDL convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section from 8 to 11 May 1989 in Vienna with the objectives: 1. to analyse a ''review kit'' of evaluated nuclear data intercomparisons with EXFOR data for the choice of files for FENDL; recommend the next actions with the ''review kit'', including double differential emission spectra of particles and gamma rays; recommend a verification procedure for processing codes and FENDL application libraries; 2. to review the status of special purpose libraries and plans for their development; 3. to analyse the results of a benchmark comparison for a lead sphere; 4. to discuss plans for future co-operation with national and regional nuclear data centres on the development of FENDL. A number of unpublished papers from the prior specialists' meeting on this subject, held from 14 to 16 November 1987, are included here for convenient reference. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Nuclear fusion: the energy source of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Jacquet, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactors are safer and do not produce any long-lived radioactive waste, unlike nuclear fission reactors. Moreover, their energy source is endless. In the strive for a sustainable energy future, rather a lot of eyes are turned towards nuclear fusion technology that is also CO 2 -neutral. In 2009, Belgium decided to actively participate in the international 'Broader Approach' nuclear fusion programme, a partnership between the EU and Japan, with SCK-CEN playing the Belgian lead role.

  2. The QED engine spectrum - Fusion-electric propulsion for air-breathing to interstellar flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.

    1993-01-01

    A new inertial-electrostatic-fusion direct electric power source can be used to drive a relativistic e-beam to heat propellant. The resulting system is shown to yield specific impulse and thrust/mass ratio 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than from other advanced propulsion concepts. This QED system can be applied to aerospace vehicles from air-breathing to near-interstellar flight. Examples are given for Earth/Mars flight missions, that show transit times of 40 d with 20 percent payload in single-stage vehicles.

  3. Overview of materials technologies for space nuclear power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Ott, L. J.; Ingersoll, D. T.; Ellis, R. J.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A wide range of different space nuclear systems are currently being evaluated as part of the DOE Special Purpose Fission Technology program. The near-term subset of systems scheduled to be evaluated range from 50 kWe gas-, pumped liquid metal-, or liquid metal heat pipe-cooled reactors for space propulsion to 3 kWe heat pipe or pumped liquid metal systems for Mars surface power applications. The current status of the materials technologies required for the successful development of near-term space nuclear power and propulsion systems is reviewed. Materials examined in this overview include fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH), cladding and structural materials (stainless steel, superalloys, refractory alloys), neutron reflector materials (Be, BeO), and neutron shield materials (B4C,LiH). The materials technologies issues are considerably less demanding for the 3 kWe reactor systems due to lower operating temperatures, lower fuel burnup, and lower radiation damage levels. A few reactor subcomponents in the 3 kWe reactors under evaluation are being used near or above their engineering limits, which may adversely affect the 5 to 10 year lifetime design goal. It appears that most of these issues for the 3 kWe reactor systems can be accommodated by incorporating a few engineering design changes. Design limits (temperature, burnup, stress, radiation levels) for the various materials proposed for space nuclear reactors will be summarized. For example, the temperature and stress limits for Type 316 stainless steel in the 3 kWe Na-cooled heat pipe reactor (Stirling engine) concept will be controlled by thermal creep and CO2 corrosion considerations rather than radiation damage issues. Conversely, the lower operating temperature limit for the LiH shield material will likely be defined by ionizing radiation damage (radiolysis)-induced swelling, even for the relatively low radiation doses associated with the 3 kWe reactor. .

  4. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a high NASA technology priority area by the National Research Council because nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs)...

  5. Nuclear fusion research at Tokamak Energy Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windridge, Melanie J.; Gryaznevich, Mikhail; Kingham, David

    2017-01-01

    Tokamak Energy's approach is close to the mainstream of nuclear fusion, and chooses a spherical tokamak, which is an economically developed form of Tokamak reactor design, as research subjects together with a high-temperature superconducting magnet. In the theoretical prediction, it is said that spherical tokamak can make tokamak reactor's scale compact compared with ITER or DEMO. The dependence of fusion energy multiplication factor on reactor size is small. According to model studies, it has been found that the center coil can be protected from heat and radiation damage even if the neutron shielding is optimized to 35 cm instead of 1 m. As a small tokamak with a high-temperature superconducting magnet, ST25 HTS, it demonstrated in 2015 continuous operation for more than 24 hours as a world record. Currently, this company is constructing a slightly larger ST40 type, and it is scheduled to start operation in 2017. ST40 is designed to demonstrate that it can realize a high magnetic field with a compact size and aims at attaining 8-10 keV (reaching the nuclear fusion reaction temperature at about 100 million degrees). This company will verify the startup and heating technology by the coalescence of spherical tokamak expected to have plasma current of 2 MA, and will also use 2 MW of neutral particle beam heating. In parallel with ST40, it is promoting a development program for high-temperature superconducting magnet. (A.O.)

  6. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). Last year NTREES was successfully used to satisfy a testing milestone for the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) project and met or exceeded all required objectives.

  7. Nuclear thermal propulsion technology: Results of an interagency panel in FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Mcdaniel, P.; Howe, S.; Helms, I.; Stanley, M.

    1993-04-01

    NASA LeRC was selected to lead nuclear propulsion technology development for NASA. Also participating in the project are NASA MSFC and JPL. The U.S. Department of Energy will develop nuclear technology and will conduct nuclear component, subsystem, and system testing at appropriate DOE test facilities. NASA program management is the responsibility of NASA/RP. The project includes both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology development. This report summarizes the efforts of an interagency panel that evaluated NTP technology in 1991. Other panels were also at work in 1991 on other aspects of nuclear propulsion, and the six panels worked closely together. The charters for the other panels and some of their results are also discussed. Important collaborative efforts with other panels are highlighted. The interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) NTP Technology Panel worked in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion concepts on a consistent basis. Additionally, the panel worked to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Five meetings of the panel were held in 1991 to continue the planning for technology development of nuclear thermal propulsion systems. The state-of-the-art of the NTP technologies was reviewed in some detail. The major technologies identified were as follows: fuels, coatings, and other reactor technologies; materials; instrumentation, controls, health monitoring and management, and associated technologies; nozzles; and feed system technology, including turbopump assemblies

  8. Who works with nuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, H.

    1977-01-01

    Humanity today, and especially the youth in industrial nations, undergoes a trend towards a 'post-industrial society'. This may be due to the resignation of those who think themselves unable to meet the increasing demands made on social production. The paper draws up a concept to give humanity a new interest in life. First, the paradox educational situation in the FRG today is outlined. Nuclear fusion technology and the industrial development necessary for its implementation are offered as a way out of the paradox situation of the present educational system. The demands to be made on an educational system for fusion technology are discussed. This strategy for world-wide economic growth integrates the intelligence potential of the industrial nations and the potential labour force of the Third World. (GG) [de

  9. Is nuclear fusion a sustainable energy form?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, A.M.; Hamacher, T.; Fischer, U.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptable criterion for strong sustainability in the consumption of natural resources is an effective, or virtual, limitlessness of supply, which can be defined, albeit arbitrarily, as corresponding to a few million years. The fuels for nuclear fusion-lithium and deuterium-satisfy this condition because of the abundance of lithium in seawater and of deuterium in all forms of water. The possible use of lithium-ion batteries on a large scale, particularly in the automobile industry, could, however, use up all the known terrestrial reserves and resources of lithium in the next few decades. Little attention has been paid so far to the financial, energetic, and above all, environmental aspects of lithium extraction from seawater. The neutron multipliers foreseen for fusion power plants, in particular beryllium, represent a major supply problem and require that other, sustainable solutions be urgently sought.

  10. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper describes work being carried out to develop an intelligent knowledge-based system (IKBS) for use in the surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise and return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information. (author)

  11. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes work being carried out to develop an IKBS for use in surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise, i.e. to return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information

  12. IMPULSE---an advanced, high performance nuclear thermal propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, L.J.; Disney, R.K.; Mangus, J.D.; Gunn, S.A.; Zweig, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    IMPULSE is an advanced nuclear propulsion engine for future space missions based on a novel conical fuel. Fuel assemblies are formed by stacking a series of truncated (U, Zr)C cones with non-fueled lips. Hydrogen flows radially inward between the cones to a central plenum connected to a high performance bell nozzle. The reference IMPULSE engine rated at 75,000 lb thrust and 1800 MWt weighs 1360 kg and is 3.65 meters in height and 81 cm in diameter. Specific impulse is estimated to be 1000 for a 15 minute life at full power. If longer life times are required, the operating temperature can be reduced with a concomitant decrease in specific impulse. Advantages of this concept include: well defined coolant paths without outlet flow restrictions; redundant orificing; very low thermal gradients and hence, thermal stresses, across the fuel elements; and reduced thermal stresses because of the truncated conical shape of the fuel elements

  13. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen

    2004-01-01

    - and fusion-based Nuclear Power and Propulsion system concepts and tries to compare these systems' different working principles and technical implementations with each other. The overview and comparison will be complemented by a closer look at ongoing activities related to research and development in this area and by an outlook on what kind of systems might be employed to carry the first astronauts to Mars and beyond. (authors)

  14. Scaling of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) for near-term thrusters and future fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.; Bromley, B.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; DeMora, J.; Chacon, L.; Gu, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a unique approach to fusion and plasma energy systems that was conceptualized in the 1960s (Hirsch 1967) and has been the focus of recent development in the 1990s (Miley et al. 1995a). In the interests of space power and propulsion systems, conceptual rocket design studies (Bussard and Jameson 1994, Miley et al. 1995b) using the IEC have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions, since the power unit avoids the use of magnets and heavy drives resulting in a very high, specific impulse compared to other fusion systems. In their recent survey of prior conceptual design studies of fusion rockets, Williams and Borowski (1997) found that the Bussard IEC conceptual study (the open-quotes QEDclose quotes engine) offered a thrust-to-weight ratio of 10 milli-g close-quote s, a factor of five higher than conventional magnetic confinement concepts and even slightly above anti-proton micro fission/fusion designs. Thus there is considerable motivation to study IEC concepts for eventual space applications. However, the physics feasibility of the IEC still requires experimental demonstration, and an expanded data base is needed to insure that a power unit can in fact be built. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Integrated System Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen W.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has long been identified as a key enabling technology for space exploration beyond LEO. From Wernher Von Braun's early concepts for crewed missions to the Moon and Mars to the current Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 and recent lunar and asteroid mission studies, the high thrust and specific impulse of NTP opens up possibilities such as reusability that are just not feasible with competing approaches. Although NTP technology was proven in the Rover / NERVA projects in the early days of the space program, an integrated spacecraft using NTP has never been developed. Such a spacecraft presents a challenging multidisciplinary systems integration problem. The disciplines that must come together include not only nuclear propulsion and power, but also thermal management, power, structures, orbital dynamics, etc. Some of this integration logic was incorporated into a vehicle sizing code developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) in the early 1990s called MOMMA, and later into an Excel-based tool called SIZER. Recently, a team at GRC has developed an open source framework for solving Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) problems called OpenMDAO. A modeling approach is presented that builds on previous work in NTP vehicle sizing and mission analysis by making use of the OpenMDAO framework to enable modular and reconfigurable representations of various NTP vehicle configurations and mission scenarios. This approach is currently applied to vehicle sizing, but is extensible to optimization of vehicle and mission designs. The key features of the code will be discussed and examples of NTP transfer vehicles and candidate missions will be presented.

  16. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  17. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author) [es

  18. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  19. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  20. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  2. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  3. ANNETTE Project: Contributing to The Nuclearization of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, W.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.; Jaspers, R.; Noterdaeme, J.; Scheffer, M.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise) is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new training courses, based on identified nuclear competences needs of the work force of (future) fusion reactors and on the current availability of suitable training courses. From interaction with stakeholders involved in the ITER design and construction or the JET D-T campaign, it became clear that the lack of nuclear safety culture awareness already has an impact on current projects. Through the collaboration between the European education networks in fission (ENEN) and fusion (FuseNet) in the ANNETTE project, this project is well positioned to support the development of nuclear competences for ongoing and future fusion projects. Thereby it will make a clear contribution to the realization of fusion energy.

  4. ANNETTE Project: Contributing to The Nuclearization of Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini W.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new training courses, based on identified nuclear competences needs of the work force of (future fusion reactors and on the current availability of suitable training courses. From interaction with stakeholders involved in the ITER design and construction or the JET D-T campaign, it became clear that the lack of nuclear safety culture awareness already has an impact on current projects. Through the collaboration between the European education networks in fission (ENEN and fusion (FuseNet in the ANNETTE project, this project is well positioned to support the development of nuclear competences for ongoing and future fusion projects. Thereby it will make a clear contribution to the realization of fusion energy.

  5. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kW/sub e/ to 1MW/sub e/ output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere

  6. Fabrication and Testing of Nuclear-Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Hardware, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient nuclear-thermal propulsion requires heating a low molecular weight gas, typically hydrogen, to high temperature and expelling it through a nozzle. The...

  7. Fabrication and Testing of Nuclear-Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Hardware, Phase II, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient nuclear-thermal propulsion (NTP) requires heating a low molecular weight gas, typically hydrogen, to high temperature and expelling it through a nozzle....

  8. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as an approach that can provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for human space...

  9. Improved CVD Coatings for Carbide Based Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Fuel Elements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the great hurdles to further development and evaluation of nuclear thermal propulsion systems is the issue surrounding the release of radioactive material...

  10. Extreme Temperature Radiation Tolerant Instrumentation for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop and commercialize a high reliability, high temperature smart neutron flux sensor for NASA Nuclear Thermal Propulsion...

  11. Fabrication and Testing of Nuclear-Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient nuclear-thermal propulsion requires heating a low molecular weight gas, typically hydrogen, to high temperature and expelling it through a nozzle. The...

  12. Performance assessment of low pressure nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, H. P., Jr.; Doughty, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A low pressure nuclear thermal propulsion (LPNTP) system, which takes advantage of hydrogen dissociation/recombination, was proposed as a means of increasing engine specific impulse (Isp). The effect of hydrogen dissociation/recombination on LPNTP Isp is examined. A two-dimensional computer model was used to show that the optimum chamber pressure is approximately 100 psia (at a chamber temperature of 3,000 K), with an Isp approximately 15 s higher than at 1,000 psia. At high chamber temperatures and low chamber pressures, the increase in Isp is due to both lower average molecular weights caused by dissociation and added kinetic energy from monatomic hydrogen recombination. Monatomic hydrogen recombination increases the Isp more then hydrogen dissociation. Variations in the mole fraction of monatomic hydrogen are similar to variations in static pressure along the axial nozzle position. Most recombination occurs close to the nozzle throat. Practical variations in nozzle geometry have minimal impact on recombination. Other models which can simulate a wider range of nozzle designs should be used in the future. The uncertainty of the hydrogen kinetic reaction rates at high temperatures (approximately 3,000 K) affects the accuracy of the analysis and should be verified with simple bench tests.

  13. Nuclear group constant set FUSION-J3 for fusion reactor nuclear calculations based on JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Seki, Yasushi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu.

    1991-03-01

    Based on evaluated nuclear data file JENDL-3, published in April 1990, we produced a nuclear group constant set 'FUSION-J3' for fusion reactor nuclear calculation by ANISN code instead of GICX40 produced in 1977. The set FUSION-J3 is the coupled group constant set with neutron 125 and gamma-ray 40 group structure, and has the maximum order of 5 as Legendre expansion in scattering cross section. Forty nuclides included in FUSION-J3 can be used in fusion reactor nuclear calculations. Considering mobility in two-dimensional calculations and fixed group structure in induced activity calculation code system as the GICX40 structure, we composed also FUSION-40 group constant set with neutron 42 group and gamma-ray 21 group structure. The set FUSION-40 includes the same maximum order of the Legendre expansion and the same nuclides as FUSION-J3. From the results in experimental analysis and benchmark calculations, it became proved that JENDL-3 is at higher level of accuracy than ENDF/B-IV and -V. The set FUSION-J3 can be clear applicable to fusion reactor nuclear calculations. (author)

  14. Vacuum vessel for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Sato, Hiroshi; Owada, Koro.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a reinforcing member on a bellows portion to reduce a stress at the bellows portion thereby increasing the strength of a vessel. Structure: A vacuum vessel for a nuclear fusion device has a bellows portion and a wall thick portion. A support extended toward the bellows portion is secured inside of a toroidal section in order to reduce the stress at the bellows portion. An insulator is interposed between the support and the bellows portion and is retained on the support by a bolt. Since the stress may be reduced by the support, the wall thick of the bellows portion may be decreased to sufficiently secure the low electric resistance value. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. Sono-luminescence and nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seife, Ch.; Hilgenfeldt, S.; Lohse, D.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents multi-bubble and single-bubble luminescence. Since long scientists have known that ultra-sound waves could trigger the formation of bubbles in water (phenomenon called cavitation) but in 1930, for the first time experiments showed that these bubbles could emit light in particular conditions. In 1989 F. Gaitan succeeded in trapping a single bubble by using stationary ultra-sound waves, this bubble was exploding 20.000 times per second according to the frequency of the wave while emitting a series of flashes of light. Some scientists thought that the gas inside the bubble could reach very high values of temperature and pressure, and proposed the possibility of nuclear fusion to explain the excess of neutrons that has been evidenced in a cavitation experiment with deuterated acetone. The last part of this article describes the controversy triggered by the article describing this experiment, that was published by 'Science' in march 2002. (A.C.)

  16. Distinct roles for key karyogamy proteins during yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; Rose, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    During yeast mating, cell fusion is followed by the congression and fusion of the two nuclei. Proteins required for nuclear fusion are found at the surface (Prm3p) and within the lumen (Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8p) of the nuclear envelope (NE). Electron tomography (ET) of zygotes revealed that mutations in these proteins block nuclear fusion with different morphologies, suggesting that they act in different steps of fusion. Specifically, prm3 zygotes were blocked before formation of membrane bridges, whereas kar2, kar5, and kar8 zygotes frequently contained them. Membrane bridges were significantly larger and occurred more frequently in kar2 and kar8, than in kar5 mutant zygotes. The kinetics of NE fusion in prm3, kar5, and kar8 mutants, measured by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, were well correlated with the size and frequency of bridges observed by ET. However the kar2 mutant was defective for transfer of NE lumenal GFP, but not diffusion within the lumen, suggesting that transfer was blocked at the NE fusion junction. These observations suggest that Prm3p acts before initiation of outer NE fusion, Kar5p may help dilation of the initial fusion pore, and Kar2p and Kar8p act after outer NE fusion, during inner NE fusion.

  17. Material Development for Nuclear Fusion and Energy Development Using Actinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Kayano, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    In our Facilities. fundamental researches on nuclear fuels and reactor materials have been performed by making use of JMTR and JOYO. Authors outline original studies among them currently performed by having myself as the core. Research fields in progress are material developments for the nuclear fusion such as ferritic steel and V alloy and energy development using Actinoids. As the material development for practical nuclear fusion, we do those of low activation V alloys, ferritic steels and ...

  18. Nuclear engineering questions: power, reprocessing, waste, decontamination, fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the chemical engineering symposium on nuclear questions. Specific questions addressed by the speakers included: nuclear power - why and how; commercial reprocessing - permanent death or resurrection; long-term management of commercial high-level wastes; long-term management of defense high-level waste; decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, engineering aspects of laser fusion I; and engineering aspects of laser fusion II. Individual papers have been input to the Energy Data Base previously

  19. Self-sustaining nuclear pumped laser-fusion reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boody, F.P.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The features of a neutron feedback nuclear pumped (NFNP) laser-fusion reactor equipment were studied with the intention of establishing the feasibility of the concept. The NFNP laser-fusion concept is compared schematically to electrically pumped laser fusion. The study showed that, once a method of energy storage has been demonstrated, a self-sustaining fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a ''blanket multiplication'' of two would be feasible using nuclear pumped Xe F* excimer lasers having efficiencies of 1 to 2 percent and D-D-T pellets with gains of 50 to 100

  20. Potential use of nuclear pumped lasers as fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Greenspan, E.; Gilligan, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of an energy-storage type nuclear pumped laser (NPL) suitable for laser fusion feedback applications is briefly noted. Then, the use of NPLs in fusion-fission-hybrid systems is presented and analyzed from an energetic point of view. Unique hybrid blanket concepts are proposed that enable approx. 3 fissions in the laser medium per fusion neutron while still providing approx. 2 fissile atoms per fusion neutron. Such designs would enable use of a very low gain fusion device as the driver. (orig.) [de

  1. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Gasparotto, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy

  2. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, R. E-mail: roberto.andreani@tech.efda.org; Gasparotto, M. E-mail: maurizio.gasparotto@tech.efda.org

    2002-11-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy.

  3. Will nuclear fusion be able to power the next century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is widely regarded as potentially the ultimate energy-generation concept. Although an enormous amount of work and resources has already been committed throughout the world on nuclear fusion research, controlled nuclear fusion has so far proved largely elusive and the difficulties to be overcome before the first commercial fusion reactor is put into operation remain daunting and formidable. In Australia there are three main nuclear fusion research efforts. Sydney University's School of Physics operates a tokamak and a team there has been studying plasma properties in general and in particular radio frequency wave heating of the plasma. At the Australian National University a group has pioneered the construction and operation of an advanced stellarator model called a heliac while at Flinders University in Adelaide a team has developed a rotamak model. The US, Europe, Japan and the USSR each has a frontline fusion research tokamak with Princeton University's TFTR and Culham's JET closest to reactor operation conditions. Although several questions remain to be answered about the safety of a fusion reactor, all experts agree that these problems would be easier to solve than those of conventional fission reactors and there would be no major radioactive waste disposal problem. Some argue that fusion would contribute to the greenhouse effect but most authorities have expressed optimism that fusion, once the technical hurdles are overcome, could economically provide virtually unlimited energy with minimal environmental hazards and at a high safety level

  4. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Remp, K.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed

  5. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials

  6. Measurement of nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis for measuring nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions at energies above barrier is reviewed. It is argued that because of experimental and conceptual problems fusion excitation functions at high energies cannot lead to model independent measurements of internuclear potential at small separations. The Al 27 + Ne 20 reaction previously analyzed by others is used as an example of problems arising from the inability to distinguish complete and incomplete fusion in experimental data

  7. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  8. Introduction to the 'CAS' nuclear propulsion plant for ships: specific safety options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeau, J.J.; Baujat, J.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief review of the development of nuclear propulsion in FRANCE (Land Based Prototype PAT 1964 - Navy nuclear ships - Advanced Nuclear Boiler Prototype CAP 1975 and now the CAS nuclear plant), the specific safety options of CAS are presented: cold, compartmented fuel (plates); reduced flow during LOCA; permanent cooling of fuel during LOCA; pressurized, entirely passive containment; no control rod ejection and possibility of temporary storage of spent fuel on board [fr

  9. The Fight for Fusion: A Modern Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam; Sereda, David

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of Bogdan Maglich with helium-based fusion and barriers to its development resulting from lack of government support, competition for funding, and political pet projects. Compares tritium-based to helium-based fusion and the potential for nonradioactive nuclear power to supply the world's energy requirements with no negative…

  10. Canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, T.I.; Mikhajlov, I.N.; Do Dang, G.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from equations of motion describing the fusion process in symmetrical nuclear systems of low angular momenta we reconstruct the collective Lagrangian and dissipation Rayleigh functions. This opens new perspectives in studying the dynamical effects in the heavy nuclei collisions. In particular, it provides a basis for a quantal description of the fusion process and accompanying its effects

  11. The U.S. program for fusion nuclear technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.; Haas, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT) research and development program in the United States is shaped by a hierarchy of documents and by the environment for nuclear energy existing in the United States. The fission nuclear industry in the United States has suffered problems with public perception of safety, waste disposal issues, and economics as influenced by safety and environmental issues. For fusion to be a viable energy alternative, it must offer significant improvements in these areas. The hierarchy of documents defining objectives, plans, and strategy of the U.S. FNT program consists of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan (MFPP) (February 1985), the Technical Planning Activity Final Report (January 1987), the Finesse Program Report (January 1987), and the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study Final Report (September 1984). In addition, two other documents are also significant in shaping FNT policy. These are the IEA report on Material for Fusion (December 1986) and the Summary of the Report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (September 1987). The U.S. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan defines four key technical issues (magnetic confinement systems, properties of burning plasmas, fusion nuclear technology, and fusion materials). (orig./KP)

  12. Nuclear fusion experimental study on 16 O + 60 Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion cross section measurements were performed in the energy range near The Coulomb Barrier (E Lab -> 40-72 MeV), for the system 16 O + 60 Ni, aiming the study of Fusion Process involving heavy ions. (L.C.J.A.)

