WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear fuel impact

  1. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) 1 and Integral Fast Reactor (IF) 2 technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle

  3. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    , Bubbles and precipitates, Modeling fuel behavior); Modeling defects and fission products in UO 2 ceramic by ab initio computation (Ab initio computation, Point defects in uranium dioxide, Fission products in uranium dioxide, The indispensable coupling of modeling and experiment); Cladding and assembly materials (What is the purpose of cladding?, Zirconium alloys, Claddings: required to exhibit good mechanical strength, Mechanical behavior of irradiated Zr alloys, Claddings: required to prove corrosion resistant); Pellet-cladding interaction (The phenomena involved in pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), Experimental simulation of PCI and the lessons to be drawn from it, The requirement for an experimental basis, Numerical simulation of PCI, Towards a lifting of PCI-related operating constraints); Advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics (Chromium oxide-doped UO 2 fuel, Novel MOX microstructures); Mechanical behavior of fuel assemblies (Assembly mechanical behavior in normal operating conditions, Assembly mechanical behavior in accident situations, Fuel in a loss of primary coolant accident (LOCA)); Introduction to LOCA-type accident transients (Overview of thermal-hydraulic and fuel-related aspects, Incidence of LOCA transients on the thermal-metallurgical-mechanical behavior of zirconium-base alloy cladding); Fuel in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) (Safety criteria); Fuel in a severe accident (The VERCORS analytical program, The Phebus-FP global tests, Control of severe accidents in the EPR reactor); In-core fuel management (Relationships between cycle length, maximum burnup, and batch fraction Enrichment and burnable poisons, The impact of the nature of the fuel used, and its evolution, on the major parameters of core physics, and management Prospects for future trends in core management); Fuel cycle material balances (In-core evolution of materials, Decay heat and potential radiotoxicity, Plutonium management); Long-term behavior of spent fuel (The nature of spent nuclear

  4. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  5. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  6. Impact of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, William J.; Wagner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for considerably longer periods than originally intended (e.g., 45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. This effort is primarily motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES. The criticality analyses consider representative UNF designs and cask systems and a range of fuel enrichments, burnups, and cooling times. The various failed-fuel configurations considered are designed to bound the anticipated effects of individual rod and general cladding failure, fuel rod deformation, loss of neutron absorber materials, degradation of canister internals, and gross assembly failure. The results quantify the potential impact on criticality safety associated with fuel reconfiguration and may be used to guide future research, design, and regulatory activities. Although it can be concluded that the criticality safety impacts of fuel reconfiguration during transportation subsequent to ES are manageable, the results indicate that certain configurations can result in a large increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor, k eff . Future work to inform decision making relative to which configurations are credible, and therefore need to be considered in a safety evaluation, is recommended.

  7. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Piet, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected

  8. Impact analysis of spent nuclear fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.; Dennis, A.W.; Yoshimura, R.H.

    1978-07-01

    A full-scale testing program involving impact tests of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems is described. The program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Environmental Control Technology Division of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The paper describes the analytical and scale modeling techniques being employed to predict the response of the full-scale system in the very severe impact tests. The analytical techniques include lumped parameter modeling of the vehicle and cask system and finite modeling of isolated shipping casks. Some preliminary results from the mathematical analyses and scale model tests demonstrate close agreement between these two techniques. Scale models of the systems are also described and some results presented

  9. The environmental impacts of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey about the environmental pollution and the population exposure caused by the nuclear fuel cycle is set up. Proceeding from the environmental changes caused by the construction of plants, the author shows the hazards of the operation of the plants. The fuel cycle beginning with the mining of nuclear fuels and reaching to their reprocessing, the environmental pollution by radionuclides and the population exposure resulting from this are outlined. After indicating the advantages of the concentration of nuclear plants, the author shows comparatively the hazards caused by conventional energy sources. (ORU) [de

  10. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  11. Impact of nuclear data uncertainty on safety calculations for spent nuclear fuel geological disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of a spent nuclear fuel disposal system, one necessary condition is to show that the configuration remains subcritical at time of emplacement but also during long periods covering up to 1,000,000 years. In the context of criticality safety applying burn-up credit, k-eff eigenvalue calculations are affected by nuclear data uncertainty mainly in the burnup calculations simulating reactor operation and in the criticality calculation for the disposal canister loaded with the spent fuel assemblies. The impact of nuclear data uncertainty should be included in the k-eff value estimation to enforce safety. Estimations of the uncertainty in the discharge compositions from the CASMO5 burn-up calculation phase are employed in the final MCNP6 criticality computations for the intact canister configuration; in between, SERPENT2 is employed to get the spent fuel composition along the decay periods. In this paper, nuclear data uncertainty was propagated by Monte Carlo sampling in the burn-up, decay and criticality calculation phases and representative values for fuel operated in a Swiss PWR plant will be presented as an estimation of its impact.

  12. Impact of nuclear data uncertainty on safety calculations for spent nuclear fuel geological disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J. J.; Rochman, D.; Leray, O.; Vasiliev, A.; Pecchia, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Caruso, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the design of a spent nuclear fuel disposal system, one necessary condition is to show that the configuration remains subcritical at time of emplacement but also during long periods covering up to 1,000,000 years. In the context of criticality safety applying burn-up credit, k-eff eigenvalue calculations are affected by nuclear data uncertainty mainly in the burnup calculations simulating reactor operation and in the criticality calculation for the disposal canister loaded with the spent fuel assemblies. The impact of nuclear data uncertainty should be included in the k-eff value estimation to enforce safety. Estimations of the uncertainty in the discharge compositions from the CASMO5 burn-up calculation phase are employed in the final MCNP6 criticality computations for the intact canister configuration; in between, SERPENT2 is employed to get the spent fuel composition along the decay periods. In this paper, nuclear data uncertainty was propagated by Monte Carlo sampling in the burn-up, decay and criticality calculation phases and representative values for fuel operated in a Swiss PWR plant will be presented as an estimation of its impact.

  13. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  14. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  15. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria

  16. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria.

  17. The impact of the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle in Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, B.; Ferdinand, P.

    2014-01-01

    Since the Pakistan-India nuclear weapon race, the North Korean nuclear test and the September 11 attack revealed Abdul Qadeer Khan's clandestine nuclear black market and the fear that Iran's nuclear program may be used for nuclear weapon development, scrutiny of activities related to nuclear technologies, especially technology transfer has become more stringent. The nuclear supplier group has initiated a multilateral nuclear fuel cycle regime with the purpose of guaranteeing nuclear fuel supply and at the same time preventing the spread of nuclear proliferation. Malaysia wants to develop a programme for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and it needs to accommodate itself to this policy. When considering developing a nuclear fuel cycle policy, the key elements that Malaysia needs to consider are the extent of the fuel cycle technologies that it intends to acquire and the costs (financial and political) of acquiring them. Therefore, this paper will examine how the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle may influence Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy, without jeopardising the country's rights and sovereignty as stipulated under the NPT. (authors)

  18. Development of MOX facilities and the impact on the nuclear fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is nearing maturity as a fuel supply option. This paper briefly reviews the history and current status of the MOX fuel market, including the projected increase in demand for MOX fuel as more plutonium becomes available from the operation of commercial irradiated fuel reprocessing plants in Europe. The uncertainties of such projected demand are discussed, together with the anticipated requirements from the next generation of MOX fabrication plants. The impact of the growing demand for MOX fuel is assessed in the traditional sectors of the uranium fuel cycle. Finally, the author turns to a generalized treatment of the economic aspects of MOX fuel utilization, showing the financially attractive regimes of MOX use which will benefit nuclear power utilities and continue to ensure that MOX fuel can consolidate its position as a mature fuel supply option in those countries that have opted to recycle their spent fuel

  19. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle - impact of developments on fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the deregulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to complete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according to the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economic perspective including environmental and social considerations. (orig.) [de

  20. Potential health and environmental impacts attributable to the nuclear and coal fuel cycles: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the nuclear and coal fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation during the next decade. The author concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel fycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public for the balance of this century. The potential for large impacts exists in both fuel cycles, but the potential impacts associated with a runaway Greenhouse Effect from combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, cannot yet be reasonably quantified. Some of the potential environmental impacts of the coal fuel cycle cannot currently be realistically estimated, but those that can appear greater than those from the nuclear fuel cycle. 103 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  1. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  2. Impact of nuclear library difference on neutronic characteristics of thorium-loaded light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, H.; Isaka, S.; Nakagome, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Impact of nuclear library difference on neutronic characteristics of thorium-loaded light water reactor fuel is investigated through cell burnup calculations using SRAC code system. Comparison of k ∞ and nuclide composition was made between the results obtained by JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEFF3.0 for (U, Th)O 2 fuels as well as UO 2 fuels, with special interest on the burnup dependence of the neutronic characteristics. The impact of nuclear data library difference on k ∞ of (U, Th)O 2 fuels was found to be significantly large compared to that of UO 2 fuels. Notable difference was also found in nuclide concentration of TRU nuclides. (authors)

  3. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  4. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Given its potential significance for public health and the environment, the impact of radioactive releases during important steps of nuclear energy production must be considered when selecting among different fuel cycles. With this in mind, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken a comparative study to the radiological impacts of two main fuel cycle options : one with and one without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The study compares the respective impacts of the two options based on generic models and assumptions as well as actual data. It concludes that the difference between them is not significant. A wealth of recent data assembled and evaluated by an international expert team is provided in annex. (authors)

  5. Environmental Health Impacts of Nuclear Fuel Cycle With Emphasis to Monitoring and Radiological Safety Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.; El- Shanshory, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Security of energy supply and global climatic changes due to carbon dioxide gas emission of fissile fuels encouraged many developed countries for planning to introduce nuclear power for energy generation. Recently, nuclear power provides approximately 20 % of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of 0.5 Gt of C/year. This is a modest contribution to the reduction of global carbon emissions, 6.5 Gt C/year. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different reactor types (such as thermal and fast neutron reactors). Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of material used to immobilize different radionuclides. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant impact on carbon emissions. By the year 2050, carbon free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total energy production by a factor of three to ten. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/year, depending on the type of the carbon-based energy source. This paper reviews, discusses and evaluates the relation between the different types of fuel cycles and their environmental impacts. The paper investigates the environmental impacts of the nuclear fuel cycle compared to fossil fuel energy system.. It also reviews the impact of an expansion of this scale on the generation of nuclear waste and fissile material that might be diverted to the production of nuclear weapons. Investigations of different wastes fissile and fertile mater in the fuel cycle have been estimated. The paper provides an overview of the main contaminates in the waste streams and effluents from nuclear fuel cycle

  6. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  8. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  9. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle - impact of developments on fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the deregulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to complete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according to the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economic perspective including environmental and social considerations. (orig.) [German] Die Kernenergie wird sich mehr und mehr in einem Umfeld behaupten muessen, das durch schnelle Veraenderungen auf Grund des Wettbewerbsdrucks in der Wirtschaft und des Liberalisierungsprozesses gekennzeichnet ist. Im heutigen Wirtschaftsumfeld muessen sich die Energieversorgungsunternehmen hauptsaechlich auf die Senkung ihrer Stromerzeugungs-Gesamtkosten konzentrieren. Darunter fallen auch die Brennstoffkreislaufkosten, die sie nur zum Teil beeinflussen koennen. Kurzfristig gesehen, duerften die Entwicklungen im Brennstoffkreislauf eher evolutionaer verlaufen und den jeweiligen Beduerfnissen der EVUs entsprechen. Im Zusammenhang mit einer

  10. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  11. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J. H.; Mizia, R. E.; Jex, R.; Nelson, L.; Garcia, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination

  12. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  13. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  14. Impact of extended burnup on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Advisory Group Meeting was held in Vienna from 2 to 5 December 1991, to review, analyse, and discuss the effects of burnup extension in both light and heavy water reactors on all aspects of the fuel cycle. Twenty experts from thirteen countries participated in this meeting. There was consensus that both economic and environmental benefits are driving forces toward the achievement of higher burnups and that the present trend of burnup extension may be expected to continue. The extended burnup has been considered for the three main stages of the fuel cycle: the front end, in-reactor issues and the back end. Thirteen papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. High burn-up structure in nuclear fuel: impact on fuel behavior - 4005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noirot, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Zacharie-Aubrun, I.; Hanifi, K.; Bienvenu, P.; Lamontagne, J.; Desgranges, L.

    2016-01-01

    When UO 2 and (U,Pu)O 2 fuels locally reach high burn-up, a major change in the microstructure takes place. The initial grains are replaced by thousands of much smaller grains, fission gases form micrometric bubbles and metallic fission products form precipitates. This occurs typically at the rim of the pellets and in heterogeneous MOX fuel Pu rich agglomerates. The high burn-up at the rim of the pellets is due to a high capture of epithermal neutrons by 238 U leading locally to a higher concentration of fissile Pu than in the rest of the pellet. In the heterogeneous MOX fuels, this rim effect is also active, but most of the high burn-up structure (HBS) formation is linked to the high local concentration of fissile Pu in the Pu agglomerates. This Pu distribution leads to sharp borders between HBS and non-HBS areas. It has been shown that the size of the new grains, of the bubbles and of the precipitates increase with the irradiation local temperatures. Other parameters have been shown to have an influence on the HBS initiation threshold, such as the irradiation density rate, the fuel composition with an effect of the Pu presence, but also of the Gd concentration in poisoned fuels, some of the studied additives, like Cr, and, maybe some of the impurities. It has been shown by indirect and direct approaches that HBS formation is not the main contributor to the increase of fission gas release at high burn-up and that the HBS areas are not the main source of the released gases. The impact of HBS on the fuel behavior during ramp on high burn-up fuels is still unclear. This short paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  16. The impact of interface bonding efficiency on high-burnup spent nuclear fuel dynamic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao, E-mail: jiangh@ornl.gov; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • To investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on its dynamic performance. • Flexural rigidity, EI = M/κ, estimated from FEA results were benchmarked with SNF dynamic experimental results, and used to evaluate interface bonding efficiency. • Interface bonding efficiency can significantly dictate the SNF system rigidity and the associated dynamic performance. • With consideration of interface bonding efficiency and fuel cracking, HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with SNF static and dynamic experimental data. - Abstract: Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on system dynamic performance. Bending moments M were applied to FEA model to evaluate the system responses. From bending curvature, κ, flexural rigidity EI can be estimated as EI = M/κ. The FEA simulation results were benchmarked with experimental results from cyclic integrated reversal bending fatigue test (CIRFT) of HBR fuel rods. The consequence of interface debonding between fuel pellets and cladding is a redistribution of the loads carried by the fuel pellets to the clad, which results in a reduction in composite rod system flexural rigidity. Therefore, the interface bonding efficiency at the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces can significantly dictate the SNF system dynamic performance. With the consideration of interface bonding efficiency, the HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with CIRFT test data.

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D: Part A, Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site.

  18. Technical data summary supporting the spent nuclear fuel environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, R.L.; Claxton, R.E.; Langel, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    This report has been compiled by the WSRC Nuclear Materials Processing Division's Planning Section at the request of the Office of Spent Fuel Management and Special Projects (EM-37) to support issuance of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Impact Statement, Savannah River Site input data evaluates five programmatic options (including open-quotes No Actionclose quotes) ranging up to transfer of all DOE responsibility spent fuel to the SRS. For each option, a range of management/disposition scenarios has been examined. Each case summary provides information relative to the technical proposal, technical issues, environmental impacts, and projected costs for a 50 period (to 2044) when it is assumed that the material will be dispositioned from the SRS. It must be recognized that this report was prepared under severe time constraints and contains many simplifications and assumptions. It is highly recommended that significant additional study be performed before basing key decisions upon the data contained in this report. It represents a best effort by a significant group of technical personnel familiar with nuclear materials processing, handling, and storage but it is likely that careful scrutiny will reveal numerous discrepancies and omissions. The bulk of the effort went into defining the engineering approaches necessary to execute the various mission scenarios. Collection and/or calculation of much of the various waste, emission, and utility consumption data, so important to an Environmental Impact Statement, has not been completed at this time

  19. Technical data summary supporting the spent nuclear fuel environmental impact statement, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, R.L.; Claxton, R.E.; Lengel, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report has been compiled by the WSRC Nuclear Materials Processing Division's Planning Section at the request of the Office of Spent Fuel Management and Special Projects (EM-37) to support issuance of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Impact Statement. Savannah River site data evaluates five programmatic options including open-quotes No Actionclose quotes ranging up to transfer of all DOE responsibility spent fuel to the SRS. For each option, a range of management/disposition scenarios has been examined. Each case summary provides information relative to the technical proposal, technical issues, environmental impacts, and projected costs for a 50 period (to 2044) when it is assumed that the material will be dispositioned from the SRS. It must be recognized that this report was prepared under severe time constraints and contains many simplifications and assumptions. It is highly recommended that significant additional study be performed before basing key decisions upon the data contained in this report. It represents a best effort by a significant group of technical personnel familiar with nuclear materials processing, handlings and storage but it is likely that careful scrutiny will reveal numerous discrepancies and omissions. The bulk of the effort went into defining the engineering approaches necessary to execute the various mission scenarios. Collection and/or calculation of much of the various waste, emission, and utility consumption data, so important to an Environmental Impact Statement, has not been completed at this time

  20. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.M.; Cowan, R.L. II; Davies, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described. It includes a central nuclear fuel core and a composite cladding composed of a substrate, the inner face of which is coated with copper, nickel, iron or one of their alloys. The nuclear fuel is selected from uranium compounds, plutonium compounds or mixtures thereof. The substrate is selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys [fr

  1. Summary of the Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the Summary of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The proposed concept is a method for geological disposal, based on a system of natural and engineered barriers. The EIS provides information requested by the Environmental Assessment Panel reviewing the disposal concept and presents AECL's case for the acceptability of the concept. The introductory chapter of this Summary provides background information on several topics related to nuclear fuel waste, including current storage practices for used fuel, the need for eventual disposal of nuclear fuel waste, the options for disposal, and the reasons for Canada's focus on geological disposal. Chapter 2 describes the concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste. Because the purpose of implementing the concept would he to protect human health and the natural environment far into the future, we discuss the long-term performance of a disposal system and present a case study of potential effects on human health and the natural environment after the closure of a disposal facility. The effects and social acceptability of disposal would depend greatly on how the concept was implemented. Chapter 3 describes AECL's proposed approach to concept implementation. We discuss how the public would be involved in implementation; activities that would be undertaken to protect human health, the natural environment, and the socio-economic environment; and a case study of the potential effects of disposal before the closure of a disposal facility. The last chapter presents AECL's Conclusion, based on more than 15 years of research and development, that implementation of the disposal concept represents a means by which Canada can safely dispose of its nuclear fuel waste. This chapter also presents AECL's recommendation that Canada progress toward disposal of its nuclear fuel waste by undertaking the first stage of concept

  2. Romanian nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budan, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle

  3. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D, Part B: Naval spent nuclear fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement.

  4. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  5. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  6. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  7. Savannah River Site, spent nuclear fuel management, draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been an integral part of the mission of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than 40 years. Until the early 1990s, SNF management consisted primarily of short-term onsite storage and reprocessing in the SRS chemical separation facilities to produce strategic nuclear materials. With the end of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to phase out reprocessing of SNF for the production of nuclear weapons materials. Therefore, the management strategy for this fuel has shifted from short-term storage and reprocessing for the recovery of highly-enriched uranium and transuranic isotopes to stabilization, when necessary, and interim storage pending final disposition that includes preparing aluminum-based SNF for placement in a geologic repository. In addition to the fuel already onsite, the SRS will receive SNF from foreign research reactors until 2009 and from domestic research reactors until, potentially, 2035. As a result, the safe and efficient management of SNF will continue to be an important SRS mission. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed plans for management SNF assigned to SRS

  8. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO 2 emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  9. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  12. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.M.; Cowan, R.L. II.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described. It includes a central nuclear fuel core and a composite cladding, composed of a substrate with two coatings on its inner face, the first coating being a diffusion barrier and the second a metal coating. The metal coating is in copper, nickel or iron. The substrate is a zirconium alloy. The diffusion barrier is in chromium or chromium alloy. The nuclear fuel is a uranium or plutonium compound or a mixture of both [fr

  13. Nuclear fuel accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisch, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    After a nuclear power plant has started commercial operation the actual nuclear fuel costs have to be demonstrated in the rate making procedure. For this purpose an accounting system has to be developed which comprises the following features: 1) All costs associated with nuclear fuel shall be correctly recorded; 2) it shall be sufficiently flexible to cover also deviations from proposed core loading patterns; 3) it shall be applicable to different fuel cycle schemes. (orig./RW) [de

  14. IMPACT ANALYSES AND TESTS OF CONCRETE OVERPACKS OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE CASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGHOON LEE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A concrete cask is an option for spent nuclear fuel interim storage. A concrete cask usually consists of a metallic canister which confines the spent nuclear fuel assemblies and a concrete overpack. When the overpack undergoes a missile impact, which might be caused by a tornado or an aircraft crash, it should sustain an acceptable level of structural integrity so that its radiation shielding capability and the retrievability of the canister are maintained. A missile impact against a concrete overpack produces two damage modes, local damage and global damage. In conventional approaches [1], those two damage modes are decoupled and evaluated separately. The local damage of concrete is usually evaluated by empirical formulas, while the global damage is evaluated by finite element analysis. However, this decoupled approach may lead to a very conservative estimation of both damages. In this research, finite element analysis with material failure models and element erosion is applied to the evaluation of local and global damage of concrete overpacks under high speed missile impacts. Two types of concrete overpacks with different configurations are considered. The numerical simulation results are compared with test results, and it is shown that the finite element analysis predicts both local and global damage qualitatively well, but the quantitative accuracy of the results are highly dependent on the fine-tuning of material and failure parameters.

  15. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  16. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  18. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  19. Impact of nuclear fuel performance and reliability in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnoski, M.; Kaiser, B.