  13. Nuclear fusion: a dream in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the construction of ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, in which will be produced nuclear fusion reactions of the same type as those occurring in the sun. As only foundations have been built, physicists are working on component design, on material improvement, on monitoring and maintenance robots, on the simulation of plasma behaviour, a critical aspect of the operation. Experiments are performed in an older and smaller experimental reactor, Tore Supra. It is used to test plasma heating modes, the injection mode of deuterium and tritium which will fuse in ITER. Some parts of this installation are used to extract heat from plasma and must sustain huge heat fluxes (10 millions of Watt per square meter). In order to maintain ITER without stopping it, robots will be used to control and repair the installation. A virtual reality room has been designed to check in advance the construction process as well as the operation. ITER must be completed in 2018 and the first plasmas be produced in 2019. Tritium is to be introduced in 2026. Then, scientists hope to produce a power which will be ten times the input power

  14. A review of the Los Alamos effort in the development of nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, F.P.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the Los Alamos nuclear rocket propulsion program and describes some specific reactor design and testing problems encountered during the development program along with the progress made in solving these problems. The relevance of these problems to a renewed nuclear thermal rocket development program for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is discussed. 11 figs

  15. Nuclear Fusion Research Understanding Plasma-Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Robert E.H

    2005-01-01

    It became clear in the early days of fusion research that the effects of the containment vessel (erosion of "impurities") degrade the overall fusion plasma performance. Progress in controlled nuclear fusion research over the last decade has led to magnetically confined plasmas that, in turn, are sufficiently powerful to damage the vessel structures over its lifetime. This book reviews current understanding and concepts to deal with this remaining critical design issue for fusion reactors. It reviews both progress and open questions, largely in terms of available and sought-after plasma-surface interaction data and atomic/molecular data related to these "plasma edge" issues.

  16. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  17. [Two-nuclear neurons: sincitial fusion or amitotic division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Frumkina, L E; Lactionova, A A; Paramonova, N M; Novakovskaia, S A

    2011-01-01

    In the review the history of research two-nuclear neurons is stated and two hypotheses about mechanisms of their formation are analysed: by sincitial fusion or amytotic divisions. The facts of discrepancy of the former orthodox cellular theory categorically denying possibility sincitial of communications in nervous system and of sincitial fusion neurons are mentioned. As an example results of ultrastructural researches of occurrence sincitium in a cortex of the big brain of rats, in autonomic ganglions, in hypocampus and a cerebellum of adult animals are presented. The video data of the sincitial fusion of live neurons and the mechanism of formation multinuclear neurons in tissue culture are analyzed. Existing data about amytotic a way of formation two-nuclear neurons are critically considered. The conclusion becomes, that the mechanism of formation two-nuclear neurons is cellular fusion. Simultaneously the review confirms our representations about existence in nervous system sincitial interneural communications.

  18. Small Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests requires high performance propulsion systems to support missions beyond low Earth orbit. A robust space exploration program will include robotic outer planet and crewed missions to a variety of destinations including the moon, near Earth objects, and eventually Mars. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option for the human exploration of Mars because of its high thrust and high specific impulse ({approx}900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. The recently announced national space policy2 supports the development and use of space nuclear power systems where such systems safely enable or significantly enhance space exploration or operational capabilities. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted under the Rover/NERVA, GE-710 and ANL nuclear rocket programs (1955-1973). Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. The primary and significantly larger Rover/NERVA program focused on graphite type fuels. Research, development, and testing of high temperature graphite fuels was conducted. Reactors and engines employing these fuels were designed, built, and ground tested. The GE-710 and ANL programs focused on an alternative ceramic-metallic 'cermet' fuel type consisting of UO2 (or UN) fuel embedded in a refractory metal matrix such as tungsten. The General Electric program examined closed loop concepts for space or terrestrial

  19. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  20. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants

  1. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia

    2009-03-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p

  2. Nuclear hydrogen production: re-examining the fusion option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baindur, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for nuclear hydrogen production by fusion. The basic idea is to use nuclear energy of the fuel (hydrogen plasma) to produce molecular hydrogen fro carbon-free hydrogen compounds. The hydrogen is then stored and utilized electrochemically in fuel cells or chemically as molecular hydrogen in internal combustion engines

  3. Establishment of a Program to Cultivate a Nuclear Fusion Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Kim, J. U.; Yoo, J. G.; Oh, B. H.; Kwak, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    We carry out investigation on the establishment of a program to cultivate a nuclear fusion workforce effectively, which is the most important resource in the fusion energy development. Acquisition of fresh fusion technologies is essentially required to pursue R and D efficiently and to ensure fusion initiatives firmly in the international community. As the time has come to cultivate the fusion workforce and to enhance the workforce's expertise, the universities, research institutes and industries involved in fusion energy development are supposed to adjust fast technology shifts and to accommodate international trends toward collaboration. We establish systematic schemes to develop a professional workforce and to assign the right jobs to the right people timely through the research-academic-industry cooperation. After carrying out domestic and oversea surveys on the education and training programs of various institutes, we evaluate an over-all manpower supply system. Also, in this report, we establish research-academic-industry cooperation strategies to cultivate fusion energy professionals, such as researchers, professional fusion engineers in the industry, and experts in design, operations and maintenance. We propose education and training programs for newcomers to fusion, such as an interdisciplinary education program, an on-the-job training for fresh graduates with advanced degree. We suggest a working plan of education and training for fusion students through integration of basic sciences with fusion engineering. We arrange a scheme to designate education and training centers for human resource development by specifying organizations and functions. Finally, we establish international collaboration programs to encourage the fusion workforce to acquire the latest fusion technologies by participating in oversea R and D activities

  4. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  5. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  6. Numerical analysis of a nuclear fuel element for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model with porosity and permeability formulations in the transport equations has been developed to study the concept of nuclear thermal propulsion through the analysis of a pulsed irradiation of a particle bed element (PIPE). The numerical model is a time-accurate pressure-based formulation. An adaptive upwind scheme is employed for spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on second- and fourth-order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. Multiblocked porosity regions have been formulated to model the cold frit, particle bed, and hot frit. Multiblocked permeability regions have been formulated to describe the flow shaping effect from the thickness-varying cold frit. Computational results for several zero-power density PIPEs and an elevated-particle-temperature PIPE are presented. The implications of the computational results are discussed.

  7. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios

  8. Summary and recommendations on nuclear electric propulsion technology for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Holcomb, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A project in Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology is being established to develop the NEP technologies needed for advanced propulsion systems. A paced approach has been suggested which calls for progressive development of NEP component and subsystem level technologies. This approach will lead to major facility testing to achieve TRL-5 for megawatt NEP for SEI mission applications. This approach is designed to validate NEP power and propulsion technologies from kilowatt class to megawatt class ratings. Such a paced approach would have the benefit of achieving the development, testing, and flight of NEP systems in an evolutionary manner. This approach may also have the additional benefit of synergistic application with SEI extraterrestrial surface nuclear power applications.

  9. Heat transfer and mechanical interactions in fusion nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    This general review of design issues in heat transfer and mechanical interactions of the first wall, blanket and shield systems of tokamak and mirror fusion reactors begins with a brief introduction to fusion nuclear systems. The design issues are summarized in tables and the following examples are described to illustrate these concerns: the surface heating of limiters, heat transfer from solid breeders, MHD effects in liquid metal blankets, mechanical loads from electromagnetic transients and remote maintenance

  10. Direct Energy Conversion for Nuclear Propulsion at Low Specific Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The project will continue the FY13 JSC IR&D (October-2012 to September-2013) effort in Travelling Wave Direct Energy Conversion (TWDEC) in order to demonstrate its potential as the core of a high potential, game-changing, in-space propulsion technology. The TWDEC concept converts particle beam energy into radio frequency (RF) alternating current electrical power, such as can be used to heat the propellant in a plasma thruster. In a more advanced concept (explored in the Phase 1 NIAC project), the TWDEC could also be utilized to condition the particle beam such that it may transfer directed kinetic energy to a target propellant plasma for the purpose of increasing thrust and optimizing the specific impulse. The overall scope of the FY13 first-year effort was to build on both the 2012 Phase 1 NIAC research and the analysis and test results produced by Japanese researchers over the past twenty years to assess the potential for spacecraft propulsion applications. The primary objective of the FY13 effort was to create particle-in-cell computer simulations of a TWDEC. Other objectives included construction of a breadboard TWDEC test article, preliminary test calibration of the simulations, and construction of first order power system models to feed into mission architecture analyses with COPERNICUS tools. Due to funding cuts resulting from the FY13 sequestration, only the computer simulations and assembly of the breadboard test article were completed. The simulations, however, are of unprecedented flexibility and precision and were presented at the 2013 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference. Also, the assembled test article will provide an ion current density two orders of magnitude above that available in previous Japanese experiments, thus enabling the first direct measurements of power generation from a TWDEC for FY14. The proposed FY14 effort will use the test article for experimental validation of the computer simulations and thus complete to a greater fidelity the

  11. Nuclear fusion and genome encounter during yeast zygote formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakoff, Alan Michael; Jaiswal, Purnima

    2009-06-01

    When haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are crossed, parental nuclei congress and fuse with each other. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we have developed assays that evaluate the impact of drugs and mutations. Nuclear congression is inhibited by drugs that perturb the actin and tubulin cytoskeletons. Nuclear envelope (NE) fusion consists of at least five steps in which preliminary modifications are followed by controlled flux of first outer and then inner membrane proteins, all before visible dilation of the waist of the nucleus or coalescence of the parental spindle pole bodies. Flux of nuclear pore complexes occurs after dilation. Karyogamy requires both the Sec18p/NSF ATPase and ER/NE luminal homeostasis. After fusion, chromosome tethering keeps tagged parental genomes separate from each other. The process of NE fusion and evidence of genome independence in yeast provide a prototype for understanding related events in higher eukaryotes.

  12. Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA, NA [ORNL

    1957-03-12

    This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory. The report is divided into five major parts: 1) Aircraft Reactor Engineering, 2) Chemistry, and 3) Metallurgy, 4) Heat Transfer and Physical Properties, Radiation Damage, and Fuel Recovery and Reprocessing, and 5) Reactor Shielding.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power

  14. Blazing the trailway: Nuclear electric propulsion and its technology program plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of the plans for a program in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for space applications being considered by NASA, DOE, and DOD. Possible missions using NEP are examined, and NEP technology plans are addressed regarding concept development, systems engineering, nuclear fuels, power conversion, thermal management, power management and distribution, electric thrusters, facilities, and issues related to safety and environment. The programmatic characteristics are considered.

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Gefert, Leon P.; Doherty, Michael P.; Sefcik, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power, and small NEP systems

  16. Blazing the trailway - Nuclear electric propulsion and its technology program plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the plans for a program in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for outer space applications being considered by NASA, DOE, and DOD. Possible missions using NEP are examined, and NEP technology plans are addressed regarding concept development, systems engineering, nuclear fuels, power conversion, thermal management, power management and distribution, electric thrusters, facilities, and issues related to safety and environment. The programmatic characteristics are considered.

  17. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1993-05-01

    The report contains the proceedings of a conference on plasma physics. A fraction of topics included MHD instabilities, magnetic confinement and plasma heating in the field of fusion plasmas, in 8 papers falling in the INIS scope have been abstracted and indexed for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  18. Some theories of cold nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the main theoretical attempts to describe the phenomenology of cold fusion, whose general structure begins to clearly unravel. The main conclusion is that the approaches that are likely to be of relevance must invoke processes where the elementary components (nuclei and electrons) of condensed matter act in a coherent fashion

  19. Naval nuclear propulsion and the international nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear powered attack submarine (SSN) acquisition by Non-Proliferation Treaty No- Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NNWS) Navies does not imply nuclear weapon proliferation risks higher than those related to stationary research and power reactors. It must then be recognized that stringent restraints on supplies and political pressures on governments, both exercised very effectively by No-Proliferation Treaty - Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NWS) against NPT-NNWS indigenous development of SSN and associated fuel cycle facilities, are fundamentally based on geopolitical and military strategic objectives. This practice is far from being related exclusively to the NPT spirit: in fact, it is a matter of freedom at seas and not of nuclear proliferation. (author)

  20. The Nuclear Potential in Heavy-Ion Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.; Newton, J. O.; Hagino, K.

    Fits to high precision fusion cross-sections even for ZPZT Woods-Saxon potential of ≃1~fm, which is much larger than the commonly accepted value of ≃~0.65 fm. However, use of large values of a necessarily makes the potential pocket very shallow for realistic values of the nuclear potential depth. For larger values of angular momenta the pocket disappears, and a fusion barrier energy or radius can no longer be defined. In the absence of a potential pocket, fusion does not occur in the commonly used realistic coupled channels code CCFULL where fusion is calculated by applying an incoming wave boundary condition at the position of the minimum of the attractive pocket. For this reason, realistic coupled channels calculations with large values of a have needed unrealistically deep nuclear potentials. Once the potential depth is constrained to reasonable values, the data cannot be explained by simply changing the diffuseness of the nuclear potential. This indicates the necessity to go beyond the potential model, and incorporate dynamical effects as the two nuclei move towards fusion, even for light systems with ZPZT < 1000.

  1. 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, D.

    2015-01-01

    I would like to express gratitude to the IAEA, the journal Nuclear Fusion and its board for this acknowledgement of work carried out at the MIT Alcator C-Mod tokamak. I must begin by making it clear that this is in no way an award to an individual. The experiments, data analysis and paper were a true collaborative effort from the C-Mod team. It is a honor to work with them and to accept the award on their behalf. I would also like to thank the US Department of Energy for their support in funding this research. The paper describes the exploration of the 'improved' confinement regime dubbed 'I-mode'. The distinguishing feature of this operational mode is a robust boundary pedestal in temperature with the somewhat surprising lack of any form of density pedestal. Thus the regime exhibits an enhanced energy confinement similar to H-mode, roughly double of L-mode at fixed input power, yet has global fuel and impurity particle transport of L-mode. These features are intriguing from a scientific and practical point of view. On the science side it is extremely useful to obtain such a clear demarcation between the energy and particle transport. For example, soon after its discovery, the I-mode was used to extract the observation that the edge T pedestal is the strongest determinant for intrinsic rotation in work by John Rice, Pat Diamond and colleagues. Recent results regarding core transport by Anne White, Nate Howard and colleagues show that I-mode has intriguing properties with respect to core response of fluctuations and profile stiffness. Mike Churchill's recent Ph. D study on C-Mod shows that I-mode exhibits no strong poloidal impurity asymmetry, unlike H-mode. The I-mode posed an interesting test for the peeling-ballooning-KBM model of the pedestal, the subject of the 2014 Nuclear Fusion award of Phil Snyder, and was examined by John Walk and Jerry Hughes showing that in fact the lack of the density pedestal pushed the I-mode far away from the P-B limit, and thus the

  2. Nuclear characteristics of D-D fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Ohta, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Fusion reactors operating on deuterium (D-D) cycle are considered to be of long range interest for their freedom from tritium breeding in the blanket. The present paper discusses the various possibilities of D-D fusion reactor blanket designs mainly from the standpoint of the nuclear characteristics. Neutronic and photonic calculations are based on presently available data to provide a basis of the optimal blanket design in D-D fusion reactors. It is found that it appears desirable to design a blanket with blanket/shield (BS) concept in D-D fusion reactors. The BS concept is designed to obtain reasonable shielding characteristics for superconducting magnet (SCM) by using shielding materials in the compact blanket. This concept will open the possibility of compact radiation shield design based on assured technology, and offer the advantage from the system economics point of view. (auth.)

  3. Nuclear dynamics around the barrier: from fusion to evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to aspects of nuclear dynamics around the barrier. It is shown that for fusion reactions, the Coulomb field couples relative motion of nuclei to rotation of a deformed projectile independently of the energy and the charge of the nuclei. An experimental study of the reaction 6 He + 190 Os via gamma spectroscopy of product nuclei has shown that the break up of the 6 He is coupled to the relative motion too, a strong hindrance resulting in the fusion around and above the fusion barrier. The path to fusion after overcoming the barrier, especially the charge equilibration, have been studied in the framework of the TDHF theory via the preequilibrium GDR excited in N/Z asymmetric reactions. An application to formation of the super-heavy elements has been proposed. Finally, couplings between protons and neutrons have been shown up in mean field calculations. Their main expected effect is an emission of protons under the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion R and D and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R and D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  5. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  6. Nuclear structure in cold rearrangement processes in fission and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.

    1998-11-01

    In fission and fusion of heavy nuclei large numbers of nucleons are rearranged at a scale of excitation energy very small compared to the binding energy of the nuclei. The energies involved are less than 40 MeV at nuclear temperatures below 1.5 MeV. The shapes of the configurations in the rearrangement of a binary system into a monosystem in fusion, or vice versa in fission, change their elongations by as much as 8 fm, the radius of the monosystem. The dynamics of the reactions macroscopically described by a potential energy surface, inertia parameters, dissipation, and a collision energy is strongly modified by the nuclear structure of the participating nuclei. Experiments showing nuclear structure effects in fusion and fission of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The reaction kinematics and the multitude of isotopes involved are investigated by detector techniques and by recoil spectrometers. The advancement of the latter allows to find very small reaction branches in the range of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10}. The experiments reveal nuclear structure effects in all stages of the rearrangement processes. These are discussed pointing to analogies in fusion and fission on the microscopic scale, notwithstanding that both processes macroscopically are irreversible. Heavy clusters, as 132Sn, 208Pb, nuclei with closed shell configurations N=82,126, Z=50,82 survive in large parts of the nuclear rearrangement. They determine the asymmetry in the mass distribution of low energy fission, and they allow to synthesise superheavy elements, until now up to element 112. Experiments on the cold rearrangement in fission and fusion are presented. Here, in the range of excitation energies below 12 MeV the phenomena are observed most convincingly. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear fusion TORE SUPRA, a new stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, M.; Laurent, L.

    1995-01-01

    Since almost forty years, the scientists try and neutralize in a pacific aim thermonuclear fusion energy and therefore they use the magnetic confinement of hot plasmas.In France, since 1960 the achieved studies permitted in 1988 to bring into service the TORE SUPRA TOKAMAK, which used, for the first time a superconducting magnet to generate the confinement magnetic field. TORE SUPRA, which didn't still explore its maximal potentialities, will be one of the apparatuses which will be used as basis of the international project ITER development. 5 figs

  8. Concept evaluation of nuclear fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renier, J.P.; Hoffman, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes systems based on D-T and semi-catalyzed D-D fusion-powered U233 breeders. Two different blanket types were used: metallic thorium pebble-bed blankets with a batch reprocessing mode and a molten salt blanket with on-line continuous or batch reprocessing. All fusion-driven blankets are assumed to have spherical geometries, with a 85% closure. Neutronics depletion calculations were performed with a revised version of the discrete ordinates code XSDRN-PM, using multigroup (100 neutron, 21 gamma-ray groups) coupled cross-section libraries. These neutronics calculations are coupled with a scenario optimization and cost analysis code. Also, the fusion burn was shaped so as to keep the blanket maximum power density below a preset value, and to improve the performance of the fusion-driven systems. The fusion-driven symbiotes are compared with LMFBR-driven energy systems. The nuclear fission breeders that were used as drivers have parameters characteristic of heterogeneous, oxide LMFBRs. They are net plutonium users - the plutonium is obtained from the discharges of LWRs - and U233 is bred in the fission breeder thorium blankets. The analyses of the symbiotic energy systems were performed at equilibrium, at maximum rate of grid expansion, and for a given nuclear power demand

  9. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  10. Controlled nuclear fusion. Theoretical and technical-physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, T.; Oomens, N.

    1995-01-01

    It is stated that the realization of controlled fusion is not only a matter of solving technical problems. Also theoretical research in the field of plasma physics is required. A brief state-of-the-art is given of theoretical and technical-physical aspects of nuclear fusion. Attention is paid to magnetic confinement, the importance of theoretical research, plasma heating, plasma diagnostics, and the control of plasma transport. Throughout the article special attention is paid to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. 5 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  11. The near future of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this short article the author tries to find an explanation about the withdraw of the Usa from the ITER project. According to the author the American economy is not so flourishing as it seems, it is only the IT (information technologies) sector that is attracting huge foreign investments. Moreover state agencies such as Nasa have difficulties to recruit talented people because they are lured by easy money earned in the new economy. The whole of the ITER project has been reduced: the volume of plasma will be 840 m 3 (instead of 2000 m 3 ) for a fusion power of 500 MW (instead of 1500 MW). Canada is standing for hosting the building site. (A.C.)

  12. The survey of nuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion research evaluation model for analyzing various R and D sinarios, the trend analysis of Tokamak research, and the near-term technologies are discussed. The results of the present study are as follows: A computer code, FUSREV, has been developed based on ECON Inc.'s approach. It consists of the plasma power model and the cost/benefit model. Since the State-of-the Knowledges, which are expected to achieve as the result of subproject R and D's, can only be obtained in the form of probability distribution function, Monte-Carlo method is employed. The test computation of the code shows acceptable results. However, FUSREV has been continuously modified employing new models for both technology and economics

  13. Nuclear transmutation. The reality of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tadahiko

    1997-01-01

    The book is introducing the quest on the way to reality of cold fusion. Another point of author is interaction between the quest and social impacts. After the first report on cold fusion by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons on March 1989, the inspired author started a series of following experiments based on his own characteristic background of electrochemistry. The first experiment from March 25 to April 7, 1989 did not show any indications on neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, and heat. The second experiment was initiated at the underground experimental hall of the linear accelerator facilities. This means the shielding of noises coming from outsides. The neutron of about 2.45 MeV was observed after the 1-month continuation of the experiment. The intensity of neutron was nearly 10 to 20 times of the background noise. Furthermore, there were no changes of signals on heat and tritium before and after the experiments. The closed cell experiment was conducted to keep reliability of the experiment. The experiment started on June 1990. In this case, Tritium signals of 100 times of background noise were observed, however, no meaningful signal on neutrons. Anomalous heat was observed after March 24, 1991, where the electric current was increased up to 6 A. On the other hand, there were no appreciable change in neutron and tritium signals. The solid electrolysis was used in the experiment after May 1992, for its high temperature characteristics, where anomalous heat was observed with a certain probability. The experimental system was upgraded in diagnostic methods after 1994. As a result, particular isotopes related to fission reaction were detected. This fact indicates some kinds of transmutations at very local area of the solid surfaces. The author has also pointed out many reactions for a series of this scientific results responded by, for example, well known professors, scientific societies, mass media, and international conferences. Consequently the reactions had almost smeared

  14. NERVA-Derived Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Dual Mode Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Generation of electrical power using the nuclear heat source of a NERVA-derived nuclear thermal rocket engine is presented. A 111,200 N thrust engine defined in a study for NASA-LeRC in FY92 is the reference engine for a three-engine vehicle for which a 50 kWe capacity is required. Processes are described for energy extraction from the reactor and for converting the energy to electricity. The tie tubes which support the reactor fuel elements are the source of thermal energy. The study focuses on process systems using Stirling cycle energy conversion operating at 980 K and an alternate potassium-Rankine system operating at 1,140 K. Considerations are given of the effect of the power production on turbopump operation, ZrH moderator dissociation, creep strain in the tie tubes, hydrogen permeation through the containment materials, requirements for a backup battery system, and the effects of potential design changes on reactor size and criticality. Nuclear considerations include changing tie tube materials to TZM, changing the moderator to low vapor-pressure yttrium hydride, and changing the fuel form from graphite matrix to a carbon-carbide composite.

  15. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine based on particle bed reactor using light water steam as a propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James R.; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of configuring a water cooled Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket, based on a Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is investigated. This rocket will be used to operate on water obtained from near earth objects. The conclusions reached in this paper indicate that it is possible to configure a PBR based NTP rocket to operate on water and meet the mission requirements envisioned for it. No insurmountable technology issues have been identified.

  16. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study development program and costs estimates, Phase 2 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second six-month performance period of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission Engineering Study. A brief overview of the program, identifying the study objectives and approach, and a discussion of the program status and schedule are presented. The program results are reviewed and key conclusions to date are summarized. Planned effort for the remainder of the program is reviewed.

  17. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: leonardo_paredes@icloud.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  18. Multiphysics Modeling of a Single Channel in a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Grooved Ring Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J., Jr.; Barkett, Laura A.; Mathias, Adam D.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    In the past, fuel rods have been used in nuclear propulsion applications. A new fuel element concept that reduces weight and increases efficiency uses a stack of grooved discs. Each fuel element is a flat disc with a hole on the interior and grooves across the top. Many grooved ring fuel elements for use in nuclear thermal propulsion systems have been modeled, and a single flow channel for each design has been analyzed. For increased efficiency, a fuel element with a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio is ideal. When grooves are shallower, i.e., they have a lower surface area, the results show that the exit temperature is higher. By coupling the physics of turbulence with those of heat transfer, the effects on the cooler gas flowing through the grooves of the thermally excited solid can be predicted. Parametric studies were done to show how a pressure drop across the axial length of the channels will affect the exit temperatures of the gas. Geometric optimization was done to show the behaviors that result from the manipulation of various parameters. Temperature profiles of the solid and gas showed that more structural optimization is needed to produce the desired results. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Fuel Element, Heat Transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Coupled Physics Computations, Finite Element Analysis

  19. Technological requirements of nuclear electric propulsion systems for fast Earth-Mars transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérend, N.; Epenoy, R.; Cliquet, E.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Avril, S.

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in electric propulsion technologies such as magnetoplasma rockets gave a new momentum to the study of nuclear electric propulsion concepts for Mars missions. Some recent works have been focused on very short Earth-to-Mars transfers of about 40 days with high-power, variable specific impulse propulsion systems [1]. While the interest of nuclear electric propulsion appears clearly with regard to the payload mass ratio (due to a high level of specific impulse), its interest with regard to the transfer time is more complex to define, as it depends on many design parameters. In this paper, a general analysis of the capability of nuclear electric propulsion systems considering both criteria (the payload mass ratio and the transfer time) is performed, and the technological requirements for fast Earth-Mars transfers are studied. This analysis has been performed in two steps. First, complete trajectory optimizations have been performed by CNES-DCT in order to obtain the propulsion requirements of the mission for different technological hypotheses regarding the engine technology (specific impulse levels and the throttling capability) and different mission requirements. The methodology used for designing fuel-optimal heliocentric trajectories, based on the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle will be presented. Trajectories have been computed for various power levels combined with either variable or fixed Isp. The second step consisted in evaluating a simpler method that could easily link the main mission requirements (the transfer time and the payload fraction) to the main technological requirements (the specific mass of the power generation system and the structure mass ratio of the whole vehicle, excluding the power generation system). Indeed, for power-limited systems, propulsion requirements can be characterized through the "trajectory characteristic" parameter, defined as the integral over time of the squared thrust acceleration. Technological requirements for

  20. Sparking fusion: A step toward laser-initiated nuclear fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, I.

    1996-01-01

    The fusion furnace at the sun's core burns hydrogen to make helium. Each time two hydrogen nuclei, or protons, merge to create a deuterium nucleus, the process releases energy. A chain of additional energy-producing nuclear reactions then converts deuterium into helium. Because protons, with their like electric charges, naturally repel each other, high temperatures and tremendous pressures are needed to force them together closely enough to initiate and sustain the reactions. These mergers cost energy initially, but the return on that investment proves prodigious. On Earth, such an energy payoff has been achieved only in the uncontrolled fury of a detonated hydrogen bomb. The vision of harnessing and controlling nuclear fusion as a terrestrial energy source has yet to be fulfilled. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) represents an ambitious effort to use powerful lasers to deposit sufficient energy in a small capsule of nuclear fuel to trigger fusion. The main justification for the project is to ensure that a core group of physicists and engineers maintains its expertise in the physics of nuclear weapons. This article presents both the scientific and political sides of the NIF facility

  1. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The thirteenth International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, held in Washington D.C., 1-6 October 1990, and organized in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, was devoted to the exchange and dissemination of reports on the steady progress in the research on both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, aiming ultimately for the production of commercial energy from controlled thermonuclear reactors. More than two hundred technical papers presented work on tokamak experiments, inertial confinement, non-tokamak confinement systems, magnetic confinement theory and modelling, plasma heating and current drive, the ITER project, technology and reactor concepts, and the economic, safety and environmental aspects of thermonuclear fusion. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. LLNL nuclear data libraries used for fusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Physical Data Group of the Computational Physics Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has as its principal responsibility the development and maintenance of those data that are related to nuclear reaction processes and are needed for Laboratory programs. Among these are the Magnetic Fusion Energy and the Inertial Confinement Fusion programs. To this end, we have developed and maintain a collection of data files or libraries. These include: files of experimental data of neutron induced reactions; an annotated bibliography of literature related to charged particle induced reactions with light nuclei; and four main libraries of evaluated data. We also maintain files of calculational constants developed from the evaluated libraries for use by Laboratory computer codes. The data used for fusion calculations are usually these calculational constants, but since they are derived by prescribed manipulation of evaluated data this discussion will describe the evaluated libraries

  3. Effects of Nuclear Incompressibility on Heavy-Ion Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Henning; Mişicu, Şerban

    2008-08-01

    We apply the coupled-channels technique to study the hindrance of fusion which has been observed at extreme sub-barrier energies in 64Ni+64Ni and 16O+208Pb collisions. The calculated fusion cross section is sensitive at extreme subbarrier energies to the ion-ion potential for overlapping nuclei but we are not able to reproduce the low-energy data when we apply a conventional Woods-Saxon or proximity type potential in the calculations. The data can, however, be explained quite well by applying the M3Y double-folding potential which has been corrected for the effect of the nuclear incompressibility. The correction is made by including a repulsive contact interaction in the double-folding procedure. This produces a thicker Coulomb barrier and rather shallow pocket in the entrance channel potential, and these two features make it possible to explain the fusion data at the lowest energies.

  4. Study of a Tricarbide Grooved Ring Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Emrich, Bill; Tucker, Dennis; Barnes, Marvin; Donders, Nicolas; Benensky, Kelsa

    2018-01-01

    Deep space exploration, especially that of Mars, is on the horizon as the next big challenge for space exploration. Nuclear propulsion, through which high thrust and efficiency can be achieved, is a promising option for decreasing the cost and logistics of such a mission. Work on nuclear thermal engines goes back to the days of the NERVA program. Currently, nuclear thermal propulsion is under development again in various forms to provide a superior propulsion system for deep space exploration. The authors have been working to develop a concept nuclear thermal engine that uses a grooved ring fuel element as an alternative to the traditional hexagonal rod design. The authors are also studying the use of carbide fuels. The concept was developed in order to increase surface area and heat transfer to the propellant. The use of carbides would also raise the operating temperature of the reactor. It is hoped that this could lead to a higher thrust to weight nuclear thermal engine. This paper describes the modeling of neutronics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics of this alternative nuclear fuel element geometry. Fabrication experiments of grooved rings from carbide refractory metals are also presented along with material characterization and interactions with a hot hydrogen environment. Results of experiments and associated analysis are discussed. The authors demonstrated success in reaching desired densities with some success in material distribution and reaching a solid solution. Future work is needed to improve distribution of material, minimize oxidation during the milling process, and define a fabrication process that will serve for constructing grooved ring fuel rods for large system tests.

  5. Nuclear propulsion: A vital technology for the exploration of Mars and the planets beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1988-01-01

    The physics and technology issues and performance potential of various direct thrust fission and fusion propulsion concepts are examined. Next to chemical propulsion the solid core fission thermal rocket (SCR) is the olny other concept to be experimentally tested at the power (approx 1.5 to 5.0 GW) and thrust levels (approx 0.33 to 1.11 MN) required for manned Mars missions. With a specific impulse of approx 850 s, the SCR can perform various near-Earth, cislunar and interplanetary missions with lower mass and cost requirements than its chemical counterpart. The gas core fission thermal rocket, with a specific power and impulse of approx 50 kW/kg and 5000 s offers the potential for quick courier trips to Mars (of about 80 days) or longer duration exploration cargo missions (lasting about 280 days) with starting masses of about 1000 m tons. Convenient transportation to the outer Solar System will require the development of magnetic and inertial fusion rockets (IFRs). Possessing specific powers and impulses of approx 100 kW/kg and 200-300 kilosecs, IFRs will usher in the era of the true Solar System class speceship. Even Pluto will be accessible with roundtrip times of less than 2 years and starting masses of about 1500 m tons.

  6. Nuclear propulsion - A vital technology for the exploration of Mars and the planets beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1989-01-01

    The physics and technology issues and performance potential of various direct thrust fission and fusion propulsion concepts are examined. Next to chemical propulsion the solid core fission thermal rocket (SCR) is the only other concept to be experimentally tested at the power (approx 1.5 to 5.0 GW) and thrust levels (approx 0.33 to 1.11 MN) required for manned Mars missions. With a specific impulse of approx 850 s, the SCR can perform various near-earth, cislunar and interplanetary missions with lower mass and cost requirements than its chemical counterpart. The gas core fission thermal rocket, with a specific power and impulse of approx 50 kW/kg and 5000 s offers the potential for quick courier trips to Mars (of about 80 days) or longer duration exploration cargo missions (lasting about 280 days) with starting masses of about 1000 m tons. Convenient transportation to the outer Solar System will require the development of magnetic and inertial fusion rockets (IFRs). Possessing specific powers and impulses of approx 100 kW/kg and 200-300 kilosecs, IFRs will usher in the era of the true Solar System class spaceship. Even Pluto will be accessible with roundtrip times of less than 2 years and starting masses of about 1500 m tons.

  7. Use of simulators for the continuation training of nuclear propulsion plant operators in the Royal Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbridge, A.J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Royal Navy now operates 17 submarines which are powered by Pressurised Water Reactors. In the training of the operators of these Nuclear Propulsion Plants, computer simulation is used widely, and ranges from simple analogue devices which present the dynamic response of single plant parameters, through more complex hybrid computers which allow some operator interaction, to the real-time full simulation Manoeuvring Room Trainers. This paper provides information on the use of this latter equipment for the Continuation Training of the Manoeuvring Room Watchkeepers of the Royal Navy's nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  8. The QED engine - Fusion-electric propulsion for Cis-Oort/Quasi-Interstellar (QIS) flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.; Froning, H. D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of QED fusion-direct-electric engine systems, their features, and performance ranges. The principles and characteristics of inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) power source systems are then reviewed, and their application to the diluted-fusion-product (DFP) engine concept for QIS missions is discussed. Particular attention is given to vehicle performance over a range of very high specific impulses and to specifications of a typical candidate DFP/IEF engine and a single-stage vehicle for rapid flight to 550 AU.

  9. Nuclear fusion induced by x rays in a crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. B.; Miller, M. B.; Otto, J.; Rakityansky, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclei that constitute a crystalline lattice oscillate relative to each other with a very low energy that is not sufficient to penetrate through the Coulomb barriers separating them. An additional energy, which is needed to tunnel through the barrier and fuse, can be supplied by external electromagnetic waves (x rays or synchrotron radiation). Exposing the solid compound LiD (lithium deuteride) to x rays for the duration of 111 h, we detect 88 events of nuclear fusion d +6Li→8Be* . Our theoretical estimate agrees with what we observed. One possible application of the phenomenon we found is in measurements of the rates of various nuclear reactions (not necessarily fusion) at extremely low energies inaccessible in accelerator experiments.

  10. Review of accelerator driven heavy ion nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Hofmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using high energy accelerators for energy production by nuclear fission goes back to the 1950's with plans for “breeder accelerators” as well as with early ideas on subcritical reactors, which are currently pursued in China and other countries. Also, fusion came in, when the idea emerged in the mid 1970's to use accelerators and their highly time and space compressed beams in order to generate the extremely high density and temperatures required for inertial fusion energy production. Due to the higher repetition rates and efficiencies of accelerators, this was seen as a promising alternative to using high power lasers. After an introduction to nuclear fission applications of accelerators, this review summarizes some of the scientific developments directed towards this challenging application – with focus on the European HIDIF-study- and outlines parameters of future high energy density experiments after construction of the FAIR/Germany and HIAF/China heavy ion accelerator projects.

  11. Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low

  12. Inner/Outer nuclear membrane fusion in nuclear pore assembly: biochemical demonstration and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtman, Boris; Ramos, Corinne; Rasala, Beth; Harel, Amnon; Forbes, Douglass J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in double nuclear membranes, which carry out nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The mechanism of nuclear pore assembly involves a unique challenge, as it requires creation of a long-lived membrane-lined channel connecting the inner and outer nuclear membranes. This stabilized membrane channel has little evolutionary precedent. Here we mapped inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion in NPC assembly biochemically by using novel assembly intermediates and membrane fusion inhibitors. Incubation of a Xenopus in vitro nuclear assembly system at 14°C revealed an early pore intermediate where nucleoporin subunits POM121 and the Nup107-160 complex were organized in a punctate pattern on the inner nuclear membrane. With time, this intermediate progressed to diffusion channel formation and finally to complete nuclear pore assembly. Correct channel formation was blocked by the hemifusion inhibitor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not if a complementary-shaped lipid, oleic acid (OA), was simultaneously added, as determined with a novel fluorescent dextran-quenching assay. Importantly, recruitment of the bulk of FG nucleoporins, characteristic of mature nuclear pores, was not observed before diffusion channel formation and was prevented by LPC or OA, but not by LPC+OA. These results map the crucial inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion event of NPC assembly downstream of POM121/Nup107-160 complex interaction and upstream or at the time of FG nucleoporin recruitment.

  13. Developments and needs in nuclear analysis of fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin, R., E-mail: raul.pampin@f4e.europa.eu [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Davis, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, J. [F4E Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Leichtle, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Sanz, J. [UNED, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Turner, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Engineering Department, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Complex fusion nuclear analyses require detailed models, sophisticated acceleration and coupling of cumbersome tools. • Progress on development of tools and methods to meet specific needs of fusion nuclear analysis reported. • Advances in production of reference models and in preparation and QA of acceleration and coupling algorithms shown. • Evaluation and adaptation studies of alternative transport codes presented. • Discussion made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs. -- Abstract: Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case of fusion technology in current experiments, ITER, next-step devices and power plant studies. Calculations are intricate and computer-intensive, typically requiring detailed geometry models, sophisticated acceleration algorithms, high-performance parallel computations, and coupling of large and complex transport and activation codes and databases. This paper reports progress on some key areas in the development of tools and methods to meet the specific needs of fusion nuclear analyses. In particular, advances in the production and modernisation of reference models, in the preparation and quality assurance of acceleration algorithms and coupling schemes, and in the evaluation and adaptation of alternative transport codes are presented. Emphasis is given to ITER-relevant activities, which are the main driver of advances in the field. Discussion is made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs and requirements. In some cases, they call for a more efficient and coordinated use of the scarce resources available.

  14. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Overview of principles and challenges of fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion offers very attractive features as a sustainable, broadly available energy source: no emissions of greenhouse gases, no risk of severe accident, and no long-lived radioactive waste. Significant advances in the science and technology of fusion have been realized in the past decades. Seven countries (EU, Japan, USA, Russia, S. Korea, China, and India) comprising about half the world population are constructing a major magnetic fusion facility, called ITER, in France. The objectives of ITER are to demonstrate self-sustaining burning fusion plasma and to test fusion technologies relevant to fusion reactor. Many challenges to the practical utilization of fusion energy remain ahead. Among these challenges is the successful development of Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT). FNT includes those fusion system components circumscribing the plasma and responsible for tritium production and processing, heat removal at high temperature and power density, and high heat flux components. FNT components face a new and more challenging environment than experienced by any previous nuclear application. Beyond plasma physics, FNT has most of the remaining feasibility and attractiveness issues in the development of fusion as an energy source. The blanket, a key FNT component, determines the critical path to DEMO. The blanket is exposed to an intense radiation environment. Radioactivity and decay heat can be produced in the structure and other blanket elements. Hence, material choices have a large impact on safety and environmental attractiveness. The unique conditions of the fusion environment include high radiation flux, high surface heat flux, strong 3-D-component magnetic field with large gradients, and ultra-low vacuum. These conditions, together with the requirements for high-temperature operation and tritium self-sufficiency, make blanket design and development challenging tasks. The blanket concepts being considered worldwide can be classified into solid breeders and liquid

  16. Technical requirement of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Tillak, M.; Gierszwski, P.; Grover, J.; Puigh, R.; Sze, D.K.; Berwald, D.

    1986-06-01

    The technical issues and requirements of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology (FNT) have been investigated. The nuclear subsystems addressed are: a) blanket, b) radiation shield, c) tritium processing system, and d) plasma interactive components. Emphasis has been placed on the important and complex development problems of the blanket. A technical planning process for FNT has been developed and applied, including four major elements: 1) characterization of issues, 2) quantification of testing requirements, 3) evaluation of facilities, and 4) development of a test plan to identify the role, timing, characteristics and costs of major experiments and facilities

  17. Gas Foil Bearings for Space Propulsion Nuclear Electric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The choice of power conversion technology is critical in directing the design of a space vehicle for the future NASA mission to Mars. One candidate design consists of a foil bearing supported turbo alternator driven by a helium-xenon gas mixture heated by a nuclear reactor. The system is a closed-loop, meaning there is a constant volume of process fluid that is sealed from the environment. Therefore, foil bearings are proposed due to their ability to use the process gas as a lubricant. As such, the rotor dynamics of a foil bearing supported rotor is an important factor in the eventual design. The current work describes a rotor dynamic analysis to assess the viability of such a system. A brief technology background, assumptions, analyses, and conclusions are discussed in this report. The results indicate that a foil bearing supported turbo alternator is possible, although more work will be needed to gain knowledge about foil bearing behavior in helium-xenon gas.

  18. Cell-fusion method to visualize interphase nuclear pore formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Funakoshi, Tomoko; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is a complex and sophisticated organelle that organizes genomic DNA to support essential cellular functions. The nuclear surface contains many nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), channels for macromolecular transport between the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is well known that the number of NPCs almost doubles during interphase in cycling cells. However, the mechanism of NPC formation is poorly understood, presumably because a practical system for analysis does not exist. The most difficult obstacle in the visualization of interphase NPC formation is that NPCs already exist after nuclear envelope formation, and these existing NPCs interfere with the observation of nascent NPCs. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a novel system using the cell-fusion technique (heterokaryon method), previously also used to analyze the shuttling of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, to visualize the newly synthesized interphase NPCs. In addition, we used a photobleaching approach that validated the cell-fusion method. We recently used these methods to demonstrate the role of cyclin-dependent protein kinases and of Pom121 in interphase NPC formation in cycling human cells. Here, we describe the details of the cell-fusion approach and compare the system with other NPC formation visualization methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  20. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  1. SOLID SOLUTION CARBIDES ARE THE KEY FUELS FOR FUTURE NUCLEAR THERMAL PROPULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak; Hickman, Robert R.; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion uses nuclear energy to directly heat a propellant (such as liquid hydrogen) to generate thrust for space transportation. In the 1960 s, the early Rover/Nuclear Engine for Rocket Propulsion Application (NERVA) program showed very encouraging test results for space nuclear propulsion but, in recent years, fuel research has been dismal. With NASA s renewed interest in long-term space exploration, fuel researchers are now revisiting the RoverMERVA findings, which indicated several problems with such fuels (such as erosion, chemical reaction of the fuel with propellant, fuel cracking, and cladding issues) that must be addressed. It is also well known that the higher the temperature reached by a propellant, the larger the thrust generated from the same weight of propellant. Better use of fuel and propellant requires development of fuels capable of reaching very high temperatures. Carbides have the highest melting points of any known material. Efforts are underway to develop carbide mixtures and solid solutions that contain uranium carbide, in order to achieve very high fuel temperatures. Binary solid solution carbides (U, Zr)C have proven to be very effective in this regard. Ternary carbides such as (U, Zr, X) carbides (where X represents Nb, Ta, W, and Hf) also hold great promise as fuel material, since the carbide mixtures in solid solution generate a very hard and tough compact material. This paper highlights past experience with early fuel materials and bi-carbides, technical problems associated with consolidation of the ingredients, and current techniques being developed to consolidate ternary carbides as fuel materials.

  2. Small Fast Spectrum Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. The recent NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study re-examined mission, payload, and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system. A common nuclear thermal propulsion stage with three 25,000-lbf thrust engines was used for all primary mission maneuvers. Moderately lower thrust engines may also have important roles. In particular, lower thrust engine designs demonstrating the critical technologies that are directly extensible to other thrust levels are attractive from a ground testing perspective. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. Reactors and engines employing graphite based fuels were designed, built and ground tested. A number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs employing refractory metal alloy fuel types were proposed and designed, but none were built. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art graphite based fuel design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. The SNRE was a nominal 16,000-lbf thrust engine originally intended for unmanned applications with relatively short engine

  3. Small Fast Spectrum Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. Past studies, in particular those in support of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. The recent NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study re-examined mission, payload, and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system. A common nuclear thermal propulsion stage with three 25,000-lbf thrust engines was used for all primary mission maneuvers. Moderately lower thrust engines may also have important roles. In particular, lower thrust engine designs demonstrating the critical technologies that are directly extensible to other thrust levels are attractive from a ground testing perspective. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. Reactors and engines employing graphite based fuels were designed, built and ground tested. A number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs employing refractory metal alloy fuel types were proposed and designed, but none were built. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art graphite based fuel design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. The SNRE was a nominal 16,000-lbf thrust engine originally intended for unmanned applications with relatively short engine operations and the engine and stage design were

  4. Development of Fusion Nuclear Technologies and the role of MTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Schaaf, B. van der

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power plant operation will strongly depend on the economy and reliability of crucial components, such as first wall modules, tritium breeding blankets and divertors. Their operating temperature shall be high to accomplish high plant efficiency. The materials properties and component fabrication routes shall also assure long reliable operation to minimize plant outage. The components must be fabricated in large quantities based on demonstrations with a limited amount of test beds. Mock-ups and test loops will, through iteration processes, demonstrate the reliable operation under reference thermal-hydraulic conditions. Although 14 MeV neutrons dominate the nuclear conditions near the first wall, neutron transport analyses have shown that large portions of the components near the plasma have to cope with a neutron spectrum resembling a fission core. Present Materials Test Reactors, MTR's, offer fluxes relevant for large parts of the fusion major components. The mixed and fast fission spectra though is not representative for all fusion conditions. The strong point of MTR's is their ability to generate sufficient displacement damage in the materials in a relatively short time. The cores of MTR's provide sufficient space for irradiation of representative cut-outs of components to allow integrated functional and materials tests in a high flux neutron field. The MTR's are the primary test bed for structural and functional fusion relevant materials. The MTR space and dose rates provide a valuable base line for the developments and demonstrations of fusion key components in a neutron field. In recent years the pebble bed assembly, PBA, irradiated in the HFR, Petten, has shown the feasibility of the helium-cooled concept with lithium ceramics and beryllium multiplier pebble beds. The irradiations produce a wealth of process parameters for the control of the tritium release of the pebbles. The PBA packaging, cooling and tritium purging arrangements closely resemble the

  5. The role of nuclear data for fusion technology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. → Data libraries cover: experiments (EXFOR), theory (RIPL) and evaluations (ENDF). → Libraries are general purpose or special purpose (decay, dosimetry and activation). → Activation files contain many reactions, only a fraction needs to be known precisely. → Covariance data are important, but details of formatting are being worked out. - Abstract: Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. In these studies, experiments to measure cross sections and decay properties and simulations of the design of fission power plants, fusion devices and accelerators are included. The large amount of data required is stored in computer readable formats in data libraries and the most common of these are the general purpose files used for neutronics or transport calculations. These files also contain the standards against which most measurements are made. The other class of libraries are the special purpose ones containing decay data, fission yields and cross section data for dosimetry and activation. This paper gives examples of what data are available and describes their use for various fusion applications. The focus will be on neutron-induced activation data with examples of how the reactions of particular importance can be identified. All data should be accompanied by estimates of the uncertainty. This is best achieved by including covariance data; however, this is extremely challenging and only a subset of the available data has such uncertainty data. The general principles of how covariance matrices are used are outlined.