    1997-01-01

    US nuclear plants are now placing a great deal of importance on fuel performance and reliability because of their direct effect on a plant's capacity factor, availability, operating flexibility, outage duration, and worker exposure. This is reflected by utilities making fuel reliability a principal vendor evaluation criterion and making fuel performance an important bonus/penalty provision. Defect-free fuel, combined with ever improving design features, makes it possible for plants to operate at higher outputs while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Higher electrical output at lower cost is essential for US nuclear plants to meet the expected competition in a deregulated market. Through continued investment in manufacturing improvements and a vigilant, systematic design process, ABB's nuclear fuel has contributed to helping its nuclear utility customers reduce their cost of doing business. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  1. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

  2. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium mining (applied processes, formation of Yellow Cake), conversion into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) for enrichment purposes, enrichment (physical methods and plants), nuclear fuel fabrication (description of a fuel assembly), physical, chemical and radiological evolution of the nuclear fuel in the reactor, spent fuel warehousing, spent fuel processing (dissolution, methods of liquid/liquid extraction, output products), effluents and by-products, recycling of valuable materials (URE, MOX, RNR and others), waste containment for the different waste types regarding their radioactivity level and lifetime (vitrification, shell compacting, cementation, and other processes). The author also presents the French policy and choices regarding spent fuel processing and waste management

  3. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle: estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-02-01

    The decision-making process for setting future energy policy requires a large range of information. An important component in this process is the comparison of the various costs incurred by the different types of energy systems. Among these costs are those that the production and consumption of energy impose on society as a whole. Some of which are borne by the producers and consumers of the energy. However, other social costs have not been internalized in the costing structure of the various fuel cycle, and therefore have not been fully considered in the past. These costs are referred to as external costs. The aim of the ExternE project is the computation of these external costs using a common methodology and the design of a unified framework for the presentation of the results. For direct comparison to be made between energy options, it is necessary that a common approach is taken. Two important categories of physical impacts that potentially fall into the classification of external costs are human health effects and environmental impacts. This report presents a methodology for an assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle that could be applied anywhere in Europe, however in this report, whenever possible, site-specific information for France has been used. The first phase of this project was a joint European Community/U.S. Department of Energy effort and the final results for the priority pathways of the nuclear fuel cycle presented in this document have been compared to the preliminary results reported by the US team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle: estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-02-01

    The decision-making process for setting future energy policy requires a large range of information. An important component in this process is the comparison of the various costs incurred by the different types of energy systems. Among these costs are those that the production and consumption of energy impose on society as a whole. Some of which are borne by the producers and consumers of the energy. However, other social costs have not been internalized in the costing structure of the various fuel cycle, and therefore have not been fully considered in the past. These costs are referred to as external costs. The aim of the ExternE project is the computation of these external costs using a common methodology and the design of a unified framework for the presentation of the results. For direct comparison to be made between energy options, it is necessary that a common approach is taken. Two important categories of physical impacts that potentially fall into the classification of external costs are human health effects and environmental impacts. This report presents a methodology for an assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle that could be applied anywhere in Europe, however in this report, whenever possible, site-specific information for France has been used. The first phase of this project was a joint European Community/U.S. Department of Energy effort and the final results for the priority pathways of the nuclear fuel cycle presented in this document have been compared to the preliminary results reported by the US team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Reactivity Impact of Difference of Nuclear Data Library for PWR Fuel Assembly Calculation by Using AEGIS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Yasunori; Tatsumi, Masahiro; Sugimura, Naoki; Tabuchi, Masato

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the latest version of the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-4.0) has been released by JAEA. JENDL-4.0 is major update from JENDL- 3.3, and confirmed to give good accuracy by integral test for fission reactor systems such as fast neutron system and thermal neutron system. In this study, we evaluated the reactivity impact due to difference between ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 for PWR fuel assembly burnup calculation using AEGIS code which has been developed by Nuclear Engineering, Ltd. in cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. and Nagoya University

  8. Loviisa nuclear fuel service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, P.E.; Koskivirta, O.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear fuel service of the both units of Loviisa NPS is based on longterm fresh fuel purchasing contracts and longterm spent fuel return contracts. These contracts belong to the Soviet delivery package of Loviisa NPS and they have been made separately for the both units for their whole lifetime. The Soviet contract party is v/o Techsnabexport. Fresh fuel is ordered at the beginning of the year preceding the delivery year. The delivery takes place about one and half years earlier than the fuel is loaded into reactor. The irradiation time of the fuel is typically three years (partly two years). Spent fuel is stored at site in different storage pools five years before its returning to tbe Soviet Union. Altogether the nuclear fuel is staying at Loviisa about ten years

  9. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy's Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site

  10. Nonproliferation impacts assessment for the management of the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    On May 13, 1996, the US established a new, 10-year policy to accept and manage foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the US. The goal of this policy is to reduce civilian commerce in weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU), thereby reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two key disposition options under consideration for managing this fuel include conventional reprocessing and new treatment and packaging technologies. The Record of Decision specified that, while evaluating the reprocessing option, ``DOE will commission or conduct an independent study of the nonproliferation and other (e.g., cost and timing) implications of chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors.`` DOE`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation conducted this study consistent with the aforementioned Record of Decision. This report addresses the nonproliferation implications of the technologies under consideration for managing aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. Because the same technology options are being considered for the foreign research reactor and the other aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels discussed in Section ES.1, this report addresses the nonproliferation implications of managing all the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, not just the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The combination of the environmental impact information contained in the draft EIS, public comment in response to the draft EIS, and the nonproliferation information contained in this report will enable the Department to make a sound decision regarding how to manage all aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  11. Nonproliferation impacts assessment for the management of the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    On May 13, 1996, the US established a new, 10-year policy to accept and manage foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the US. The goal of this policy is to reduce civilian commerce in weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU), thereby reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two key disposition options under consideration for managing this fuel include conventional reprocessing and new treatment and packaging technologies. The Record of Decision specified that, while evaluating the reprocessing option, ''DOE will commission or conduct an independent study of the nonproliferation and other (e.g., cost and timing) implications of chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors.'' DOE's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation conducted this study consistent with the aforementioned Record of Decision. This report addresses the nonproliferation implications of the technologies under consideration for managing aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. Because the same technology options are being considered for the foreign research reactor and the other aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels discussed in Section ES.1, this report addresses the nonproliferation implications of managing all the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, not just the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The combination of the environmental impact information contained in the draft EIS, public comment in response to the draft EIS, and the nonproliferation information contained in this report will enable the Department to make a sound decision regarding how to manage all aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site

  12. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seigoro.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of a thermal neutron absorber showing ultraplasticity is dispersed in oxide ceramic fuels by more than 1% to 10% or lower. The ultrafine particles of the thermal neutron absorber showing ultrafine plasticity is selected from any one of ZrGd, HfEu, HfY, HfGd, ZrEu, and ZrY. The thermal neutron absorber is converted into ultrafine particles and solid-solubilized in a nuclear fuel pellet, so that the dispersion thereof into nuclear fuels is made uniform and an absorbing performance of the thermal neutrons is also made uniform. Moreover, the characteristics thereof, for example, physical properties such as expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the nuclear fuels are also improved. The neutron absorber, such as ZrGd or the like, can provide plasticity of nuclear fuels, if it is mixed into the nuclear fuels for showing the plasticity. The nuclear fuel pellets are deformed like an hour glass as burning, but, since the end portion thereof is deformed plastically within a range of a repulsive force of the cladding tube, there is no worry of damaging a portion of the cladding tube. (N.H.)

  14. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  15. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  16. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  17. Nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple friction device for cutting nuclear fuel wrappers comprising a thin metal disc clamped between two large diameter clamping plates. A stream of gas ejected from a nozzle is used as coolant. The device may be maintained remotely. (author)

  18. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  19. The impact of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on a municipality's image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Haapavaara, L.; Lampinen, T.

    1999-02-01

    The study comprised on one hand a nationwide telephone interview (totally 800 interviews) aimed at mapping out the current image of possible host municipalities to a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel, and on the other hand some group interviews of people of another parish but of interest from the municipalities' point of view. The purpose of these group interviews was the same as that of the telephone interview, i.e. to find out what kind of an impact locating a final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel in a certain municipality would have on the host municipality's image. Because the groups interviewed were selected on different grounds the results of the interviews are not fully comparable. The most important result of the study is that the current attitude towards a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is calm and collected and that the matter is often considered from the standpoint of an outsider. The issue is easily ignored, classified as a matter 'which does not concern me', provided that the facility will not be placed too near one's own home. Among those interviewed the subject seemed not to be of any 'great interest and did not arouse spontaneous feelings for or against'. There are, however, deeply rooted beliefs concerning the facility and quite strong negative and positive attitudes towards it. The facility itself and the associated decision-making procedure arouse many questions, which at present to a large extent are still unexpressed because the subject is considered so remote. It is, however, necessary to give concrete answers to the questions because this makes it possible for people to relate the issue to daily life. It is further important that things arousing fear and doubts also can be discussed because a silence in this respect only emphasizes their importance. The attitude towards the facility is varying. On one hand there are economic and technical factors: the probable economic benefit from it, the obligation to

  20. Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karve, A.A.; Keller, P.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2001-06-17

    The nuclear fuel management design optimization problem has grown more challenging and important with the passage of time. In this paper, we summarize our research on this design optimization problem. A suite of computer codes that aid in making nuclear fuel management decisions has been developed. These codes utilize stochastic optimization techniques to search the decision space for determining the family of near-optimum decisions in the suboptimization problem being solved.

  1. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  3. Assessing environmental and health impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. Methodology and application to prospective actinides recycling options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzenne, Claude; Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Le Boulch, Denis

    2005-01-01

    French Industrial Companies: EDF, AREVA (COGEMA and FRAMATOME-ANP), associated with ANDRA, the organization in charge of the waste management in France, and Public Research Institute CEA and IRSN, involved in the nuclear waste management, have developed in collaboration a methodology intended to assess the environmental and health impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. This methodology, based on fuel cycle simulation, Life Cycle Analysis, and Impact Studies of each fuel cycle facilities, has been applied to a set of nuclear scenarios covering a very contrasted range of waste management options, in order to characterize the effect of High Level Waste transmutation, and to estimate to what extent it could contribute to reduce their overall impact on health and environment. The main conclusion we could draw from this study is that it is not possible to discriminate, as far as health and environmental impacts are concerned, nuclear scenarios implementing very different levels of HLW transmutation, representative of the whole range of available options. The main limitation of this work is due to the hypothesis of normal behavior of all fuel cycle facilities: main future improvement of the methodology would be to take the accidental risk into account. (author)

  4. Implementation plan of the environmental impact statement on a proposed policy for acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of selected portions of the United States Department of Energy's ''Implementation Plan for the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'', DOE/EIS-0218, October 1994

  5. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  6. Comparison of the radiological impacts of thorium and uranium nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.; McBride, J.P.; Frederick, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report compares the radiological impacts of a fuel cycle in which only uranium is recycled, as presented in the Final Generic Environmental Statement on the Use of Recycle Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Fuel in Light Water Cooled Reactors (GESMO), with those of the light-water breeder reactor (LWBR) thorium/uranium fuel cycle in the Final Environmental Statement, Light Water Breeder Reactor Program. The significant offsite radiological impacts from routine operation of the fuel cycles result from the mining and milling of thorium and uranium ores, reprocessing spent fuel, and reactor operations. The major difference between the impacts from the two fuel cycles is the larger dose commitments associated with current uranium mining and milling operations as compared to thorium mining and milling. Estimated dose commitments from the reprocessing of either fuel type are small and show only moderate variations for specific doses. No significant differences in environmental radiological impact are anticipated for reactors using either of the fuel cycles. Radiological impacts associated with routine releases from the operation of either the thorium or uranium fuel cycles can be held to acceptably low levels by existing regulations

  7. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  8. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement

  9. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  10. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  11. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  12. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  13. On the Impact of the Fuel Dissolution Rate Upon Near-Field Releases From Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of the impact of the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel on the release from a damaged canister in a KBS-3 repository are presented. The dissolution of the fuel matrix is a complex process and the dissolution rate is known to be one of the most important parameters in performance assessment models of the near-field of a geological repository. A variability study has been made to estimate the uncertainties associated with the process of fuel dissolution. The model considered in this work is a 3D model of a KBS-3 copper canister. The nuclide used in the calculations is Cs-135. Our results confirm that the fuel degradation rate is an important parameter, however there are considerable uncertainties associated with the data and the conceptual models. Consequently, in the interests of safety one should reduce, as far as possible, the uncertainties coupled to fuel degradation.

  14. Hot impact densification (HID) - a new method of producing ceramic nuclear fuel pellets with tight dimensional tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L. (Nuklear-EEhemie und -Metallurgie G.m.b.H. (NUKEM), Hanau (Germany, F.R.)); Muehling, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Schneller Brueter); Vollath, D.; Zimmermann, H. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung)

    1984-05-01

    The hot impact densification (HID) is a new powerful method for producing ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear reactors. Green ceramic bodies are directly processed to pellets by high speed shaping in the plastic temperature region of ceramic material. Opposed to the well established press sintering procedure it can be heated, densified, and cooled by orders of magnitude faster. Therefore, at high throughputs, small equipment dimensions become possible. The fuel pellets produced meet all requirements, particular the dimensional tolerances achieved are very close, consequently circular grinding is omitted. Furthermore, the relatively high temperature level of the impact pressing favors the mixed crystal formation of uranium and plutonium oxide. This improves the solubility of the fuel in nitric acid, an essential point at reprocessing. A prototype facility is designed so that automatic fabrication in continuous operation will be possible. The target working cycle for a fuel pellet is in the range of some seconds.

  15. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  16. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of fuels. More information related to radioactive waste and to the transport and storage of spent fuel is included in the current awareness publication, Radioactive Waste Management. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NFC on nuclear fuel back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel supply is viewed as a buyer's market of assured medium-term stability. Even on a long-term basis, no shortage is envisaged for all conceivable expansion schedules. The conversion and enrichment facilities developed since the mid-seventies have done much to stabilize the market, owing to the fact that one-sided political decisions by the USA can be counteracted efficiently. In view of the uncertainties concerning realistic nuclear waste management strategies, thermal recycling and mixed oxide fuel elements might increase their market share in the future. Capacities are being planned accordingly. (orig.) [de

  20. Department of the Navy final environmental impact statement for a container system for the management of naval spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) addresses six general alternative systems for the loading, storage, transport, and possible disposal of naval spent nuclear fuel following examination. This EIS describes environmental impacts of (1) producing and implementing the container systems (including those impacts resulting from the addition of the capability to load the containers covered in this EIS in dry fuel handling facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)); (2) loading of naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility or at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant with subsequent storage at INEL; (3) construction of a storage facility (such as a paved area) at alternative locations at INEL; and (4) loading of containers and their shipment to a geologic repository or to a centralized interim storage site outside the State of Idaho once one becomes available. As indicated in the EIS, the systems and facilities might also be used for handling low-level radiological waste categorized as special case waste. The Navy's preferred alternative for a container system for the management of naval spent fuel is a dual-purpose canister system. The primary benefits of a dual-purpose canister system are efficiencies in container manufacturing and fuel reloading operations, and potential reductions in radiation exposure

  1. Nuclear fuel assembly repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassler, E.A.; Stavsky, R.

    1986-01-01

    In response to utility needs to recover investment in nuclear fuel assemblies, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed tools and equipment to repair damaged fuel assemblies in an economical and safe manner, to enable utilities to reinsert these assemblies in the core. There are two possible repair techniques - bottom nozzle reconstitution and top nozzle reconstitution. Both techniques have been approved through formal design review; prototype tools have been built and successfully tested. The tools are modular in nature, easily transportable, and designed to fit the spent fuel pool at a reactor site. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domoto, Noboru; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly loaded with a plurality of fuel rods, the inside of a fuel rod disposed at a high neutron flux region is divided into an inner region and an outer region, and more burnable poisons are mixed in the inner region than in the outer region. Alternatively, the central portion of a pellet disposed in a high neutron flux region is made hollow, in which burnable poisons are charged. This can prevent neutron infinite multiplication factor from decreasing extremely at the initial burning stage. Further, the burnable poisons are not rapidly burnt completely and local peaking coefficient can be controlled. Accordingly, in a case of suppressing a predetermined excess reactivity by using a fuel rod incorporated with the burnable poison, the fuel economy can be improved more and the reactor core controllability can also be improved as compared with the usual case. (T.M.)

  3. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  4. Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

    2013-07-01

    FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

  5. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  6. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  7. Revised estimates of the radiological impact of the transport of irradiated nuclear fuels within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents revised estimates of individual and collective doses associated with irradiated fuel movements from CEGB and SSEB nuclear power stations within the UK. In particular, earlier estimates of transport doses have been updated to take account of recent changes in the patterns of rail traffic. This results in a reduction in the estimated maximum individual doses to members of the public living near marshalling yards where flasks stop en route and also to rail workers incidentally exposed at these locations. The maximum levels of individual dose associated with irradiated fuel transport within the UK are in general low compared with those due to natural background radiation. Further, the associated collective doses are small compared with other sources of dose arising in the nuclear fuel cycle and represent -4 % of the natural background radiation dose to the UK population. In absolute terms the maximum contributions to the annual transport collective doses from Magnox, AGR and projected PWR fuel movements are estimated to be 18, 9 and 0.7 man mSv · a -1 respectively. These results neglect any reduction in doses due to the effects of shielding by buildings or natural obstacles such as railway cuttings or tunnels. Inclusion of these effects has been estimated to reduce the annual transport collective doses to 13, 6 and 0.45 man mSv · a -1 for Magnox, AGR and PWR fuels respectively. (U.K.)

  8. Study on safety evaluation method for impact protection structures of spent nuclear fuel carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hisayoshi; Yamada, Yasuhira; Hashizume, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    From a safety assessment view point, tanker ships transporting spent nuclear fuels such as plutonium including MOX (mixed oxide) fuels and high level radioactive wastes, are required to have security structures for collision accidents. The requirement is now reviewing in keeping with reality of the preset condition. Here, as a typical scenario, the probabilistic safety of VLCC (very large crude carrier) was examined. The FEM (finite element method) simulation analysis and new simple analyses in behalf of Minorsky method based on experience rule have been developed to analyze the collision strength, and their validity were examined. (A. Hishinuma)

  9. Nuclear fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Fry, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel transport flask has a surrounding structure carrying inwardly directed heat transfer fins additional to the normal outwardly directed heat transfer fins on the main body of the flask. The additional fins can be interleaved with the main fins, and the structure carrying the additional fins can either be a shroud or an open framework. (author)

  10. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  12. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  14. Impact of the fuel cost in the electric generation cost by nuclear means; Impacto del costo del combustible en el costo de generacion electrica por medios nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.; Gomez R, M.C.; Palacios H, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the uranium cost has been increased in the international market due to a countless of factors like they are: increase of the demand, the turnaround of the nuclear energy in some Asian countries, the decrease of the offer due to problems in the mining for their extraction, etc. These increments impact the costs of electric generation in the concept of fuel, presently work is calculated that order is the prospective impact when the costs of the uranium and the services of the fuel cycle are increased to the speed that one has come increasing, and an increase is postulated beyond the 100 usd/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, being also calculated its impact in the total cost of electric generation by nuclear means. (Author)

  15. nuclear fuel design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fuel design is strictly dependent on reactor type and experiences obtained from performance of nuclear fuels. The objectives of the design are reliability, and economy. Nuclear fuel design requires an interdisciplinary work which has to cover, at least nuclear design, thermalhydraulic design, mechanical design, and material properties.The procedure of design, as describe in the quality assurance, consist of a number of steps. The most important parts are: Design description or inputs, preliminary design, detailed design and design output, and design verification. The first step covers objectives and requirements, as defined by the customer and by the regulatory authority for product performance,environmental factors, safety, etc. The second describes assumptions and alternatives, safety, economy and engineering analyses. The third covers technical specifications, design drawings, selection of QA program category, etc. The most important form of design verification is design review by qualified independent internal or external reviewers. The scope of the review depends on the specific character of the design work. Personnel involved in verification and review do not assume prime responsibility for detecting errors. Responsibility for the design remains with the personnel involved in the design work

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  18. Nuclear fuel subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayol, A.; Chalony, A.; Clottes, G.; Praizey, J.P.; Skok, J.; Venobre, H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel sub-assembly is described which comprises a bundle of fuel pins provided with helical spacers and located within a shroud for the coolant. The sub-channels at the periphery of the bundle are restricted in order that the rate of flow matches the heat transfer surfaces in all sub-channels. For this purpose the spacers of the outer pins project radially by an extent smaller than the spacers of the inner pins. In addition longitudinal ribs may be provided in the outer sub-channels

  19. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fuel assembly described includes a cluster of fuel elements supported at a distance from each other so that their axes are parallel in order to establish secondary channels between them reserved for the coolant. Several ducts for an auxiliary cooling fluid are arranged in the cluster. The wall of each duct is pierced with coolant ejection holes which are placed circumferentially to a pre-determined pattern established according to the position of the duct in the cluster and by the axial distance of the ejection hole along the duct. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  20. Comparison of the socioeconomic impacts of international fuel service centers versus dispersed nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates a variety of community impacts including: public services, fiscal issues, economic matters, land and water use, political and social cohesion, and legal considerations. Comparisons of socioeconomic impacts of colocated versus dispersed sites are made on the basis of the size of the impacted communities, the size and type of nuclear facility, and the facility's construction time frame. The paper concludes that, under similar circumstances, most of the socioeconomic impacts of colocated nuclear facilities would be somewhat less than the sum of the impacts associated with equivalent dispersed sites. While empirical data is non-existent, the paper contends, however, that because the socioeconomic impacts of colocated facilities are so great and readily identifiable to a public unskilled in making comparisons with the dispersed alternative, the facilities will likely generate so much public opposition that IFSCs will probably prove infeasible

  1. Comparison of the socioeconomic impacts of international fuel service centers versus dispersed nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, Jr., R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates a variety of community impacts including: public services, fiscal issues, economic matters, land and water use, political and social cohesion, and legal considerations. Comparisons of socioeconomic impacts of colocated versus dispersed sites are made on the basis of the size of the impacted communities, the size and type of nuclear facility, and the facility's construction time frame. The paper concludes that, under similar circumstances, most of the socioeconomic impacts of colocated nuclear facilities would be somewhat less than the sum of the impacts associated with equivalent dispersed sites. While empirical data is non-existent, the paper contends, however, that because the socioeconomic impacts of colocated facilities are so great and readily identifiable to a public unskilled in making comparisons with the dispersed alternative, the facilities will likely generate so much public opposition that IFSCs will probably prove infeasible.

  2. Impact of Aluminum on Anticipated Corrosion in a Flooded spent nuclear fuel Multi -Canister Overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion reactions in a flooded MCO are examined to determine the impact of aluminum corrosion products (from aluminum basket grids and spacers) on bound water estimates and subsequent fuel/environment reactions during storage. The mass and impact of corrosion products were determined to be insignificant, validating the choice of aluminum as an MCO component and confirming expectations that no changes to the Technical Databook or particulate mass or water content are necessary

  3. Fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.; Watson, R.H.; Loch, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Commercial nuclear fuel fabrication is focused on providing quality products. Throughout manufacturing attention is placed on the precise control of processes, procedures and tooling to reduce product variability. This paper describes the processes used to manufacture fuel for the advanced gas cooled reactor, light water reactor, fast breeder reactor and Magnox reactor systems at the BNFL, Springfields, and Westinghouse Columbia, USA, facilities. It covers the chemical purification and conversion stages of fuel production before describing the fabrication of both oxide and metallic fuel and gives a general overview of the technology used. Although the principles of fuel fabrication in terms of providing a cladding designed to be the primary envelope to encase the fuel are similar for each system, there are detailed differences in manufacturing route and cladding type which arise from differing reactor requirements. These, together with developments made in response to customer needs, are reviewed and the need to maintain a high purity reliable product with low variability at all stages in manufacture is emphasized throughout. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel brokerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schreiber, K.

    1985-01-01

    Making available nuclear fuels on the spot market, especially uranium in various compounds and processing stages, has become an important service rendered nuclear power plant operators. A secondary market has grown, both for natural uranium and for separative work, the conditions and transactions of which require a comprehensive overview of what is going on, especially also in connection with possibilities to terminate in a profitable manner existing contracts. This situation has favored the activity of brokers with excellent knowledge of the market, who are able to handle the complicated terms and conditions in an optimum way. (orig.) [de

  5. Nuclear fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Kenneth; Moulding, T.L.J.; Rostron, Norman.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin for use in fast breeder nuclear reactors containing fissile and fertile areas of which the fissile and fertile materials do not mix. The fissile material takes the shape of large and small diameter microspheres (the small diameter microspheres can pass through the interstices between the large microspheres). The barrier layers being composed of microspheres with a diameter situated between those of the large and small microspheres ensure that the materials do not mix [fr

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a cluster of fuel elements supported by transversal grids so that their axes are parallel to and at a distance from each other, in order to establish interstices for the axial flow of a coolant. At least one of the interstices is occupied by an axial duct reserved for an auxiliary cooling fluid and is fitted with side holes through which the auxiliary cooling fluid is sprayed into the cluster. Deflectors extend as from a transversal grid in a position opposite the holes to deflect the cooling fluid jet towards those parts of the fuel elements that are not accessible to the auxiliary coolant. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  7. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  8. The impact of nuclear power stations and of a fuel reprocessing plant on the Rhone river and its prodelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lambrechts, A.; Charmasson, S.; Pally, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Rhone, with its 6 nuclear sites (17 reactors of various types and a fuel reprocessing unit), presents a relevant example for comparing the impact of these various installations on the aquatic ecosystem. Artificial radioactivity (γ emitters, Pu, 3 H, 90 Sr...) and natural radioactivity are monitored in sediments and various living organisms in the river and its prodelta. A summary of the radioecological procedure is given and illustrated with examples selected from results obtained over the last fifteen years (data resulting from about 7500 samples taken up- and downstream of the installations and in the prodelta). The evolution of results obtained during this period by γ spectrometry on fish up- and downstream of the nuclear power station at Bugey and the Marcoule fuel reprocessing unit is presented. The role of aquatic vegetation as indicator of radiocontamination is also illustrated. The evolution in the concentration levels of γ emitting artificial radionuclides in sediments and mussels in the prodelta is commented on in order to show the global radioecological impact of the Rhone in the Mediterranean sea. The analyses presented show that it is possible to quantify the influence of each source term on the total artificial radioactivity of the compartments of the ecosystem. The source terms are atmospheric fallout from early nuclear weapon tests and of the Chernobyl accident, and liquid wastes of various composition from nuclear installations

  9. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 1. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an overview of a project on the health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. In addition to presenting an executive summary of the project, it sets forth the main results of the four tasks of the project: to review the health impacts (and related standards) of these forms of power generation, to review the status of standards related to plant safety (with an emphasis on nuclear power), to consider the role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission in selection of standards, and to set forth methodologies whereby that Commission may review the health and safety aspects of proposed sites and facilities.

  10. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 1. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an overview of a project on the health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. In addition to presenting an executive summary of the project, it sets forth the main results of the four tasks of the project: to review the health impacts (and related standards) of these forms of power generation, to review the status of standards related to plant safety (with an emphasis on nuclear power), to consider the role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission in selection of standards, and to set forth methodologies whereby that Commission may review the health and safety aspects of proposed sites and facilities

  11. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  12. Impact of thorium based molten salt reactor on the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Safwan Qasim Mohammad

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of six reactors selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is a MSR concept based on thorium fuel cycle. LFTR uses liquid fluoride salts as a nuclear fuel. It uses 232Th and 233U as the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. Fluoride salt of these nuclides is dissolved in a mixed carrier salt of lithium and beryllium (FLiBe). The objective of this research was to complete feasibility studies of a small commercial thermal LFTR. The focus was on neutronic calculations in order to prescribe core design parameter such as core size, fuel block pitch (p), fuel channel radius, fuel path, reflector thickness, fuel salt composition, and power. In order to achieve this objective, the applicability of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to MSR modeling was verified. Then, a prescription for conceptual small thermal reactor LFTR and relevant calculations were performed using MCNP to determine the main neutronic parameters of the core reactor. The MCNP code was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for the FUJI-U3 reactor. The results were then compared with the results obtained from the original FUJI-U3 using the reactor physics code SRAC95 and the burnup analysis code ORIPHY2. The results were comparable with each other. Based on the results, MCNP was found to be a reliable code to model a small thermal LFTR and study all the related reactor physics characteristics. The results of this study were promising and successful in demonstrating a prefatory small commercial LFTR design. The outcome of using a small core reactor with a diameter/height of 280/260 cm that would operate for more than five years at a power level of 150 MWth was studied. The fuel system 7LiF - BeF2 - ThF4 - UF4 with a (233U/ 232Th) = 2.01 % was the candidate fuel for this reactor core.

  13. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  14. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  16. Nuclear fuel assembly and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    Rupture of boiling water reactor nuclear fuel cladding resulting from embrittlement caused by fission product cadmium is prevented by adding the stoichiometrically equivalent amount of gold, silver or palladium to the fuel

  17. Swelling-resistant nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenlis, Athanasios [Hayward, CA; Satcher, Jr., Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei O [Oakland, CA

    2011-12-27

    A nuclear fuel according to one embodiment includes an assembly of nuclear fuel particles; and continuous open channels defined between at least some of the nuclear fuel particles, wherein the channels are characterized as allowing fission gasses produced in an interior of the assembly to escape from the interior of the assembly to an exterior thereof without causing significant swelling of the assembly. Additional embodiments, including methods, are also presented.

  18. Accident tolerant composite nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpunar Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated accident tolerant nuclear fuels are fuels with enhanced thermal conductivity, which can withstand the loss of coolant for a longer time by allowing faster dissipation of heat, thus lowering the centerline temperature and preventing the melting of the fuel. Traditional nuclear fuels have a very low thermal conductivity and can be significantly enhanced if transformed into a composite with a very high thermal conductivity components. In this study, we analyze the thermal properties of various composites of mixed oxides and thoria fuels to improve thermal conductivity for the next generation safer nuclear reactors.

  19. Environmental impact statements concerning final deposition of spent nuclear fuels a.o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.; Schibbye, K.; Andersson, Johan; Norrby, S.; Timm, T.; Haegg, C.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1995-02-01

    Five governmental authorities concerned in licensing a swedish nuclear waste repository have outlined recommendations for what should be covered by an environmental impact statement, i.e. defined which laws should be applied, tried to develop a consensus on the handling the EIS in the licensing procedure, to identify potential problems due to prevailing (or non-existing) rules on EIS especially concerning roles and conflicts of objective

  20. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 10. Environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethington, J.A.; Razvi, J.; Grier, C.; Myrick, T.

    1981-12-01

    This educational module is devoted to the environmental considerations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Eight chapters cover: National Environmental Policy Act; environmental impact statements; environmental survey of the uranium fuel cycle; the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant; transport mechanisms; radiological hazards in uranium mining and milling operations; radiological hazards of uranium mill tailings; and the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel

  1. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaya; Makihara, Yoshiaki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To limit a bypass flow by inhibiting or restricting the lateral flow of coolants between lower nozzle legs of a nuclear fuel assembly, so that the flow speed of a jet stream flowing through the gaps between buffle plates into the reactor core is not increased. Constitution: The lower nozzle of a fuel assembly comprises an upper plate, an enclosure and legs, in which flow apertures are perforated in the enclosure, the area for the flow apertures and the slit are set to less than predetermined values, and the flow apertures are arranged so that they are situated within the gaps between the lower end of the buffle plate and the lower reactor core plate. As the result, since the jet stream from the gaps between the buffle plates can be so decreased as the effect thereof on the fuel rods is negligible, measurement for the size of the gap between the buffle plates upon periodical inspection is no more necessary, thereby enabling to shorten the time of the periodical inspection and reduce the exposure dose. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, B.C.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Hill, G.S.; Kitts, F.G.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-10-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs, and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. This report is a revision of the original study

  3. AECB staff response to the environmental impact statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement on the Concept for Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste was released in October 1994 in response to the guidelines issued in 1992 by a panel formed to evaluate this concept (Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, 1992). This response is primarily a statement of deficiencies and thus focuses on the negative aspects of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The staff review of the EIS was based on the AECB mandate, which is to protect human health and the environment and as such was focused on technical issues in the EIS. These were performance assessment of the multiple barrier system, environmental impacts, concept feasibility, siting, transport and safety as well as general issues o f regulatory policy and criteria. 30 refs

  4. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) FUel performance at high burn-up and in ageing plant by management and optimisation of WAter Chemistry Technologies (FUWAC ); 2) Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy; 3) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel failure cause for PWR (1994-2006) and failure mechanisms for BWR fuel (1994-2006) are shown. The just published Fuel Failure Handbook as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications are presented. The current projects in Sub-programme B2 - Power Reactor Fuel Engineering are also listed

  5. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G.S.; Kautsky, U.; Moren, L.; Wallroth, T.

    2001-05-01

    The radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel will decay over a period of time (100,000 years or longer) in which we expect major environmental change. Climatically driven changes such as glaciation, permafrost and changes in sea level will affect the subsurface environment and must therefore be considered in performance and safety assessments. We regard the state of climate to be determined by the climate system, comprising the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the ice sheets and the surface of the lithosphere. Climate can change as a consequence of external forcing or as a consequence of the internal dynamics. The changes in the past show a complex cyclical pattern with repetitive periodicities and magnitudes of change. On the relatively long time scale which is of concern in this report climate changes are believed to be triggered by changes in insolation due to cyclical changes in the earth's orbit around the sun. This is referred to as the Milankovitch theory or the astronomical climate theory. A brief review of our knowledge of the climate system, proxy records and observations of past climate change is presented in the report. The most extreme departures from modern environmental conditions in Sweden have occurred during the cold, glacial cycles with ice sheets covering the whole of Sweden. As part of SKB's palaeohydrogeological research programme a time-dependent, thermo-mechanically coupled model of ice sheet behaviour has been developed in order to simulate past fluctuations of the Scandinavian ice sheet and forecast its future. The ice sheet model can calculate the temperature field and isostatic response of the underlying bedrock, subglacial and proglacial permafrost and the subglacial melt rates. By connecting the glaciation model with hydrogeological and rock mechanical models, the response of the subsurface to climate change can be investigated. In this report the climate-driven environmental changes are represented as a series of successive climate

  6. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G.S. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Kautsky, U.; Moren, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wallroth, T. [Bergab Consulting Geologists (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel will decay over a period of time (100,000 years or longer) in which we expect major environmental change. Climatically driven changes such as glaciation, permafrost and changes in sea level will affect the subsurface environment and must therefore be considered in performance and safety assessments. We regard the state of climate to be determined by the climate system, comprising the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the ice sheets and the surface of the lithosphere. Climate can change as a consequence of external forcing or as a consequence of the internal dynamics. The changes in the past show a complex cyclical pattern with repetitive periodicities and magnitudes of change. On the relatively long time scale which is of concern in this report climate changes are believed to be triggered by changes in insolation due to cyclical changes in the earth's orbit around the sun. This is referred to as the Milankovitch theory or the astronomical climate theory. A brief review of our knowledge of the climate system, proxy records and observations of past climate change is presented in the report. The most extreme departures from modern environmental conditions in Sweden have occurred during the cold, glacial cycles with ice sheets covering the whole of Sweden. As part of SKB's palaeohydrogeological research programme a time-dependent, thermo-mechanically coupled model of ice sheet behaviour has been developed in order to simulate past fluctuations of the Scandinavian ice sheet and forecast its future. The ice sheet model can calculate the temperature field and isostatic response of the underlying bedrock, subglacial and proglacial permafrost and the subglacial melt rates. By connecting the glaciation model with hydrogeological and rock mechanical models, the response of the subsurface to climate change can be investigated. In this report the climate-driven environmental changes are represented as a series of successive

  7. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  8. Impacts of the turbogenerator reactive operation in the nuclear fuel burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Helio Ricardo V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2002-01-01

    The parameterization of the losses in a turbogenerator in function of an operation with the electrical system reactive allowed to model in a simple and exact way the equations that define and they quantify the additional of nuclear potency that it should be generated by a reactor, in order to maintain the commitment with the national system operator, that is, the electric active power contracted. starting from this additional of nuclear power it was modeled the additional burn up of the fuel elements, as well as the numbers of effective days to full power wasted. it was promoted a safety analysis and some limitations due to the reactive operation of the electrical system. inside of this context it was made a financial evaluation in which we ask some questions to companies and government organs in order to define what losses are acceptable and also the reason why we don't use other technician resources such as: increase of the electrical mesh, electrical power injection in strategic points, capacitor banks and increase of the number the electrical plants. (author)

  9. Methodological Proposal for Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Aspects and Impacts of IPEN Nuclear Facilities: A Case Study Applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis A. Terribile de; Filho, Tufic Madi; Meldonian, Nelson Leon

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Control Plan for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (authors)

  10. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. This paper focuses on terrestrial and aquatic radioecology of waste management areas and biotic transport parameters

  11. AECB staff response to the environmental impact statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Concept for Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste was released in October 1994 (AECL,1994) in response to the guidelines issued in 1992 by a Panel formed to evaluate this concept (Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, 1992). This response is primarily a statement of deficiencies and thus focuses on the negative aspects of the EIS. The staff review of the EIS was based on the AECB mandate, which is to protect human health and the environment and as such was focused on technical issues in the EIS. These were performance assessment of the multiple barrier system, environmental impacts, concept feasibility, siting, transport and safety as well as general issues of regulatory policy and criteria. The EIS and its supporting documentation have been the sole basis used to judge whether AECB staff expectations of the EIS have been met. The staff response (Part II) considers whether an issue is addressed appropriately and adequately, while taking account of the generic and preliminary nature of the concept. The overall conclusion that AECB staff have drawn from the technical review of the EIS is that the EIS, by itself, does not adequately demonstrate the case for deep geological disposal for nuclear fuel waste. However, AECB staff believe that the EIS information, in combination with a variety of generic national and international assessments, has provided confidence that the deep geological disposal concept is safe and viable. 74 refs

  12. Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)

  13. The fuel of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the different steps of the preparation of nuclear fuels performed by Cogema. The documents starts with a presentation of the different French reactor types: graphite moderated reactors, PWRs using MOX fuel, fast breeder reactors and research reactors. The second part describes the fuel manufacturing process: conditioning of nuclear materials and fabrication of fuel assemblies. The third part lists the different companies involved in the French nuclear fuel industry while part 4 gives a short presentation of the two Cogema's fuel fabrication plants at Cadarache and Marcoule. Part 5 and 6 concern the quality assurance, the safety and reliability aspects of fuel elements and the R and D programs. The last part presents some aspects of the environmental and personnel protection performed by Cogema. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear Fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the stress gradient resulted in the fuel can in fuel rods adapted to control the axial power distribution by the combination of fuel pellets having different linear power densities. Constitution: In a fuel rod comprising a first fuel pellet of a relatively low linear power density and a second fuel pellet of a relatively high linear power density, the second fuel pellet is cut at its both end faces by an amount corresponding to the heat expansion of the pellet due to the difference in the linear power density to the adjacent first fuel pellet. Thus, the second fuel pellet takes a smaller space than the first fuel pellet in the fuel can. This can reduce the stress produced in the portion of the fuel can corresponding to the boundary between the adjacent fuel pellets. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Thorium in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevicius, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We revise the advantages and possible problems on the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel instead of uranium. The following aspects are considered: 1) In the world there are three times more thorium than uranium 2) In spite that thorium in his natural form it is not a fisil, under neutron irradiation, is possible to transform it to uranium 233, a fisil of a high quality. 3) His ceramic oxides properties are superior to uranium or plutonium oxides. 4) During the irradiation the U 233 due to n,2n reaction produce small quantities of U 232 and his decay daughters' bismuth 212 and thallium 208 witch are strong gamma source. In turn thorium 228 and uranium 232 became, in time anti-proliferate due to there radiation intensity. 5) As it is described in here and experiments done in several countries reactors PHWR can be adapted to the use of thorium as a fuel element 6) As a problem we should mentioned that the different steps in the process must be done under strong radiation shielding and using only automatized equipment s (author)

  16. British Nuclear Fuels (Warrington)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, D.; Cryer, B.; Bellotti, D.

    1992-01-01

    This adjournment debate is about British Nuclear Fuels plc and the 750 redundancies due to take place by the mid-1990s at BNFL, Risley. The debate was instigated by the Member of Parliament for Warrington, the constituency in which BNFL, Risley is situated. Other members pointed out that other industries, such as the textile industry are also suffering job losses due to the recession. However the MP for Warrington argued that the recent restructuring of BNFL restricted the financial flexibility of BNFL so that the benefits of contracts won for THORP at Sellafield could not help BNFL, Risley. The debate became more generally about training, apprentices and employment opportunities. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Energy explained the position as he saw it and said BNFL may be able to offer more help to its apprentices. Long- term employment prospects at BNFL are dependent on the future of the nuclear industry in general. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. (U.K)

  17. Upgrading nuclear-fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spetz, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    Because of the unavailability of nuclear-fuel reprocessing, more efficient methods must be found in using fresh uranium-fuel supplies in LWRs. The lumped-burnable-poison shuffle and multibatch-shuffle schemes are proposed by one reactor supplier as viable means of obtaining this practical and economical objective. Another means of attaining better fuel efficiency might be by increasing the number of fuel assemblies, with a higher uranium-enrichment percentage. Thus, refueling might be made at 18-month intervals

  18. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuels High Impact Problem: Coordinate Multiscale FeCrAl Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wirth, B. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Since the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 significant research has unfolded at national laboratories, universities and other institutions into alternative materials that have potential enhanced ac- cident tolerance when compared to traditional UO2 fuel zircaloy clad fuel rods. One of the potential replacement claddings are iron-chromium-alunimum (FeCrAl) alloys due to their increased oxidation resistance [1–4] and higher strength [1, 2]. While the oxidation characteristics of FeCrAl are a benefit for accident tolerance, the thermal neu- tron absorption cross section of FeCrAl is about ten times that of Zircaloy. This neutronic penalty necessitates thinner cladding. This allows for slightly larger pellets to give the same cold gap width in the rod. However, the slight increase in pellet diameter is not sufficient to compensate for the neutronic penalty and enriching the fuel beyond the current 5% limit appears to be necessary [5]. Current estimates indicate that this neutronic penalty will impose an increase in fuel cost of 15-35% [1, 2]. In addition to the neutronic disadvantage, it is anticipated that tritium release to the coolant will be larger because the permeability of hydrogen in FeCrAl is about 100 times higher than in Zircaloy [6]. Also, radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of FeCrAl need to be fully characterized experimentally [7]. Due to the aggressive development schedule for inserting some of the potential materials into lead test assemblies or rods by 2022 [8] multiscale multiphysics modeling approaches have been used to provide insight into these the use of FeCrAl as a cladding material. The purpose of this letter report is to highlight the multiscale modeling effort for iron-chromium-alunimum (FeCrAl) cladding alloys as part of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program through its Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The approach taken throughout the HIP is to

  20. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  1. Nuclear fuels; Les combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO{sub 2} ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO{sub 2} and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast

  2. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100 th nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U 3 O 8 were replaced by U 3 Si 2 -based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to fulfill its mission that is

  3. The fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amore, Mead

    1987-01-01

    The chronology of fuel product and core management development over the past 25 years in the USA is explained. Nuclear fuel for Westinghouse reactors is made by converting enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder. The powder is pressed into pellets which are loaded into zircalloy fuel tubes (typically over 14 million pellets in 50,952 rods). The fuel rods are arranged in fuel assemblies which are shipped to the reactor site (typically 193 fuel assemblies are needed for one 1000MWe reactor). Each stage of the fuel fabrication cycle (cladding manufacture, chemical conversion UF 6 - UO 2 , pellet production, fuel rod fabrication, grid assembly, skeleton assembly, fuel assembly) is described, with particular reference to the Westinghouse process and plant. (UK)

  4. Nuclear energy and fuel mix. Impacts of new nuclear power plants after 2020 in the nuclear energy scenarios of the Energy Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Snoep, H.J.M.; Van Deurzen, J.; Lako, P.; Poley, A.D.

    2010-03-01

    This report presents facts and figures on new nuclear energy in the Netherlands, in the period after 2020. The information is meant to support a stakeholder discussion process on the role of new nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The report covers a number of issues relevant to the subject. Facts and figures on the following issues are presented: Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits, impact on end user electricity prices); The role of nuclear power with respect to security of supply; Sustainability aspects, including environmental aspects; The impact of nuclear power in three 'nuclear energy scenarios' for the Netherlands, within the context of a Northwest European energy market. The scenarios are: (1a) No new nuclear power in the Netherlands ('Base case'); (1b) After closure of the existing Borssele nuclear power plant by the end of 2033, the construction of new nuclear power plant that will operate in 2040. That plant is assumed to be designed not to have a serious core melt down accident (e.g. PBMR) (200 to 500 MWe); (2) New nuclear power shortly after closure the Borssele nuclear power plant in 2033 (1000 to 1600 MWe, 3rd Generation); (3) New nuclear power plants shortly after 2020 (2000 to 5000 MWe, 3rd Generation). Two electricity demand scenario background scenario variants have been constructed based on an average GDP growth of about 2% per year up to 2040. The first variant is based on a steadily growing electricity demand and on currently established NL and EU policies and instruments. It is expected to be largely consistent with a new and forthcoming reference projection 'Energy and Emissions 2010-2020' for the Netherlands (published by ECN and PBL in 2010). A lower demand variant is based on additional energy savings and on higher shares of renewable

  5. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  6. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  7. Quality assurance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The guide presents the quality assurance requirements to be completed with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, handling and operation of the nuclear fuel. The guide also applies to the procurement of the control rods and the shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organizations whose activities affect fuel quality, the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. (2 refs.)

  8. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  9. Impacts of the use of spent nuclear fuel burnup credit on DOE advanced technology legal weight truck cask GA-4 fleet size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheran, A.S.; Boshoven, J.; Lake, B.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impact of full and partial spent fuel burnup credit on the capacity of the Legal Weight Truck Spent Fuel Shipping Cask (GA-4) and to determine the numbers of additional spent fuel assemblies which could be accommodated as a result. The scope of the study comprised performing nuclear criticality safety scoping calculations using the SCALE-PC software package and the 1993 spent fuel database to determine logistics for number of spent fuel assemblies to be shipped. The results of the study indicate that more capacity than 2 or 3 pressurized water reactor assemblies could be gained for GA-4 casks when burnup credit is considered. Reduction in GA-4 fleet size and number of shipments are expected to result from the acceptance of spent fuel burnup credit

  10. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  12. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  13. The nuclear fuel cycle light and shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle industry has a far reaching effect on future world energy developments. The growth in turnover of this industry follows a known patterm; by 1985 this turnover will have reached a figure of 2 billion dollars. Furthermore, the fuel cycle plays a determining role in ensuring the physical continuity of energy supplies for countries already engaged in the nuclear domain. Finally, the development of this industry is subject to economic and political constraints which imply the availability of raw materials, technological know-how, and production facilities. Various factors which could have an adverse influence on the cycle: technical, economic, or financial difficulties, environmental impact, nuclear safety, theft or diversion of nuclear materials, nuclear weapon, proliferation risks, are described, and the interaction between the development of the cycle, energy independance, and the fulfillment of nuclear energy programs is emphasized. It is concluded that the nuclear fuel cycle industry is confronted with difficulties due to its extremely rapid growth rate (doubling every 5 years); it is a long time since such a growth rate has been experienced by any heavy industry. The task which lays before us is difficult, but the fruit is worth the toil, as it is the fuel cycle which will govern the growth of the nuclear industry [fr

  14. Nuclear energy center site survey: fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Background information for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey is presented in the following task areas: economics of integrated vs. dispersed nuclear fuel cycle facilities, plutonium fungibility, fuel cycle industry model, production controls and failure contingencies, environmental impact, waste management, emergency response capability, and feasibility evaluations

  15. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  16. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  17. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Under the invention the fuel assembly is particularly suitable for liquid metal cooled fast neutron breeder reactors. Hence, according to the invention a fuel assembly cladding includes inward corrugations with respect to the remainder of the cladding according to a recurring pattern determined by the pitch of the metal wire helically wound round the fuel rods of the assembly. The parts of the cladding pressed inwards correspond to the areas in which the wire encircling the peripheral fuel rods is generally located apart from the cladding, thereby reducing the play between the cladding and the peripheral fuel rods situated in these areas. The reduction in the play in turn improves the coolant flow in the internal secondary channels of the fuel assembly to the detriment of the flow in the peripheral secondary channels and thereby establishes a better coolant fluid temperature profile [fr

  18. Analysis of economic impacts on waste management and disposal in different nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The costs for waste management and disposal have been estimated for the comparison of the seven reference fuel cycles selected by INFCE working group 7, covering the waste management of all steps in each fuel cycle: mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, reprocessing or spent fuel packaging, and disposal in a geologic formation (salt or hard rock). Values for a large variety of parameters had to be assumed. The cost figures as broken down in detail in the report have been calculated for an electricity production of 50 Gigawatt-years per year. The sum totals amount to about 8 to 17 million US (as of January 1, 1978) per Gigawattyear electricity produced, depending on the fuel cycle and on the geologic host formation of the repository. No savings should be obtained for a larger capacity, but a capacity of 10 Gigawatt would entail figures 10 to 25% higher. This result has to be seen under the perspective of the sometimes conservative and arbitrary assumptions of WG 7 with respect to waste arisings and their disposal. Furthermore, as compared to the revenues for the electricity sold, the relative difference between the reference fuel cycles in costs of waste management and disposal does not appear to be significant, as they range only from 1 to 2% of the total electricity costs

  19. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in some countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Denmarmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Spain and India are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in the main countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Japan, FRG, United Kingdom, France and Canada are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  3. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.) [de

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamer, B.J.; Bidwell, R.M.; Hammond, R.P.

    1959-09-15

    Homogeneous reactor fuel solutions are reported which provide automatic recombination of radiolytic gases and exhibit large thermal expansion characteristics, thereby providing stability at high temperatures and enabling reactor operation without the necessity of apparatus to recombine gases formed by the radiolytic dissociation of water in the fuel and without the necessity of liquid fuel handling outside the reactor vessel except for recovery processes. The fuels consist of phosphoric acid and water solutions of enriched uranium, wherein the uranium is in either the hexavalent or tetravalent state.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan describes the new nuclear facility regulatory requirements basis for the Spemt Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and establishes the plan to achieve compliance with this basis at the new SNF Project facilities

  6. Nuclear fuel manufacture and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power accounts for approximately 17% of the world's total electrical energy production. Over 30 countries operate in excess of 430 nuclear power plants with a combined generating capacity of more than 340 000 MWe. BNFL is a leading force in the international nuclear industry, supplying products and services across the complete fuel cycle business spectrum. These services and products include fuel and intermediate products manufacture, reprocessing, transport, waste management and decommissioning. This paper describes the processes involved in taking uranium ore as a raw material through to the production of advanced fuels and focuses on the manufacture and technology for both uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. As a light water reactor (LWR) fuel fabricator, BNFL is able to manufacture MOX or UO 2 fuel utilizing recycled uranium. This paper discusses the technology involved in the use of plutonium or uranium oxide recovered from reprocessing and other advanced fuel technical issues. Improved production methods and the application of advanced engineering permits the next generation of fuel fabrication plants to capitalize on advances in technology. The long-term research and development (R and D) commitments by BNFL are outlined in this paper, indicating the levels of investment needed in R and D to accommodate a high technology company in an international market. (author)

  7. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  8. Nuclear fuel assembly seismic amplitude limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of a nuclear reactor to withstand high seismic loading is enhanced by including, on each fuel assembly, at least one seismic grid which reduces the magnitude of the possible lateral deflection of the individual fuel elements and the entire fuel assembly. The reduction in possible deflection minimizes the possibility of impact of the spacer grids of one fuel assembly on those of an adjacent fuel assembly and reduces the magnitude of forces associated with any such impact thereby minimizing the possibility of fuel assembly damage as a result of high seismic loading. The seismic grid is mounted from the fuel assembly guide tubes, has greater external dimensions when compared to the fuel assembly spacer grids and normally does not support or otherwise contact the fuel elements. The reduction in possible deflection is achieved through reduction of the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies made possible by the use in the seismic grid of a high strength material characterized by favorable thermal expansion characteristics and minimal irradiation induced expansion

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The grid-shaped spacer for PWR fuel elements consists of flat, upright metal bars at right angles to the fuel rods. In one corner of a grid mesh it has a spring with two end parts for the fuel rod. The cut-outs for the end parts start from an end edge of the metal bar parallel to the fuel rods. The transverse metal bar is one of four outer metal bars. Both end parts of the spring have an extension parallel to this outer metal arm, which grips a grid mesh adjacent to this grid mesh at the side in one corner of the spacer and forms an end part of a spring for the fuel rod there on the inside of the outer metal bar. (HP) [de

  10. International trade in nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses general trends in international trade in nuclear fuel cycle services with particular emphasis on the development of trading patterns between Europe, North America and the Far East. The paper also examines the role of collaborative ventures in the development of the nuclear industry. Barriers to international trade, the effect of government regulations and restrictions and the impact of non-proliferation issues are discussed. (author)

  11. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  12. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action

  13. Rack for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gordon, C.B.; Robison, A.; Clark, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed spent fuel elements. Each fuel element is supported at the lower end thereof by a respective support that rests on the floor of the spent fuel pool for a nuclear power plant. An open rack frame is employed as an upright support for the enclosures containing the spent fuel elements. Legs at the lower corners of the frame rest on the floor of the pool to support the frame. In one exemplary embodiment, the support for the fuel element is in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base is supported by legs. In another exemplary embodiment, each fuel element is supported on the pool floor by a self-adjusting support in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base rests on a ball or swivel joint for self-alignment. The lower four corners of the frame are supported by legs adjustable in height for leveling the frame. Each adjustable frame leg is in the form of a base resting on the pool floor and the base supports a threaded post. The threaded post adjustably engages a threaded column on which rests the lower end of the frame. 16 claims, 14 figures

  14. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  15. Nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toyoji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To remove failures caused from combination of fuel-cladding interactions, hydrogen absorptions, stress corrosions or the likes by setting the quantity ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium relative to oxygen to a specific range in fuel pellets and forming a specific size of a through hole at the center of the pellets. Constitution: In a fuel rods of a structure wherein fuel pellets prepared by compacting and sintering uranium dioxide, or oxide mixture consisting of oxides of plutonium and uranium are sealed with a zirconium metal can, the ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium to oxygen is specified as 1 : 2.01 - 1 : 2.05 in the can and a passing hole of a size in the range of 15 - 30% of the outer diameter of the fuel pellet is formed at the center of the pellet. This increases the oxygen partial pressure in the fuel rod, oxidizes and forms a protection layer on the inner surface of the can to control the hydrogen absorption and stress corrosion. Locallized stress due to fuel cladding interaction (PCMI) can also be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In response to public interest in the transport by rail through London of containers of irradiated fuel elements on their way from nuclear power stations to Windscale, the Central Electricity Generating Board and British Rail held three information meetings in London in January 1980. One meeting was for representatives of London Borough Councils and Members of Parliament with a known interest in the subject, and the others were for press, radio and television journalists. This booklet contains the main points made by the principal speakers from the CEGB and BR. (The points covered include: brief description of the fuel cycle; effect of the fission process in producing plutonium and fission products in the fuel element; fuel transport; the fuel flasks; protection against accidents; experience of transporting fuel). (U.K.)