  6. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutered polyethylene (CD2n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over threshold fusion effects, in agreement with the high D-D cross-section valuesaround 3 MeV energy. At the first instants of the plasma generation, during which high temperature, density and ionacceleration occur, the D-D fusions occur as confirmed by the detection of mono-energetic protonsand neutrons with a kinetic energy of 3.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV, respectively, produced by the nuclear reaction. The number of fusion events depends strongly on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the laser parameters (intensity, wavelength, focal spot dimension, target conditions (thickness, chemical composition, absorption coefficient, presence of secondary targets and used geometry (incidence angle, laser spot, secondary target positions.A number of D-D fusion events of the order of 106÷7 per laser shot has been measured.

  7. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear data section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron-photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon-atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2 million

  8. A Review of Carbide Fuel Corrosion for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Butt, Darryl P.

    1994-07-01

    At the operation conditions of interest in nuclear thermal propulsion reactors, carbide materials have been known to exhibit a number of life limiting phenomena. These include the formation of liquid, loss by vaporization, creep and corresponding gas flow restrictions, and local corrosion and fuel structure degradation due to excessive mechanical and/or thermal loading. In addition, the radiation environment in the reactor core can produce a substantial change in its local physical properties, which can produce high thermal stresses and corresponding stress fractures (cracking). Time-temperature history and cyclic operation of the nuclear reactor can also accelerate some of these processes. The University of New Mexico's Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, under NASA sponsorship has recently initiated a study to model the complicated hydrogen corrosion process. In support of this effort, an extensive review of the open literature was performed, and a technical expert workshop was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of this review.

  9. Fabrication and Testing of CERMET Fuel Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar

    2012-01-01

    A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is currently being developed for Advanced Space Exploration Systems. The overall goal of the project is to address critical NTP technology challenges and programmatic issues to establish confidence in the affordability and viability of NTP systems. The current technology roadmap for NTP identifies the development of a robust fuel form as a critical near term need. The lack of a qualified nuclear fuel is a significant technical risk that will require a considerable fraction of program resources to mitigate. Due to these risks and the cost for qualification, the development and selection of a primary fuel must begin prior to Authority to Proceed (ATP) for a specific mission. The fuel development is a progressive approach to incrementally reduce risk, converge the fuel materials, and mature the design and fabrication process of the fuel element. A key objective of the current project is to advance the maturity of CERMET fuels. The work includes fuel processing development and characterization, fuel specimen hot hydrogen screening, and prototypic fuel element testing. Early fuel materials development is critical to help validate requirements and fuel performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and status of the work at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. A review of the status of, and prospects for, nuclear marine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the matter of nuclear marine propulsion has been under consideration in the UK since 1957, at which time the Royal Navy commenced studies into the possibility of a nuclear powered 65,000 ton fleet support tanker. Nuclear warship studies started earlier in the USA, where studies were started in 1946 on the application of nuclear power to submarines and surface warships. The present position is that five nuclear merchant ships have been built, whereas 290 nuclear warships are either operational or building. Reference is made to a lecture given by the author in February 1974, in which the position at that time was reviewed, the present lecture up-dating that lecture with regard to subsequent events and their effects on the present prospects for nuclear merchant ships. Headings include the following: situation in early 1974; present situation; economic analyses; the energy situation; problems and prospects (economic assessments, inflation effects, safety requirements, construction time, refuelling requirements, ship residual value and decommissioning costs, training costs, insurance and indemnity, essential documentation, safety acceptance and port entry, licensing and legislative problems, accidents and their consequences); developments in marine reactor designs; and conclusions. The discussions are reproduced in full. (U.K.)

  11. ENDF/B-VI nuclear data evaluations for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.; Larson, D.C.; Young, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The next release of the ENDF/B data library planned for 1989 contains improved data evaluations of interest to the fusion neutronics community. New data formats permit inclusion of energy-angle correlated particle emission spectra and recoil nucleus energy spectra. Enhanced formats for covariance information have been developed. Many new isotopic evaluations will lead to improved energy conservation and kerma factor calculations. Improved nuclear model calculations will provide reliable particle emission data where experimental information is sparse. Improved Bayssian fitting codes will provide more accurate evaluations for data rich reactions such as Li(n,nt)α. All of the most important fusion material evaluations contain these new features. 32 refs., 8 figs

  12. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  13. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage

  14. High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    This documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans to Jupiter's moon, Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten (W) metal matrix cermet fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion technology. The mission timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to support launch of cargo and crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively.

  15. Nuclear propulsion systems for orbit transfer based on the particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Horn, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The technology of nuclear direct propulsion orbit transfer systems based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. A 200 megawatt illustrative design is presented for LEO to GEO and other high ΔV missions. The PBR-NOTV can be used in a one-way mode with the shuttle or an expendable launch vehicle, e.g., the Titan 34D7, or as a two-way reusable space tug. In the one-way mode, payload capacity is almost three times greater than that of chemical OTV's. PBR technology status is described and development needs outlined

  16. High power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for artificial gravity HOPE missions to Callisto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    The following paper documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans to Jupiter's moon, Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten (W) metal matrix 'cermet' fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion technology. The mission timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to support launch of cargo and crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively

  17. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council. The primary aim of this Council, which had its first meeting in conjunction with the Madison Conference, is to promote international co-operation in controlled nuclear fusion

  18. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  20. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  1. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  2. Magnet Design Considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kessel, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); El-Guebaly, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Fusion Technology Institute; Titus, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility that provides a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared with ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, i.e., 30 times higher neutron fluence with three orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center with a plasma major radius of 4.8 m and a minor radius of 1.2 m and a peak field of 15.5 T on the toroidal field (TF) coils for the FNSF. Both low-temperature superconductors (LTS) and high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high-performance ternary restacked-rod process Nb3Sn strands for TF magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high-aspect-ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets, but low-activation-jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. The material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.

  3. Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore

    2006-07-11

    Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 10(15)-10(20) W.cm(-2)). Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C(4+)(D(+))(4))(n) and (D(+)I(22+))(n) at I(M) = 10(18) W.cm(-2), that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D(2))(n), (HT)(n), (CD(4))(n), (DI)(n), (CD(3)I)(n), and (CH(3)I)(n) clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D(2))(n) clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., (12)C(P,gamma)(13)N driven by CE of (CH(3)I)(n) clusters, were explored.

  4. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: D and C. Session D contains papers on magnetic confinement theory and modelling tokamaks, and session C the papers on non-tokamak confinement system. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains, in addition to the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture, the papers on tokamaks, and session E the papers on heating and current drive. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Nuclear fusion induced by Coulomb explosion of heteronuclear clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, I; Jortner, J

    2001-07-16

    We propose a new mechanism for the production of high-energy ( E>3 keV) deuterons, suitable to induce dd nuclear fusion, based on multielectron ionization and Coulomb explosion of heteronuclear deuterium containing molecular clusters, e.g., (D2O)n, in intense ( 10(16)-2x10(18) W/cm2) laser fields. Cluster size equations for E, in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations, reveal important advantages of Coulomb explosion of (D2O)n heteronuclear clusters, as compared with (D)n clusters. These involve the considerably increased D+ kinetic energy and a narrow, high-energy distribution of deuterons.

  7. Physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project; La physique de la fusion thermonucleaire et le projet ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee - DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the 6 contributions to the workshop 'the physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project': 1) the feasibility of magnetic confinement and the issue of heat recovery, 2) heating and current generation in tokamaks, 3) the physics of wall-plasma interaction, 4) recent results at JET, 5) inertial confinement and fast ignition, and 6) the technology of fusion machines based on magnetic confinement. This document presents the principles of thermo-nuclear fusion machines and gives a lot of technical information about JET, Tore-Supra and ITER.

  8. 'Bimodal' Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion for an artificial gravity HOPE mission to Callisto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James H.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a year long, multi-center NASA study which examined the viability of nuclear fission propulsion systems for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE). The HOPE mission assumes a crew of six is sent to Callisto. Jupiter's outermost large moon, to establish a surface base and propellant production facility. The Asgard asteroid formation, a region potentially rich in water-ice, is selected as the landing site. High thrust BNTR propulsion is used to transport the crew from the Earth-Moon L1 staging node to Callisto then back to Earth in less than 5 years. Cargo and LH2 'return' propellant for the piloted Callisto transfer vehicle (PCTV) is pre-deployed at the moon (before the crew's departure) using low thrust, high power, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) cargo and tanker vehicles powered by hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The PCTV is powered by three 25 klbf BNTR engines which also produce 50 kWe of power for crew life support and spacecraft operational needs. To counter the debilitating effects of long duration space flight (∼855 days out and ∼836 days back) under '0-gE' conditions, the PCTV generates an artificial gravity environment of '1-gE' via rotation of the vehicle about its center-of-mass at a rate of ∼4 rpm. After ∼123 days at Callisto, the 'refueled' PCTV leaves orbit for the trip home. Direct capsule re-entry of the crew at mission end is assumed. Dynamic Brayton power conversion and high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten metal ''cermet'' fuel is used in both the BNTR and NEP vehicles to maximize hardware commonality. Technology performance levels and vehicle characteristics are presented, and requirements for PCTV reusability are also discussed

  9. Effect of reactor coolant radioactivity upon configuration feasibility for a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, L.; Wright, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis was carried out for a conceptual nuclear electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport payloads from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. The vehicle employed a thermionic nuclear reactor operating at 1575 kilowatts and generated 120 kilowatts of electricity for a round-trip mission time of 2000 hours. Propulsion was via axially directed ion engines employing 3300 pounds of mercury as a propellant. The vehicle configuration permitted a reactor shadow shield geometry using LiH and the mercury propellant for shielding. However, much of the radioactive NaK reactor coolant was unshielded and in close proximity to the power conditioning electronics. An estimate of the radioactivity of the NaK coolant was made and its unshielded dose rate to the power conditioning equipment calculated. It was found that the activated NaK contributed about three-fourths of the gamma dose constraint. The NaK dose was considered a sufficiently high fraction of the allowable gamma dose to necessitate modifications in configuration.

  10. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  11. Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program: Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1956, Part 1 - 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cramer, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, A. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1957-03-12

    This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into five major parts: 1. Aircraft Reactor Engineering, 2. Chemistry, 3. Metallurgy, 4. Heat Transfer and Physical Properties, Radiation Damage, and Fuel Recovery and Reprocessing, and 5. Reactor Shielding. The ANP Project is comprised of about 550 technical and scientific personnel engaged in many phases of research directed toward the achievement of nuclear propulsion of aircraft. A considerable portion of this research is performed in support of the work of other organizations participating in the national ANP effort. However, the bulk of the ANP research at ORNL is directed toward the development of a circulating-fuel type of reactor. The design, construction, and operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART), with the cooperation of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, are the current objectives of the project. The ART is to be a power plant system that will include a 60-Mw circulating fuel reflector-moderator reactor and adequate means for heat disposal. Operation of the system will be for the purpose of determining feasibility and for studying the problems associated with the design, construction, and operation of a high-power circulating-fuel refIector-moderated aircraft reactor system.

  12. International ITER fusion energy organization. Paving the way to power generation from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuschen-Liebenstein, R. von

    2006-01-01

    ITER (Latin: the way) is the acronym of a new international large research facility gradually taking shape after the meeting of Gorbachev and Reagan in Reykjavik in 1985. Under the auspices of the IAEA, worldwide scientific and industrial cooperation with 'home teams' of each of the ITER partners began at that time which were commissioned to accumulate the knowledge and the technology of nuclear fusion in the participating countries. At the end of the preparation and decisionmaking process, the design draft of the ITER reactor was elaborated in international cooperation as the basis of the ITER Convention. After lengthy negotiations among the international ITER partners, a European site for the ITER organization and its reactor was found at Cadarache, France. As the first ITER member, Europe now initiated worldwide cooperation in research and development, seeking to demonstrate the technical and scientific feasibility of tapping fusion power for peaceful purposes. The Council of the European Union (competitiveness), at its meeting on September 25, 2006, decided to sign the ITER Convention about the establishment of the International ITER Fusion Energy Organization ('ITER Organization') and about the mutual obligation to make the necessary contributions towards the construction of ITER. (orig.)

  13. Mission needs and system commonality for space nuclear power and propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Zuppero, A.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear power enables or significantly enhances a variety of space missions whether near-Earth, or for solar system exploration, lunar-Mars exploration and recovery of near-Earth resources. Performance optimizations for individual missions leads to a large number of power and propulsion systems to be developed. However, the realities of the budget and schedules indicates that the number of nuclear systems that will be developed are limited. One needs to seek the ''minimum requirements'' to do a job rather than the last ounce of performance, and areas of commonality. To develop a minimum number of systems to meet the overall DoD, NASA, and commercial needs, the broad spectrum of requirements has been examined along with cost drivers

  14. N + 1 redundancy on ATCA instrumentation for Nuclear Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, António P.; Batista, António J.N.; Combo, Álvaro; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Gonçalves, Bruno [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA standard features desirable redundancy features for Fusion instrumentation. ► The developed control and data acquisition hardware modules support additional redundancy schemes. ► Implementation of N + 1 redundancy of host processor and I/O data modules. -- Abstract: The role of redundancy on control and data acquisition systems has gained a significant importance in the case of Nuclear Fusion, as demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. IPFN's control and data acquisition system hardware is based on an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) set of I/O (DAC/ADC endpoints) and data/timing switch modules, which handle data and timing from all I/O endpoints. Modules communicate through Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), established over the ATCA backplane and controlled by one or more external hosts. The developed hardware modules were designed to take advantage of ATCA specification's redundancy features, namely at the hardware management level, including support of: (i) multiple host operation with N + 1 redundancy – in which a designated failover host takes over data previously assigned to a suddenly malfunctioning host and (ii) N + 1 redundancy of I/O and data/timing switch modules. This paper briefly describes IPFN's control and data acquisition system, which is being developed for ITER fast plant system controller (FPSC), and analyses the hardware implementation of its supported redundancy features.

  15. Effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution on plasma nuclear fusion rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution derived by Galitskii and Yakimets (GY) on nuclear reaction rates in plasma. We derive an approximate semi-analytical formula for nuclear fusion reaction rate between nuclei in a plasma (quantum plasma nuclear fusion; or QPNF). The QPNF formula is applied to calculate deuteron-deuteron fusion rate in a plasma, and the results are compared with the results calculated with the conventional Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. As an application, we investigate the deuteron-deuteron fusion rate for mobile deuterons in a deuterated metal/alloy. The calculated deuteron-deuteron fusion rates at low energies are enormously enhanced due to the modified tail of the GY's generalized momentum distribution. Our preliminary estimates indicate also that the deuteron-lithium (D+Li) fusion rate and the proton-lithium (p+Li) fusion rate in a metal/alloy at ambient temperatures are also substantially enhanced. (author)

  16. Energy sustainability to long-term. The role of nuclear fusion; Sostenibilidad energetica a largo plazo. el papel de la fusion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Varas, G.; Perlado, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, a dissertation is done about energy sustainability and the role of the different types of energy on that. It has been analyzed more deeply the role of nuclear fusion in the sustainable energy development. (Author) 34 refs.

  17. Nuclear fusion project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, G.

    1987-05-01

    This semi-annual report gives 36 short descriptions of the work done in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project and outlines studies for NET/INTOR and for ECRH power sources at 150 GHz. Tables of fusion technology contracts, of NET contracts, of KfK departments contributing to the Fusion Project, and of the Fusion Project management staff complete this report. (GG)

  18. Nuclear-fusion research. To bring the sun on the earh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The course treats first the foundations of nuclear fusion. In the second part the concepts for the realization of nuclear fusion in the laboratory are described. Finally in the last part a survey on the present status of the research as well an outlook on future work is given

  19. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bog; Delventhal, Rex; Frye, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest within the aerospace community to develop space based nuclear power conversion technologies especially for exploring the outer planets of our solar system where the solar energy density is very low. To investigate these technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC).The investigation performed included BPCS (Brayton Power Conversion System) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to be capable of operation in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments surrounding Jupiter. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future missions with a sound technology plan for technology readiness level (TRL) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature approx. 100 C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues and related development tasks identified. Analyses and evaluations of six different HRS (heat rejection system) designs and three primary power management and distribution (PMAD) configurations will be discussed in the paper.

  20. A review of the status of and prospects for nuclear marine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1976-01-01

    The review relates particularly to commercial nuclear merchant ships. The effects of the oil price escalation on world trade recession and price inflation are shown in relation to the rapid decrease in demand for new shipping and inflation in costs of any new construction. Economic analyses which began to be accepted as in favour of nuclear ships of relatively high power and high load factor have become somewhat less favourable, particularly from the point of view of higher investment costs and the presumed reluctance of shipowners to risk having these ships idle. On the other hand it is pointed out that the overall energy crisis remains and it is considered prudent to identify and seek solutions to those problems in nuclear ship propulsion which either still leave important uncertainties or which are likely to inhibit its use on a wide commercial scale. These are discussed under the following headings: economic assessments; safety acceptance and port entry; licensing and legislative problems; accidents and their consequences; decommissioning a nuclear ship; developments in the marine reactor designs. (U.K.)

  1. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  2. Nuclear inner membrane fusion facilitated by yeast Jem1p is required for spindle pole body fusion but not for the first mitotic nuclear division during yeast mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Hirata, Aiko; Endo, Toshiya

    2008-11-01

    During mating of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse to produce a diploid nucleus. The process of nuclear fusion requires two J proteins, Jem1p in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and Sec63p, which forms a complex with Sec71p and Sec72p, in the ER membrane. Zygotes of mutants defective in the functions of Jem1p or Sec63p contain two haploid nuclei that were closely apposed but failed to fuse. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of nuclei in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes using electron microscope with the freeze-substituted fixation method. Three-dimensional reconstitution of nuclear structures from electron microscope serial sections revealed that Jem1p facilitates nuclear inner-membrane fusion and spindle pole body (SPB) fusion while Sec71p facilitates nuclear outer-membrane fusion. Two haploid SPBs that failed to fuse could duplicate, and mitotic nuclear division of the unfused haploid nuclei started in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes. This observation suggests that nuclear inner-membrane fusion is required for SPB fusion, but not for SPB duplication in the first mitotic cell division.

  3. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  4. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program

  5. Mars mission opportunity and transit time sensitivity for a nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.; Nishimuta, E.L.; Emrich, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    President George Bush's 1989 challenge to America to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of ''Back to the Moon and Human Mission to Mars'' gives the space industry an opportunity to develop effective and efficient space transportation systems. This paper presents stage performance and requirements for a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars transportation system to support the human Mars mission of the SEI. Two classes of Mars mission profiles are considered in developing the NTR propulsion vehicle performance and requirements. The two Mars mission classes include the opposition class and conjunction class. The opposition class mission is associated with relatively short Mars stay times ranging from 30 to 90 days and total mission duration of 350 to 600 days. The conjunction class mission is associated with much longer Mars stay times ranging from 500 to 600 days and total mission durations of 875 to 1,000 days. Vehicle mass scaling equations are used to determine the NTR stage mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission opportunities and for different Mars mission durations. Mission opportunities considered include launch years 2010 to 2018. The 2010 opportunity is the most demanding launch opportunity and the 2018 opportunity is the least demanding opportunity. NTR vehicle mass and size sensitivity to NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio, and Mars surface payload are presented. NTR propulsion parameter ranges include those associated with NERVA, particle bed reactor (PBR), low-pressure, and ceramic-metal-type engine design

  6. Mars mission opportunity and transit time sensitivity for a nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Archie C.; Mulqueen, John A.; Nishimuta, Ena L.; Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    President George Bush's 1989 challenge to America to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of ``Back to the Moon and Human Mission to Mars'' gives the space industry an opportunity to develop effective and efficient space transportation systems. This paper presents stage performance and requirements for a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars transportation system to support the human Mars mission of the SEI. Two classes of Mars mission profiles are considered in developing the NTR propulsion vehicle performance and requirements. The two Mars mission classes include the opposition class and conjunction class. The opposition class mission is associated with relatively short Mars stay times ranging from 30 to 90 days and total mission duration of 350 to 600 days. The conjunction class mission is associated with much longer Mars stay times ranging from 500 to 600 days and total mission durations of 875 to 1,000 days. Vehicle mass scaling equations are used to determine the NTR stage mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission opportunities and for different Mars mission durations. Mission opportunities considered include launch years 2010 to 2018. The 2010 opportunity is the most demanding launch opportunity and the 2018 opportunity is the least demanding opportunity. NTR vehicle mass and size sensitivity to NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio, and Mars surface payload are presented. NTR propulsion parameter ranges include those associated with NERVA, particle bed reactor (PBR), low-pressure, and ceramic-metal-type engine design.

  7. Nuclear fusion: sixty years of efforts, great advances and challenges. May nuclear fusion replace fossil energies? The Grail which makes start-ups dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, Sylvain; Pajot, Philippe; Delbecq, Denis

    2016-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of sixty years of researches, investments and realisations aimed at a better knowledge and control of nuclear fusion to solve the Planet's energy problems. After a brief overview of the Sun as an example, and while presenting the principle of magnetic fusion in a tokamak, some key figures illustration the development of ITER, the authors describe magnetic fusion as the royal road to nuclear fusion (challenges for the ITER project, development of Stellarator as a concurrent of tokamaks), and inertial fusion as an alternate approach (principle, military interest, plasma physics). They also indicate other approaches based on a change of energy source, a change in ignition process, or a change in fuel. In a second article, the author discusses the economic perspectives of nuclear fusion: a supposed unlimited fuel, existence of radioactive releases and pollution, operation risks and costs, technical challenges to be faced, a development to be amortised on more than a century except if more compact processes are elaborated and developed. The author also discusses issues of profitability and of proliferation. The third and last article comments the existence of many start-ups, notably financed by Silicon Valley rich companies, which invest in researches and projects on nuclear fusion. They try to develop more compact systems, and aim at manufacturing their first prototypes by 2020. On the other side, academics remain doubtful about their ability to reach their objectives

  8. Nuclear challenges and progress in designing stellarator fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Tautges, T.; Slaybaugh, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Ibrahim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 5-6 decades, stellarator power plants have been studied in the US, Europe, and Japan as an alternate to the mainline magnetic fusion tokamaks, offering steady-state operation and eliminating the risk of plasma disruptions. The earlier 1980s studies suggested large-scale stellarator power plants with an average major radius exceeding 20 m. The most recent development of the compact stellarator concept delivered ARIES-CS - a compact stellarator with 7.75 m average major radius, approaching that of tokamaks. For stellarators, the most important engineering parameter that determines the machine size and cost is the minimum distance between the plasma boundary and mid-coil. Accommodating the breeding blanket and necessary shield within this distance to protect the ARIES-CS superconducting magnet represents a challenging task. Selecting the ARIES-CS nuclear and engineering parameters to produce an economic optimum, modeling the complex geometry for 3D nuclear analysis to confirm the key parameters, and minimizing the radwaste stream received considerable attention during the design process. These engineering design elements combined with advanced physics helped enable the compact stellarator to be a viable concept. This paper provides a brief historical overview of the progress in designing stellarator power plants and a perspective on the successful integration of the nuclear activity into the final ARIES-CS configuration

  9. Kinetic—a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  10. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  11. Application of a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion and power system to military missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of arms technology and space access combined with current economic realities in the United States are creating ever greater demands for more capable space-based military assets. The paper illustrates that bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is a high-leverage tehcnology that can maximize utility while minimizing cost. Mission benefits offered by the bi-modal PBR, including enhanced maneuverability, lifetime, survivability, payload power, and operational flexibility, are discussed. The ability to deliver desired payloads on smaller boosters is also illustrated. System descriptions and parameters for 10 kWe and 100 kWe power output levels are summarized. It is demonstrated via design exercise that bi-modal PBR dramtically enhances performance of a military satellite in geosynchronous orbit, increasing payload mass, payload power, and maneuverability.