  17. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A fuel element of a PWR has a deflector projection outside on the intermediate strip of the spacer to avoid hooking up during fuelling and fuel removal, which is placed in the direction of the diagonals of the corner grid mesh between the two outer bars on the intermediate strip and is oblique to the two ends of the intermediate strip in the longitudinal direction of the bars. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmersson, S.

    1982-05-01

    The fuel assembly has a square-shaped cross section and it is put together of four quadratic assemblies each having seventeen positions for fuel rods, which are situated in a lattice formed by a pattern of triangles and squares. Nine of the positions correspond to the junction of a square lattice which has four squares, whereas eight rods are outside the quadratic past. (G.B.)

  20. Nuclear fuel cycles: Adjusting to new realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.; Oi, N.

    1993-01-01

    vehicle for information exchange on the backend of the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly the storage of spent fuel. Presently, the Advisory Group is composed of representatives from 12 countries and the NEA/OECD. One of the more important activities is the preparation of international standards for spent fuel storage. The IAEA is preparing safety guides on design and operation of spent fuel storage facilities, as well as a document on safety practices. Additionally, the Agency is now preparing an Irradiated Fuel Management Advisory Programme (IFMAP) that addresses issues related to both power and research reactors. Its purpose is to offer guidance and training primarily to specialists in developing countries. A number of IAEA activities cover the entire nuclear fuel cycle. An example is a study of the environmental and health impacts of nuclear fuel cycle facilities under normal and accident conditions. This is part of the international effort called 'DECADES' on the comparative assessment of health and environmental impacts of nuclear power and other energy systems

  1. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle for use in establishing ''as low as practicable'' guides: nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, B.C.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Kitts, F.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-05-01

    A cost-benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as practicable'' in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations is presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. (U.S.)

  2. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  3. Investigation on the behaviour of nuclear fuel under heavy mechanical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhmann, H.; Peehs, M.; Kaspar, G.; Loescher, H.; Bleier, A.; Hofmann, G.

    1987-01-01

    Under defined load conditions, with specific load energies in the regime of 10 to 100 Nm/g unirradiated and spent fuel was fragmentated in a special container. The fragments were collected and particle size distribution determined applying a wet sieving technique using microsieves with sieves apertures in the range from 5 μm to 300 μm. The experiments show an increasing amount of fine particles with increasing specific load energy. Below 10 μm only small mass fractions are observed. Taking into account, that the primary grain size of the investigated fuel lies below 10 μm, fragmentation obviously occurs mainly intergranular. The risk to form active aerosols and to spread them depends on the particle size. In this respect the fraction below 10 μm which has been found seems not to contribute significantly to this risk. Experiments are performed at maximum load (1000 Nm/g) in which the release of Kr85, I129 and H3 was determined. Comparing the found activities to the inventory present in the spent fuel (burn up 33 GWd/tU) only a release of 6-7% of the Kr85, 0,05-0,9% of H3 and 2x10 -3 -6x10 -3 % of the I129 has been observed. (orig.)

  4. Investigation on the behaviour of nuclear fuel under heavy mechanical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhmann, H.; Peehs, M.; Kaspar, G.; Loscher, H.; Bleier, A.; Hofmann, G.

    1987-01-01

    Under defined load conditions, with specific load energies in the regime of 10 to 100 Nmg unirradiated and spent fuel was fragmentated in a special container. The fragments were collected and particle size distribution determined applying a wet sieving technique using microsieves with sieve apertures in the range from 5 μm to 300 μm. The experiments show an increasing amount of fine particles with increasing specific load energy. Below 10 μm only small mass fractions are observed. Taking into account, that the primary grain size of the investigated fuel lies below 10 μm, fragmentation obviously occurs mainly intergranular. The risk to form active aerosols and to spread them depends on the particle size. In this respect the fraction below 10 μm which has been found seems not to contribute significantly to this risk. Experiments are performed at maximum load (1000 Nmg) in which the release of Kr85, I129 and H3 was determined. Comparing the found activities to the inventory present in the spent fuel (burn up 33 GWdtU) only a release of 6-7% of the Kr85, 0.05 - 0.9% of H3 and 2 10 -3 - 6 10 -3 of the I129 has been observed

  5. Deep repository and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Consultation and environmental impact assessment according to the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    As a part of its programme for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SKB has recently commenced site investigations at Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality and at Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality. At the same time, SKB has initiated the consultation process prior to application for permits/licences under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act. Early consultation has been carried out for both sites, and a consultation report has been submitted to the county administrative boards in Kalmar County and Uppsala County for decisions regarding significant environmental impact. After decisions by the county administrative boards, SKB will commence the work with environmental impact assessment and extended consultation. SKB's main alternative for the encapsulation plant is siting adjacent to CLAB. In the spring of 2003, SKB will convene early consultation on the encapsulation plant. This will be followed by extended consultation up to 2005. This process will be coordinated with the extended consultation for a deep repository in Oskarshamn. An alternative is to locate the encapsulation plant at a deep repository at Forsmark. This alternative is being dealt with completely within the extended consultation for the deep repository at Forsmark. Three different permits/licences are required for both the encapsulation plant and the deep repository: a permit under the Environmental Code, a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act, and a building permit under the Planning and Building Act. Licensing under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act takes place in parallel. The applications under both laws must include an environmental impact statement (EIS) prepared according to the rules in Chapter 6 of the Environmental Code. The same EIS is thus used in both applications. Separate EISs are prepared for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. According to the Environmental Code, the consultation shall relate to the location, scope

  6. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  7. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Sato, Kenji; Goto, Masakazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate identification of a fuel assembly upon fuel exchange in BWR type reactors. Constitution: Fluorescent material is coated or metal plating is applied to the impressed portion of a upper tie plate handle of a fuel assembly, and the fluorescent material or the metal plating surface is covered with a protective membrane made of transparent material. This enables to distinguish the impressed surface from a distant place and chemical reaction between the impressed surface and the reactor water can be prevented. Furthermore, since the protective membrane is formed such that it protrudes toward the upper side relative to the impressed surface, there is no risk of depositions of claddings thereover. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  9. Nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of Zr or Zr alloy getters in the fuel cans of a fuel element, the formation of Zr oxide layers must be prevented. Therefore, a compound body acting as a bimetal is to be inserted which consists of a metallic substrate (Ni, Ni alloys, ferro-alloys, steel, Ti, Ti alloys) and a coating (Zr, Zr alloys). The substrate has a much higher thermal expansion coefficient than the coating, so that the surface of the coating layer formed is constantly torn apart at normal operating temperatures of the reactor. The invention is described in great detail. (HP) [de

  10. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  11. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  12. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  13. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF 6 . UF 6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF 6 is converted into UO 2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ''too-cheap to meter'' is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  15. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  16. Fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, B.H. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor comprising a plurality of elongated plate-like fuel bearing elements of the same length and width, paired longer than they are wide and assembly spacer members having means defining opposed spaced notches for receiving the side edges of said elongated plate-like fuel bearing elements, and means for securing said plate-like fuel bearing elements to said paired assembly spacer members with the side edges of said plate-like elements engaged in opposite notches in said paired assembly spacer elements so as to secure said fuel bearing elements in side by side spaced relation in a staggered arrangement transversely so as to conform to a diamond shaped profile in which opposite sides are parallel and opposite angles are substantially 60 0 and substantially 120 0

  17. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  19. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  20. Leaking Fuel Impacts and Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Peter; Somfai, Barbara; Cherubini, Marco; Aldworth, Robin; Waeckel, Nicolas; Delorme, Tim; Dickson, Raymond; Fujii, Hajime; Rey Gayo, Jose Maria; Grant, Wade; Gorzel, Andreas; Hellwig, Christian; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Klouzal, Jan; Miklos, Marek; Nagase, Fumihisa; Nilsson, Marcus; Petit, Marc; Richards, Stuart; Lundqvist Saleh, Tobias; Stepniewski, Marek; Sim, Ki Seob; ); Rehacek, Radomir; Kissane, Martin; )

    2014-01-01

    The impact of leaking fuel rods on the operation of nuclear power plants and the practices of handling leaking fuel has been reviewed by the CSNI Working Group on Fuel Safety in order to promote a better understanding on the handling of leaking fuel in power reactors, as well as to discuss and review the current practices in member countries to help in decisions on the specification of reactor operation conditions with leaking fuel rods and on the handling of leaking fuel after removal from reactor. Experts from 15 countries provided data on the handling of leaking fuel in PWR, BWR, VVER and PHWR reactor types. The review covered the operation of NPP reactors with leaking fuel, wet and dry storage and transport of leaking assemblies. The methods and applied instruments to identify leaking fuel assemblies and the repair of them were addressed in the review. Special attention was paid to the activity release from leaking rods in the reactor and under storage conditions. The consideration of leaking fuel in safety analyses on core behaviour during postulated accidents was also discussed in the review. The main conclusions of the review pointed out that the activity release from leaking fuel rods in the reactor can be handled by technological systems, or in case of failure of too many rods the reactor can be shutdown to minimize activity release. Under accident conditions and operational transients the leaking rods may produce coolant activity concentration peaks. The storage of spent leaking fuel is normally characterised by moderate release of radionuclides from the fuel. The power plants apply limits for activity concentration to limit the amount of leaking rods in the core. In different countries, the accident analyses take into consideration the potential release from leaking fuel rods in design basis accidents in different ways. Some power plants apply special tools for handling and repair of leaking assemblies and rods. The leaking rods are stored together with

  1. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  2. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  3. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. Study Of Thorium As A Nuclear Fuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Humane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fuel sources for power generation are to be replacing by nuclear power sources like nuclear fuel Uranium. But Uranium-235 is the only fissile fuel which is in 0.72 found in nature as an isotope of Uranium-238. U-238 is abundant in nature which is not fissile while U-239 by alpha decay naturally converted to Uranium- 235. For accompanying this nuclear fuel there is another nuclear fuel Thorium is present in nature is abundant can be used as nuclear fuel and is as much as safe and portable like U-235.

  5. Impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants. Case study: PWR during routine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Haggard, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present data in support of evaluating the impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposure. To determine quantitatively whether fuel cladding failure contributes significantly to occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure measurements were taken at comparable locations in two mirror-image pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and their common auxiliary building. One reactor, Unit B, was experiencing degraded fuel characterized as 0.125% fuel pin-hole leakers and was operating at approximately 55% of the reactor's licensed maximum core power, while the other reactor, Unit A, was operating under normal conditions with less than 0.01% fuel pin-hole leakers at 100% of the reactor's licensed maximum core power. Measurements consisted of gamma spectral analyses, radiation exposure rates and airborne radionuclide concentrations. In addition, data from primary coolant sample results for the previous 20 months on both reactor coolant systems were analyzed. The results of the measurements and coolant sample analyses suggest that a 3560-megawatt-thermal (1100 MWe) PWR operating at full power with 0.125% failed fuel can experience an increase of 540% in radiation exposure rates as compared to a PWR operating with normal fuel. In specific plant areas, the degraded fuel may elevate radiation exposure rates even more

  6. Considerations for Possible Light Impact of Spent Nuclear Fuel for Safeguards Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian K. Castle; Kelly D. Ellis

    2012-09-01

    This effort is designed to be a preliminary study to determine the appropriateness of lightly contacting SNF with zirconium-based cladding, in wet storage, for the purpose of taking safeguards measurements. Contact will likely consist of an initial impact followed by a light tensile load on the exterior surface of the SNF cladding. In the past, concerns have been raised that contacting SNF cladding could result in a loss of long-term mechanical integrity due to crack initiation, uncontrolled crack propagation, and a mechanical exfoliation of the protective oxide layer. The mechanical integrity concerns are addressed with an analytic model that evaluates the threshold impact limits for degraded, but undamaged SNF cladding. Aqueous corrosion concerns, associated with exfoliation of the protective oxide layer, are addressed with a qualitative argument, focusing on the possible corrosion mechanisms of zirconium-based cladding.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel element box for a BWR is situated with a corner bolt on the inside in one corner of its top on the top side of the top plate. This corner bolt is screwed down with a bolt with a corner part which is provided with leaf springs outside on two sides, where the bolt has a smaller diameter and an expansion shank. The bolt is held captive to the bolt head on the top and the holder on the bottom of the corner part. The holder is a locknut. If the expansion forces are too great, the bolt can only break at the expansion shank. (HP) [de

  8. Uranium - the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased. (E.C.B.)

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  10. Nuclear fuel and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    This book examines the uranium resource situation in relation to the future needs of the nuclear economy. Currently the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of nuclear fuels. In the future US nuclear choices will be highly interdependent with the rest of the world as other countries begin to develop their own nuclear programs. Therefore the world's uranium resource availability has also been examined in relation to the expected growth in the world nuclear industry. Based on resource evaluation, the study develops an economic framework for analyzing and describing the behavior of the US uranium mining and milling industry. An econometric model designed to reflect the underlying structure of the physical processes of the uranium mining and milling industry has been developed. The purpose of this model is to forecast uranium prices and outputs for the period 1977 to 2000. Because uncertainty has sometimes surrounded the economic future of the uranium markets, the results of the econometric modeling should be interpreted with great care and restrictive assumptions. Another aspect of this study is to provide much needed information on the operations of government-owned enrichment plants and the practices used by the government in the determination of fuel enrichment costs. This study discusses possible future developments in enrichment supply and technologies and their implications for future enrichment costs. A review of the operations involving the uranium concentrate conversion to uranium hexafluoride and fuel fabrication is also provided. An economic analysis of these costs provides a comprehensive view of the front-end costs of the nuclear fuel cycle

  11. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Sites where radioactive wastes are found are solid waste burial grounds, soils below liquid stoage areas, surface ditches and ponds, and the terrestrial environment around chemical processing facilities that discharge airborne radioactive debris from stacks. This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potentiall human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford Site have caused ecological perturbations, and if so, to determine the source, nature, and magnitude of such disturbances

  12. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2013-08-13

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  13. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  14. Romania, producer and consumer of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberius

    1998-01-01

    A historical sketch of the activity of Romanian Rare Metals Enterprises is presented stressing the valorization of rare metals like: - radioactive metals, uranium and thorium; - dispersed rare metals, molybdenum, monazite; - heavy and refractory metals, titanium and zirconium; rare earths, lanthanides and yttrics. The beginning and developing of research in the nuclear field is in closed relation to the existence on the domestic territory of important uranium ores the mining of which begun early in 1954. The exploitation of Baita-Bihor orebody was followed by that at Ciudanovita, Natra and Dobrei ores in Caras-Severin county. Concomitantly with the ore mining, geological research was developed covering vast areas of country's surface and using advanced investigation tools suitable for increasing depths. The next step in the nuclear fuel program was made by building a uranium concentrate (as ammonium or sodium diuranate) plant. Two purification units for processing the uranium concentrate to sintered uranium dioxide powder were completed and commissioned at Feldioara in 1986. The quality of the uranium dioxide product meets the quality standards requirements for CANDU type nuclear fuel as certified in 1994. Currently, part of the fuel load of Cernavoda reactor is fuel element clusters produced by Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti of sintered powder processed at Feldioara. A list of strategic objectives of the Uranium National Company is presented among which: - maintaining the uranium mining and milling activities in close relation with the fuel requirements of Cernavoda NPP; continuing geological research in promising zones, to find new uranium orebodies, easy to mill cost effectively; decreasing the environmental impact in the geological research areas, in mining and transport affected areas and in the processing plants. The fuel demand of current operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 as well as of future Unit 2 after commissioning are and will be satisfied by the

  15. Ceramics as nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    Ceramics are widely accepted as nuclear reactor fuel materials, for both metal clad ceramic and all-ceramic fuel designs. Metal clad UO 2 is used commercially in large tonnages in five different power reactor designs. UO 2 pellets are made by familiar ceramic techniques but in a reactor they undergo complex thermal and chemical changes which must be thoroughly understood. Metal clad uranium-plutonium dioxide is used in present day fast breeder reactors, but may eventually be replaced by uranium-plutonium carbide or nitride. All-ceramic fuels, which are necessary for reactors operating above about 750 0 C, must incorporate one or more fission product retentive ceramic coatings. BeO-coated BeO matrix dispersion fuels and silicate glaze coated UO 2 -SiO 2 have been studied for specialised applications, but the only commercial high temperature fuel is based on graphite in which small fuel particles, each coated with vapour deposited carbon and silicon carbide, are dispersed. Ceramists have much to contribute to many aspects of fuel science and technology. (author)

  16. Fuel assemblies for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Akihito.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To control power-up rate at the initial burning stage of new fuel assemblies due to fuel exchange in a pressure tube type power reactor. Constitution: Burnable poisons are disposed to a most portion of fuel pellets in a fuel assembly to such a low concentration as the burn-up rate changes with time at the initial stage of the burning. The most portion means substantially more than one-half part of the pellets and gadolinia is used as burn-up poisons to be dispersed and the concentration is set to less than about 0.2 %. Upon elapse of about 15 days after the charging, the burnable poisons are eliminated and the infinite multiplication factors are about at 1.2 to attain a predetermined power state. Since the power-up rate of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly is about 0.1 % power/hour and the power-up rate of the fuel assembly around the exchanged channel is lower than that, it can be lowered sufficiently than the limit for the power-up rate practiced upon reactor start-up thereby enabling to replace fuels during power operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Young Hwan; Jung, Jin Gone; Hwang, Won; Park, Zoo Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Il Gone

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of the project are mainly to develope both design and manufacturing technologies for 600 MWe-CANDU-PHWR-type high burnup nuclear fuel, and secondly to build up the foundation of PWR high burnup nuclear fuel technology on the basis of KAERI technology localized upon the standard 600 MWe-CANDU- PHWR nuclear fuel. So, as in the first stage, the goal of the program in the last one year was set up mainly to establish the concept of the nuclear fuel pellet design and manufacturing. The economic incentives for high burnup nuclear fuel technology development are improvement of fuel utilization, backend costs plant operation, etc. Forming the most important incentives of fuel cycle costs reduction and improvement of power operation, etc., the development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology and also the research on the incore fuel management and safety and technologies are necessary in this country

  18. Evaluation of helium impurity impacts on Spent Nuclear Fuel project processes (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the types and quantities of impurities that may be present within helium that is introduced into multi-canister overpacks (MCO)s by various SNF Project facilities, including, but not limited to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility (CVDF). It then evaluates possible impacts of worst case impurity inventories on MCO drying, transportation, and storage processes. Based on the evaluation results, this document: (1) concludes that the SNF Project helium procurement specification can be a factor-of-ten less restrictive than a typical vendor's standard offering (99.96% pure versus the vendor's 99.997% pure standard offering); (2) concludes that the CVDF's current 99.5% purity requirement is adequate to control the quality of the helium that is delivered to the MCO by the plant's helium distribution system; and (3) recommends specific impurity limits for both of the above cases

  19. Evaluation of helium impurity impacts on Spent Nuclear Fuel project processes (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-09-21

    This document identifies the types and quantities of impurities that may be present within helium that is introduced into multi-canister overpacks (MCO)s by various SNF Project facilities, including, but not limited to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility (CVDF). It then evaluates possible impacts of worst case impurity inventories on MCO drying, transportation, and storage processes. Based on the evaluation results, this document: (1) concludes that the SNF Project helium procurement specification can be a factor-of-ten less restrictive than a typical vendor's standard offering (99.96% pure versus the vendor's 99.997% pure standard offering); (2) concludes that the CVDF's current 99.5% purity requirement is adequate to control the quality of the helium that is delivered to the MCO by the plant's helium distribution system; and (3) recommends specific impurity limits for both of the above cases.

  20. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  1. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Masaomi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirai, Mutsumi; Tanabe, Isami; Yuda, Ryoichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression molding an oxide powder of nuclear fuel material followed by sintering, a metal nuclear material is mixed with an oxide powder of the nuclear fuel material. As the metal nuclear fuel material, whisker or wire-like fine wire or granules of metal uranium can be used effectively. As a result, a fuel pellet in which the metal nuclear fuel is disposed in a network-like manner can be obtained. The pellet shows a great effect of preventing thermal stress destruction of pellets upon increase of fuel rod power as compared with conventional pellets. Further, the metal nuclear fuel material acts as an oxygen getter to suppress the increase of O/M ratio of the pellets. Further, it is possible to reduce the swelling of pellet at high burn-up degree. (T.M.)

  2. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L W; Moody, K J; Bradley, K S; Lorenzana, H E

    2011-02-18

    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount

  3. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Willey, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties. 4 claims, 3 figures

  4. Coal and nuclear electricity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, F.

    1982-06-01

    Comparative economic analysis is used to contrast the economic advantages of nuclear and coal-fired electric generating stations for Canadian regions. A simplified cash flow method is used with present value techniques to yield a single levelized total unit energy cost over the lifetime of a generating station. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the effects of significant changes in some of the cost data. The analysis indicates that in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia nuclear energy is less costly than coal for electric power generation. In the base case scenario the nuclear advantage is 24 percent in Quebec, 29 percent in Ontario, 34 percent in Manitoba, and 16 percent in British Columbia. Total unit energy cost is sensitive to variations in both capital and fuel costs for both nuclear and coal-fuelled power stations, but are not very sensitive to operating and maintenance costs

  5. Nuclear Fuels: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Olander

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The important new developments in nuclear fuels and their problems are reviewed and compared with the status of present light-water reactor fuels. The limitations of these fuels and the reactors they power are reviewed with respect to important recent concerns, namely provision of outlet coolant temperatures high enough for use in H2 production, destruction of plutonium to eliminate proliferation concerns, and burning of the minor actinides to reduce the waste repository heat load and long-term radiation hazard. In addition to current oxide-based fuel-rod designs, the hydride fuel with liquid metal thermal bonding of the fuel-cladding gap is covered. Finally, two of the most promising Generation IV reactor concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor and the Sodium Fast Reactor, and the accompanying reprocessing technologies, aqueous-based UREX and pyrometallurgical, are summarized. In all of the topics covered, the thermodynamics involved in the material's behavior under irradiation and in the reprocessing schemes are emphasized.

  6. Impacts on human health from the coal and nuclear fuel cycles and other technologies associated with electric power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-07-01

    The report evaluates major public health impacts of electric power generation and transmission associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and with coal use. Only existing technology is evaluated. For the nuclear cycle, effects of future use of fuel reprocessing and long-term radioactive waste disposal are briefly considered. The health effects of concern are those leading to definable human disease and injury. Health effects are scaled to numbers of persons and activities associated with a nominal 1000-megawatt electric plant fueled by either option. Comparison of the total health effects to the general public shows that the health risks from the coal cycle are about 50 times greater than for the nuclear cycle (coal, 0.7-3.7 major health effects per 1000 MWe per year; nuclear, 0.03-0.05 per 1000 MWe per year). For workers, these rates are higher. No evidence is found that electrical transmission contributes any health effects to the general public, except when broken power lines come in contact with people

  7. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix C, marine transport and associated environmental impacts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix C to a Draft Environmental Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. Shipment of any material via ocean transport entails risks to both the ship's crew and the environment. The risks result directly from transportation-related accidents and, in the case of radioactive or other hazardous materials, also include exposure to the effects of the material itself. This appendix provides a description of the approach used to assess the risks associated with the transport of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel from a foreign port to a U.S. port(s) of entry. This appendix also includes a discussion of the shipping configuration of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel, the possible types of vessels that could be used to make the shipments, the risk assessment methodology (addressing both incident-free and accident risks), and the results of the analyses. Analysis of activities in the port(s) is described in Appendix D. The incident-free and accident risk assessment results are presented in terms of the per shipment risk and total risks associated with the basic implementation of Management Alternative 1and other implementation alternatives. In addition, annual risks from incident-free transport are developed

  8. Interfaces in ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    Internal interfaces in all-ceramic dispersion fuels (such as these for HTGRs) are discussed for two classes: BeO-based dispersions, and coated particles for graphite-based fuels. The following points are made: (1) The strength of a two-phase dispersion is controlled by the weaker dispersed phase bonded to the matrix. (2) Differential expansion between two phases can be controlled by an intermediate buffer zone of low density. (3) A thin ceramic coating should be in compression. (4) Chemical reaction between coating and substrate and mass transfer in service should be minimized. The problems of the nuclear fuel designer are to develop coatings for fission product retention, and to produce radiation-resistant interfaces. 44 references, 18 figures

  9. Electrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Sartorelli, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel which is particularly suitable for use with fuel from fast reactors and has the advantage of being a dry process in which there is no danger of radiation damage to a solvent medium as in a wet process. It comprises the steps of dissolving the fuel in a salt melt under such conditions that uranium and plutonium therein are converted to sulphate form. The plutonium sulphate may then be thermally decomposed to PuO 2 and removed. The salt melt is then subjected to electrolysis conditions to achieve cathodic deposition of UO 2 (and possibly PuO 2 ). The salt melt can then be recycled or conditioned for final disposal. (author)

  10. Nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritskij, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants is described, as well as basic technological processes of UO 2 powder production including IDR process for automatic fabrication of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. Physical and chemical properties of UO 2 powder, fuel pellet sintering parameters, data on in-reactor operation of nuclear fuels fabricated from pellets of controlled porosity with CONPOR additives, are presented. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Impacts on human health from the coal and nuclear fuel cycles and other technologies associated with electric power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Major public health impacts of electric power generation and transmission associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and with coal use are evaluated. Only existing technology is evaluated. The only health effects of concern are those leading to definable human disease and injury. Health effects are scaled to a nominal 1000 Megawatt (electric) plant fueled by either option. Comparison of the total health effects to the general public gives: nuclear, 0.03 to 0.05 major health effects per 1000 MWe per year; coal, 0.7 to 3.7 per 1000 MWe per year. Thus for the general public the health risks from the coal cycle are about 50 times greater than for the nuclear cycle. Health effects to workers in the industry are currently quite high. For the nuclear cycle, 4.6 to 5.1 major health impacts per 1000 MWe per year; for coal, 6.5 to 10.9. The two-fold greater risk for the coal cycle is primarily due to high injury rates in coal miners. There is no evidence that electrical transmission contributes any health effects to the general public, except for episodes where broken power lines come in contact with people. For power line workers, the risk is estimated at 0.1 serious injury per 1000 MWe per year

  12. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation

  13. Overview of the United States spent nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, W.L.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has shifted from an emphasis on nuclear weapons development and production to an emphasis on the safe management and disposal of excess nuclear materials including spent nuclear fuel from both production and research reactors. Within the US, there are two groups managing spent nuclear fuel. Commercial nuclear power plants are managing their spent nuclear fuel at the individual reactor sites until the planned repository is opened. All other spent nuclear fuel, including research reactors, university reactors, naval reactors, and legacy material from the Cold War is managed by DOE. DOE's mission is to safely and efficiently manage its spent nuclear fuel and prepare it for disposal. This mission involves correcting existing vulnerabilities in spent fuel storage; moving spent fuel from wet basins to dry storage; processing at-risk spent fuel; and preparing spent fuel in road-ready condition for repository disposal. Most of DOE's spent nuclear fuel is stored in underwater basins (wet storage). Many of these basins are outdated, and spent fuel is to be removed and transferred to more modern basins or to new dry storage facilities. In 1995, DOE completed a complex-wide environmental impact analysis that resulted in spent fuel being sent to one of three principal DOE sites for interim storage (up to 40 years) prior to shipment to a repository. This regionalization by fuel type will allow for economies of scale yet minimize unnecessary transportation. This paper discusses the national SNF program, ultimate disposition of SNF, and the technical challenges that have yet to be resolved, namely, release rate testing, non-destructive assay, alternative treatments, drying, and chemical reactivity

  14. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kuniaki; Momose, Takumaro; Furuta, Sadaaki

    2011-07-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation.

  15. ALD coating of nuclear fuel actinides materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Yun, Di; Billone, Mike

    2017-09-05

    The invention provides a method of forming a nuclear fuel pellet of a uranium containing fuel alternative to UO.sub.2, with the steps of obtaining a fuel form in a powdered state; coating the fuel form in a powdered state with at least one layer of a material; and sintering the powdered fuel form into a fuel pellet. Also provided is a sintered nuclear fuel pellet of a uranium containing fuel alternative to UO.sub.2, wherein the pellet is made from particles of fuel, wherein the particles of fuel are particles of a uranium containing moiety, and wherein the fuel particles are coated with at least one layer between about 1 nm to about 4 nm thick of a material using atomic layer deposition, and wherein the at least one layer of the material substantially surrounds each interfacial grain barrier after the powdered fuel form has been sintered.

  16. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in 5 chapters: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, special events, highlights of the IAEA's work. In the field of nuclear power, the status of nuclear energy generation at the end of 1990 is presented, as well as power plant performance, nuclear power costs, power plant aging and life extension, advanced reactor systems, quality management and quality assurance, automation and human action in nuclear power plant operation and finally the trends of nuclear power to 2010. The following aspects concerning nuclear fuel cycle are discussed: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, refining and conversion, enrichment, reactor fuel technology, spent fuel management, economics of the nuclear fuel cycle and trends for the near future. In the field of radioactive waste management, problems concerning treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste, radioactive waste disposal, decontamination and decommissioning and trends for the near future are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. An introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work;second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity;and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US. 34 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Draft environmental impact statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Volume 2, Appendix E, Evaluation of human health effects of overland transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Appendix provides an overview of the approach used to assess the human health risks that may result from the overland transportation of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The Appendix includes discussion of the scope of the assessment, analytical methods used for the risk assessment (i.e., computer models), important assessment assumptions, determination of potential transportation routes, and presents the results of the assessment. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific arm of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis an how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives. he approach used in this Appendix is modeled after that used in the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS) (DOE, 1994b). The SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS did not perform as detailed an analysis on the specific actions taken for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel because of the breadth necessary to analyze the entire spent fuel management program. However, the fundamental assumptions used in this analysis are consistent with those used in the SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS (DOE, 1994b), and the same computer codes and generic release and accident data are used. The risk assessment results are presented in this Appendix in terms of ''Per-shipment'' risk factors, as well as for the total risks associated with each alternative. Per-shipment risk factors provide an estimate of the risk from a single spent nuclear fuel shipment between a specific origin and destination. They are calculated for all possible origin and destination pairs for each spent nuclear fuel type. The total risks for a given alternative are found by multiplying the expected number of shipments by the appropriate per-shipment risk factors. This approach provides maximum flexibility for determining the risks for a large number of potential

  19. Critical review of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, N.

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is considered as an alternative to the in-depth disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in particular, on the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. The majority of conclusions is the result of the common work of the Karlsruhe FZK and the Commissariat on nuclear energy of France (CEA)

  20. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  1. Fuel optimization of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zejun; Li Zhuoqun; Kong Deping; Xue Xincai; Wang Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the design practice of the fuel replacement of Qin Shan nuclear power plant, this document effectively analyzes the shortcomings of current replacement design of Qin Shan. To address these shortcomings, this document successfully implements the 300 MW fuel optimization program from fuel replacement. fuel improvement and experimentation ,and achieves great economic results. (authors)

  2. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1981-01-01

    This contribution deals with transport and packaging of oxide fuel from and to the Cogema reprocessing plant at La Hague (France). After a general discussion of nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, the main aspects of transport and reprocessing of oxide fuel are analysed. (Auth.)

  3. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  4. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases. 13 claims, 5 drawing figures

  5. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases

  6. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  7. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR FUEL CLADDING TUBES CORROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Cech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes materials made of zirconium-based alloys used for nuclear fuel cladding fabrication. It is focused on corrosion problems their theoretical description and modeling in nuclear engineering.

  8. Study of fuel evolution in fast reactors of the 4. generation. Impact of the nuclear data on their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamakhem, W.

    2010-02-01

    system). These methods are available in statics without the possibility of taking into account fuel depletion. In order to mitigate this insufficiency, a subsequent part of the thesis consisted in developing the depletion perturbation theory which requires to couple Boltzmann and Bateman equations and allows a more precise understanding of the behaviour of the previous cores. The method is now able to calculate the sensitivity of the actinides and fission products concentrations and of neutron characteristics of interest such as breeding gain, Doppler reactivity effect and the coolant void reactivity coefficient effect. In order to illustrate these sensitivity developments, uncertainties of the neutron characteristics have been calculated using a preliminary variance covariance matrix called BOLNA. The uncertainty analyses highlight the contribution of each isotope to the neutron characteristics of the various core designs. This determination has given relatively small uncertainty variations with burn up when possible modifications of nuclear data are applied. The in-depth study performed on sodium nuclear data evaluations (ENDFB-VII, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-3.3) highlight the difficulty of creating accurate enough nuclear data and their associated covariance matrix. It appears hence that although the feasibility of these core designs are not questioned (relatively optimistic values being calculated are within the target value of 700 pcm for the reactivity swing and 7% for the reactivity coefficient), their performance will require integral experiments both to confirm what has been evaluated with nuclear data covariance matrices and to reduce nuclear data uncertainties. Lastly, the sensitivity methods are used to explain the peculiar behaviour of integral characteristics like the void effect or the Doppler effect with depletion in the GFR and ALLEGRO cores. One reason was track back to the difference in size of the two cores but also to the different structural materials being

  9. Economic evaluation of multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Kuno, Yusuke; Omoto, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)

  10. Politics of nuclear power and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, R.

    2007-01-01

    -is likely to remain evolving depending on regional and global affairs. Opposition or support for nuclear technology is also likely to be a function of regional and global politics. In response to such pressures, IAEA is organizing a workshop of 140 countries to discuss proposals to guarantee countries' supply of nuclear fuel (September 19-21-, 2006; Vienna). Premise and Question: A single nuclear power plant in a country may be good for the prestige of the country, but such units are unlikely to make a major impact on the energy scene. Hence, in order for nuclear power to play a significant role, countries that decide to 'go nuclear,' would most likely want to diversify a significant fraction of their electricity generating capacity (and possibly heating and, in the future, hydrogen production) to nuclear, possibly requiring at least few and possibly many nuclear power plants. In order to proceed with the nuclear option, these countries would expect a certain level of long term assurance on the fuel supply. What is the kind of options that would satisfy the needs of these countries and at the same time addressing the non-proliferation concerns? Options: The options available to countries for their nuclear program can be categorized as follows. A. Fully indigenous program with complete development of power plants and fuel cycle. B. Fully or partly indigenous program for power plant development; while depending on international consortium for fuel supply and waste treatment. C. Rely on international consortia to build and operate all aspects of nuclear power plants (with local manpower). Others: A total of around fifty to seventy five countries are likely to be interested in nuclear power in the next fifty years. These can be divided in to the three groups (A-C) given above. It is likely that, with time, there will be some expectation to move to higher levels (C to B and B to A). Countries already in group A and those willing to start in group C do not pose an issue. It is

  11. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  12. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  13. International Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  14. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  15. Aging management of nuclear fuel pool structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookham, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The long-term operations of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are currently impacted by the utility's capabilities with respect to spent fuel storage. Available options for the safe, long-term storage of spent fuel are quite limited; as such, maximized usage of existing on-site storage capacity (NPP) is quite important. The service life of existing fuel pool structures may be determined by a number of operations or age-related events. Management of these events is often critical to the structure's integrity and durability. From an operations vantage point, aging management relates to such characteristics as storage capacity, performance of pool water treatment systems, and physical liner damage. Primary issues related to structural integrity include materials degradation and environmental enclosure factors. The development of an effective aging management program should address both operational and structural issues. The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations for pool structure aging management, with benefits to both short and long-term, or extended life, operations. Because of their critical nature, the report will focus on spent fuel pools. Many of the concepts generated in this report may also be applied to other NPP pool structures (i.e., new fuel pools, reactor internals pits and transfer canals) because of similar physical/environmental effects

  16. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  17. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  18. Method of cleaning nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi; Terai, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To remove cladding without increasing the volume of a cleaning apparatus. Constitution: A discharge port is provided to a cleaning vessel for containing fuels and a filter is connected to the discharge port by way of a pressure-reduction valve and a water feeder. Further, a communication port is provided to the bottom of the cleaning vessel and a pressurizer equipped with an electrical heater connected to the communication port by way of an air valve and a communication pipeway. Then, after filling water within the vessel, the pressurizer and the communication pipe and closing the pressure-reduction valve, water is heated by a heater. Subsequently, by closing the air valve and opening the pressure-reduction valve, water in the vessel violently boils under a reduction pressure to strip claddings from the surface of fuel rods and release the same into the water due to impact shocks resulted from the generation of gas bubbles. (Sekiya, J.)

  19. Spent fuel storage at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Field, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has developed a strategy for the storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel and is now in the process of licensing and manufacturing a Transportable Storage System (TSS). Staff has also engaged in impact limiter testing, non-fuel bearing component reinsertion, storage and disposal of GTCC waste, and site specific upgrades in support of spent fuel dry storage

  20. Elements of nuclear reactor fueling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with a review of the simple batch size effect, a more general theory of nuclear fueling is derived to describe the behaviour and physical requirements of operating cycle sequences and fueling strategies having practical use in fuel management. The generalized theory, based on linear reactivity modeling, is analytical and represents the effects of multiple-stream, multiple-depletion-batch fueling configurations in systems employing arbitrary, non-integer batch size strategies, and containing fuel with variable energy generation rates. Reactor operating cycles and cycle sequences are represented with realistic structure that includes the effects of variable cycle energy production, cycle lengths, end-of-cycle operating extensions and manoeuvering allowances. Results of the analytical theory are first applied to the special case of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences, yielding several fundamental principles related to the selection of refueling strategy. Numerical evaluations of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences are then performed for a typical PWR core, and accompanying fuel cycle costs are calculated. The impact of design and operational limits as constraints on the performance mappings for this reactor are also studied with respect to achieving improved cost performance from the once-through fuel cycle. The dynamics of transition cycle sequences are then examined using the generalized theory. Proof of the existence of non-degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences is presented when the mechanics of the fixed reload batch size strategy are developed analytically for transition sequences. Finally, an analysis of the fixed reload enrichment strategy demonstrates the potential for convergence of the transition sequence to a fully degenerate equilibrium sequence. (author)

  1. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  2. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Two types of projects in the spent nuclear fuel and environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described. These are: foreseeable proposed projects where some funding for preliminary planning and/or conceptual design may already be authorized, but detailed design or planning will not begin until the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act process for the project have been completed; planned or ongoing projects not yet completed but whose National Environmental Policy Act documentation is already completed or is expected to be completed before the Record of Decision for this Envirorunental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. The section on project summaries describe the projects (both foreseeable proposed and ongoing).They provide specific information necessary to analyze the environmental impacts of these projects. Chapter 3 describes which alternative(s) each project supports. Summaries are included for (a) spent nuclear fuel projects, (b) environmental remediation projects, (c) the decontamination and decommissioning of surplus INEL facilities, (d) the construction, upgrade, or replacement of existing waste management facilities, (e) infrastructure projects supporting waste management activities, and (f) research and development projects supporting waste management activities

  3. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Two types of projects in the spent nuclear fuel and environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described. These are: foreseeable proposed projects where some funding for preliminary planning and/or conceptual design may already be authorized, but detailed design or planning will not begin until the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act process for the project have been completed; planned or ongoing projects not yet completed but whose National Environmental Policy Act documentation is already completed or is expected to be completed before the Record of Decision for this Envirorunental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. The section on project summaries describe the projects (both foreseeable proposed and ongoing).They provide specific information necessary to analyze the environmental impacts of these projects. Chapter 3 describes which alternative(s) each project supports. Summaries are included for (a) spent nuclear fuel projects, (b) environmental remediation projects, (c) the decontamination and decommissioning of surplus INEL facilities, (d) the construction, upgrade, or replacement of existing waste management facilities, (e) infrastructure projects supporting waste management activities, and (f) research and development projects supporting waste management activities.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  5. Nuclide inventory for nuclear fuel waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.

    1982-09-01

    To assist research projects in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Prgram, a compilation has been made of all the nuclides that are likely to be present in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault and that are potentially hazardous to man during the post-closure phase. The compilation includes radiologically toxic and chemically toxic nuclides

  6. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecartnery, Martha; Graeve, Olivia; Patel, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities

  9. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecartnery, Martha [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Graeve, Olivia [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Patel, Maulik [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-25

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  10. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  11. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System. A directory of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 2009 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities, published online as part of the Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (iNFCIS: http://www-nfcis.iaea.org/). This is the fourth hardcopy publication in almost 30 years and it represents a snapshot of the NFCIS database as of the end of 2008. Together with the attached CD-ROM, it provides information on 650 civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities in 53 countries, thus helping to improve the transparency of global nuclear fuel cycle activities

  13. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle covers the procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, its recovery and recycling after use and the safe storage of all wastes generated through these operations. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well documented safety record accumulated over the past 40 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This report constitutes an up-to-date analysis of the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on the available experience in OECD countries. It addresses the technical aspects of fuel cycle operations, provides information on operating practices and looks ahead to future activities

  14. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines; Logistica de producao de combustiveis para submarinos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: leosg@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  15. Storage and handling of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Guide defines the safety requirements and the control procedure for the storage and handling of fresh and spent fuel of a nuclear power plant. The control procedure applies to all those structures and components of the storage and handling systems that may affect fuel safety. The Guide does not deal with the control of any process-related technical systems (e.g. cooling and purification systems), including their structures and components, connected with fuel storage. With regard to the storage of spent fuel, this Guide only deals with storage in a water pool. Guide YVL6.1 describes the regulatory control of nuclear fuel by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland (STUK) in general. The detailed requirements for fuel control are given in Guide YVL6.3. The regulatory control of nuclear power plants by STUK on the whole is discussed in Guide YVL1.1

  16. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO 2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  17. FERC perspectives on nuclear fuel accounting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDanal, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the treatment of nuclear fuel and problems that have evolved in industry practices in accounting for fuel. For some time, revisions to the Uniform System of Accounts have been considered with regard to the nuclear fuel accounts. A number of controversial issues have been encountered on audits, including treatment of nuclear fuel enrichment charges, costs associated with delays in enrichment services, the treatment and recognition of fuel inventories in excess of current or projected needs, and investments in and advances to mining and milling companies for future deliveries of nuclear fuel materials. In an effort to remedy the problems and to adapt the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's accounting to more easily provide for or point out classifications for each problem area, staff is reevaluating the need for contemplated amendments to the Uniform System of Accounts

  18. Fuel assemblies for use in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel assembly for use in pressurized water cooled nuclear fast breeder reactors is described in which moderator to fuel ratios, conducive to a high Pu-U-D 2 O reactor breeding ratio, are obtained whilst at the same time ensuring accurate spacing of fuel pins without the parasitic losses associated with the use of spacer grids. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear fuel pellet manufacturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tetsushi.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium oxide powder is compression-molded to form a compressed powder product, and the compressed powder product is sintered to form a ceramic nuclear fuel pellet. In this case, the uranium oxide powder to be supplied to a press hole for compression molding is exposed to an atmosphere of one of vapors of benzene, hexane, acetone, acetic acid, ethanol or water, or an atmosphere of a vapor mixture of several kinds of them. Thereafter, uranium oxide powder is compression molded in the same vapor atmosphere. Since the vapor atmosphere is used as an aid for a molding adjuvant or a substitute thereof, lowering of pellet density due to residual molding adjuvant can be prevented. In addition, the vapor atmosphere is penetrated uniformly between the uranium oxide powder to suppress density fluctuation of the compressed powder material thereby enabling to unify the shrinking rate. (I.N.)

  20. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is substantially more complicated than the energy production cycles of conventional fuels because of the very low abundance of uranium 235, the presence of radioactivity, the potential for producing fissile nuclides from irradiation, and the risk that fissile materials will be used for nuclear weapons. These factors add enrichment, recycling, spent fuel storage, and safeguards to the cycle, besides making the conventional steps of exploration, mining, processing, use, waste disposal, and transportation more difficult

  1. NUFCOS - nuclear fuel cycle optimization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaikkonen, H.; Salo, J.-P.; Vieno, T.; Vira, J.

    1979-05-01

    NUFCOS is a multigoal nuclear fuel cycle optimization code with an arbitrary number of decision objectives. The multigoal decision-making is based on the evolving techniques of fuzzy optimization. After a short description of the fuel cycle model and the calculation methods this report gives the input instructions in the case of three optimization criteria: minimization of fuel cycle costs, economical risk and nuclear weapons proliferation risk. (author)

  2. Financial aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power plant has a forward supply of several years as a consequence of the long processing time of the uranium from mining to delivery of fabricated fuel elements and of the long insertion time in the reactor. This leads to a considerable capital requirement although the specific fuel costs for nuclear fuel are considerably lower then for a conventional power plant and present only 15% of the total generating costs. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently deciding the direction of its environmental restoration and waste management programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the next 10 years. Pertinent to this decision is establishing policies for the environmentally sensitive and safe transport, storage, and management of spent nuclear fuels. To develop these policies, it is necessary to revisit or examine the available options. As a part of the DOE complex, the Hanford Site not only has a large portion of the nationwide DOE-owned inventory of spent nuclear fuel, but also is a participant in the DOE decision for management and ultimate disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Efforts in this process at Hanford include assessment of several options for stabilizing, transporting, and storing all or portions of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. Such storage and management of spent nuclear fuel will be in a safe and suitable manner until a final decision is made for ultimate disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Five alternatives involving the Hanford Site are being considered for management of the spent nuclear fuel inventory: (1) the No Action Alternative, (2) the Decentralization Alternative, (3) the 1992/1993 Planning Basis Alternative, (4) the Regionalization Alternative, and (5) the Centralization Alternative. AU alternatives will be carefully designed to avoid environmental degradation and to provide protection to human health and safety at the Hanford Site and surrounding region

  4. Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, V.T.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end

  5. Fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Tower, S.N.; Huckestein, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor comprises a 5x5 array of guide tubes in a generally 20x20 array of fuel elements, the guide tubes being arranged to accommodate either control rods or water displacer rods. The fuel assembly has top and bottom Inconel (Registered Trade Mark) grids and intermediate Zircaloy grids in engagement with the guide tubes and supporting the fuel elements and guide tubes while allowing flow of reactor coolant through the assembly. (author)

  6. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1984-04-01

    This report, the fifth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction; used fuel storage and transportation; immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste; geoscience research related to deep underground disposal; environmental research; and environmental and safety assessment

  7. Fuel element shipping shim for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehri, A.

    1975-01-01

    A shim is described for use in the transportation of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It comprises a member preferably made of low density polyethylene designed to have three-point contact with the fuel rods of a fuel assembly and being of sufficient flexibility to effectively function as a shock absorber. The shim is designed to self-lock in place when associated with the fuel rods. (Official Gazette)

  8. A reference regional nuclear fuel centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel centre groups the facilities for spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium fuel fabrication, waste conditioning, and interim storage on a single site. The technical aspects of safety and protection, and the socio-economic consequences of two types of centre have been studied. The reference centre has an initial reprocessing capacity of 1500 tonnes. This capacity is quadrupled by the construction of two new units in 15 years. The other centre considered is a quarter of this size. A description is given of the processes used, the personal and capital requirements for construction and operation of the plant, the transport of radioactive waste and products, and the quantities involved. The local radiological impact is low and could be further reduced to a level well below that of natural radioactivity. The resulting increase in economic activity, employment, income redistribution and the new infrastructure requirements are estimated for a rural or semi-rural region. Measures to prevent tension are proposed. The impact of the host country's balance of payments, finances, employment situation and technological knowhow is evaluated. The original centre is compared with equivalent facilities scattered geographically

  9. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  10. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Matsumoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Kawamura, Fumio

    1995-01-01

    In the long term plan for atomic energy that the Atomic Energy Commission decided the other day, the necessity of the technical development for establishing full scale fuel cycle for future was emphasized. Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in technical development and facility construction in the fields of uranium enrichment, MOX fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing and so on. In uranium enrichment, it took part in the development of centrifuge process centering around Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and took its share in the construction of the Rokkasho uranium enrichment plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd. Also it cooperates with Laser Enrichment Technology Research Association. In Mox fuel fabrication, it took part in the construction of the facilities for Monju plutonium fuel production of PNC, for pellet production, fabrication and assembling processes. In spent fuel reprocessing, it cooperated with the technical development of maintenance and repair of Tokai reprocessing plant of PNC, and the construction of spent fuel stores in Rokkasho reprocessing plant is advanced. The centrifuge process and the atomic laser process of uranium enrichment are explained. The high reliability of spent fuel reprocessing plants and the advancement of spent fuel reprocessing process are reported. Hitachi Ltd. Intends to exert efforts for the technical development to establish nuclear fuel cycle which increases the importance hereafter. (K.I.)