  12. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.; Ludewig, Hans; Mughabghab, Said F.; Schmidt, Eldon; Todosow, Michael; Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors.

  13. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Schmidt, E.; Todosow, M.; Parma, E.J.; Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors

  14. The ERDA thermionic program. [for nuclear propulsion and utility power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A rationale for increased Federal support of thermionic research is considered and the objectives and milestones of the thermionic program of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) are examined. The ERDA program is to provide very high specific power systems needed for planned future NASA nuclear electric propulsion missions. Another objective is the enhancement of the overall thermal conversion efficiency of the present utility power plants from approximately 35% to 50% or more. Attention is given to key problem areas, taking into account inadequate analytical tools, the reduction of the plasma arc-drop losses, aspects of hot shell materials development, and the coordination of the participating groups programmatic activities.

  15. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    A program has been proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a high-temperature particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system to be used to power an advanced second stage nuclear rocket engine. The purpose of this Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) is to assess the potential environmental impacts of component development and testing, construction of ground test facilities, and ground testing. Major issues and goals of the program include the achievement and control of predicted nuclear power levels; the development of materials that can withstand the extremely high operating temperatures and hydrogen flow environments; and the reliable control of cryogenic hydrogen and hot gaseous hydrogen propellant. The testing process is designed to minimize radiation exposure to the environment. Environmental impact and mitigation planning are included for the following areas of concern: (1) Population and economy; (2) Land use and infrastructure; (3) Noise; (4) Cultural resources; (5) Safety (non-nuclear); (6) Waste; (7) Topography; (8) Geology; (9) Seismic activity; (10) Water resources; (11) Meteorology/Air quality; (12) Biological resources; (13) Radiological normal operations; (14) Radiological accidents; (15) Soils; and (16) Wildlife habitats.

  17. Technology Implementation Plan: Irradiation Testing and Qualification for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rader, Jordan D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This document is a notional technology implementation plan (TIP) for the development, testing, and qualification of a prototypic fuel element to support design and construction of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine, specifically its pre-flight ground test. This TIP outlines a generic methodology for the progression from non-nuclear out-of-pile (OOP) testing through nuclear in-pile (IP) testing, at operational temperatures, flows, and specific powers, of an NTP fuel element in an existing test reactor. Subsequent post-irradiation examination (PIE) will occur in existing radiological facilities. Further, the methodology is intended to be nonspecific with respect to fuel types and irradiation or examination facilities. The goals of OOP and IP testing are to provide confidence in the operational performance of fuel system concepts and provide data to program leadership for system optimization and fuel down-selection. The test methodology, parameters, collected data, and analytical results from OOP, IP, and PIE will be documented for reference by the NTP operator and the appropriate regulatory and oversight authorities. Final full-scale integrated testing would be performed separately by the reactor operator as part of the preflight ground test.

  18. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  19. The role of nuclear power and nuclear propulsion in the peaceful exploration of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This publication has been produced within the framework of the IAEA's innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development activities. It elucidates the role that peaceful space related nuclear power research and development could play in terrestrial innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development initiatives. This review is a contribution to the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities, and reflects the stepped up efforts of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to further strengthen cooperation between international organizations in space related activities. Apart from fostering information exchange within the United Nations organizations, this publication aims at finding new potential fields for innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development. In assessing the status and reviewing the role of nuclear power in the peaceful exploration of space, it also aims to initiate a discussion on the potential benefits of space related nuclear power technology research and development to the development of innovative terrestrial nuclear systems

  20. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C

    2012-08-03

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IAEA specialists' meeting on the fusion evaluated nuclear data library related to the ITER activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.; Lorenz, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the summary report of an IAEA Specialists' Meeting on the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Related to the ITER Activity, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna from 16 to 18 November 1987. The objective of the meeting was to formulate a detailed programme and time schedule for the development of the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) to meet the future needs of the ITER activity

  2. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF). Dynamic application of atomic and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1995-01-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; 1) so-called cold fusion (CF), 2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and 3) accelerator-based D-T(D) neutron source. Details of the LCF reactor physics require dynamics of atomic data as well as nuclear data; interaction of ions with matters in solid and the problems of radiation damage. (author)

  3. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  4. Present state and near future prospect of nuclear fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1995-01-01

    In place of the cold war, the destruction of global environment has become to be recognized as the largest threat for mankind. In such circumstance, nuclear fusion has the features that it does not release the substances which cause global warming and acid rain, the fuel resources are contained in seawater, therefore, infinite and distributed uniformly and so on. Nuclear fusion is the fundamental energy source in the sun and space, and aiming at realizing this reaction on the earth as early as possible, now is the time to show the physical and engineering feasibility of nuclear fusion power generation. The progress of the research and development of nuclear fusion is described. At present, the critical plasma condition has been attained for a moment in tokamak type nuclear fusion devices, and the attainment of the self ignition condition is studied. As the methods of realizing nuclear fusion reaction, deuterium-tritium reaction is utilized, and magnetic field confinement and inertia confinement methods are regarded as promising. The performance attained by the various nuclear fusion devices in the world is shown. The elucidation of the factors that decide plasma performance is very difficult. The outline of the ITER project is mentioned. The third stage plan of research and development is explained. The prospect for near future is the start of experiment with the ITER at the beginning of the next century. (K.I.)

  5. Technological forecasting a long time of the scientific-technological development of the nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettert, Plinio G.; Oliveira, Wagner S.; Aquino, Afonso R.

    2009-01-01

    With base in the introduction in long time of the nuclear fusion inside of a system of viable energy, taking in consideration economic factors, would imply on investment in a long period. The objective of this project utilizing the method of the Delphi technique is the technological forecast a long time of the scientific-technological development of the nuclear fusion and its impact. This research project will be carried through different stages of improvement of variables. A questionnaire based on information and analysis of the literature validated for specialists in nuclear fusion becomes this project a tool in the elaboration future of a database contends variables on the theme nuclear fusion and its perspectives. The database will be composed for the answers and suggestions obtained, with exploratory and extrapolatory elements, on the theme a great number of specialists involving in the nuclear fusion area. The database is analyzed for the configuration of variables that represent elements as scientific-technological factors, economical, political, social and environmental among others. As final result of the research with the Delphi technique, different scenes obtained with the variables will be indicated by convergent factors or not on the approached perspectives. The analysis of the data will be possible through of improve of statistical analysis tools. This is the first analyzes of the answers. The questionnaire was validated with nuclear fusion specialists from the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil and the Center of Nuclear Fusion of the Technical University of Lisbon in Portugal. (author)

  6. Prm3p is a pheromone-induced peripheral nuclear envelope protein required for yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Tobery, Cynthia E; Rose, Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear membrane fusion is the last step in the mating pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We adapted a bioinformatics approach to identify putative pheromone-induced membrane proteins potentially required for nuclear membrane fusion. One protein, Prm3p, was found to be required for nuclear membrane fusion; disruption of PRM3 caused a strong bilateral defect, in which nuclear congression was completed but fusion did not occur. Prm3p was localized to the nuclear envelope in pheromone-responding cells, with significant colocalization with the spindle pole body in zygotes. A previous report, using a truncated protein, claimed that Prm3p is localized to the inner nuclear envelope. Based on biochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and live cell microscopy, we find that functional Prm3p is a peripheral membrane protein exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the outer nuclear envelope. In support of this, mutations in a putative nuclear localization sequence had no effect on full-length protein function or localization. In contrast, point mutations and deletions in the highly conserved hydrophobic carboxy-terminal domain disrupted both protein function and localization. Genetic analysis, colocalization, and biochemical experiments indicate that Prm3p interacts directly with Kar5p, suggesting that nuclear membrane fusion is mediated by a protein complex.

  7. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    of fixed fuel configurations that would normally require a computationally burdensome number of depletion zones. Alternatively, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) adjusts the depletion zone size according to the variation in flux across the zone or fractional contribution to total absorption or fission. A parametric analysis on a fully mixed fuel core was performed using the LNC and ABL code suites. The resulting system parameters are found to optimize performance metrics using a 20 MT DU fuel load with a 20% TRISO packing and a 300 μm kernel radius operated with a fusion input power of 500 MW and a fission blanket gain of 4.0. LFFH potentially offers a proliferation resistant technology relative to other nuclear energy systems primarily because of no need for fuel enrichment or reprocessing. A figure of merit of the material attractiveness is examined and it is found that the fuel is effectively contaminated to an unattractive level shortly after the system is started due to fission product and minor actinide build up.

  8. Nuclear fusion during yeast mating occurs by a three-step pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; McIntosh, J Richard; Rose, Mark D

    2007-11-19

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating culminates in nuclear fusion to produce a diploid zygote. Two models for nuclear fusion have been proposed: a one-step model in which the outer and inner nuclear membranes and the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) fuse simultaneously and a three-step model in which the three events occur separately. To differentiate between these models, we used electron tomography and time-lapse light microscopy of early stage wild-type zygotes. We observe two distinct SPBs in approximately 80% of zygotes that contain fused nuclei, whereas we only see fused or partially fused SPBs in zygotes in which the site of nuclear envelope (NE) fusion is already dilated. This demonstrates that SPB fusion occurs after NE fusion. Time-lapse microscopy of zygotes containing fluorescent protein tags that localize to either the NE lumen or the nucleoplasm demonstrates that outer membrane fusion precedes inner membrane fusion. We conclude that nuclear fusion occurs by a three-step pathway.

  9. An examination of bimodal nuclear power and propulsion benefits for outer solar system missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.; Mondt, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of the NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. The radiological hazard associated with using Earth gravity assists on such missions was examined and shown to be small compared to that currently accepted on Earth fly-by missions involving RTGs. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive options for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Solid-State Thermionic Nuclear Power for Megawatt Propulsion, Planetary Surface and Commercial Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic (TI) power conversion is a promising technology first investigated for power conversion in the 1960's, and of renewed interest due to modern advances in nanotechnology, MEMS, materials and manufacturing. Benefits include high conversion efficiency (20%), static operation with no moving parts and potential for high reliability, greatly reduced plant complexity, and the potential for reduced development costs. Thermionic emission, credited to Edison in 1880, forms the basis of vacuum tubes and much of 20th century electronics. Heat can be converted into electricity when electrons emitted from a hot surface are collected across a small gap. For example, two "small" (6 kWe) Thermionic Space Reactors were flown by the USSR in 1987-88 for ocean radar reconnaissance. Higher powered Nuclear-Thermionic power systems driving Electric Propulsion (Q-thruster, VASIMR, etc.) may offer the breakthrough necessary for human Mars missions of Power generation on Earth could benefit from simpler, moe economical nuclear plants, and "topping" of more fuel and emission efficient fossil-fuel plants.

  11. Superconducting Coils for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal focuses on the superconducting coils subsystem, a critical subsystem for the PFRC reactor and Direct Fusion Drive and other fusion and electric...

  12. Fusion power by magnetic confinement: plans and the associated need for nuclear engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Beard, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    An essential ingredient in the fusion development plan will be the training of appropriate scientific and technical manpower. In examining the need for fusion-trained nuclear engineers, it is projected that an additional 120 to 250 engineers at the MS and PhD levels will be needed between now and 1980. To be most effective, these graduates must not only be trained in the ''classic'' physical, nuclear, mechanical, and electrical sciences, but they will need specialized training in fusion plasma physics and fusion materials science. To help develop the appropriate educational programs, close cooperation between U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) headquarters, ERDA laboratories, private industry, and the universities will be essential. An emerging need for a carefully structured ''fusion technology'' option in nuclear engineering departments is plainly evident and is already beginning to be developed at leading institutions

  13. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  14. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Luísa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sérgio; Delicado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Accepted version. This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly disso...

  15. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  16. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ya Shoji

    Full Text Available Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  17. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, μ-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session

  18. Safety analysis of fusion reactors pertaining to nuclear incidents and accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.; Weller, A.; Wolf, R.; Jin, X.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Stieglitz, R.; Carloni, D.; Pistner, C.; Herb, J.

    2013-11-01

    The BfS gave the projekt partners IPP, KIT, Oeko-Institut e. V., and GRS the order to carry out a literature study on the topic of safety of fusion power plants regarding nuclear incidents and accidents. In the framework of this study the actual status of science and technology of the safety concept of fusion power plants should be determined and the applicability of the nuclear safety regulations hitherto developed for nuclear power plants checked. For future commercial fusion power plants today only conceptional designs exist. The most advanced conceptual study for a future fusion power plant is the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) from the year 2005, which is based on the tokamak principle. In this study also fundamental aspects of the safety concept of nuclear fusion are treated. Hereby several different conceptual approaches are discussed, which differ among others also in the lay-out approaches relevant for the safety of a facility like for instance the choice of the breeding concept or the materials for the blanket/divertor structure and the coolants. The safety concept of nuclear fusion is oriented on safety concepts for facilities with radioactive inventory. It is based on the concept of tiered safety levels. In order to check whether for the nuclear fusion a safety concept comparable with the nuclear fission at all is necessary, in a first step it was considered, which consequences are possible at a postulated release o large parts of the radioactive inventory of a fusion power plant. Such a worst-case scenario was compared with a corresponding, postulated release of large parts of the radioactive inventory of a nuclear power plant. As scale hereby served the radiological criterion, at the transgression of which in the environment of the facility an evacuation would be necessary. In a next step the transferability of the safety concept of the tiered safety levels of nuclear technology to the fusion was checked. Beside events transferable from

  19. Numerical studies for the nuclear fusion reactor Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelbe, Hauke [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X is currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. After completion in 2014, the experiment will be the largest and most advanced stellarator ever built. The cryostat hosting the superconducting coils and the vacuum vessel has a diameter of 16 meters and a height of 5 meters, and the magnetic field will be 2.5 T on axis. Wendelstein 7-X is designed to prove simultaneous high density, high temperature, steady-state plasma operation. The first plasma is planned for 2015. After first tests the plasma pulse time will be gradually increased up to 30 minutes from 2019 on. The core plasma temperature in this device will be over 100 million degree. Therefore, contact with the plasma facing components must be done carefully. One challenge in this connection is that the plasma shape will change during operation due to internal plasma currents generated by the plasma itself. Using state-of-the-art codes, we are investigating and developing operational scenarios for the first, relatively short plasma pulses, that allow us to address important issues for the later steady-state operation.

  20. The timing system of the RFX Nuclear Fusion Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, V.; Flor, G.; Manduchi, G.; Piacentini, I.

    1992-01-01

    The REX Nuclear Fusion Experiment [1] in Padova, Italy, employs a distributed system to produce precision trigger signals for the fast control of the experiment and for the experiment-wide synchronization of data acquisition channels. The hardware of the system is based on a set of CAMAC modules. The modules have been integrated into a hardware/software system which provides the following features: 1) generation of pre-programmed timing events, 2) distribution of asynchronous (not pre-programmed) timing events, 3) gating of timing event generation by Machine Protection System, 4) automatic stop of timing sequence in case of highway damage, 5) dual-speed time base for transient recorders, 6) system-wide precision of ≤ 3 μs, time resolution ≥ 10 μs. The operation of the timing system is fully integrated into the RFX data acquisition system software. The Timing System Software consists of three layers: the lowest one corresponds directly to the CAMAC modules, the intermediate one provides pseudo-devices which essentially correspond to specific features for the modules (e.g. a dual frequency clock source for transient recorders), the highest level provides system set-up support. The system is fully operational and was first used during the commissioning of the RFX Power Supplies in spring '91. (author)

  1. Thermonuclear fusion product diagnostics by nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, E.; Schumacher, U. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)); Paretzke, H.G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear track detector materials CR-39 and PM-355 are capable of proton and alpha particle track recording and thus well suited to charged particle diagnostics in thermonuclear fusion devices. In a study to determine the respective absolute recording efficiencies and energy resolutions for protons and alpha particles in real diagnostics situations, a series of experiments with monoenergetic particles of known energies and angles of incidence were performed. Alpha particles could be quantitatively detected for angles of incidence of up to 70 deg, and their etch pit depth rather than the diameter for defined etching conditions gave satisfying information on the alpha particle energy. Contrary to other investigators, however, we found a monotonically decreasing detection probability for protons already above 3 MeV and no proton track could be developed above incident energies of 7 to 8 MeV. The proton detection depends more strongly on the angle of incidence; only tracks of protons with angles of incidence smaller than 30 deg could be made visible by etching. The proton energy could be derived from track diameter measurements better than from etch pit depths.

  2. Toroidal coil for torus type nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daisaburo; Jinbo, Kensaku.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To facilitate clamping operation in the joint section of a toroidal coil in the nuclear fusion device even if the device has a narrow central space. Structure: A clamp bolt for joining upper and lower coil conductors comprises a first bolt, which is provided in one end portion with a thread for fitting a clamp nut, has a hollow intermediate portion and is provided at the other end with an opening of a smaller diameter than that of the hollow intermediate portion and also with an inner receiving surface, and a second bolt, which is provided in one end portion with a thread for fitting a clamp nut and in the other end portion with a raised portion and is adapted to be inserted on the raised portion side into the hollow intermediate portion of the first bolt such that it is extendable in the axial direction. When inserting this clamp bolt into a see-through hole in the conductor joint section its length is reduced, and at the time of clamping it is extended with the raised portion of the second bolt locked by the receiving surface of the first bolt. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  4. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  5. Situation and role of industrial fields in nuclear fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Gen-ichi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established the nuclear fusion technical committee in October, 1980, and has investigated the attitude of industrial fields in progressing nuclear fusion research and development and the measures to cooperate with national development plans. Corresponding to the new long term plan and the establishment of the basic policy for nuclear fusion research and development by Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in June, 1982, JAIF has settled the policy on the situation and role of industrial fields. In this report, first the necessity of firmly grasping the position of nuclear fusion research in atomic energy development is described, next, the present status of the research and development in Japan is reported, and it is mentioned that the role of manufacturers in reinforcing engineering has become more important in industrial fields. In the stage of the construction of a nuclear fusion reactor, the experiences in the engineering safety in fission reactors, environmental safety and system engineering will be utilized. Japanese industrial fields feature that they have made larger cooperation with national projects even in the research and development stage as compared to foreign countries. When the plan of next phase system will be promoted in the future, the cooperating methods in the past should be evaluated, investigated and improved, and the experiences in fast breeder reactors and advanced heavy water reactors should be referred to. Finally, the problems and the countermeasures in nuclear fusion development are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Summary of particle bed reactor designs for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1993-09-01

    A summary report of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) designs considered for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program has been prepared. The first chapters outline the methods of analysis, and their validation. Monte Carlo methods are used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms are used for the fluid dynamics heat transfer and engine system analysis, and commercially available codes are used for the stress analysis. A critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR was used for the physics validation, and blowdown experiments using fuel beds of prototypic dimensions were used to validate the power extraction capabilities from particle beds. In all four different PBR rocket reactor designs were studied to varying degrees of detail. They varied in power from 400 MW to 2000 MW. These designs were all characterized by a negative prompt coefficient, due to Doppler feedback, and the feedback due to moderator heat up varied from slightly negative to slightly positive. In all practical cases, the coolant worth was positive, although core configurations with negative coolant worth could be designed. In all practical cases the thrust/weight ratio was greater than 20.

  7. An overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Early in 1992 the idea of purchasing a Russian designed and fabricated space reactor power system and integrating it with a US designed satellite went from fiction to reality with the purchase of the first two Topaz II reactors by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (now the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO)). The New Mexico Alliance was formed to establish a ground test facility in which to perform nonnuclear systems testing of the Topaz II, and to evaluate the Topaz II system for flight testing with respect to safety, performance, and operability. In conjunction, SDIO requested that the Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD propose a mission and design a satellite in which the Topaz II could be used as the power source. The outcome of these two activities was the design of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite which combines a modified Russian Topaz II power system with a US designed satellite to achieve a specified mission. Due to funding reduction within the SDIO, the Topaz II flight program was postponed indefinitely at the end of Fiscal year 1993. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the NEPSTP mission and the satellite design at the time the flight program ended

  8. Brayton Power Conversion System Parametric Design Modelling for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Thomas L.; Otting, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The parametrically based closed Brayton cycle (CBC) computer design model was developed for inclusion into the NASA LeRC overall Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) end-to-end systems model. The code is intended to provide greater depth to the NEP system modeling which is required to more accurately predict the impact of specific technology on system performance. The CBC model is parametrically based to allow for conducting detailed optimization studies and to provide for easy integration into an overall optimizer driver routine. The power conversion model includes the modeling of the turbines, alternators, compressors, ducting, and heat exchangers (hot-side heat exchanger and recuperator). The code predicts performance to significant detail. The system characteristics determined include estimates of mass, efficiency, and the characteristic dimensions of the major power conversion system components. These characteristics are parametrically modeled as a function of input parameters such as the aerodynamic configuration (axial or radial), turbine inlet temperature, cycle temperature ratio, power level, lifetime, materials, and redundancy.