  11. Preliminary Hanford technical input for the Department of Energy programmatic spent nuclear fuel management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory environmental restoration and waste management programs environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating its programmatic options for the safe management of its diverse spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (SNF and INEL EIS). In the SNF and INEL EIS, the DOE is assessing five alternatives for SNF management, which consider at which of the DOE sites each of the various SNF types should be managed until ultimate disposition. The range of SNF inventories considered for management at the Hanford Site in the SNF and INEL EIS include the current Hanford Site inventory, only the current Hanford Site defense production SNF inventory, the DOE complex-wide SNF inventory, or none at all. Site-specific SNF management decisions will be evaluated in separate National Environmental Policy Act evaluations. Appendixes A and B include information on (1) additional facilities required to accommodate inventories of SNF within each management alternative, (2) existing and new SNF management facility descriptions, (3) facility costs for construction and operation, (4) facility workforce requirements for construction and operation, and (5) facility discharges. The information was extrapolated from existing analyses to the extent possible. New facility costs, manpower requirements, and similar information are based on rough-order-of-magnitude estimates

  12. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle and legal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji; Kaneko, Koji.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle is regulated as a whole in Japan by the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors (hereafter referred to as ''the law concerning regulation of reactors''), which was published in 1957, and has been amended 13 times. The law seeks to limit the use of atomic energy to peaceful objects, and nuclear fuel materials are controlled centering on the regulation of enterprises which employ nuclear fuel materials, namely regulating each enterprise. While the permission and report of uses are necessary for the employment of nuclear materials under Article 52 and 61 of the law concerning regulation of reactors, the permission provisions are not applied to three kinds of enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing and the persons who install reactors as the exceptions in Article 52, when nuclear materials are used for the objects of the enterprises themselves. The enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing and the persons who install reactors are stipulated respectively in the law. Accordingly the nuclear material regulations are applied only to the users of small quantity of such materials, namely universities, research institutes and hospitals. The nuclear fuel materials used in Japan which are imported under international contracts including the nuclear energy agreements between two countries are mostly covered by the security measures of IAEA as internationally controlled substances. (Okada, K.)

  14. Regulatory viewpoint on nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Considerations of the importance of fuel quality and performance to nuclear safety, ''as low reasonably achievable'' release of radioactive materials in reactor effluents, and past fuel performance problems demonstrate the need for strong regulatory input, review and inspection of nuclear fuel quality assurance programs at all levels. Such a regulatory program is being applied in the United States of America by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Quality assurance requirements are contained within government regulations. Guidance on acceptable methods of implementing portions of the quality assurance program is contained within Regulatory Guides and other NRC documents. Fuel supplier quality assurance program descriptions are reviewed as a part of the reactor licensing process. Inspections of reactor licensee control of their fuel vendors as well as direct inspections of fuel vendor quality assurance programs are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (author)

  15. A nuclear fuel cycle system dynamic model for spent fuel storage options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinton, Samuel; Kazimi, Mujid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Used nuclear fuel management requires a dynamic system analysis study due to its socio-technical complexity. • Economic comparison of local, regional, and national storage options is limited due to the public financial information. • Local and regional options of used nuclear fuel management are found to be the most economic means of storage. - Abstract: The options for used nuclear fuel storage location and affected parameters such as economic liabilities are currently a focus of several high level studies. A variety of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis models are available for such a task. The application of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics models for waste management options is important to life-cycle impact assessment. The recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee on America’s Nuclear Future led to increased focus on long periods of spent fuel storage [1]. This motivated further investigation of the location dependency of used nuclear fuel in the parameters of economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Through a review of available literature and interactions with each of the programs available, comparisons of post-reactor fuel storage and handling options will be evaluated based on the aforementioned parameters and a consensus of preferred system metrics and boundary conditions will be provided. Specifically, three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module (WMM) which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Initial results of baseline cases point to positive benefits of regional storage locations with local regional storage options continuing to offer the lowest cost

  16. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  18. A Path Forward to Advanced Nuclear Fuels: Spectroscopic Calorimetry of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The goal is to relieve the shortage of thermodynamic and kinetic information concerning the stability of nuclear fuel alloys. Past studies of the ternary nuclear fuel UPuZr have demonstrated constituent redistribution when irradiated or with thermal treatment. Thermodynamic data is key to predicting the possibilities of effects such as constituent redistribution within the fuel rods and interaction with cladding materials

  19. Impacts of the turbogenerator reactive operation in the nuclear fuel burnup; Impactos da operacao reativa do turbogerador na queima do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helio Ricardo V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The parameterization of the losses in a turbogenerator in function of an operation with the electrical system reactive allowed to model in a simple and exact way the equations that define and they quantify the additional of nuclear potency that it should be generated by a reactor, in order to maintain the commitment with the national system operator, that is, the electric active power contracted. starting from this additional of nuclear power it was modeled the additional burn up of the fuel elements, as well as the numbers of effective days to full power wasted. it was promoted a safety analysis and some limitations due to the reactive operation of the electrical system. inside of this context it was made a financial evaluation in which we ask some questions to companies and government organs in order to define what losses are acceptable and also the reason why we don't use other technician resources such as: increase of the electrical mesh, electrical power injection in strategic points, capacitor banks and increase of the number the electrical plants. (author)

  20. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Volume 1, Appendix F, Nevada Test Site and Oak Ridge Reservation Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This volume addresses the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at two US Department of Energy sites, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These sites are being considered to provide a reasonable range of alternative settings at which future SNF management activities could be conducted. These locations are not currently involved in management of large quantities of SNF; NTS has none, and ORR has only small quantities. But NTS and ORR do offer experience and infrastructure for the handling, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and they do exemplify a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. This broad spectrum of environmental parameters will provide, a perspective on whether and how such location attributes may relate to potential environmental impacts. Consideration of these two sites will permit a programmatic decision to be based upon an assessment of the feasible options without bias, to the current storage sites. This volume is divided into four parts. Part One is the volume introduction. Part Two contains chapters one through five for the NTS, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Three contains chapters one through five for the ORR, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Four is summary information including the list of preparers, organizations contacted, acronyms, and abbreviations for both the NTS and the ORR. A Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables are included in parts Two, Three, and Four. This approach permitted the inclusion of both sites in one volume while maintaining consistent chapter numbering.

  1. The management strategy of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi Parapak; Siti Alimah

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of management strategy of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out. Spent nuclear fuel is one of the by-products of nuclear power plant. The technical operations related to the management of spent fuel discharged from reactors are called the back-end fuel cycle. It can be largely divided into three option s : the once-through cycle, the closed cycle and the so-called ‟wait and see” policy. Whatever strategy is selected for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, Away-from-Reactor (AFR) storage facilities has to be constructed. For the once through cycle, the entire content of spent fuel is considered as waste, and is subject to be disposed of into a deep underground repository. In the closed cycle, however, can be divided into: (1) uranium and plutonium are recovered from spent fuel by reprocessing and recycled to manufacture mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rods, (2) waste transmutation in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, (3) DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) concept. In wait and see policy, which means first storing the spent fuel and deciding at a later stage on reprocessing or disposal. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  4. Fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor comprises a locking mechanism that is capable of locking the fuel assembly to the core plate of a nuclear reactor to prevent inadvertent movement of the fuel assembly. The locking mechanism comprises a ratchet mechanism 108 that allows the fuel assembly to be easily locked to the core plate but prevents unlocking except when the ratchet is disengaged. The ratchet mechanism is coupled to the locking mechanism by a rotatable guide tube for a control rod or water displacer rod. (author)

  5. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  6. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  7. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.-P.; Durret, L.-F.

    1995-01-01

    Three main features of the globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and discussed. The first is an increase in the scale of the nuclear fuel cycle materials and services markets in the past 20 years. This has been accompanied by a growth in the sophistication of the fuel cycle. Secondly, the nuclear industry is now more vulnerable to outside pressures; it is no longer possible to make strategic decisions on the industry within a country solely on national considerations. Thirdly, there are changes in the decision-making process at the political, regulatory, operational and industrial level which are the consequence of global factors. (UK)

  8. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeau, J.-P.; Durret, L.-F.

    1995-12-31

    Three main features of the globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and discussed. The first is an increase in the scale of the nuclear fuel cycle materials and services markets in the past 20 years. This has been accompanied by a growth in the sophistication of the fuel cycle. Secondly, the nuclear industry is now more vulnerable to outside pressures; it is no longer possible to make strategic decisions on the industry within a country solely on national considerations. Thirdly, there are changes in the decision-making process at the political, regulatory, operational and industrial level which are the consequence of global factors. (UK).

  9. The nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nuclear power option has been mentioned as an alternative for Ghana but the issue of waste management worries both policy makers and the public. In this paper, the nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for electric power generation has been extensively reviewed. Different ...

  10. ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Inventory Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutnik, Steven E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-06-19

    The goal of this project, “ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Depletion Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment" is to create a physics-based reactor depletion and decay module for the Cyclus nuclear fuel cycle simulator in order to assess nuclear fuel inventories over a broad space of reactor operating conditions. The overall goal of this approach is to facilitate evaluations of nuclear fuel inventories for a broad space of scenarios, including extended used nuclear fuel storage and cascading impacts on fuel cycle options such as actinide recovery in used nuclear fuel, particularly for multiple recycle scenarios. The advantages of a physics-based approach (compared to a recipe-based approach which has been typically employed for fuel cycle simulators) is in its inherent flexibility; such an approach can more readily accommodate the broad space of potential isotopic vectors that may be encountered under advanced fuel cycle options. In order to develop this flexible reactor analysis capability, we are leveraging the Origen nuclear fuel depletion and decay module from SCALE to produce a standalone “depletion engine” which will serve as the kernel of a Cyclus-based reactor analysis module. The ORIGEN depletion module is a rigorously benchmarked and extensively validated tool for nuclear fuel analysis and thus its incorporation into the Cyclus framework can bring these capabilities to bear on the problem of evaluating long-term impacts of fuel cycle option choices on relevant metrics of interest, including materials inventories and availability (for multiple recycle scenarios), long-term waste management and repository impacts, etc. Developing this Origen-based analysis capability for Cyclus requires the refinement of the Origen analysis sequence to the point where it can reasonably be compiled as a standalone sequence outside of SCALE; i.e., wherein all of the computational aspects of Origen (including reactor cross-section library processing and interpolation, input and output

  11. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velde Van de, A.; Burtak, F.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased liberalisation of the power markets, nuclear power generation is being exposed to high cost reduction pressure. In this paper we highlight the role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies to reduce the fuel cycle costs and therefore increase the efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. The key factor is a more efficient utilisation of the fuel and present developments at Siemens are consequently directed at (i) further increase of batch average burnup, (ii) improvement of fuel reliability, (iii) enlargement of fuel operation margins and (iv) improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. As a result, the nuclear fuel cycle costs for a typical LWR have been reduced during the past decades by about US$ 35 million per year. The estimated impact of further burnup increases on the fuel cycle costs is expected to be an additional saving of US$10 - 15 million per year. Due to the fact that the fuel will operate closer to design limits, a careful approach is required when introducing advanced fuel features in reload quantities. Trust and co-operation between the fuel vendors and the utilities is a prerequisite for the common success. (authors)

  12. Comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. General framework and preliminary results for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostron, W.; Schneider, T.; Thieme, M.; Dreicer, M.

    1992-06-01

    The comparison of the effects of electricity producing systems is of growing importance in decision-making processes for energy planning. This report documents the preliminary results of a project for the CEC-DG XII Radiation Protection Programme on the comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. The work reported in this document has also been supported by EDF - Mission Environnement. In order to profit from the comparative studies already existing, some of the most important ones were surveyed. The aim of these past energy comparison studies was mainly to obtain a global measure of the risks associated with an energy cycle, with a view to ranking the various electricity production systems; but this is now recognised as merely an academic exercise, with a limited impact in decision-making. For energy planning the development of a multi-dimensional approach seems more suitable, as this allows the different types of indicators and measures needed to assess the risks of different energy cycles to be compared. From the past studies it has been seen that health indicators are generally well established, but a weakness is noted with respect to indicators of environmental impacts. This remains a difficult subject, and until such indicators are established, surrogates like concentrations in the environment will have to be used, or qualitative comparisons must suffice. This report presents a general framework allowing for consistent comparisons between different energy systems. The key issues discussed are: assessment by fuel cycle, consideration of the dimensions of time and space, the impact pathway approach for assessing risk, and coherent indicators that can be used to measure the impacts. First results are presented for four activities of the nuclear fuel cycle according to the approach developed: (1) the construction and dismantling of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor, (2) the transportation of materials between

  13. Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.; Romanello, V.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.

    2013-01-01

    . In this respect, it is considered that the potential future scarcity of uranium resources is not at all unreasonable, but it is a very serious perspective for the regions of the world where the energy demand growth is and will very probably continue to be significant with the use of nuclear energy to meet at least partially that demand. In fact, despite the seriousness of the recent Fukushima Daiichi accident, only a few countries (essentially in the OECD region) have reacted with an abrupt decision to phase out nuclear power. Most countries, where the energy demand growth corresponds to an urgent need to achieve widely improved living standards, have launched or completed extensive reviews of their nuclear programmes, but are also continuing with ongoing construction projects. The results of this study are very much related to the hypotheses made, in particular in terms of energy demand growth. However, some general trends seem to be of a general value and can motivate further studies. It was confirmed in this investigation that a rapid development of fast reactors, especially in areas with expanding economies and strong energy demand growth, is essential for nuclear energy sustainability, for saving natural uranium resources worldwide and for reducing high-level waste generation requiring disposal. A key parameter is the fast reactor doubling time which has to be chosen appropriately in order to meet energy requirements. In the case of an open cycle, a potential increase in pressure on the uranium market could be expected towards the end of the current century. Moreover, the increase in mining needs of unequally distributed resources can be a factor of uncertainty with an impact potentially even more important of uranium cost considerations. It would, however, be a very significant challenge to develop suitable fuel cycle infrastructure especially in the world regions that presently have a limited number of (or no) nuclear power plants. In fact, the needed fuel

  14. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.).

  15. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under two nuclear supply scenarios. These two scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas (WOCA). A No New Orders scenarios is also presented for the Unites States. This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the WOCA projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel; discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2036, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case

  16. Commercialization of nuclear fuel cycle business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Japan depends on foreign countries almost for establishing nuclear fuel cycle. Accordingly, uranium enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is important for securing energy. By these means, the stable supply of enriched uranium, the rise of utilization efficiency of uranium and making nuclear power into home-produced energy can be realized. Also this contributes to the protection of earth resources and the preservation of environment. Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. operates four business commercially in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, aiming at the completion of nuclear fuel cycle by the technologies developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the introduction of technologies from foreign countries. The conditions of location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the course of the location in Rokkasho are described. In the site of about 740 hectares area, uranium enrichment, burying of low level radioactive waste, fuel reprocessing and high level waste control have been carried out, and three businesses except reprocessing already began the operation. The state of operation of these businesses is reported. Hereafter, efforts will be exerted to the securing of safety through trouble-free operation and cost reduction. (K.I.)

  17. Thorium fuel cycle: a nuclear strategy and fuel recycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Dahlberg, R.C.; Wymer, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Use of thorium fuel cycles in thermal reactors appears to permit a moderate rate of introduction of fast breeder reactors into the nuclear economy and helps maintain a relatively low ratio of FBRs to thermal reactors in the future. To implement the benefits of thorium fuel cycles, however, will require fuel recycle research and development. Fuel recycle technology developed for uranium and plutonium cycles will be beneficial to thorium fuel cycle development; however, significant additional R and D is required to implement either the HEUTH or the DUTH cycles. The metal-clad reactors in general have relatively common generic technology development requirements, although there are significant differences between fast and thermal reactor fuel recycle needs. The thorium fuel recycle R and D requirements of HTGRs are more reactor-specific than of the other reactor types; however, some specific efforts will be required for all the different reactor types.

  18. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity

  19. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity

  20. Nuclear fuel reliability in NPP KRSKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolovic, A.; Kurincic, B.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of achieving and maintaining high fuel integrity comes from negative consequences of operation with failed fuel. Failed fuel has a significant effect on operating cost and performance, and increases the radiological consequences to environment. Fuel failures represent a breach in the first barrier (cladding) preventing the release of fission products. Historically NPP Krsko experienced some degradation of fuel cladding integrity. To resolve this problem and to ensure the safe, reliable and cost effective operation of nuclear fuel, NPP Krsko established 'Fuel Integrity Program'. The key elements of the Program are: continuous monitoring and trending of the fuel behaviour through operating cycle, evaluation of key performance indicators (RCS isotopes, operational parameters) to determine whether the fuel defects exist, implementation of appropriate actions to reduce and mitigate the consequences of fuel defects (four action levels), 100% examination of fuel to remove the defective fuel from operation (Ultrasonic (UT), In Mast Sipping (IMS) and visual inspection), evaluating the worldwide experience and fuel performance and, integrating the experience and knowledge into new fuel design (ZIRLO TM cladding, debris filter bottom nozzle, removable top nozzle). Since start of commercial operation fuel integrity has been evaluated considering certain aspects like operation and fuel handling, fuel rod burnup and cycle length, cladding material properties, etc. As a result of successful Fuel Integrity Program NPP Krsko has achieved high performance level in terms of fuel integrity in past four cycles. Also, NPP Krsko calculations show good matching between analytical prediction of number of failed fuel rods from primary coolant activity analysis and inspection results with the Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods.(author)

  1. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  2. Levelized nuclear fueling cost in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, A.I.; Adar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic nuclear fuel cycle mode options are discussed as they apply to PWR-type reactors. Forecast fueling costs have been computed and are reported for the two main choices - basic front-end cost supplemented by either a throw- away mode option or a reprocessing mode option. It is concluded that reprocessing could result in total unit fueling costs ranging from a minimum slightly lower, through a maximum about 30% higher than the total unit fueling cost using the throw-away mode option. Moreover, in massive breeder development the total unit fueling cost can extend even below the numerically calculated limit. (H.K.)

  3. Classification in waste acceptance criteria for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the contracts between utilities and the Department of Energy (DOE) for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which were executed in 1983 set forth certain criteria for classifying SNF for purposes of establishing delivery schedules for transfer of the fuel to DOE. They provide that a utility classify all spent fuel prior to delivery to DOE for disposal into one or more of 10 different classifications: The effect on the utilities of SNF being classified as standard fuel, non-standard fuel, and failed fuel is that standard fuel will be accepted by DOE in accordance with a schedule that results from the capacity allocation procedure established by the contract, but that non-standard fuel and failed fuel may be subject to delayed acceptance depending on the technical feasibility of such acceptance. The disposal contract only established two forms of spent fuel as being standard fuel. It is now recognized that it might be possible to expand the definition of standard spent fuel to a larger number of spent fuel forms without adversely impacting the FWMS

  4. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  5. Solvent extraction in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1980-09-01

    The author reviews the chief aspects of solvent extraction in reprocessing, including choice of the solvent, general description of the Purex process, and extractor technology, while emphasizing the specific character of nuclear fuels

  6. Perspective of nuclear fuel cycle for sustainable nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Bonne, A.; Kagramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power, on a life-cycle basis, emits about the same level of carbon per unit of electricity generated as wind and solar power. Long-term energy demand and supply analysis projects that global nuclear capacities will expand substantially, i.e. from 350 GW today to more than 1,500 GW by 2050. Uranium supply, spent fuel and waste management, and a non-proliferation nuclear fuel cycle are essential factors for sustainable nuclear power growth. An analysis of the uranium supply up to 2050 indicates that there is no real shortage of potential uranium available if based on the IIASA/WEC scenario on medium nuclear energy growth, although its market price may become more volatile. With regard to spent fuel and waste management, the short term prediction foresees that the amount of spent fuel will increase from the present 145,000 tHM to more than 260,000 tHM in 2015. The IPCC scenarios predicted that the spent fuel quantities accumulated by 2050 will vary between 525 000 tHM and 3 210 000 tHM. Even according to the lowest scenario, it is estimated that spent fuel quantity in 2050 will be double the amount accumulated by 2015. Thus, waste minimization in the nuclear fuel cycle is a central tenet of sustainability. The proliferation risk focusing on separated plutonium and resistant technologies is reviewed. Finally, the IAEA Project INPRO is briefly introduced. (author)

  7. Concrete encapsulation for spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1981-01-01

    Concrete systems, mixtures and methods for encapsulating and storing spent nuclear fuel. Fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies is completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete having incorporated therein metallic fibers to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. The metallic fibers and the polymers can be distributed in a single concrete layer, or separate contiguous layers can be utilized for the conductivity and impermeability characteristics

  8. Nuclear fuel resources: enough to last?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Blaise, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The need to meet ever-growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner has turned attention to the potential for nuclear energy to play an expanded role in future energy supply mixes. One of the key aspects in defining the sustainability of any energy source is the availability of fuel resources. This article shows that available nuclear energy fuel resources can meet future needs for hundreds, even thousands, of years

  9. Nuclear fuel: modelling the advanced plutonium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoua, Th.; Lenain, R.

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of modeling in the nuclear sector are illustrated by the example of the design study for a new plutonium fuel assembly, APA, capable of ensuring maximum consumption of this fuel in pressurized-water reactors. Beyond the physical design of the assembly and its integration into the reactor, this serves for the working out of a complete materials flow and assists in modeling production from the entire inventory of nuclear power stations. (authors)

  10. Fuel element for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linning, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement of the fuel element for a fast nuclear reactor described in patent 15 89 010 is proposed which should avoid possible damage due to swelling of the fuel. While the fuel element according to patent 15 89 010 is made in the form of a tube, here a further metal jacket is inserted in the centre of the fuel rod and the intermediate layer (ceramic uranium compound) is provided on both sides, so that the nuclear fuel is situated in the centre of the annular construction. Ceramic uranium or plutonium compounds (preferably carbide) form the fuel zone in the form of circular pellets, which are surrounded by annular gaps, so that gaseous fission products can escape. (UWI) [de

  11. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The percentage of electricity generated by nuclear energy in each of the 26 countries that operated nuclear power plants in 1987 is given. The current policy and programs of some of these countries is described. News concerning uranium mining, enrichment, reprocessing and waste management is also included. Data in the form of a generalized status summary for all power reactors (> 30 MWEN) prepared from the nuclear power reactor data files of ANSTO is shown

  12. The social impacts of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the point of view of the inhabitants. Interview research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viinikainen, T.

    1998-12-01

    The research studied the social impacts of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel by the means of qualitative methods. The principal research material consisted of 49 theme interviews carried out in four municipalities, Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski, all of which have a candidate site for spent fuel disposal. The interviews covered residents living near the possible disposal site, local authorities from different sectors of the municipality, social workers, youth workers and teachers, local businesses, trade and other organisations as well as environmental and citizen movements. When considering the risk conceptions and worries over safety, a fairly consistent view on the safety of the different phases of the project can be identified in all the municipalities. The transportation of nuclear waste aroused definitely the most worries over safety, especially because of the danger of sabotage and traffic accidents. When considering the encapsulation stage' the interviews revealed that risks are associated with this stage because it entails a 'human factor': the treatment of a dangerous substance in a disposal site above ground is considered hazardous. When considering the time after the closing of the disposal system, an opinion could be formed on the basis of the interviews that a final disposal system in hard bedrock would probably perform adequately in the short term but there can be no certain knowledge of risks in the long term. Confidence or lack of confidence in the safety of the project appeared as the most important factor causing social impacts. As a summary of the results, it can be concluded that especially (1) familiarity of the risk and (2) the possibility that taking risks are advantageous to oneself increase the acceptability of the risk. These are also the factors which distinguish the municipalities with nuclear power plants (Loviisa and Eurajoki) from the other two municipalities. The fair allocation of risks as well as the division of

  13. Nuclear fuel for LWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Yasuyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    Coated particulate fuels are used. The coated particulate fuel comprises a sintered nuclear fuel sphere as a center, and respective layers of a low density thermally decomposed carbon layer, a high density thermally decomposed carbon layer, a silicon carbide layer and a high density thermally decomposed carbon layer disposed successively. The nuclear fuel sintered sphere comprises a sintered nuclear fuel of uranium dioxide having a diameter of from 0.3mm to 1.2mm. The low density thermally decomposed carbon layer as the first cladding layer coating the sintered nuclear fuel sphere functions as a buffering layer for the sintered nuclear fuel sphere and the high density thermally decomposed carbon layer as a second cladding layer. In addition, it functions for absorption of swelling and storing of FP gases. The high density thermally decomposed carbon layer as the second cladding layer functions as a layer for holding gaseous FP. In addition, a silicon carbide layer as a third cladding layer functions as a barrier for a solid FP. A high density thermally decomposing carbon layer as a fourth cladding layer functions as a protection layer for the silicon carbide layer. (I.N.)

  14. The impact of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on a municipality`s image; Tutkimus loppusijoituslaitoksen vaikutuksista kuntien imagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Haapavaara, L.; Lampinen, T

    1999-02-01

    The study comprised on one hand a nationwide telephone interview (totally 800 interviews) aimed at mapping out the current image of possible host municipalities to a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel, and on the other hand some group interviews of people of another parish but of interest from the municipalities` point of view. The purpose of these group interviews was the same as that of the telephone interview, i.e. to find out what kind of an impact locating a final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel in a certain municipality would have on the host municipality`s image. Because the groups interviewed were selected on different grounds the results of the interviews are not fully comparable. The most important result of the study is that the current attitude towards a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is calm and collected and that the matter is often considered from the standpoint of an outsider. The issue is easily ignored, classified as a matter `which does not concern me`, provided that the facility will not be placed too near one`s own home. Among those interviewed the subject seemed not to be of any `great interest and did not arouse spontaneous feelings for or against`. There are, however, deeply rooted beliefs concerning the facility and quite strong negative and positive attitudes towards it. The facility itself and the associated decision-making procedure arouse many questions, which at present to a large extent are still unexpressed because the subject is considered so remote. It is, however, necessary to give concrete answers to the questions because this makes it possible for people to relate the issue to daily life. It is further important that things arousing fear and doubts also can be discussed because a silence in this respect only emphasizes their importance. The attitude towards the facility is varying. On one hand there are economic and technical factors: the probable economic benefit from it, the obligation to

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    Designs of nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grids for supporting and spacing fuel elements are described which do not utilize resilient grid plate protrusions in the peripheral band but retain the advantages inherent in the combination resilient and rigid protrusion cells. (U.K.)