  9. Brayton power conversion system parametric design modelling for nuclear electric propulsion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Otting, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    The parametrically based closed Brayton cycle (CBC) computer design model was developed for inclusion into the NASA LeRC overall Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) end-to-end systems model. The code is intended to provide greater depth to the NEP system modeling which is required to more accurately predict the impact of specific technology on system performance. The CBC model is parametrically based to allow for conducting detailed optimization studies and to provide for easy integration into an overall optimizer driver routine. The power conversion model includes the modeling of the turbines, alternators, compressors, ducting, and heat exchangers (hot-side heat exchanger and recuperator). The code predicts performance to significant detail. The system characteristics determined include estimates of mass, efficiency, and the characteristic dimensions of the major power conversion system components. These characteristics are parametrically modeled as a function of input parameters such as the aerodynamic configuration (axial or radial), turbine inlet temperature, cycle temperature ratio, power level, lifetime, materials, and redundancy

  10. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  11. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  12. Prospects for Nuclear Electric Propulsion Using Closed-Cycle Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, R. J.; Bitteker, L. J.; Jones, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has long been recognized as a major enabling technology for scientific and human exploration of the solar system, and it may conceivably form the basis of a cost-effective space transportation system suitable for space commerce. The chief technical obstacles to realizing this vision are the development of efficient, high-power (megawatt-class) electric thrusters and the development of low specific mass (less than 1 kg/kWe) power plants. Furthermore, comprehensive system analyses of multimegawatt class NEP systems are needed in order to critically assess mission capability and cost attributes. This Technical Publication addresses some of these concerns through a systematic examination of multimegawatt space power installations in which a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is used to drive a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator in a closed-loop Brayton cycle. The primary motivation for considering MHD energy conversion is the ability to transfer energy out of a gas that is simply too hot for contact with any solid material. This has several intrinsic advantages including the ability to achieve high thermal efficiency and power density and the ability to reject heat at elevated temperatures. These attributes lead to a reduction in system specific mass below that obtainable with turbine-based systems, which have definite solid temperature limits for reliable operation. Here, the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis are placed in context with a preliminary system analysis in order to converge on a design space that optimizes performance while remaining clearly within established bounds of engineering feasibility. MHD technology issues are discussed including the conceptual design of a nonequilibrium disk generator and opportunities for exploiting neutron-induced ionization mechanisms as a means of increasing electrical conductivity and enhancing performance and reliability. The results are then used to make a cursory examination of piloted

  13. Great expectations: a review of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; MacKerron, G.

    1989-01-01

    Fusion research policy has recently come under scrutiny, prompted by rising research costs and increasing doubt about the value of such long-term work. This paper reviews the basic principles of fusion, the research and development still required, the costs of research to date, justifications for it, and future policy options; and examines in broad terms some of the ways in which fusion can be and has been evaluated. Throughout, the emphasis is on the need to compare fusion on equal terms with those technological options with which it may compete, and in the context of different energy futures. (author)

  14. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  15. Study on system integration of robots operated in nuclear fusion facility and nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi

    2004-07-01

    A present robot is required to apply to many fields such as amusement, welfare and protection against disasters. The are however only limited numbers of the robots, which can work under the actual conditions as a robot system. It is caused by the following reasons: (1) the robot system cannot be realized by the only collection of the elemental technologies, (2) the performance of the robot is determined by that of the integrated system composed of the complicated elements with many functions, and (3) the respective elements have to be optimized in the integrated robot system with a well balance among them, through their examination, adjustment and improvement. Therefore, the system integration of the robot composed of a large number of elements is the most critical issue to realize the robot system for actual use. In the present paper, I describe the necessary approaches and elemental technologies to solve the issues on the system integration of the typical robot systems for maintenance in the nuclear fusion facility and rescue in the accident of the nuclear power plant facilities. These robots work under the intense radiation condition and restricted space in place of human. In particular, I propose a new approach to realize the system integration of the robot for actual use from the viewpoints of not only the environment and working conditions but also the restructure and optimization of the required elemental technologies with a well balance in the robot system. Based on the above approach, I have a contribution to realize the robot systems working under the actual conditions for maintenance in the nuclear fusion facility and rescue in the accident of the nuclear power plant facilities. (author)

  16. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  17. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Fahrenkrog

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE, in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α. Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  18. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

    1962-06-28

    This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

  19. Trends of plasma physics and nuclear fusion research life cycle and research effort curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Takeru; Kanada, Yasumasa; Momota, Hiromu; Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1979-05-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of research trends in the fields of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. This analysis is based on information retrieval from available data bases such as INSPEC tapes. The results indicate that plasma physics research is now in the maturation phase of its life cycle, and that nuclear fusion research is in its growth phase. This paper indicates that there is a correlation between the number of accumulated papers in the fields of plasma physics and nuclear fusion and the experimentally attained values of the plasma ignition parameter ntT. Using this correlation ''research effort curve'', we forecast that the scientific feasibility of controlled fusion using magnetic confinement systems will be proved around 1983. (author)

  20. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-01-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work

  1. Functional analysis for complex systems of nuclear fusion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinna, Tonio, E-mail: tonio.pinna@enea.it; Dongiovanni, Danilo Nicola; Iannone, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Functional analysis for complex systems. • Functional Flow Block Diagrams (FFBD). • IDEFØ diagrams. • Petri Net algorithm - Abstract: In system engineering context, a functional analysis is the systematic process of identifying, describing and correlating the functions a system must perform in order to be successful at any foreseen life-cycle phase or operational state/mode. By focusing on what the system must do disregarding the implementation, the functional analysis supports an unbiased system requirement allocation analysis. The system function architecture is defined in terms of process, protection (interlock) or nuclear safety functions. Then, the system functions are analyzed from several points of view in order to highlight the various pieces of information defining the way the system is designed to accomplish its mission as defined in the system requirement documents. The process functional flow is identified and represented by Functional Flow Block Diagrams (FFBD) while the system function interfaces are identified and represented by IDEFØ diagrams. Function interfaces are defined as relationships across identified functions in terms of function input (from other functions or requirements), output (added value or outcome of the function), controls (from other functions or systems) and mechanisms necessary to fulfill the function. The function architecture is further detailed by considering for each function: a) the phase of application, b) the actions performed c) the controlled variable and control actions to be foreseen in the implementation of the functions, d) the system involved in the control action, e) the equipment involved in the function, f) the requirements allocated to the function. The methodology here presented are suggested for the designing of fusion facilities and reactors already from the first phases of the pre-conceptual design, as it is now for DEMO.

  2. ITER, a major step toward nuclear fusion energy; ITER, une etape majeure vers l'energie de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Holtkamp, N.; Pick, M.; Gauche, F.; Garin, P.; Bigot, B.; Luciani, J.F.; Mougniot, J.C.; Watteau, J.P.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Libeyre, P.; Beaumont, B.; Simonin, A.; Giancarli, L.; Rosenvallon, S.; Gastaldi, O.; Marbach, G.; Boudot, C.; Ioki, K.; Mitchell, N.; Girard, J.Ph.; Giraud, B.; Lignini, F.; Giguet, E.; Bofusch, E.; Friconneau, J.P.; Di Pace, L.; Pampin, R.; Cook, I.; Maisonnier, D.; Campbell, D.; Hayward, J.; Li Puma, A.; Norajitra, P.; Sardain, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Ward, D.; Moslang, A.; Carre, F.; Serpantie, J.P

    2007-01-15

    This document gathers together a series of articles dedicated to ITER. They are organized into 5 parts. The first part describes the potential of fusion as a source of energy that will be able to face the challenge of a continuously increasing demand. After a reminder of the main fusion reactions and the conditions to obtain fusion, the second part focuses on the magnetic fusion based concepts with a special emphasis on the tokamak configuration. In the third part the main components of ITER are described: first the plasma facing components, then the vacuum vessel, the superconducting magnets and the heating systems. In the fourth part short papers concerning ITER safety, the maintenance through remote handling systems, the tritium breeding blanket, are given, along with a full article on the waste management. It is interesting to notice that the nuclear wastes will represent: -) between 1600 and 3800 tons of housekeeping and process wastes produced during the 20 years of operation of ITER (20% very low level waste, 75% low or medium activity with short life and 5% medium activity with long life), -) about 750 tons from component replacement during ITER active operation, and -) about 30000 tons from the decommissioning of ITER. The last part presents the European concepts for a power plant based on a fusion reactor. A basic design is given along with a state of the art of the research on the materials that will be used for the structures. It is highlighted that synergies between fission and fusion technologies exist in at least 4 areas: nuclear design code system, high temperature materials, safety approach, and in-service inspection, maintenance and dismantling. (A.C.)

  3. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  4. Fusion-related work at the Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, H.; Mompean, F.J.; Kodeli, I.

    2007-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank is part of an international network of data centres in charge of the compilation and dissemination of basic nuclear reaction data. Through its activities in the reaction data field, the NEA participates in the preparation of data for the modelling of future nuclear facility concepts and the development of reactor installations. A working party at the NEA on international nuclear data evaluation cooperation (WPEC) is established to promote the exchange of nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations and validation. WPEC provides a framework for co-operative activities, such as the high priority request list for experimental data of special interest for certain applications, such as IFMIF or ITER. The NEA Data Bank administrates the collection and validation as well as the distribution of the Joint Evaluated Fusion and Fission (JEFF) library, where the activities in the European Fusion and Activation File projects (EFF and EAF respectively) play an important role for new data evaluations. The topics cover verification of activation and transport data, calculation methods and validation via integral experiments. The EFF project brings together all available expertise in Europe related to the nuclear data requirements of existing and future fusion devices, and the project contributed greatly to the internationally recognised nuclear data library JEFF-3.1, released in May 2005. The NEA also provides tools for the EFF project, such as computer codes for nuclear energy and radiation physics applications. Of special interest for fusion applications are the integral experiments collected in the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) database. SINBAD is an internationally established set of radiation shielding and dosimetry data containing over 80 experiments relevant for reactor and accelerator shielding. About 30 of these experiments are dedicated to fusion blanket neutronics. Materials

  5. ER-associated SNAREs and Sey1p mediate nuclear fusion at two distinct steps during yeast mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason V; Arlow, Tim; Inkellis, Elizabeth R; Koo, Timothy S; Rose, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    During yeast mating, two haploid nuclei fuse membranes to form a single diploid nucleus. However, the known proteins required for nuclear fusion are unlikely to function as direct fusogens (i.e., they are unlikely to directly catalyze lipid bilayer fusion) based on their predicted structure and localization. Therefore we screened known fusogens from vesicle trafficking (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors [SNAREs]) and homotypic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fusion (Sey1p) for additional roles in nuclear fusion. Here we demonstrate that the ER-localized SNAREs Sec20p, Ufe1p, Use1p, and Bos1p are required for efficient nuclear fusion. In contrast, Sey1p is required indirectly for nuclear fusion; sey1Δ zygotes accumulate ER at the zone of cell fusion, causing a block in nuclear congression. However, double mutants of Sey1p and Sec20p, Ufe1p, or Use1p, but not Bos1p, display extreme ER morphology defects, worse than either single mutant, suggesting that retrograde SNAREs fuse ER in the absence of Sey1p. Together these data demonstrate that SNAREs mediate nuclear fusion, ER fusion after cell fusion is necessary to complete nuclear congression, and there exists a SNARE-mediated, Sey1p-independent ER fusion pathway.

  6. Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed that Iran as a world's potential supplier of fossile fuel should participate in fusion research and gain experience in this new field. Fusion, as an ultimate source of energy in future, and the problems concerned with the fusion reactors are reviewed. Furthermore; plasma heating, magnetic and inertial confinement in a fusion reactor are discussed. A brief description of tokamak, theta pinch and magnetic mirror reactors is also included

  7. Optimal usage of computing grid network in the fields of nuclear fusion computing task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenev, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the nuclear power becomes the main source of energy. To make its usage more efficient, the scientists created complicated simulation models, which require powerful computers. The grid computing is the answer to powerful and accessible computing resources. The article observes, and estimates the optimal configuration of the grid environment in the fields of the complicated nuclear fusion computing tasks. (author)

  8. Above-barrier enhancement of fusion in the He-6+Bi-209 nuclear reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Muzychka, YA.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Skobelev, N. K.; Perelygin, V. P.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Mikhailov, L. V.; Ugryumov, V. Yu.; Vincour, Jiří; Dlouhý, Zdeněk; Kostov, L.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Poroshin, NO.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 9 (2002), s. 1563-1568 ISSN 1063-7788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048102 Keywords : nuclear * reaction * fusion * barrier Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2002

  9. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k eff of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's

  10. Cell fusion through a microslit between adhered cells and observation of their nuclear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ken-Ichi; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kondo, Eitaro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Mizuo

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a novel cell fusion method which induces cell fusion between adhered cells through a microslit for preventing nuclear mixing. For this purpose, a microfluidic device which had ∼ 100 cell pairing structures (CPSs) making cell pairs through microslits with 2.1 ± 0.3 µm width was fabricated. After trapping NIH3T3 cells with hydrodynamic forces at the CPSs, the cells were fused through the microslit by the Sendai virus envelope method. With following timelapse observation, we discovered that the spread cells were much less susceptible to nuclear migration passing through the microslit compared with round cells, and that cytoplasmic fraction containing mitochondria was transferred through the microslit without nuclear mixing. These findings will provide an effective method for cell fusion without nuclear mixing, and will lead to an efficient method for reprograming and transdifferentiation of target cells toward regenerative medicine. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Studies on nuclear fusion energy potential based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Fujino, J.; Asaoka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates introduction conditions and potential of nuclear fusion energy as energy supply and CO 2 mitigation technologies in the 21st century. Time horizon of the 21st century, 10 regionally allocated world energy/environment model (Linearized Dynamic New Earth 21) is used for this study. Following nuclear fusion technological data are taken into consideration: cost of electricity (COE) in nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and maximum regional plant capacity constraints by maximum plant construction speed. We made simulation under a constraint of atmospheric CO 2 concentration of 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) targeted at year 2100, assuming that sequestration technologies and unknown innovative technologies for CO 2 reduction are available. The results indicate that under the 550ppm scenario with nuclear fusion within maximum construction speed, 66mill/kWh is required for introducing nuclear fusion in 2050, 92 mill/kWh in 2060, and 106 mill/kWh in 2070. Therefore, tokamak type nuclear fusion reactors of present several reactor cost estimates are expected to be introduced between 2060 and 2070, and electricity generation fraction by nuclear fusion will go around 20% in 2100 if nuclear fusion energy growth is limited only by the maximum construction speed. CO 2 reduction by nuclear fusion introduced in 2050 from business-as-usual (BAU) scenario without nuclear fusion is about 20% of total reduction amount in 2100. In conclusion, nuclear fusion energy is revealed to be one of the candidates of energy supply technologies and CO 2 mitigation technologies. Cost competitiveness and removal of capacity constraint factors are desired for use of nuclear fusion energy in a large scale. (author)

  12. Nuclear fusion project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear fusion is one of the main activities of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK). It is organized as a project under the Directorate of Reactor Development and Safety. The work of KfK concentrates on technology aspects of nuclear fusion with magnetic confinement. It is part of the European Fusion Programme where KfK participates as an association to EURATOM. Close links have been established to the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP). In the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Kernfusion KfK and IPP cooperate for the development of future fusion experiments joining the experience gained in plasma physics (IPP) and materials, safety, and nuclear technology (KfK), respectively. As in the present strategy of the European Fusion Programme the Next European Tokamak (NET) is foreseen as the major next step, most of the activities of KfK address this subject. In addition to the contributions to NET, studies are carried out to innovate INTOR, the worldwide cooperation for an experimental reactor under the auspices of IAEA. Furthermore, the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Kernfusion has evaluated the feasibility of a fusion reactor with a stellarator confinement. (orig./GG)

  13. Direct Energy Conversion for Nuclear Propulsion at Low Specific Mass Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low specific mass (< 3  kg/kW) in-space electric power and propulsion can drastically alter the paradigm for exploration of the Solar System, changing human...

  14. Propulsion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A nuclear reactor equips the recently constructed French aircraft- carrier Charles-De-Gaulle, in a few months the second nuclear submarine (SNLE) of new generation will be operational. In last october the government launched the program Barracuda which consists of 6 submarines (SNA) whose series head will be operational in 2010. The main asset of nuclear propulsion is to allow an almost unlimited autonomy: soft water, air are produced inside the submarine and the maximum time spent underwater is only limited by human capacity to cope with confinement. CEA has 3 missions concerning country defence. First the designing, the fabrication and the maintenance of weapons, secondly the supplying of fissile materials and thirdly the nuclear propulsion. A new generation of propulsion reactors is being studied and a ground installation involving a test reactor equivalent to that on board is being built. This test reactor (RES) will simulate any type of on-board reactors by adjusting temperature, pressure, flowrate and even equipment such as steam generator. This reactor will validate the technological choices for the Barracuda program. (A.C.)

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion by Magnetic Confinement and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís

    2005-01-01

    For may years harnessing fusion energy was considered the final solution to the world's energy crisis. ITER is the last step in the elusive quest. This presentation will provide in its various acientific, technological and political aspects.

  16. Introduction to the controlled nuclear fusion (magnetic containment systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Martin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic containment systems, their more important features, and their potentiality to became thermonuclear reactors is described. The work is based upon the first part of a set of lectures dedicated to Plasma and Fusion Physics. (author)

  17. X-Pinch Plasma Generation Testing for Neutron Source Development and Nuclear Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A.Gabbar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion is a sought-out technology in which two light elements are fused together to create a heavier element and releases energy. Two primary nuclear fusion technologies are being researched today: magnetic and inertial confinement. However, a new type of nuclear fusion technology is currently being research: multi-pinch plasma beams. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, there is research on multi-pinch plasma beam technology as an alternative to nuclear fusion. The objective is to intersect two plasma arcs at the center of the chamber. This is a precursor of nuclear fusion using multi-pinch. The innovation portion of the students’ work is the miniaturization of this concept using high energy electrical DC pulses. The experiment achieved the temperature of 2300 K at the intersection. In comparison to the simulation data, the temperature from the simulation is 7000 K at the intersection. Additionally, energy harvesting devices, both photovoltaics and a thermoelectric generator, were placed in the chamber to observe the viable energy extraction.

  18. Intense deuterium nuclear fusion of pycnodeuterium-lumps coagulated locally within highly deuterated atom clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiaki, A; Zhang, Y C

    2002-01-01

    Embedded nano-Pd particles of 5 nm in size instantly abundant D-atoms more than 250% in the atomic ratio against Pd-atoms at room temperature when they are kept in D sub 2 gas pressurized to less than 10 atm. In such ultrahigh densities, 2-4 D-atoms can be coagulated inside each octahedral space of Pd lattice (pycnodeuterium-lump). When a stimulation energy such as latticequake causing by ultrasonic wave was supplied to those highly deuterated Pd particles, intense deuterium nuclear fusion (''solid fusion'') was generated there and both excess heat and sup 4 He gas were abundantly produced. Naturally, these facts can not be realized at all in bulk Pd. The results show that the nuclear fusion occurs without any hazardous rays in pycnodeuterium-lumps coagulated locally inside the each cell of the host metal lattice. These unit cells correspond to minimum unit of the solid fusion reactor as a ''Lattice Reactor''. (author)

  19. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  20. ICENES `91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, {mu}-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  1. Study of fusion mechanism of halo nuclear 11Be+208Pb by applying QMD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ning; Li Zhuxia

    2001-01-01

    The authors have studied the fusion reaction for 11 Be + 208 Pb near barrier by applying QMD model, and find that in t he fusion reaction induced by halo nuclei there simultaneously exist two mechanisms competing with each other. On one hand, 11 Be is a weakly bound nuclear system and is easily broke up caused by the interaction with target, when it approaches to target, so the fusion cross section is suppressed. On the other hand, several neutrons of 11 Be transfer into 208 Pb and interact with 208 Pb to cause the local radius of 208 Pb increase and result in an enhancement of fusion cross section. The fusion cross sections calculated show an enhancement near barrier, and the calculated results agree with the experimental data reasonably well

  2. Conservation of proteo-lipid nuclear membrane fusion machinery during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard D; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Applebee, Christopher J; Larijani, Banafshé

    2014-01-01

    The fusogenic lipid diacylglycerol is essential for remodeling gamete and zygote nuclear envelopes (NE) during early embryogenesis. It is unclear whether upstream signaling molecules are likewise conserved. Here we demonstrate PLCγ and its activator SFK1, which co-operate during male pronuclear envelope formation, also promote the subsequent male and female pronuclear fusion. PLCγ and SFK1 interact directly at the fusion site leading to PLCγ activation. This is accompanied by a spatially restricted reduction of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Consequently, pronuclear fusion is blocked by PLCγ or SFK1 inhibition. These findings identify new regulators of events in the early embryo and suggest a conserved "toolkit" of fusion machinery drives successive NE fusion events during embryogenesis.

  3. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis.

  4. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis

  5. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy

  6. Nuclear fusion and fission, and related technologies department: 2007 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    ENEA continues to contribute to broadening plasma physics knowledge as well as to developing the relevant technologies in the framework of the EURATOM-ENEA Association for fusion. This report describes the 2007 research activities carried out by the ENEA Fusion Research Group of the Nuclear Fusion and Fission, and Related Technologies Department (FPN). Other ENEA research groups also contributed to the activities. The following fields were addressed: magnetically confined nuclear fusion (physics and technology), superconductivity and inertial fusion. Planning of the 2007 fusion activities took into account the different scenarios determined by the new organisation of the European programme based on the start of ITER construction. The establishment of the ITER International Organisation and the European Domestic Agency (Fusion for Energy) required a new organisational scheme. This has implied not only the implementation of a more project oriented structure but also the need to launch the constitution of a consortium agreement between the Associations in order to cope with the needs for the design and construction of the components of ITER that require specific know-how, e.g., diagnostics and test blanket module

  7. Final Technical Report for "Nuclear Technologies for Near Term Fusion Devices"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul P.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sawan, Mohamed E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, Andrew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bohm, Tim D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Over approximately 18 years, this project evolved to focus on a number of related topics, all tied to the nuclear analysis of fusion energy systems. For the earliest years, the University of Wisconsin (UW)’s effort was in support of the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) study to investigate high power density first wall and blanket systems. A variety of design concepts were studied before this study gave way to a design effort for a US Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be installed in ITER. Simultaneous to this TBM project, nuclear analysis supported the conceptual design of a number of fusion nuclear science facilities that might fill a role in the path to fusion energy. Beginning in approximately 2005, this project added a component focused on the development of novel radiation transport software capability in support of the above nuclear analysis needs. Specifically, a clear need was identified to support neutron and photon transport on the complex geometries associated with Computer-Aided Design (CAD). Following the initial development of the Direct Accelerated Geoemtry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) capability, additional features were added, including unstructured mesh tallies and multi-physics analysis such as the Rigorous 2-Step (R2S) methodology for Shutdown Dose Rate (SDR) prediction. Throughout the project, there were also smaller tasks in support of the fusion materials community and for the testing of changes to the nuclear data that is fundamental to this kind of nuclear analysis.

  8. Evaluation of economical introduction of nuclear fusion based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.; Konishi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Yamaji, K.

    2003-01-01

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. The time frame by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we chose two roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: i) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and ii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO 2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction time frame for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO 2 target in 2100. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO 2 concentration constraint; however, latter introduction of them decreases the cost and the tax less than five times. Earlier introduction of nuclear fusion reactors are desirable for energy systems and environment. (author)

  9. Kar5p is required for multiple functions in both inner and outer nuclear envelope fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason V; Rose, Mark D

    2014-12-02

    During mating in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse via two sequential membrane fusion steps. SNAREs (i.e., soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and Prm3p mediate outer nuclear membrane fusion, but the inner membrane fusogen remains unknown. Kar5p is a highly conserved transmembrane protein that localizes adjacent to the spindle pole body (SPB), mediates nuclear envelope fusion, and recruits Prm3p adjacent to the SPB. To separate Kar5p's functions, we tested localization, Prm3p recruitment, and nuclear fusion efficiency in various kar5 mutants. All domains and the conserved cysteine residues were essential for nuclear fusion. Several kar5 mutant proteins localized properly but did not mediate Prm3p recruitment; other kar5 mutant proteins localized and recruited Prm3p but were nevertheless defective for nuclear fusion, demonstrating additional functions beyond Prm3p recruitment. We identified one Kar5p domain required for SPB localization, which is dependent on the half-bridge protein Mps3p. Electron microscopy revealed a kar5 mutant that arrests with expanded nuclear envelope bridges, suggesting that Kar5p is required after outer nuclear envelope fusion. Finally, a split-GFP assay demonstrated that Kar5p localizes to both the inner and outer nuclear envelope. These insights suggest a mechanism by which Kar5p mediates inner nuclear membrane fusion. Copyright © 2015 Rogers and Rose.

  10. An effect of nuclear electric quadrupole moments in thermonuclear fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B. R.; Srnka, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration of the nuclear electric quadrupole terms in the expression for the fusion Coulomb barrier suggests that this electrostatic barrier may be substantially modified from that calculated under the usual plasma assumption that the nuclei are electric monopoles. This effect is a result of the nonspherical potential shape and the spatial quantization of the nuclear spins of the fully stripped ions in the presence of a magnetic field. For monopole-quadrupole fuel cycles like p-B-11, the fusion cross-section may be substantially increased at low energies if the protons are injected at a small angle relative to the confining magnetic field.

  11. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  12. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-12-06

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well.

  13. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well

  14. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research contains papers in two sessions: the first part, on Magnetic Confinement Theory and Modelling, was presented in session D at the conference; the second part, on Non-Tokamak Confinement Systems, was given in session C of the conference. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Study of 9 Be + 29 Si system nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Figueira, M.C. da.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion cross sections for the 9 Be + 29 Si system have been measured in the energy range between 17 and 38 MeV (lab) by detecting the evaporation residues with the time of flight technique. Angular distributions have been measured from 7.5 0 C to 35 0 C in the laboratory frame at E( 9 Be) = 26 and 38 MeV. The measured fusion cross sections are significantly smaller than the total reaction cross sections obtained from fits to the elastic scattering data in the same energy range. Comparison with existing data for compound systems with A= 38 shows that this effect can not be understood in terms of the statistical yrast line of the formed compound nucleus. A systematic analysis of the energy dependence of the ratio between the fusion cross section and the total reaction cross section, for the system 9 Be + 29 Si and many other available in the literature has been performed. The saturation value can be associated to the nucleon or cluster separation energy of the light nuclei participant in the collision, leading to an hindrance of the fusion cross section. (author)

  16. Nuclear-fusion research. To bring the sun on the earh; Kernfusionsforschung. Die Sonne auf die Erde holen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2009-07-01

    The course treats first the foundations of nuclear fusion. In the second part the concepts for the realization of nuclear fusion in the laboratory are described. Finally in the last part a survey on the present status of the research as well an outlook on future work is given.

  17. Role and use of nuclear theories and models in practical evaluation of neutron nuclear data needed for fission and fusion reactor design and other nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the various nuclear models used in the evaluation of neutron nuclear data for fission and fusion reactors is presented. Computer codes embodying the principles of the relevant nuclear models are compared with each other and with experimental data. The regions of validity and limitations of the conceptual formalisms are also included, along with the effects of the numerical procedures used in the codes themselves. Conclusions and recommendations for future demands are outlined.15 tables, 15 figures, 90 references

  18. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Rax, Jean M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor.

  19. ITER: the Sun rises over nuclear fusion with West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The ITER project is considered as a critical step on the way to commercial production of electricity by a thermonuclear reactor based on controlled fusion. This project notably requires the development of a divertor which is the objective of the West project which will use the famous Cadarache superconductive magnet reactor, Tore Supra. After having outlined the future lack of fossil energies at the world scale, presented the operation principles of tokamaks and recalled some results obtained in their development, this article justifies the use of superconductive magnets. It presents the ITER project as a step in the production of thermonuclear electricity. ITER will be in fact a proof that such plants can be realised, and it should be followed by Demo, a demonstration power plant, by 2050. The article presents the West project, a test bench for ITER, which introduced modifications in the Tore Supra reactor to create conditions almost similar to that existing at the surface of the Sun. It notably comprises a divertor made of tungsten for the fusion with tritium. It finally outlines that the fusion will be a hot one, not a cold one

  20. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research Vol. I. Proceedings of a Symposium on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Research on controlled nuclear fusion was first disclosed at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in 1958. From the information given, it was evident that a better understanding of the behaviour of hot dense plasmas was needed before the goal of economic energy release from nuclear fusion could be reached. The fact that research since then has been most complex and costly has enhanced the desirability of international co-operation and exchange of information and experience. Having organized its First Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Salzburg in 1961, the International Atomic Energy Agency again provided the means for such cooperation in organizing its Second Conference on this subject on 6-10 September, 1965, at Culham, Abingdon, Berks, England. The meeting was arranged with the generous help of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at their Culham Laboratory, where the facilities and assistance of the staff were greatly appreciated. At the meeting, which was attended by 268 participants from 26 member states and three international organizations, significant results from many experiments, including those from the new and larger machines, became available. It has now become feasible to intercorrelate data obtained from a number of similar machines; this has led to a more complete understanding of plasma behaviour. No breakthrough was reported nor had been expected towards the economical release of the energy from fusion, but there was increased understanding of the problems of production, control and containment of high-density and high-temperature plasmas.

  1. Nuclear fusion. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research, development, and assessment of nuclear fusion for applications in reactor engineering and technology. Citations discuss various engineering problems associated with reactor design, magnetic systems, nuclear materials, plasma generation and control, blankets, environments, economics, and safety. Also discussed are tokamak devices, stellarators, inertial confinement, reflectometry, and magnetohydrodynamics. Studies sponsored by the Department of Energy are not included. (Contains a minimum of 249 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  3. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Luisa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sergio; Delicado, Ana [Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Anibal de Bettencourt, 9 1600-189 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly dissociated from traditional nuclear (fission) energy and from nuclear accidents. It tends to be portrayed as a safe, clean and unlimited source of energy, although less credited when confronted with research costs, technological feasibility and the possibility to be achieved in a reasonable period of time. On the contrary, fission is portrayed as a hazardous source of energy, expensive when compared to research costs of renewables, hardly a long-term energy option, susceptible to contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or rogue military use. Fukushima accident was consistently discussed in the context of safety problems of nuclear power plants and in many cases appeared not as an isolated event but rather as a reminder of previous nuclear disasters such as Three Miles Island and Chernobyl. (authors)

  5. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Luisa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sergio; Delicado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly dissociated from traditional nuclear (fission) energy and from nuclear accidents. It tends to be portrayed as a safe, clean and unlimited source of energy, although less credited when confronted with research costs, technological feasibility and the possibility to be achieved in a reasonable period of time. On the contrary, fission is portrayed as a hazardous source of energy, expensive when compared to research costs of renewables, hardly a long-term energy option, susceptible to contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or rogue military use. Fukushima accident was consistently discussed in the context of safety problems of nuclear power plants and in many cases appeared not as an isolated event but rather as a reminder of previous nuclear disasters such as Three Miles Island and Chernobyl. (authors)

  6. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S.L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W.W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C.S.; Blagoeva, N.; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J.B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M.R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, A.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mishra, T.P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, Y.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, G.; van der Laan, J.G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M.A.; You, J.H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 432, 1-3 (2013), s. 482-500 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten * joining * composites * graded materials * fusion materials Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311512004278

  7. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas

  8. Preparation of processed nuclear data libraries for thermal, fast and fusion research and power reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1994-03-01

    A Consultants Meeting on ''Preparation of Processed Nuclear Data Libraries for Thermal, Fast and Fusion Research and Power Reactor Applications'' was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held during December 13-16, 1993 December 8-10, 1993 at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The detailed agenda, the complete list of participants and the recommendations are presented in this report. (author)

  9. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, S. (ed.) (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Tajima, T. (ed.) (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies)

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  10. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, S. [ed.] [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tajima, T. [ed.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  11. Influence of hexadecapole deformations of the nuclear shape of subbarrier fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, J.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of the contribution of hexadecapole deformations to the enhancement of subbarrier fusion cross reactions is carried out. The analysis is based on calculations that cover the full range of values of hexadecapole deformations found in actual nuclear systems. The interplay of this shape degree of freedom with the presence of prolate quadrupole deformations is also contemplated. (Author) [es

  12. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  13. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 3. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the third volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained in it are 29 papers on inertial confinement and 46 papers on magnetic confinement. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Research in the field of neutronics and nuclear data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.

    2001-01-01

    A reliable and validated nuclear database is required for the design of a fusion reactor. Neutrons produced by the fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium have a very peaked energy spectrum at 14 MeV, requiring a substantial extrapolation with respect to the database made available from fission studies. The correct evaluation of shielding properties, damage, nuclear heating and of tritium breeding performance in the blanket surrounding the reaction chamber is crucial to the correct reactor design. Moreover, the attractiveness of fusion relies in the low activation of the reactor components and in the minimal production of long-term radioactive waste that is pursued with development of low activation materials. Beside the materials development, Europe is carrying out a co-ordinated program for the development of adequate nuclear database and numerical tools, directed to evaluations, processing, application, and benchmarking of cross sections including uncertainty information. Experimental validation of data and of the relative uncertainties is also pursued, both on material samples and on more design-oriented experiments. A general view of the research work in the field of neutronics and nuclear data for fusion will be given in the presentation, with emphasis to the experimental validation activity.(author)

  15. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  16. Nuclear data for fusion: Validation of typical pre-processing methods for radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, T.; Sublet, J.C.; Morgan, L.; Leadbeater, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We quantify the effect of processing nuclear data from ENDF to ACE format. • We consider the differences between fission and fusion angular distributions. • C-nat(n,el) at 2.0 MeV has a 0.6% deviation between original and processed data. • Fe-56(n,el) at 14.1 MeV has a 11.0% deviation between original and processed data. • Processed data do not accurately depict ENDF distributions for fusion energies. - Abstract: Nuclear data form the basis of the radiation transport codes used to design and simulate the behaviour of nuclear facilities, such as the ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. Typically these data and codes are biased towards fission and high-energy physics applications yet are still applied to fusion problems. With increasing interest in fusion applications, the lack of fusion specific codes and relevant data libraries is becoming increasingly apparent. Industry standard radiation transport codes require pre-processing of the evaluated data libraries prior to use in simulation. Historically these methods focus on speed of simulation at the cost of accurate data representation. For legacy applications this has not been a major concern, but current fusion needs differ significantly. Pre-processing reconstructs the differential and double differential interaction cross sections with a coarse binned structure, or more recently as a tabulated cumulative distribution function. This work looks at the validity of applying these processing methods to data used in fusion specific calculations in comparison to fission. The relative effects of applying this pre-processing mechanism, to both fission and fusion relevant reaction channels are demonstrated, and as such the poor representation of these distributions for the fusion energy regime. For the nat C(n,el) reaction at 2.0 MeV, the binned differential cross section deviates from the original data by 0.6% on average. For the 56 Fe(n,el) reaction at 14.1 MeV, the deviation increases to 11.0%. We

  17. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  18. Autophagy contributes to regulation of nuclear dynamics during vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roca, M Gabriela; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. Here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. A search of the F. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8, which is required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes. F. oxysporum Foatg8Δ mutants were generated in a strain harboring H1-cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei to facilitate analysis of nuclear dynamics. The Foatg8Δ mutants did not show MDC-positive staining in contrast to the wild type and the FoATG8-complemented (cFoATG8) strain, suggesting that FoAtg8 is required for autophagy in F. oxysporum. The Foatg8Δ strains displayed reduced rates of hyphal growth, conidiation, and fusion, and were significantly attenuated in virulence on tomato plants and in the nonvertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella. In contrast to wild-type hyphae, which are almost exclusively composed of uninucleated hyphal compartments, the hyphae of the Foatg8Δ mutants contained a significant fraction of hyphal compartments with 2 or more nuclei. The increase in the number of nuclei per hyphal compartment was particularly evident after hyphal fusion events. Time-lapse microscopy analyses revealed abnormal mitotic patterns during vegetative growth in the Foatg8Δ mutants. Our results suggest that autophagy mediates nuclear degradation after hyphal fusion and has a general function in the control of nuclear distribution in F. oxysporum.

  19. Controlled nuclear fusion, a challenge on the engineer. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1978-01-01

    A very important and complex subject, on which the engineer together with the physicist must meditate very intensely, concerns the practicableness, the operation safety and the economy of the electrotechnical components and systems as are required in the actual reactor scale. There upon it depends essentially according to which plasma-physical concept - magnetic inclusion or inertia inclusion - a fusion reactor could work in the future. The blanket structure, the breeding of the tritium connected therewith and the electrotechnical problems, which are recognized at the transmission of plasma-physical concepts into actual reactor scales and at the adaptation to reactor requirements are discussed in this contribution. (orig.) 891 HP 892 AG [de

  20. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  1. Fusion energy: 'clean' nuclear power with cheap fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, H.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the world energy crisis the possible use of thermonuclear energy is exciting great interest, particularly in the United States. Of primary importance is that the fuel required is cheap and readily available - it is the world's water resources. The basic long standing fundamental problem is to produce a stable plasma; the difficulties and the reasons for them are discussed. Of the machines and methods designed to overcome the problem, to date the Russian-developed Tokamak appears the most likely to succeed. The confidence in this equipment is shown by the number under construction or design in the U.S.; brief descriptions are given of a number of 'tokamaks' being built by Government agencies and universities and by industry. The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) hopes that some useful energy can be produced by 1985 and a 500MW generator by 1995-97. Of importance also to the understanding of the fusion reaction are fundamental investigations with, for instance, particle accelerators. Work at Oakridge, Livermore, Princeton and Brookhaven is discussed. Other experiments e.g. laser induced fusion, are also considered. (G.P.)

  2. Window of cold nuclear fusion and biased-pulse electrolysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Jida, Toshiyuki; Maekawa, Fujio; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Yoshida, Shigeo

    1989-01-01

    Based on the electron screening effect and the excitation of deuteron harmonic oscillators in palladium lattice, theoretical aspects are given to explain the cold fusion phenomena and the possibility of nuclear heating. A narrow window is proposed to meet ≅ 10 watts per cubic centimeter for the nuclear heating, by the hypothetical excitation-screening model. A relatively wide window is feasible to meet a few fusion events per second per cc under the non-stationary conditions of deuteron-charging and discharging. For stationary lattice conditions, the probability of cold fusion is not feasible at all. To confirm the cold fusion phenomena, a heavy water electrolysis experiment was carried out using biased-pulse-electrolytic currents, expecting the enhancement of cold fusion events under charging and discharging of deuterons. For the neutron detection, a cross-checking system between a recoil-proton scintillation detector and a 3 He thermal neutron detector was employed to see coincident time-patterns of neutron emission from an electrolysis cell. To check the energy of emitted neutrons, pulse height spectrum of the recoil-proton detector was monitored. Up to the D-charging time of 300 hr, neutron yields of 1-2 n/s/cc were obtained for time-intervals of 60-200 hr. From the recoil-proton spectra, it was confirmed that 2.45 MeV neutrons by the D(d, n) 3 He fusion branch were emitted. The observed time-patterns of neutron emission suggest the existence of cold fusion under the charging and discharging conditions. (orig.)

  3. Mitochondrial fusion is increased by the nuclear coactivator PGC-1beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Liesa

    Full Text Available There is no evidence to date on whether transcriptional regulators are able to shift the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events through selective control of gene expression.Here, we demonstrate that reduced mitochondrial size observed in knock-out mice for the transcriptional regulator PGC-1beta is associated with a selective reduction in Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2 expression, a mitochondrial fusion protein. This decrease in Mfn2 is specific since expression of the remaining components of mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery were not affected. Furthermore, PGC-1beta increases mitochondrial fusion and elongates mitochondrial tubules. This PGC-1beta-induced elongation specifically requires Mfn2 as this process is absent in Mfn2-ablated cells. Finally, we show that PGC-1beta increases Mfn2 promoter activity and transcription by coactivating the nuclear receptor Estrogen Related Receptor alpha (ERRalpha.Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which mammalian cells control mitochondrial fusion. In addition, we describe a novel role of PGC-1beta in mitochondrial physiology, namely the control of mitochondrial fusion mainly through Mfn2.

  4. New technology and neo-science on the nuclear fusion reactor engineering. ITER and super high speed phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This research meeting has been held under cooperation of the ''nuclear fusion reactor engineering research group'' and ''nuclear fusion reactor materials research group'' of the Yayoi Research Group. This meeting was planned and conducted for 2 days under the following predominant thema: Present status of research on thermo-nuclear fusion experimental reactor engineering design (ITER/EDA) and its promoting method in Japan, and a new scientific side in the research and development of nuclear fusion reactor materials or the super high speed phenomena. In the former item, the following reports were published: Creative period of R and D on the nuclear fusion reactor, present statue and future development of ITER/EDA, meanings of ITER under realization of the nuclear fusion energy, and others. And in the latter item, the following reports were published: Nuclear fusion materials engineering and system quantum engineering, dynamic imagination of atom and molecule using pulse snap shot method, laser wake field acceleration and ultra short x-ray pulse generation, development of T-cube laser in JAERI, and others. (G.K.)

  5. Fusion technology development: first wall/blanket system and component testing in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-12-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment employing an existing nuclear facility, the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of an existing test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module. The principal reaction considered involves 3 He in the annulus as follows: n + 3 He → p + t + 0.75 MeV. Bulk heating in the test module is accomplished by neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and absorption reactions involving 6 Li in the blanket breeding region. The concept can be extended to modified core configurations that will accommodate test modules of different sizes and types. It makes possible development testing of first wall/blanket systems and other fusion components on a scale and in ways not otherwise available until actual high-power fusion reactors are built

  6. Nuclear dynamics during germination, conidiation, and hyphal fusion of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roldán, M Carmen; Köhli, Michael; Roncero, M Isabel G; Philippsen, Peter; Di Pietro, Antonio; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2010-08-01

    In many fungal pathogens, infection is initiated by conidial germination. Subsequent stages involve germ tube elongation, conidiation, and vegetative hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Here, we used live-cell fluorescence to study the dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae of F. oxysporum have uninucleated cells and exhibit an acropetal nuclear pedigree, where only the nucleus in the apical compartment is mitotically active. In contrast, conidiation follows a basopetal pattern, whereby mononucleated microconidia are generated by repeated mitotic cycles of the subapical nucleus in the phialide, followed by septation and cell abscission. Vegetative hyphal fusion is preceded by directed growth of the fusion hypha toward the receptor hypha and followed by a series of postfusion nuclear events, including mitosis of the apical nucleus of the fusion hypha, migration of a daughter nucleus into the receptor hypha, and degradation of the resident nucleus. These previously unreported patterns of nuclear dynamics in F. oxysporum could be intimately related to its pathogenic lifestyle.

  7. Nuclear fusion - basic research in the tense atmosphere of social expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkau, K.

    1989-01-01

    Since researchers offered to assist society in showing the energy problem through fusion, basic researchers have come under pressure to run large institutes requiring a great deal of organization. They have also entered the area of conflict between science and the state, through the use of considerable resources linked to the hopes and expectations of the public and the state. The tension curves of scientific freedom, the state's requirements, the scientist's egoismus and his social obligations can still only be resolved through scientific institutions. This is also valid for nuclear fusion projects such as NET or ITER. (DG) [de

  8. Fusion reactor cost reductions by employing non-nuclear grade components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.; Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Sonn, D.L.; Wise, R.K.

    1987-09-01

    The Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor fits the requirements of low radioactive inventories and inherent safety and is therefore a candidate for non-nuclear construction throughout. This reactor consists of a rotating blanket of ceramic granules that absorb the energy from D-T target explosions occurring along the rotational axis. Laser energy is beamed in axially from both ends. Two cost estimates were made for an 815 MWe Cascade power plant. One was based on an ''all conventional'' plant, which is constructed and costed using well-established, conventional fossil power plant methods. The second was a ''nuclear plus conventional'' design, constructed and costed using a combination of fossil and fission reactor plant methods and standards that would be typical of advanced fission reactors. The total capital requirements for the ''all conventional'' construction plant were estimated in 1985 dollars at $1490 M, including indirect costs. Similarly, the ''nuclear plus conventional'' construction plant was estimated at $1940 M. The savings of $450 M (23%) represents strictly the difference between Cascade ICF power plants designed and constructed to nuclear safety-related requirements versus all non-nuclear. This example clearly shows that, if fusion plants can take advantage of low activation materials and inherent safety features to eliminate the need for nuclear-related expenses, then such plants may have economic advantages over nuclear-grade systems. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Alves, E.; Grime, G.W.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Oxford scanning proton microprobe was used to study SiC fibres, SiC/SiC ceramic composites and Be pebbles, which are some of the most important materials for fusion technology. For the SiC materials, although the results reveal a high degree of homogeneity and purity in the composition of the fibres, some grains containing heavy metals were detected in the composites. Rutherford backscattering analysis further allowed establishing that at least some of these grains are not on the surface of the material but rather distributed throughout the bulk of the SiC composites. The two different types of Be pebbles analysed also showed very different levels of contaminants. The information obtained with the microbeam analysis is confronted with the one resulting from the broad beam PIXE and RBS analysis

  10. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 14th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research was held in Wuerzburg, Germany, 30 September - 7 October 1992. Its proceedings were published in four volumes. Volume 1 contains major papers on tokamak experiments, the text of the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture held by Prof. P.K. Kaw, and papers on plasma heating and current drive. Volume 2 contains papers on magnetic confinement theory and modelling and on non-tokamak confinement systems. Volume 3 contains papers on inertial confinement, the ITER project, and technology and reactor concepts. Volume 4 contains summaries on (i) tokamak experiments, heating and current drive, (ii) alternative magnetic systems, (iii) magnetic confinement theory, (iv) inertial confinement, and (v) technology and reactor concepts. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. A Particle-in-Cell Simulation for the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC) for Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chap, Andrew; Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Scott, John H.

    2013-01-01

    A Particle-in-cell simulation model has been developed to study the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC) applied to the conversion of charged fusion products into electricity. In this model the availability of a beam of collimated fusion products is assumed; the simulation is focused on the conversion of the beam kinetic energy into alternating current (AC) electric power. The model is electrostatic, as the electro-dynamics of the relatively slow ions can be treated in the quasistatic approximation. A two-dimensional, axisymmetric (radial-axial coordinates) geometry is considered. Ion beam particles are injected on one end and travel along the axis through ring-shaped electrodes with externally applied time-varying voltages, thus modulating the beam by forming a sinusoidal pattern in the beam density. Further downstream, the modulated beam passes through another set of ring electrodes, now electrically oating. The modulated beam induces a time alternating potential di erence between adjacent electrodes. Power can be drawn from the electrodes by connecting a resistive load. As energy is dissipated in the load, a corresponding drop in beam energy is measured. The simulation encapsulates the TWDEC process by reproducing the time-dependent transfer of energy and the particle deceleration due to the electric eld phase time variations.

  12. The SMPR for the naval propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauducheau, B.

    2002-01-01

    The first controlled application of the fissile energy was the american nuclear reactor for the ship propulsion. Since the sixties, the France begun researches to secure the independence of its nuclear propulsion program. The historical aspects, the french program management and the perspectives of the ship nuclear propulsion, are discussed in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  13. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Forrest, C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R. M.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Craxton, R. S.; Dearborn, D.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garcia, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hale, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Janezic, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Masse, L.; McEvoy, A.; McKenty, P.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Radha, P. B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rosse, B.; Rubery, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Sanchez, J.; Schmitt, M.; Schoff, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Tipton, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle-producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. The potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. The goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellar-like plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.

  14. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  15. The high-density Z-pinch as a pulsed fusion neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Sethian, J.D.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch (DZP) is one of the earliest and simplest plasma heating and confinement schemes. Recent experimental advances based on plasma initiation from hair-like (10s μm in radius) solid hydrogen filaments have so far not encountered the usually devastating MHD instabilities that plagued early DZP experiments. These encouraging results along with debt of a number of proof-of principle, high-current (1--2 MA in 10--100 ns) experiments have prompted consideration of the DZP as a pulsed source of DT fusion neutrons of sufficient strength (/dot S//sub N/ ≥ 10 19 n/s) to provide uncollided neutron fluxes in excess of I/sub ω/ = 5--10 MW/m 2 over test volumes of 10--30 litre or greater. While this neutron source would be pulsed (100s ns pulse widths, 10--100 Hz pulse rate), giving flux time compressions in the range 10 5 --10 6 , its simplicity, near-time feasibility, low cost, high-Q operation, and relevance to fusion systems that may provide a pulsed commercial end-product (e.g., inertial confinement or the DZP itself) together create the impetus for preliminary considerations as a neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testings. The results of a preliminary parametric systems study (focusing primarily on physics issues), conceptual design, and cost versus performance analyses are presented. The DZP promises an expensive and efficient means to provide pulsed DT neutrons at an average rate in excess of 10 19 n/s, with neutron currents I/sub ω/ /approx lt/ 10 MW/m 2 over volumes V/sub exp/ ≥ 30 litre using single-pulse technologies that differ little from those being used in present-day experiments. 34 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubley, Nicholas T. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brockman, John D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Robertson, J. David [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  17. Long-term modelling of Carbon Capture and Storage, Nuclear Fusion, and large-scale District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Lüthje, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Among the technologies for mitigating greenhouse gasses, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear fusion are interesting in the long term. In several studies with time horizon 2050 CCS has been identified as an important technology, while nuclear fusion cannot become commercially available...... on nuclear fusion and the Pan European TIMES model, respectively. In the next decades CCS can be a driver for the development and expansion of large-scale district heating systems, which are currently widespread in Europe, Korea and China, and with large potentials in North America. If fusion will replace...... fossil fuel power plants with CCS in the second half of the century, the same infrastructure for heat distribution can be used which will support the penetration of both technologies. This paper will address the issue of infrastructure development and the use of CCS and fusion technologies using...