  16. Topfuel '95: Fuel for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, 425 nuclear power stations with an installed capacity of 360 263 MW were in operation in 30 countries of the world, and a total of 60 units with a capacity of 53 580 MWe were being cnstructed in 18 countries. The supply of nuclear fuels to these nuclear power stations was the central issue of the Topfuel '95 - Topical Meeting on Nuclear Fuel. More than 350 experts from 23 countries had been invited to Wuerzburg by the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS). The conference was accompanied by an exhibition at which twelve inernational fuel cycle enterprises presented their products, processes, and problem solutions. The poster session in the hall of the Cogress Center Wuerzburg exhibited 42 contributions which are be discussed in the second part of the conference report. (orig./UA) [de

  17. The nuclear fuel: a limitless resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes an overview of the possible resources of nuclear fuel in the future. The author notably addresses the use of thorium as a future fuel (it is abundant but has a low solubility), the exploitation of uranium present in sea water (the quantity is huge but the extraction process is complex and costly), the use of uranium 238 as fuel for fast neutron reactors (99 per cent of the mass of natural uranium is made of this isotope)

  18. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  19. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  20. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  1. 78 FR 56775 - Waste Confidence-Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Waste Confidence--Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 [NRC-2012-0246] RIN 3150-AJ20 Waste Confidence--Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear... radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste disposal. DATES: Submit comments on the...

  2. Fuel handling system of nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulstich, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel handing system for nuclear reactor plants comprising a reactor vessel having an openable top and removable cover for refueling and containing therein, submerged in coolant water substantially filling the reactor vessel, a fuel core including a multiplicity of fuel bundles formed of groups of sealed tube elements enclosing fissionable fuel assembled into units. It comprises a fuel bundle handing platform moveable over the open top of the reactor vessel; a fuel bundle handing mast extendable downward from the platform with a lower end projecting into the open top reactor vessel to the fuel core submerged in water; a grapple head mounted on the lower end of the mast provided with grappling hook means for attaching to and transporting fuel bundles into and out from the fuel core; and a camera with a prismatic viewing head surrounded by a radioactive resisting quartz cylinder and enclosed within the grapple head which is provided with at least three windows with at least two windows provided with an angled surface for aiming the camera prismatic viewing head in different directions and thereby viewing the fuel bundles of the fuel core from different perspectives, and having a cable connecting the camera with a viewing monitor located above the reactor vessel for observing the fuel bundles of the fuel core and for enabling aiming of the camera prismatic viewing head through the windows by an operator

  3. Cost analysis of spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.L.M.; Ford, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) is chartered to develop a waste management system for the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the 131 nuclear power reactors in the United States and a certain amount of high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing operations. The current schedule is to begin accepting SNF in 1998 for storage at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Subsequently, beginning in 2010, the system is scheduled to begin accepting SNF at a permanent geologic repository in 2010 and HLW in 2015. At this time, a MRS site has not been selected. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as the candidate site for the repository for permanent geologic disposal of SNF. All SNF, with the possible exception of the SNF from the western reactors, is currently planned to be shipped to or through the MRS site en route to the repository. The repository will operate in an acceptance and performance confirmation phase for a 50 year period beginning in 2010 with an additional nine year closure and five year decontamination and decommissioning period. The MRS has a statutory maximum capacity of 15,000 Metric Tons Uranium (MTU), with a further restriction that it may not store more than 10,000 MTU until the repository begins accepting waste. The repository is currently scheduled to store 63,000 MTU of SNF and an additional 7,000 MTU equivalent of HLW for a total capacity of 70,000 MTU. The amended act specified the MRS storage limits and identified Yucca Mountain as the only site to be characterized. Also, an Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was established to secure a voluntary host site for the MRS. The MRS, the repository, and all waste containers/casks will go through a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process much like the licensing process for a nuclear power plant. Environmental assessments and impact statements will be prepared for both the MRS and repository

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. A base case, reflecting the Fiscal Year 1998 process configuration, is evaluated. Parametric evaluations are also considered, investigating the impact of higher fuel retrieval system productivity and reduced shift operations at the canister storage building on total project duration

  5. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  6. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  7. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  8. Integrated spent nuclear fuel database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, S.P.; Klingler, K.G.; Schierman, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed Information Systems software Unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed and developed an Integrated Spent Nuclear Fuel Database System (ISNFDS), which maintains a computerized inventory of all US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Commercial SNF is not included in the ISNFDS unless it is owned or stored by DOE. The ISNFDS is an integrated, single data source containing accurate, traceable, and consistent data and provides extensive data for each fuel, extensive facility data for every facility, and numerous data reports and queries

  9. The sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a transport system dedicated to the sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. It reviews the background to why shipments were required and the establishment of a specialist shipping company, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited. A description of the ships, flasks and other equipment utilized is provided, together with details of key procedures implemented to ensure safety and customer satisfaction

  10. Accelerators and alternative nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of special accelerators suggests the po tential for new directions in nuclear energy systems evolution. Such directions point towards a more acceptable form of nuclear energy by reason of the consequent accessibility of enhanced fuel management choices. Essential and specifically directed research and development activity needs to be under taken in order to clarify and resolve a number of technical issues

  11. Waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present lecture deals with energy needs and nuclear power, the importance of waste and its relative place in the fuel cycle, the games of controversies over nuclear waste in the strategies of energy and finally with missions and functions of the IAEA for privileging the rational approach and facilitating the transfer of technology. (RW)

  12. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  13. Fuel transfer system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.; Marshall, J.R.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel transfer system for moving nuclear reactor fuel assemblies from a new fuel storage pit to a containment area containing the nuclear reactor, and for transferring spent fuel assemblies under water from the reactor to a spent fuel storage area. The system includes an underwater track which extends through a wall dividing the fuel building from the reactor containment and a car on the track serves as the vehicle for moving fuel assemblies between these two areas. The car is driven by a motor and linkage extending from an operating deck to a chain belt drive on the car. A housing pivotally mounted at its center on the car is hydraulically actuated to vertically receive a fuel assembly which then is rotated to a horizontal position to permit movement through the wall between the containment and fuel building areas. Return to the vertical position provides for fuel assembly removal and the reverse process is repeated when transferring an assembly in the opposite direction. Limit switches used in controlling operation of the system are designed to be replaced from the operating deck when necessary by tools designed for this purpose. 5 claims, 8 figures

  14. Chemical characterization of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    India is fabricating nuclear fuels for various types of reactors, for example, (U-Pu) MOX fuel of varying Pu content for boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), prototype fast breeder reactors (PFBRs), (U-Pu) carbide fuel fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), and U-based fuels for research reactors. Nuclear fuel being the heart of the reactor, its chemical and physical characterisation is an important component of this design. Both the fuel materials and finished fuel products are to be characterised for this purpose. Quality control (both chemical and physical) provides a means to ensure that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the specifications for the fuel laid down by the fuel designer. Chemical specifications are worked out for the major and minor constituents which affect the fuel properties and hence its performance under conditions prevailing in an operating reactor. Each fuel batch has to be subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. A number of advanced process and quality control steps are required to ensure the quality of the fuels. Further more, in the case of Pu-based fuels, it is necessary to extract maximum quality data by employing different evaluation techniques which would result in minimum scrap/waste generation of valuable plutonium. The task of quality control during fabrication of nuclear fuels of various types is both challenging and difficult. The underlying philosophy is total quality control of the fuel by proper mix of process and quality control steps at various stages of fuel manufacture starting from the feed materials. It is also desirable to adapt more than one analytical technique to increase the confidence and reliability of the quality data generated. This is all the most required when certified reference materials are not available. In addition, the adaptation of non-destructive techniques in the chemical quality

  15. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  16. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.; Harris, D.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK

  17. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation: one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernard, T.A.; Sofer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    About one year ago, after 18 years of business as a wholly owned affiliate of Exxon Corporation, Exxon Nuclear Company was acquired by Siemens/KWU and its name was changed to Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF). This profile describes the status of ANF one year later, principally from the European perspective but with some mention of ANF's worldwide operations to provide a balanced picture. After one year of operation as an affiliate of Siemens/KWU, ANF's role remains as an independent international supplier of nuclear fuel and services to utilities in Europe, the USA and the Far East, but with substantially augmented capabilities resulting from the new affiliation

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  19. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO 2 , fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO 2 , radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies

  20. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  3. Nuclear fuels for material test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.; Durazzo, M.; Freitas, C.T. de

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results related do the development of nuclear fuels for reactors cooled and moderated by water have been presented cylindrical and plate type fuels have been described in which the core consists of U compouns dispersed in an Al matrix and is clad with aluminium. Fabrication details involving rollmilling, swaging or hot pressing have been described. Corrosion and irradiation test results are also discussed. The performance of the different types of fuels indicates that it is possible to locally fabricate fuel plates with U 3 O 8 +Al cores (20% enriched U) for use in operating Brazilian research reactors. (Author) [pt

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R ampersand D programs and key personnel on 23 countries, including the US, four multi-national agencies, and 21 nuclear societies. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries-a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies-a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement and a listing of nuclear societies. Glossary-a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States

  5. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  6. Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker Schaffer, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that thorium-232 is a fertile radioactive material that can produce energy in nuclear reactors for conversion to electricity. Thorium-232 is well suited to a variety of reactor types including molten fluoride salt designs, heavy water CANDU configurations, and helium-cooled TRISO-fueled systems. Among contentious commercial nuclear power issues are the questions of what to do with long-lived radioactive waste and how to minimize weapon proliferation dangers. The substitution of thorium for uranium as fuel in nuclear reactors has significant potential for minimizing both problems. Thorium is three times more abundant in nature than uranium. Whereas uranium has to be imported, there is enough thorium in the United States alone to provide adequate grid power for many centuries. A well-designed thorium reactor could produce electricity less expensively than a next-generation coal-fired plant or a current-generation uranium-fueled nuclear reactor. Importantly, thorium reactors produce substantially less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium reactors. Thorium-fueled reactors with molten salt configurations and very high temperature thorium-based TRISO-fueled reactors are both recommended for priority Generation IV funding in the 2030 time frame. - Highlights: • Thorium is an abundant nuclear fuel that is well suited to three advanced reactor configurations. • Important thorium reactor configurations include molten salt, CANDU, and TRISO systems. • Thorium has important nuclear waste disposal advantages relative to pressurized water reactors. • Thorium as a nuclear fuel has important advantages relative to weapon non-proliferation

  7. Factors which could limit the nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, M.; Barre, B.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a most important industry for the energy future of the world. It has also a leading part as regards the physical continuity of energy supply of the countries engaged in the nuclear field. The development of this industry is subject to the economic or political constraints involved by the availability of raw materials, technologies or production means. The various limiting factors which could affect the different stages of the fuel cycle are linked with the technical, economic and financial aspects, with the impact on the environment, nuclear safety, risks of non-pacific uses and proliferation of arms. Interesting to note is also the correlation between the fuel cycle development and the problems of energy independence and security of nuclear programs. As a conclusion, the nuclear fuel cycle industry is confronted to difficulties due to its extremely rapid growth (doubling time 5 years) which only few heavy industries have encountered for long periods. It is more over submitted to the political and safety constraints always linked with nuclear matters. The task is therefore a difficult one. But the objective is worth-while since it is a condition to the development of nuclear industry [fr

  8. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  9. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  10. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  11. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes

  12. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes

  14. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes

  15. Elements of nuclear reactor fueling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with a review of the simple batch size effect, a more general theory of nuclear fueling is derived to describe the behavior and physical requirements of operating cycle sequences and fueling strategies having practical use in the management of nuclear fuel. The generalized theory, based on linear reactivity modeling, is analytical and represents the effects of multiple-stream, multiple-depletion-batch fueling configurations in systems employing arbitrary, non-integer batch size strategies, and containing fuel with variable energy generation rates. Reactor operating cycles and cycle sequences are represented with realistic structure that includes the effects of variable cycle energy production, cycle lengths, end-of-cycle operating extensions and maneuvering allowances. Results of the analytical theory are first applied to the special case of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences, yielding several fundamental principles related to the selection of refueling strategy, and which govern fueling decisions normally made by the fuel manager. It is also demonstrated in this application that the simple batch size effect is not valid for non-integer fueling strategies, even in the simplest sequence configurations, and that it systematically underestimates the fueling requirements of degenerate sequences in general

  16. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  17. Structural evaluation of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities under aircraft crash impact. Numerical study on evaluation of sealing performance of metal cask subjected to impact force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2008-01-01

    A lot of safety evaluations on the important nuclear facilities against the aircraft crash have been reported in other countries. But the condition and the evaluation method to define impact force of aircraft crash have not been described clearly in the reports. In Japan, public concern with the safety evaluation against aircraft crash is increasing. It is important to make clear the behavior of the storage facilities installing the metal casks on impact loading due to aircraft crash. In this study, concerning crash between commercial aircraft and storage facility, impact analysis using dynamic analysis code LS-DYNA has been executed. The results showed that the storage facility was not completely destroyed. But the rigid aircraft engine may penetrate into the storage facility with local failure. Thus, we assumed the engine hit a metal cask in the storage facility and evaluated sealing performance of the metal cask under the impact loading. If the engine with 90m/s crashed the storage facility having concrete wall of 85cm in thickness, the remaining velocity became 60m/s after penetration. We calculated impact force of the engine with 60m/s crashing into the metal cask. Concerning the metal cask loaded the impact force, impact analysis was executed. We assumed two directions of impact force. One is vertical load and another is horizontal load against the cask. The result showed that plastic strain was not generated on flanges of the 1st lid and the sealing performance of the cask was maintained in each impact case. (author)

  18. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  19. Spent nuclear fuel storage device and spent nuclear fuel storage method using the device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro

    1998-01-01

    Storage cells attachably/detachably support nuclear fuel containing vessels while keeping the vertical posture of them. A ventilation pipe which forms air channels for ventilating air to the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel is disposed at the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel contained in the storage cell. A shielding port for keeping the support openings gas tightly is moved, and a communication port thereof can be aligned with the upper portion of the support opening. The lower end of the transporting and containing vessel is placed on the shielding port, and an opening/closing shutter is opened. The gas tightness is kept by the shielding port, the nuclear fuel containing vessel filled with spent nuclear fuels is inserted to the support opening and supported. Then, the support opening is closed by a sealing lid. (I.N.)

  20. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables

  1. Nuclear reactor seismic fuel assembly grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The strength of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly is enhanced by increasing the crush strength of the zircaloy spacer grids which locate and support the fuel elements in the fuel assembly. Increased resistance to deformation as a result of laterally directed forces is achieved by increasing the section modulus of the perimeter strip through bending the upper and lower edges thereof inwardly. The perimeter strip is further rigidized by forming, in the central portion thereof, dimples which extend inwardly with respect to the fuel assembly. The integrity of the spacer grid may also be enhanced by providing back-up arches for some or all of the integral fuel element locating springs and the strength of the fuel assembly may be further enhanced by providing, intermediate its ends, a steel seismic grid. 13 claims, 6 figures

  2. Reconstitutable fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Kmonk, S.; Ferlan, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    A reconstitutable fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor with a mechanical arrangement for connecting control rod guide thimbles to the top and bottom nozzle plates of a fuel assembly. Sleeves enclosing control rod guide thimbles interconnect the top and bottom nozzle plates and the fuel assembly upper and lower spacer grid. Each sleeve is secured to the respective nozzle plate by retaining rings disposed on opposite sides. Should it be necessary to remove a fuel rod from the assembly, the retaining rings in either the top or bottom nozzles may be removed to release the nozzle from the control rod guide thimbles and thus expose either the top or bottom ends of the fuel rods to fuel rod removing mechanisms. (author)

  3. Magnetic signature surveillance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernatowicz, H.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Typical nuclear fuel material contains tramp ferromagnetic particles of random size and distribution. Also, selected amounts of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic material can be added at random or at known positions in the fuel material. The fuel material in its non-magnetic container is scanned along its length by magnetic susceptibility detecting apparatus whereby susceptibility changes along its length are obtained and provide a unique signal waveform of the container of fuel material as a signature thereof. The output signature is stored. At subsequent times in its life the container is again scanned and respective signatures obtained which are compared with the initially obtained signature, any differences indicating alteration or tampering with the fuel material. If the fuel material includes a paramagnetic additive by taking two measurements along the container the effects thereof can be cancelled out. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  5. Panorama 2010: Nuclear fuel resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Saniere, A.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of projects to build nuclear power plants, the desire of new countries to acquire civil atomic power, contracts sometimes deemed fantastically high for the operation of uranium mines, etc. All of these signals indicate a return to nuclear power in a context dominated by the fight against global warming. But can nuclear power make a durable contribution to the effort to meet the ever-increasing demand for energy? (author)

  6. Burnup measuring method for nuclear fuel substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Iwao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable non-destructive measurement for the amounts of fissile nucleides contained in nuclear fuel substances by the use of the difference in neutron spectra. Method: Neutrons generated from a neutron source are irradiated to a nuclear fuel substance, the neutrons generated from the nuclear fission reactions in the nuclear fuel substance are identified as epithermal neutrons and the neutrons from the neutron source as thermal neutrons and only the epithermal neutrons are detected to thereby measure the amounts of fissile neucleides in the nuclear fuel substances. For example, a neutron source is provided movably on one side of fuel assemblies placed in water and a neutron detector is situated on the other side by way of gamma-ray shield made of lead. The neutron detector is covered with a thermal neutron-absorbing substance such as cadmium and boron at the outer circumference so that only the epithermal neutrons can permeate therethrough. A high sensitivity detector for thermal neutron are used for improving the detecting efficiency, and the epithermal neutrons are introduced into hydrogen-containing substances such as paraffins to be detected as thermal neutrons. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Density control method for nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a density control for nuclear fuel pellets produced from a raw material powder containing dioxides of uranium or plutonium and oxides of rare earth elements, trimetal octoxides formed from dioxides or the raw material powder not undergoing thermal hysteresis at higher than 1,000degC are added to the raw material powder. Further, trimetal octoxides obtained by calcining a sintering product of the raw material powder is added in addition the trimetal octoxides of the elements. Furthermore, the density of the nuclear fuel pellet is controlled by two kinds of trimetal octoxides obtained by calcining the sintering products of the dioxides, the raw material powder or the nuclear fuel sintering materials at 350 to 800degC. Since trimetal octoxides powder derived from the raw material powder is used as a density increasing additive for the nuclear fuel pellets, it is advantageous in view of stable operation, different from a conventional method of controlling molding condition and sintering condition, and since the trimetal octoxides powder derived from the sintering product is also used, various kinds of density control for nuclear fuel pellets can be conducted. (N.H.)

  8. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlupp, C.

    1986-07-01

    The study describes and analyzes the structures, the procedures and decision making processes of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). INFCE was agreed by the Organizing Conference to be a technical and analytical study and not a negotiation. The results were to be transmitted to governments for their consideration in developing their nuclear energy policies and in international discussions concerning nuclear energy cooperation and related controls and safeguards. Thus INFCE provided a unique example for decision making by consensus in the nuclear world. It was carried through under mutual respect for each country's choices and decisions, without jeopardizing their respective fuel cycle policies or international co-operation agreements and contracts for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, provided that agreed safeguards are applied. (orig.)

  9. The nuclear fuel cycle, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballery, J.L.; Cazalet, J.; Hagemann, R.

    1995-01-01

    Because uranium is widely distributed on the face of the Earth, nuclear energy has a very large potential as an energy source in view of future depletion of fossil fuel reserves. Also future energy requirements will be very sizeable as populations of developing countries are often growing and make the energy question one of the major challenges for the coming decades. Today, nuclear contributes some 340 GWe to the energy requirements of the world. Present and future nuclear programs require an adequate fuel cycle industry, from mining, refining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and the storage of the resulting wastes. The commercial fuel cycle activities amount to an annual business in the 7-8 billions of US Dollars in the hands of a large number of industrial operators. This paper gives details about companies and countries involved in each step of the fuel cycle and about the national strategies and options chosen regarding the back end of the fuel cycle (waste storage and reprocessing). These options are illustrated by considering the policy adopted in three countries (France, United Kingdom, Japan) versed in reprocessing. (J.S.). 13 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Prevention of nuclear fuel cladding materials corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.R.; Yang, J.C.; Lee, I.C.; Kang, H.D.; Cho, S.W.; Whang, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    The only way which could be performed by the operator of nuclear power plant to minimizing the degradation of nuclear fuel cladding material is to control the water quality of primary coolant as specified standard conditions which dose not attack the cladding material. If the water quality of reactor coolant does not meet far from the specification, the failure will occure not only cladding material itself but construction material of primary system which contact with the coolant. The corrosion product of system material are circulate through the whole primary system with the coolant and activated by the neutron near the reactor core. The activated corrosion products and fission products which released from fuel rod to the coolant, so called crud, will repeate deposition and redeposition continuously on the fuel rod and construction material surface. As a result we should consider heat transfer problem. In this study following activities were performed; 1. The crud sample was taken from the spent fuel rod surface of Kori unit one and analized for radioactive element and non radioactive chemical species. 2. The failure mode of nuclear fuel cladding material was estimated by the investigation of releasing type of fission products from the fuel rod to the reactor coolant using the iodine isotopes concentration of reactor coolants. 3. A study was carried out on the sipping test results of spent fuel and a discussion was made on the water quality control records through the past three cycle operation period of Kori unit one plant. (Author)

  11. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  12. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  13. Nuclear fuel sub-assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, J.A.; Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1979-01-01

    A fast reactor fuel sub-assembly has honeycomb grids for laterally supporting the fuel pins. The grids are of two series and are arranged alternately along the bundle. The grids of a first series provide a discrete cell for each pin but the grids of the second series have a peripheral group of cells only. The grids of the second series provide intermediate support of the edge pins to restrain bow. (author)

  14. Economic assessment of new technology of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Song, K. D.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, H. B.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the change in the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel on the power generation cost. In doing so, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants until the year 2040 were forecasted by using the trend analysis technique. This study used the NUFCAP computer code, developed by KAERI, which allows to conduct quantitative evaluation of the volumes of nuclear fuel and spent fuel as well as unit and system costs of nuclear fuel cycle. As a result of this study, it was found that there was little economic difference between the two possible options for the Korean electric system, direct disposal and DUPIC fuel cycle. The rate of discount and the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel were resulted in the most significant factors affecting the economics of the two options. Finally, it was expected that the result of this study provided the arguing point for the international debate on the economics of DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Evaluating Environmental, Health and Safety Impacts from Two Nuclear Fuel Cycles: A Comparative Analysis of Once-Through Uranium Use and Plutonium Recycle in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bethan L.

    this study's comparative impacts of worker collective doses elucidates the dependence of net radiological impacts to workers to fuel-type use. This verification exercise then leads to concluding remarks that fuel-use proportions employed at the end of the hypothetical advanced NFC scenario within the reactor fleet can determine what level of analysis may be required to estimate the net impacts that may be incurred from an advanced NFC. In Chapter 4, a study of potential worker collective doses incurred from carrying out the strategy to manage and dispose of used nuclear fuel outlined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a comprehensive federal waste management system (FWMS) is discussed. It was estimated that the worker collective dose from repository operations leads to the large part of the radiological impact of the new FWMS. The contribution to worker collective dose was compared to that of the contemporary OTC quantitative model presented in Chapter 2. The additional worker collective dose contributed by FWMS activities is small and when the contributions from each grouped operation of the OTC are renormalized, the FWMS ranges annually from 4-8%. Finally, Chapter 5 offers ideas for future work and provides a summary of the findings of this dissertation.

  16. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  17. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  18. Drying of mock spent nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, J.C.; Reese, S.; McIlroy, H.M. Jr. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lords, R.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Spent nuclear fuel elements are stored in underwater cooling pools until the elements can be safely handled and prepared for interim dry storage. The fuel was intended for short-term storage in water before it was to be reprocessed. However, the fuel will no longer be reprocessed, and extended storage in water has caused many of the aluminum-clad elements to degrade, exposing the uranium fuel. In addition, sludge, comprised of corroded aluminum and sediment, has accumulated in and around the fuel plates. The water in the sludge must be removed before the spent fuel elements can be placed in dry storage. Experiments have been performed on mock spent fuel elements with simulated corrosion product applied between the plates. A series of vacuum and heating cycles were used to dry the elements, and a mixture of clay and aluminum oxide was used to simulate corrosion products on the elements. The procedures used in the experiments were determined to be adequate to dry the mock spent fuel elements, and the temperature behavior of the simulated corrosion product within the fuel elements could be used to determine when the element was dry. On plates where areas of wet simulant were found, a sharp frying front was observed that separated the wet and dry parts of the simulated corrosion product. The drying front propagated inward towards the center of the mock fuel elements over time.