  18. Quark-level analogue of nuclear fusion with doubly heavy baryons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L

    2017-11-01

    The essence of nuclear fusion is that energy can be released by the rearrangement of nucleons between the initial- and final-state nuclei. The recent discovery of the first doubly charmed baryon , which contains two charm quarks (c) and one up quark (u) and has a mass of about 3,621 megaelectronvolts (MeV) (the mass of the proton is 938 MeV) also revealed a large binding energy of about 130 MeV between the two charm quarks. Here we report that this strong binding enables a quark-rearrangement, exothermic reaction in which two heavy baryons (Λ c ) undergo fusion to produce the doubly charmed baryon and a neutron n (), resulting in an energy release of 12 MeV. This reaction is a quark-level analogue of the deuterium-tritium nuclear fusion reaction (DT → 4 He n). The much larger binding energy (approximately 280 MeV) between two bottom quarks (b) causes the analogous reaction with bottom quarks () to have a much larger energy release of about 138 MeV. We suggest some experimental setups in which the highly exothermic nature of the fusion of two heavy-quark baryons might manifest itself. At present, however, the very short lifetimes of the heavy bottom and charm quarks preclude any practical applications of such reactions.

  19. Modeling, analysis and experiments for fusion nuclear technology: FNT progress report: Modeling and FINESSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Tillack, M.S.; Raffray, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    This document is a progress report on two technical studies carried out during 1986, both of which relate to the implementation phase of FNT. The first, which is a follow-up to FINESSE, focuses on specific key questions for: (1) very near-term (0 to 3 years) non-fusion experiments and facilities, and (2) FNT testing in a fusion facility. The second is the initial stage of a detailed effort to develop theory, models and computer codes for predicting the performance of nuclear components. Chapters are presented on (1) introduction and chapter summaries, (2) non-fusion experiments and facilities, (3) fusion testing issues, and (4) theory and modeling. Chapter 2 is an assessment of the relative advantages of many solid breeders, neutron multipliers and configurations. Various issues affecting design and cost of the blanket are examined in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 reports on the progress of the initial stage of an effort to develop theory and analytical and numerical models for nuclear components. A major part of the effort has focused on modeling of MHD effects for liquid metal blankets. Progress has also been made on modeling tritium transport and inventory in solid breeder blankets and the thermomechanical behavior of liquid-metal-cooled limiters

  20. Quark-level analogue of nuclear fusion with doubly heavy baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2017-11-01

    The essence of nuclear fusion is that energy can be released by the rearrangement of nucleons between the initial- and final-state nuclei. The recent discovery of the first doubly charmed baryon , which contains two charm quarks (c) and one up quark (u) and has a mass of about 3,621 megaelectronvolts (MeV) (the mass of the proton is 938 MeV) also revealed a large binding energy of about 130 MeV between the two charm quarks. Here we report that this strong binding enables a quark-rearrangement, exothermic reaction in which two heavy baryons (Λc) undergo fusion to produce the doubly charmed baryon and a neutron n (), resulting in an energy release of 12 MeV. This reaction is a quark-level analogue of the deuterium–tritium nuclear fusion reaction (DT → 4He n). The much larger binding energy (approximately 280 MeV) between two bottom quarks (b) causes the analogous reaction with bottom quarks () to have a much larger energy release of about 138 MeV. We suggest some experimental setups in which the highly exothermic nature of the fusion of two heavy-quark baryons might manifest itself. At present, however, the very short lifetimes of the heavy bottom and charm quarks preclude any practical applications of such reactions.

  1. Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research…

  2. Nuclear fusion induced by X-rays in a crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaev, V. B.; Miller, M. B.; Otto, J.; Rakityansky, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclei that constitute a crystalline lattice, oscillate relative to each other with a very low energy that is not sufficient to penetrate through the Coulomb barriers separating them. An additional energy, which is needed to tunnel through the barrier and fuse, can be supplied by external electromagnetic waves (X-rays or the synchrotron radiation). Exposing to the X-rays the solid compound LiD (lithium-deuteride) for the duration of 111 hours, we have detected 88 events of the nuclear fus...

  3. Argonne National Laboratory papers presented at third ANS topical meeting on the technology of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The 9 papers included in this Technical Memorandum were presented at the Third ANS Topical Meeting on the Technology of Controlled Nuclear Fusion that was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 9-11, 1978

  4. Mission and system optimization of nuclear electric propulsion vehicles for lunar and Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed mission and system optimization of low thrust electric propulsion missions is a complex, iterative process involving interaction between orbital mechanics and system performance. Through the use of appropriate approximations, initial system optimization and analysis can be performed for a range of missions. The intent of these calculations is to provide system and mission designers with simple methods to assess system design without requiring access or detailed knowledge of numerical calculus of variations optimizations codes and methods. Approximations for the mission/system optimization of Earth orbital transfer and Mars mission have been derived. Analyses include the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Optimum specific impulse, payload fraction, and power/payload ratios are calculated. The accuracy of these methods is tested and found to be reasonable for initial scoping studies. Results of optimization for Space Exploration Initiative lunar cargo and Mars missions are presented for a range of power system and thruster options.

  5. Dynamic Assembly of Brambleberry Mediates Nuclear Envelope Fusion during Early Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L.; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, a mitotic intermediate wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope, which then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. brambleberry is a previously unannotated gene homolo...

  6. Nuclear data for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Summary report of technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Mengoni, A.

    2005-10-01

    Experts on reaction cross-section databases participated in a Technical Meeting organized at the Forschungszentrum Zentrum (FZK), Karlsruhe, Germany on 4-6 October 2005. The overall objective of the meeting was to explore the possibilities for improving the status of the nuclear database for the assessment of radiation damage to structural components of large fusion devices. The discussions and recommendations of the meeting are briefly described in this report. (author)

  7. Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Lianwei; Huang, Xiumin; Fu, Wenkun; Pan, Dequan; Cai, Linli; Ye, Jianghui; Liu, Jian; Xia, Ningshao; Cheng, Tong; Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. This work reveals a novel aspect of VZV-related cytopathic effect in the context of multinucleated syncytia. Additionally, the information provided by this study could be helpful for future studies on interactions of viruses with host cell nuclei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutron excess generation by fusion neutron source for self-consistency of nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki; Artisyuk, V.; Chmelev, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present day fission energy technology faces with the problem of transmutation of dangerous radionuclides that requires neutron excess generation. Nuclear energy system based on fission reactors needs fuel breeding and, therefore, suffers from lack of neutron excess to apply large-scale transmutation option including elimination of fission products. Fusion neutron source (FNS) was proposed to improve neutron balance in the nuclear energy system. Energy associated with the performance of FNS should be small enough to keep the position of neutron excess generator, thus, leaving the role of dominant energy producers to fission reactors. The present paper deals with development of general methodology to estimate the effect of neutron excess generation by FNS on the performance of nuclear energy system as a whole. Multiplication of fusion neutrons in both non-fissionable and fissionable multipliers was considered. Based on the present methodology it was concluded that neutron self-consistency with respect to fuel breeding and transmutation of fission products can be attained with small fraction of energy associated with innovated fusion facilities. (author)

  9. Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear hormone receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuang; Cui, Qingpo; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Shaobing O

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of human nuclear receptors VDR/LXR) constitute a hormone synthesis and nuclear receptor pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans This pathway specifically regulates the thermosensitive fusion of fat-storing lipid droplets. CYP-37A1, together with EMB-8, synthesizes a lipophilic hormone not identical to Δ7-dafachronic acid, which represses the fusion-promoting function of DAF-12. CYP-37A1 also negatively regulates thermotolerance and lifespan at high temperature in a DAF-12-dependent manner. Human CYP4V2 can substitute for CYP-37A1 in C. elegans This finding suggests the existence of a conserved CYP4V2-POR-nuclear receptor pathway that functions in converting multilocular lipid droplets to unilocular ones in human cells; misregulation of this pathway may lead to pathogenic fat storage.

  10. Effluent Scrubbing of Engine Exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at MSU already supports long-standing high-efficiency nuclear particulate air (HEPA) filtration research as well as...

  11. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    . Alternatively, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) adjusts the depletion zone size according to the variation in flux across the zone or fractional contribution to total absorption or fission. A parametric analysis on a fully mixed fuel core was performed using the LNC and ABL code suites. The resulting system parameters are found to optimize performance metrics using a 20 MT DU fuel load with a 20% TRISO packing and a 300 im kernel diameter operated with a fusion input power of 500 MW and a fission blanket gain of 4.0. LFFH potentially offers a proliferation resistant technology relative to other nuclear energy systems primarily because of no need for fuel enrichment or reprocessing. A figure of merit of the material attractiveness is examined and it is found that the fuel is effectively contaminated to an unattractive level shortly after the system is started due to fission product and minor actinide build up.

  12. Inquiry on nuclear fusion for peaceful uses by the 12th Committee of Industry of the Italian Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, E.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is a statement by the author to the 12th Committee of Industry of the Italian Parliament concerning the Inquiry on nuclear fusion for peaceful uses. The basis concepts of thermonuclear fusion are outlined. A description is given of the European Programme, and the role of the JET Project within that Programme. The role of the JET Project in the field of fusion research is described, in detail. Preliminary answers to the Committee's questions on fusion posed previously are also reported. (U.K.)

  13. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  14. Experiments and nuclear measurements in search of cold fusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, S.; Anderson, R. E.; Baker, D. A.; Bolton, R. D.; Butterfield, K. B.; Garzon, F. H.; Goulding, C. A.; Johnson, M. W.; Leonard, E. M.; Springer, T. E.; Zawodzinski, T.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports a collaborative effort of a team which formed at Los Alamos to investigate the announcement that “cold fusion” may be occurring in electrochemical cells using palladium cathodes and platinum anodes in a LiOD electrolyte. Four electrochemical cells were construced and operated for 3-5 weeks under various geometrical and electrical conditions. Nuclear diagnostic measurements included high and low resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, integral neutron counting with well detectors and banks of3He tubes, and neutron spectroscopy with NE-213 scintillators. For one of the cells, the deuterium loading of the cathode was determined from resistance measurements to be D/Pd⩽ 0.8. No conclusive evidence was found for the production of neutrons or 2.223-MeV gammas above levels consistent with background. The results of the measurements of tritium levels in the cell electrolytes are also reported. Experiments to reproduce the observation of neutrons from high pressure Ti- D 2 gas experiments were also performed with negative results.

  15. Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia, E-mail: lijia@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Nie, Xingchen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).

  16. The SMPR for the naval propulsion; Les RPMP pour la propulsion navale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauducheau, B. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2002-07-01

    The first controlled application of the fissile energy was the american nuclear reactor for the ship propulsion. Since the sixties, the France begun researches to secure the independence of its nuclear propulsion program. The historical aspects, the french program management and the perspectives of the ship nuclear propulsion, are discussed in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  17. Collection of Summaries of reports on result of research at basic experiment device for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The development of nuclear fusion reactors reached such stage that the generation of fusion power output comparable with the input power into core plasma is possible. At present, the engineering design of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor, ITER, is advanced by the cooperation of Japan, USA, Europe and Russia, aiming at the start of operation at the beginning of 21st century. This meeting for reporting the results has been held every year, and this time, it was held on May 19, 1995 at University of Tokyo with the theme ''The interface properties of fusion reactor materials and the control of particle transport''. About 50 participants from academic, governmental and industrial circles discussed actively on the theme. Three lectures on the topics of fusion reactor engineering and materials and seven lectures on the basic experiment of fusion reactor blanket design related to the next period project were given at the meeting. (K.I.)

  18. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards [es

  19. Analysis of nuclear export using photoactivatable GFP fusion proteins and interspecies heterokaryons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Ivanova, Iordanka A; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we review protocols for the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors and nuclear proteins, using two different approaches. The first involves the use of photoactivatable forms of the protein of interest by fusion to photoactivatable green fluorescent protein to follow its movement out of the nucleus by live-cell confocal microscopy. This methodology allows for the kinetic characterization of protein movements as well as measurement of steady-state levels. In a second procedure to assess the ability of a nuclear protein to move into and out of the nucleus, we describe the use of interspecies heterokaryon assays, which provide a measurement of steady-state distribution. These technologies are directly applicable to the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic movements not only of transcription factors, but also other nuclear proteins.

  20. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S. L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W. W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J. B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, N.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matejicek, J.; Mishra, T. P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, T.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, A.; van der Laan, J. G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M. A.; You, J. H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  1. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S.L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W.W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C.S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme’s main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  2. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armstrong, D.E.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue, de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Basuki, W.W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Battabyal, M. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Blagoeva, D. [NRG, Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Boldyryeva, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Praha (Czech Republic); and others

    2013-01-15

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  3. New applications of planar image fusion in clinical nuclear medicine and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckier, Lionel S; Koncicki, Holly M

    2006-01-01

    Fusion of multiple modalities has become an integral part of modern imaging methodology, especially in nuclear medicine where PET and SPECT scanning are frequently paired with computed tomography (CT). We have extended image fusion from the tomographic realm to planar imaging in 2 specific applications. In the first, we combine planar scintigraphic images with photographic images of the body part of interest, using a predetermined transformation of images between the frames of reference. This technique is especially helpful in "hot spot" imaging applications where minimal background activity makes it difficult to locate abnormalities in an anatomic context. The technique has been demonstrated to be accurate, and results in increased reader confidence. We have also begun fusing orthopedic radiographs with photographic images of the extremities, using fiducial markers within each image set to perform an affine transformation unique for the particular image set. Preliminary results indicate that this method is accurate, and clinical evaluation is underway.

  4. Papers presented at the fourteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wurzburg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Flexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  5. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 5: Nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  6. Nuclear data for the production of radioisotopes in fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Schenter, R.E.; Mann, F.M.; Ikeda, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion materials irradiation facility (FMIF) is a neutron source generator that will produce a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron field for testing candidate fusion materials under reactor irradiation conditions. The construction of such a facility is one of the very important development stages toward realization of fusion energy as a practical energy source for electricity production. As a result of the high-intensity neutron field, 10 MW/m 2 or more equivalent neutron wall loading, and the relatively high-energy (10- to 20-MeV) neutrons, the FMIF, as future fusion reactors, also bears the potential capability of producing a significant quantity of radioisotopes. A study is being conducted to identify the potential capability of the FMIF to produce radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications. Two types of radioisotopes are involved: one is already available; the second might not be readily available using conventional production methods. For those radioisotopes that are not readily available, the FMIF could develop significant benefits for future generations as a result of the availability of such radioisotopes for medical or industrial applications. The current production of radioisotopes could help finance the operation of the FMIF for irradiating the candidate fusion materials; thus this concept is attractive. In any case, nuclear data are needed for calculating the neutron flux and spectrum in the FMIF and the potential production rates of these isotopes. In this paper, the authors report the result of a preliminary investigation on the production of 99 Mo, the parent radioisotope for 99m Tc

  7. High Temperature Nanocomposites For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and In-Space Fabrication by Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Webb, N. D.; Espinoza, M.; Cook, S.; Houts, M.; Kim, T.

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is an indispensable technology for the manned exploration of the solar system. By using Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (HP-LCVD), the authors propose to design and build a promising next-generation fuel element composed of uranium carbide UC embedded in a latticed matrix of highly refractory Ta4HfC5 for an NTP rocket capable of sustaining temperatures up to 4000 K, enabling an Isp of up to 1250 s. Furthermore, HP-LCVD technology can also be harnessed to enable 3D rapid prototyping of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics and composites, opening up the possibility of in-space fabrication of components, replacement parts, difficult-to-launch solar sails and panels and a variety of other space structures. Additionally, rapid prototyping with HP-LCVD makes a feasible "live off the land" strategy of interplanetary and interstellar exploration ­ the precursors commonly used in the technology are found, often in abundance, on other solar system bodies either as readily harvestable gas (e.g. methane) or as a raw material that could be converted into a suitable precursor (e.g. iron oxide into ferrocene on Mars).

  8. Steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis of the pellet-bed reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Morley, N.J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The pellet-bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear thermal propulsion is a hydrogen-cooled, BeO-reflected, fast reactor, consisting of an annular core region filled with randomly packed, spherical fuel pellets. The fuel pellets in the PBR are self-supported, eliminating the need for internal core structure, which simplifies the core design and reduces the size and mass of the reactor. Each spherical fuel pellet is composed of hundreds of fuel microspheres embedded in a zirconium carbide (ZrC) matrix. Each fuel microsphere is composed of a UC-NbC fuel kernel surrounded by two consecutive layers of the NbC and ZrC. Gaseous hydrogen serves both as core coolant and as the propellant for the PBR rocket engine. The cold hydrogen flows axially down the inlet channel situated between the core and the external BeO reflector and radially through the orifices in the cold frit, the core, and the orifices in the hot frit. Finally, the hot hydrogen flows axially out the central channel and exits through converging-diverging nozzle. A thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PBR core was performed with an emphasis on optimizing the size and axial distribution of the orifices in the hot and cold frits to ensure that hot spots would not develop in the core during full-power operation. Also investigated was the validity of the assumptions of neglecting the axial conduction and axial cross flow in the core

  9. Future on the ITER program. On a branch of research on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    2000-01-01

    As a huge cost for research and development of nuclear fusion is required, some international cooperative research such as ITER program have been intended to promote, to which Japanese response is required. As the program can be understood on its meaning at a viewpoint of promotion of basic science, concept on a key of energy problem is not insufficient yet And, its effect on technical problems and environment cannot be neglected Here was shown some proposals necessity for discussion on how the program had to be promoted under consideration of these problems. When a large scale program consuming national budget will be carried out, it is natural that agreement of national peoples must be obtained. Regretfully, in Japan discussion on science program above all nuclear policy has scarcely been experienced at citizens' levels, and some bitter experiences, where the concerned have promoted it in one side under a concept without any change once decided, have been pressured without any response to scientific advancements and social changes. Therefore, future plan on the nuclear fusion must be carried out a number of thorough discussion at a wide range from various viewpoints such as its realizing feasibility, safety, economics, and so forth, to promote careful adaptabilities. And, the concerned under promotion of the program and the relatives in the academic community seem to have a responsibility to easily explain present condition and scope of the plan to not only scientists but also citizens to awake them to promote its discussion with them. (G.K.)

  10. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more.

  11. Failure of the Woods-Saxon nuclear potential to simultaneously reproduce precise fusion and elastic scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Newton, J. O.; Butt, R. D.; Hagino, K.

    2007-01-01

    A precise fusion excitation function has been measured for the 12 C+ 208 Pb reaction at energies around the barrier, allowing the fusion barrier distribution to be extracted. The fusion cross sections at high energies differ significantly from existing fusion data. Coupled reaction channels calculations have been carried out with the code FRESCO. A bare potential previously claimed to uniquely describe a wide range of 12 C+ 208 Pb near-barrier reaction channels failed to reproduce the new fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness of 0.95 fm which fits the fusion excitation function over a broad energy range fails to reproduce the elastic scattering. A diffuseness of 0.55 fm reproduces the fusion barrier distribution and elastic scattering data, but significantly overpredicts the fusion cross sections at high energies. This may be due to physical processes not included in the calculations. To constrain calculations, it is desirable to have precisely measured fusion cross sections, especially at energies around the barrier

  12. IAEA technical meeting on nuclear data library for advanced systems - Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Mengoni, A.

    2008-04-01

    A Technical Meeting on 'Nuclear Data Library for Advanced Systems - Fusion Devices' was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 31 October to 2 November 2007. The main objective of the initiative has been to define a proposal and detailed plan of activities for a Co-ordinated Research Project on this subject. Details of the discussions which took place at the meeting, including a review of the current activities in the field, a list of recommendations and a proposed timeline schedule for the CRP are summarized in this report. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the fusion-related neutron nuclear data for JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    1988-01-01

    Status of the neutron nuclear data evaluations for JENDL-3 will be described for nuclides important in the development of D-T fusion reactors. In this article, however, only explanation of the evaluations for the very light mass region will be presented to avoid overlapping with what are given in another papers submitted to this seminar. Emphases are placed on the tritium production cross sections, inelastic scattering cross sections including the double-differential neutron emission spectrum (DDX), threshold reaction cross sections and photon production cross sections. The methods employed to prepare JENDL-3T library and their results will be summarized. (author)

  14. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Dauer, William [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Johnson, David [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  15. Mathematical model for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, J.; Chow, S.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. Such a concept could be particularly useful for missions which require both relatively high acceleration (e.g., for planetocentric maneuvers) and high performance at low acceleration (e.g., on heliocentric trajectories or for trajectory shaping). The first volume develops the mathematical model of the system.

  16. Oscillatory vapour shielding of liquid metal walls in nuclear fusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eden, G G; Kvon, V; van de Sanden, M C M; Morgan, T W

    2017-08-04

    Providing an efficacious plasma facing surface between the extreme plasma heat exhaust and the structural materials of nuclear fusion devices is a major challenge on the road to electricity production by fusion power plants. The performance of solid plasma facing surfaces may become critically reduced over time due to progressing damage accumulation. Liquid metals, however, are now gaining interest in solving the challenge of extreme heat flux hitting the reactor walls. A key advantage of liquid metals is the use of vapour shielding to reduce the plasma exhaust. Here we demonstrate that this phenomenon is oscillatory by nature. The dynamics of a Sn vapour cloud are investigated by exposing liquid Sn targets to H and He plasmas at heat fluxes greater than 5 MW m -2 . The observations indicate the presence of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and liquid target ruled by recombinatory processes in the plasma, leading to an approximately stable surface temperature.Vapour shielding is one of the interesting mechanisms for reducing the heat load to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Here the authors report on the observation of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and the divertor liquid Sn surface leading to an overall stable surface temperature.

  17. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using “advanced targets”.

  18. The nuclear fusion reactor. How close are we to its realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    2001-01-01

    A fusion power plant would rely on practically unlimited supplies of primary materials, and possess very favourable environmental and safety properties. Exploiting the nuclear fusion reaction for continuous power production requires, however, the solution of some of the most demanding physics and technology issues. At the same time the final proof of principle of a self-sustaining fusion reaction can only be delivered in a device with a thermal power rating in the 1 GW range, as the power production by fusion reactions increases much stronger with volume than the energy losses from a hot plasma. A range of well conceived tokamak devices have generated during the last couple of decades the experimental basis and the physics understanding for proceeding now to the construction of such a demonstration device: ITER. This device will also incorporate, partly in the form of test modules, nearly all the critical technologies required for the operation of a commercial power plant. A notable exception to this are materials, where the much lower neutron fluence of ITER allows to work with readily available, conventional steels, whereas power plants will have to use radiation resistant, low-activation materials now under development. The presentation summarizes briefly the development path that has led to the ITER design, and the physics criteria determining its layout. Seven technologies were identified by the international design team (constituted by engineers and scientists from Japan, the European Union, the Russian Federation, and the USA) as critical, and made subject to seven large R and D projects, successfully carried out with an investment of about 400 Million $. The roadmap for the development beyond ITER foresees as subsequent step a power plant (DEMO) that will already be largely identical to the first generation of commercial installations. The physics of this device will be completely verified by the beginning of its planning by the operating experience of ITER

  19. Applications of Research Reactors Towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion is widely considered to represent a nearly unlimited source of energy. Recent progress in the quest for fusion energy includes the design and current construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), for which a licence has recently been obtained as a first of its kind fusion nuclear installation. ITER is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy production in excess of 500 MW for several consecutive minutes. ITER, however, will not be able to address all the nuclear fusion technology issues associated with the design, construction and operation of a commercial fusion power plant. The demonstration of an adequate tritium or fuel breeding ratio, as well as the development, characterization and testing of structural and functional materials in an integrated nuclear fusion environment, are examples of issues for which ITER is unable to deliver complete answers. To fill this knowledge gap, several facilities are being discussed, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility and, eventually, a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO). However, for these facilities, a vast body of preliminary research remains to be performed, for instance, concerning the preselection and testing of suitable materials able to withstand the high temperature and pressure, and intense radiation environment of a fusion reactor. Given their capacity for material testing in terms of available intense neutron fluxes, dedicated irradiation facilities and post-irradiation examination laboratories, high flux research reactors or material test reactors (MTRs) will play an indispensable role in the development of fusion technology. Moreover, research reactors have already achieved an esteemed legacy in the understanding of material properties and behaviour, and the knowledge gained from experiments in fission materials in certain cases can be applied to fusion systems, particularly those

  20. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.