  19. Consequences of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, William J.; Wagner, John C.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents work performed for the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOENE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on the criticality safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) in storage and transportation casks. This work was motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during extended storage (ES) periods and transportation following ES, but has relevance to other potential causes of fuel reconfiguration. Commercial UNF in the United States is expected to remain in storage for longer periods than originally intended. Extended storage time and irradiation of nuclear fuel to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications for virtually all aspects of a UNF storage and transport system's performance. The potential impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of UNF in storage and transportation is dependent on the likelihood and extent of the fuel reconfiguration, which is not well understood and is currently an active area of research. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of postulated failed fuel configurations on the criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Although this work is motivated by the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES, it has relevance to fuel reconfiguration due to the effects of high burnup. Regardless of the ultimate disposition path, UNF will need to be transported at some point in the future. To investigate and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration on criticality safety limits, which are given in terms of the effective neutron multiplication factor, a set of failed fuel

  20. Establishment of China Nuclear Fuel Assembly Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peng; Jin Yongli; Zhang Yingchao; Lu Huaquan; Chen Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    China Nuclear Fuel Assembly Database (CNFAD) is developed based on Oracle system. It contains the information of fuel assemblies in the stages of its design, fabrication and post irradiation (PIE). The structure of Browser Sever is adopted in the development of the software, which supports the HTTP protocol. It uses Java interface to transfer the codes from server to clients and make the sources of server and clients be utilized reasonably and sufficiently, so it can perform complicated tasks. Data in various stages of the fuel assemblies in Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), such as the design,fabrication, operation, and post irradiation examination, can be stored in this database. Data can be shared by multi users and communicated within long distances. By using CNFAD, the problem of decentralization of fuel data in China nuclear power plants will be solved. (authors)

  1. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  2. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  3. Manufacturing method for nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    Upon molding of nuclear fuel pellets, the supply of nuclear fuel powder to a dice is divided to a plurality of stages, and a nuclear fuel powder having higher moldability is supplied to a portion where the density of the powder in the molded product is lower. As a result, the density of the powder of the molded product after molding can be made substantially uniform even in a portion where the molding pressure is low and the density of the powder of the molded product is low. Accordingly, difference of the diameter caused depending on the portion of the pellet after sintering is prevented, so that pellets having substantially uniform diameter can be formed, and the specification of the design can be satisfied. If dice agreed with the aimed diameter is selected based on the degree of shrinkage, a grinding step for making the diameter uniform can be eliminated to attain cost down. (N.H.)

  4. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  5. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  6. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  7. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  8. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  9. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  10. INL Site Portion of the April 1995 Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Mamagement Programmatic Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2005-06-30

    In April 1995, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of the Navy, as a cooperating agency, issued the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement (1995 EIS). The 1995 EIS analyzed alternatives for managing The Department's existing and reasonably foreseeable inventories of spent nuclear fuel through the year 2035. It also included a detailed analysis of environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The analysis supported facility-specific decisions regarding new, continued, or planned environmental restoration and waste management operations. The Record of Decision (ROD) was signed in June 1995 and amended in February 1996. It documented a number of projects or activities that would be implemented as a result of decisions regarding INL Site operations. In addition to the decisions that were made, decisions on a number of projects were deferred or projects have been canceled. DOE National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing procedures (found in 10 CFR Part 1 021.330(d)) require that a Supplement Analysis of site-wide EISs be done every five years to determine whether the site-wide EIS remains adequate. While the 1995 EIS was not a true site-wide EIS in that several programs were not included, most notably reactor operations, this method was used to evaluate the adequacy of the 1995 EIS. The decision to perform a Supplement Analysis was supported by the multi-program aspect of the 1995 EIS in conjunction with the spirit of the requirement for periodic review. The purpose of the SA is to determine if there have been changes in the basis upon which an EIS was prepared. This provides input for an evaluation of the continued adequacy of the EIS in light of those changes (i.e., whether there are substantial changes in the proposed

  11. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel

  12. Prospects for the French nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presta, M.; Guiheux, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In France, the present share of nuclear electricity generation is about 70 percent. In order to reduce fuel costs, EDF, the French utility, is dedicated to improve the management of the reloads for the 50 reactors it has to manage. Several decisions are now on the way. They affect the adjustment of the reloads to the situation of electricity consumption, the development of higher burn-up fuels and 1/4 reloads, and the recycling of reprocessing materials. It results that some new features in the management of the fuel cycle have been developed. That is why, COGEMA and other French fuel cycle companies have prepared some new processes to bring new solutions to the utility needs. First, new flexibilities have been created in the enrichment and fabrication management system in order to procure assemblies to EDF according to its needs with both right enrichment levels and fuel capabilities. Second, the recycling of reprocessing materials has been largely studied and large industrial facilities are now either operating or planned: they deal with conversions in UREP plants, enrichment of reprocessed uranium in EURODIF or by laser process, fabrication for REPU fuels by FRAGEMA or for MOX fuels by COMMOX. COGEMA relies on its experience acquired during the large French nuclear program development that let the company to adapt flexibly to the various EDF fuel management improvements. With this background, COGEMA offers services to foreign customers as well. With all these new features, the French nuclear system is now on a good way to ensure a good transition from the phase of building and development to a phase of sophisticated management and optimized use of French nuclear industrial facilities in the next 20 years. (author). 3 figs

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  14. Storing the world's spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.; Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    Given the world's prodigious future energy requirements and the inevitable depletion of oil and gas, it would be foolhardy consciously to seek limitations on the growth of nuclear power. Indeed, the authors continue to believe that the global nuclear power enterprise, as measured by installed reactor capacity, can become much larger in the future without increasing proliferation risks. To accomplish this objective will require renewed dedication to the non-proliferation regime, and it will require some new initiatives. Foremost among these would be the establishment of a spent fuel take-back service, in which one or a few states would retrieve spent nuclear fuel from nations generating it. The centralized retrieval of spent fuel would remove accessible plutonium from the control of national leaders in non-nuclear-weapons states, thereby eliminating the temptation to use this material for weapons. The Soviets already implement a retrieval policy with the spent fuel generated by East European allies. The authors believe that it is time for the US to reopen the issue of spent-fuel retrieval, and thus to strengthen its non-proliferation policies and the nonproliferation regime in general. 7 references

  15. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  16. Long island to Limerick, nuclear fuel transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Bill

    1999-01-01

    The issue described is: how to move 33 shipments of radioactive nuclear fuel - 200 tons of enriched uranium pellets - on rail cars through the heart of Philadelphia, without upsetting politicians, the media and anti-nuclear activists, after a similar plan to move the fuel through New York City had been rejected in a political disaster. The answer to this is: Strategic Communications Planning. At PECO Energy's department of Corporate and Public Affairs, the research is quite clear that in risk management situations like this, the side that gets out front with the most credible information inevitably wins. That is exactly what was set out to do

  17. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  18. Financing of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, P.

    1975-01-01

    Fuels account for only a modest share of the cost of nuclear energy: approximatively one-fourth whereas the capital financing charges exceed one-half. But it is necessary to take account of the combined effect of the magnitude of the needs in coming years and of the resulting acceleration due to the coming on stream of increasingly numerous nuclear power plants and to take account of the characteristics of the fuel cycle which is especially long because of technical requirements and the necessity to establish safety stocks [fr

  19. Country nuclear fuel cycle profile: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Spain has nine nuclear power plants in operation at seven sites. At the end of 2002 the capacity of the plants totalled 7.9 GW(e). In 2002 their electricity production amounted to 60.28 TW·h, equivalent to 26% of national electricity production. The country currently has no plans to add further nuclear generating capacity. Spain has not yet decided about its nuclear fuel cycle policy. ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, S.A. provides products and services related to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. ENUSA had been exploiting an open pit uranium mine at Saelices el Chico (Salamanca). Owing to the low market price of uranium, the mine cannot be exploited economically and mining activities were stopped at the end of 2000. At the mine site ENUSA has the Quercus plant which began producing uranium concentrates in 1993. In 2001 and 2002 the plant worked at a low production level treating mine water. At the end of 2002 ENUSA terminated the plant's production activities. There is no domestic conversion. In 2002 ENUSA managed and supplied 1325 t U in conversion services to Spanish nuclear power plants. There is no domestic enrichment. In 2002 ENUSA managed and supplied 799 t SWU in enrichment services to Spanish nuclear power plants. ENUSA operates a fuel fabrication facility for BWR, PWR and WWER reactors at Juzbado (Salamanca). The design capacity of this facility is 400 t U/a of fuel elements. The Fifth Radioactive Waste Plan governs the policy regarding spent fuel management. The spent fuel is stored in each nuclear power plant pool. In addition, a temporary storage facility was started up at the Trillo nuclear power plant in 2002 which houses spent fuel from the plant in dual purpose casks. After 2010 it is envisaged that a centralized temporary storage facility will exist. No decision will be taken prior to 2010 with respect to the final disposal of spent fuel. Until then it will be necessary to undertake two lines of research, one that considers a deep geological

  20. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is now well established. This report outlines the generic research and technological development underway in this program to assess the concept of immobilization and subsequent disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in a stable plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. The program participants, funding, schedule and associated external review processes are briefly outlined. The major scientific and engineering components of the program, namely, immobilization studies, geoscience research and environmental and safety assessment, are described in more detail

  1. Nuclear fuel rod end plug weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M. A.; Patrick, S. S.; Rice, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for testing TIG (tungsten inert gas) welds of end plugs on a sealed nuclear reactor fuel rod. An X-ray fluorescent spectrograph testing unit detects tungsten inclusion weld defects in the top end plug's seal weld. Separate ultrasonic weld inspection system testing units test the top end plug's seal and girth welds and test the bottom end plug's girth weld for penetration, porosity and wall thinning defects. The nuclear fuel rod is automatically moved into and out from each testing unit and is automatically transported between the testing units by rod handling devices. A controller supervises the operation of the testing units and the rod handling devices

  2. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...... (twice enlarged) and on duplicating film (original size)....

  3. Nuclear fuel performance evaluation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, S.; Pomeroy, D.L.; Rolstad, E.; Sauar, T.O.

    1977-06-01

    An evaluation has been made of the ability of Scandpower's empirical fuel performance model POSHO (''Power Shock'') to predict the probability of fuel pin failures resulting from pellet-clad interaction in commercial nuclear power plants. POSHO provides an analytical method to calculate the failure probabilities associated with power level maneuvers for different fuel assembly designs. Application of the method provides a basis for risk-benefit decisions concerning operational procedures, fuel designs and fuel management strategies. One boiling water reactor (BWR) and one pressurized water reactor (PWR) were selected for study to compare model predictions with actual failures, as determined from post irradiation examination of the fuel and activity release data. The fuel duty cycles were reconstructed from operating records and nodal power histories were created by using Scandpower's FMS computer programs. Nodal power histories, coupled with the relative pin power distribution in each node, were processed by the fuel failure prediction model, which tracks the interaction power level for each pin group in each node and calculates the power shocks and the probability for pellet-clad interaction cracks. The results of these calculations are processed statistically to give the expected number of cracks, the number of failed fuel pins in each assembly and the total number of failed assemblies in the core. Fuel performance in the BWR, Quad Cities Unit Two, was calculated by the model in approximate agreement with the observed performance. Fuel performance in the PWR, Maine Yankee, was calculated in approximate agreement for two of the three fuel designs. The high failure rate in the third design, Type B fuel, was not calculated by the POSHO pellet-clad interaction model

  4. Nuclear fuel technology - Administrative criteria related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    An effective nuclear criticality-safety programme includes cooperation among management, supervision, and the nuclear criticality-safety staff and, for each employee, relies upon conformance with operating procedures. Although the extent and complexity of safety-related activities may vary greatly with the size and type of operation with fissile material, certain safety elements are common. This International Standard represents a codification of such elements related to nuclear criticality safety. General guidance for nuclear criticality safety may be found in ISO 1709. The responsibilities of management, supervision, and the nuclear criticality-safety staff are addressed. The Objectives and characteristics of operating and emergency procedures are included in this International Standard. ISO 14943 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear fuel technology

  5. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  6. Shipping container for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    A container for nuclear materials is described wherein a specially and uniquely constructed pressure vessel and gamma shield assembly for holding the nuclear materials is provided in a housing, and wherein a positioning means extends between the housing and the assembly for spacing the same, insulation in the housing essentially filling the space between the assembly and housing, the insulation comprising beads, globules or the like of water encapsulated in plastic and which, in one important embodiment, contains neutron absorbing matter

  7. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle for use in establishing ''as low as practicable'' guides: fabrication of light-water reactor fuel from enriched uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Finney, B.C.; Lindauer, R.B.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-05-01

    A cost-benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model enriched-uranium, light-water reactor (LWR) fuel fabrication plant, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as practicable'' in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment equipment is added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Some of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. (U.S.)

  8. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) nuclear fuel service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaab, H.; Knecht, K.; Garzarolli, F.

    1977-01-01

    Activities started with the commissioning of the first German nuclear power stations have led to the present form of the nuclear fuel customer service. In the meantime, based on these tasks numerous test and working methods were developed and applied which are now available to operators of nuclear power station. The paper describes the most important methods and instruments and surveys the nuclear fuel service tasks carriedout to date. Past experience has shown that detailed knowledge of design, fabrication as well as the possibility to compose observations with investigations of engineering and hot cell laboratories are prerequisites for successful service performance. The expected trend towards increasing frequency of service activities in the next few years must be taken into account by a continuous expansion in the number of the qualified personnel. It will become necessary for the coordination of the work at an increasing number of reactor plants to conclude long-term service agreements with the customer. (orig.) [de

  9. Nuclear fuel storage apparatus for seismic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An earthquake resistant apparatus is claimed for storing nuclear fuel within a water-filled pool wherein a structural grid which supports the fuel is in turn supported by cables from an upper elevation. The grid is located below the water level and spaced from the walls of the pool an amount, preferably at least equal to the anticipated earthquake displacement. The grid is located below the water level a sufficient depth for radiation shielding during fuel handling and storage, and tension members are preferably ten times the design earthquake displacement. A horizontal baffle is located around the periphery of the pool at an elevation above the grid

  10. Nuclear fuel assembly identification using computer vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffett, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes an improved method of remotely identifying irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. The method uses existing in-cell TV cameras to input an image of the notch-coded top of the fuel assemblies into a computer vision system, which then produces the identifying number for that assembly. This system replaces systems that use either a mechanical mechanism to feel the notches or use human operators to locate notches visually. The system was developed for identifying fuel assemblies from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor, but could be used for other reactor assembly identification, as appropriate

  11. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Locking support for nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledin, Eric

    1980-01-01

    A locking device for supporting and locking a nuclear fuel assembly within a cylindrical bore formed by a support plate, the locking device including a support and locking sleeve having upwardly extending fingers forming wedge shaped contact portions arranged for interaction between an annular tapered surface on the fuel assembly and the support plate bore as well as downwardly extending fingers having wedge shaped contact portions arranged for interaction between an annularly tapered surface on the support plate bore and the fuel assembly whereby the sleeve tends to support and lock the fuel assembly in place within the bore by its own weight while facilitating removal and/or replacement of the fuel assembly.

  13. Spent fuel characterization program in Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, M.; Canencia, R.; Blanco, J.; POMAR, C.

    2010-01-01

    Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a 14x14 PWR reactor built in 1964 in Spain (160 MWe). The commercial operation started in 1969 and finished in 2006. During year 2009, 377 fuel assemblies from cycles 11 to 29 have been stored in 12 containers HI-STORM 100, and positioned in an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installation built near the NPP. The spent fuel characterization and classification is a critical and complex activity that could impact all the storage process. As every container has a number of positions for damaged fuel, the loading plans and the quantity of containers depends on the total fuels classified as damaged. The classification of the spent fuel in Jose Cabrera has been performed on the basis of the Interim Staff Guidance ISG-1 from USNRC, 'Damaged Fuel'. As the storage system should assure thermal limitations, criticality control, retrievability, confinement and shielding for radioactive protection, the criteria analyzed for every spent fuel have been the existence/non existence of fuel leaks; damage that could affect the criticality analysis (as missing fuel pins) and any situation that could affect the future retrievability, as defects on the top nozzle. The first classification was performed based upon existing core records. If there were no indication of operating leakers during the concerned cycles and the structural integrity was adequate, the fuel was classified as intact or undamaged. When operating records indicated a fuel leaker, an additional inspection by ultrasonic testing of all the fuel in the concerned cycle was performed to determine the fuel leakers. If the examination results indicated that the fuel has cladding cracks, it was classified as damaged fuel without considering if it was a gross breach or a hairline crack. Additionally, it was confirmed that the water chemistry specifications for spent fuel pool has been fulfilled. Finally, a visual inspection before dry cask storage was performed and foreign particles were

  14. Nuclear fuel fabrication - developing indigenous capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, U.C.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Meena, R.; Sastry, V.S.; Radhakrishna, C.; Rao, S.M.; Sinha, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early 70's for production of fuel for PHWRs and BWRs in India, has made several improvements in different areas of fuel manufacturing. Starting with wire-wrap type of fuel bundles, NFC had switched over to split spacer type fuel bundle production in mid 80's. On the upstream side slurry extraction was introduced to prepare the pure uranyl nitrate solution directly from the MDU cake. Applying a thin layer of graphite to the inside of the tube was another modification. The Complex has developed cost effective and innovative techniques for these processes, especially for resistance welding of appendages on the fuel elements which has been a unique feature of the Indian PHWR fuel assemblies. Initially, the fuel fabrication plants were set-up with imported process equipment for most of the pelletisation and assembly operations. Gradually with design and development of indigenous equipment both for production and quality control, NFC has demonstrated total self reliance in fuel production by getting these special purpose machines manufactured indigenously. With the expertise gained in different areas of process development and equipment manufacturing, today NFC is in a position to offer know-how and process equipment at very attractive prices. The paper discusses some of the new processes that are developed/introduced in this field and describes different features of a few PLC based automatic equipment developed. Salient features of innovative techniques being adopted in the area Of UO 2 powder production are also briefly indicated. (author)

  15. The nuclear fuel cycle versus the carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power provides approximately 17% of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of ∼0.5 gigatonnes (Gt) of C/yr. This is a modest reduction as compared with global emissions of carbon, ∼7 Gt C/yr. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant and timely impact on carbon emissions, carbon-free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total production of energy by factors of three to ten by 2050. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/yr, depending on the type of carbon-based energy source that is displaced. This three-fold increase utilizing present nuclear technologies would result in 25,000 metric tonnes (t) of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) per year, containing over 200 t of plutonium. This is compared to a present global inventory of approximately 280,000 t of SNF and >1,700 t of Pu. A nuclear weapon can be fashioned from as little as 5 kg of 239 Pu. However, there is considerable technological flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different types of reactor (such as, thermal and fast neutron reactors). The neutron energy spectrum has a significant effect on the fission product yield, and the consumption of long-lived actinides, by fission, is best achieved by fast neutrons. Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the high-level nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of materials used to immobilize different radionuclides. As an example, a 232 Th-based fuel cycle can be used to breed fissile 233 U with minimum production of Pu. In this paper, I will contrast the production of excess carbon in the form of CO 2 from fossil fuels with

  16. Computer-assisted nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, J.P.; Schaumann, S.M.; Stone, E.

    1976-01-01

    At the ERDA Savannah River Plant, a process monitor, which incorporates an online digital computer, assists in manufacturing fuel elements used to produce nuclides such as plutonium, tritium, and californium in the plant's nuclear reactors. Also, inventory functions assist in safeguarding fissile material and protecting against accidental nuclear criticality. Terminals at strategic locations throughout the process area enable production operators to send and receive instructions and information on each manufacturing step

  17. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  18. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  19. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  20. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-05-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed

  1. Proceeding of the Fifth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology in Third Millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Sastratenaya, A.S.; Sutarno, D.

    2000-01-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fifth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology in Third Millennium, held on 22 February in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 35 papers indexed individually. (id)

  2. Australia and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K; Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Lucas Heights; Reynolds, J.; Western Mining Corporation, Western Australia

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear electricity industry based on uranium fuel is now well established in 31 countries. Nuclear's ability to provide large scale base load power at costs competitive with available and politically favoured alternatives is causing it to be increasingly selected for new capacity. The World Nuclear Association data shows that current new construction together with that planned and proposed as of December 2009, will bring world nuclear electricity generating capacity from the present 373 000 MW to 876 000 MWm an increase of 112 per cent. By comparison Australia's total generating capacity (mainly from coal) is 47 000 MW, or one eighth of existing world nuclear capacity. Nuclear growth can be expected to increase further, due to continuing world-wide energy supply security issues and politically driven climate change concerns. Australia has been mining uranium for 60 eventful years, much influenced by government policy changes. Australia's un-mined resources are now the largest in the world and it is already a major supplier to the nuclear fueld cycle, in a growing market. This situation offers long term opportunities for Australia to benefit more fully and at the same time contribute to global security by further participation in the uranium-based nuclear electricity industry fuel cycle

  3. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, D.; England, J.; Rothermel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs

  4. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. This is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

  5. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modern pressurized water reactors. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  6. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 4. Radiological emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, W.W.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the state of emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California. Attention is given to the role of Federal agencies, particularly the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in planning for both on and off site emergency measures and to the role of State and local agencies for off site planning. The relationship between these various authorities is considered. Existing emergency plans for nuclear power plants operating or being constructed in California are summarized. The developing role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission is examined

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the impact and inter-generation risk transfers related to the release and disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tort, V.; Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.; Sugier, A.

    1997-12-01

    This report is an attempt to contribute to the complex issue of the decision-making in the field of radioactive waste management. Because of the complex and multidimensional nature of the distant future consequences of waste management options, their analysis implies the taking into considerations of various aggregated indicators which depend on the elapse of time during which the radionuclides remain in the environment and their local, regional or world-wide dispersion. This report is a preliminary work sponsored by IPSN mainly focused on the risk transfer dimension, inherent to waste disposal management. Its objective is to illustrate, using the French nuclear fuel cycle context, the relative impact of some simple waste management options, outlining particularly the issue of inter-generation risk transfer. Even though the selected six radionuclides are the most important, a complete assessment should include all the radionuclides contained in the waste, what is particularly important in case of underground waste disposal were both normal evolution scenarios and intrusion must be considered. The extreme alternatives, i.e. the total disposal or total release of the radionuclides are analyzed but realistic are the intermediate options, which should be thoroughly examined from the technical point of view. The analysis of intermediate management options could give an estimation of the most appropriate solution in an ALARA perspective

  8. Environmental standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes, 40 CFR part 191: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of environmental standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel and high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes is proposed. The standards would require that maximum individual doses from all normal operations be limited to 25 millirem to the whole body, 75 millirem to the thyroid, and 25 millirem to any other organ. Regarding disposal of subject materials in geologic sites, the standards would include numerical containment requirements for the first 10,000 years following disposal, assurance requirements, and procedural requirements. The assurance requirements would provide seven principles necessary for developing confidence that long-term containment requirements would be upheld. The principles would call for well-designed, multiple-barrier disposal systems that would not rely on future generations for maintenance and would not be located near potential valuable resources. The principles would also require that future generations be provided with information about the location and dangers of the wastes and an option to recover the wastes if necessary. Procedural requirements would be developed to assure that the containment requirements were upheld. The implementation of the standards would protect public health and the environment against emissions of radioactivity. The maximum impact expected from a disposal system complying with the proposed standards would be less than 1000 premature cancer deaths over the first 10,000 years for disposal of high-level wastes produced by all currently operating reactors over their lifetime

  9. Nuclear fuel waste policy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Letourneau, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)

  10. Environmental impact of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, F.

    2008-01-01

    The environment, is radioactive, by reason of reception of rays of sky and earth, atoms on body and normal activities(fossil fuel). Activities on fossil fuel cycle, led to environmental pollutions. Also, the aim of this research is survey of environmental impact of nuclear power plant and determination management and monitoring policies. The result of this research showed that in the fossil fuel cycle (exploration, extraction, mill), produced different level radioactive wastes (low, middle, high), chemical material, heat, oily material and wastewater, that by use of radioactive waste management, destructive effect of pollutant can be decreased

  11. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  12. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E 3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E 3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E 3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  13. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  14. Supply assurance in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assurance, in the face of world and political uncertainties, is interrelated with nuclear technology development plans and international safeguards considerations. This has led some countries to accelerate their commitments to nuclear commercialization faster than necessary and has made non-proliferation policies harder to enforce. Fuel assurance is described on a national basis in three time scales: short-term, or resilience to supply interruptions; mid-term, or contract conditions in which governments make commitments to purchase or deliver; and long-term, or resource adequacy. A review of former assurance problems and current trends in the enrichment and uranium markets indicates that supplier concentration is no longer the major problem so much as non-proliferation actions. The present state of unstable equilibrium is expected to move in the direction of less fuel-supply assurance for countries having a small market or not subscribing to non-proliferation criteria. The authors, while generally optimistic that the fuel-supply system will function, express concern that policies for fuel stockpiles and the condition of uranium markets need improvement. 21 references

  15. Impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, C.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains a series of papers presented at SCK-CEN's workshop on the impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour. Contributing authors discuss different processes affecting the behaviour of fission products in different types of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of papers discusses the behaviour of actinides and fission products released from spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste in geological disposal conditions

  16. Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the storage of spent nuclear fuel, with particular reference to the options which would be available for long-term storage. Two reference programmes of nuclear power generation in the UK are defined and these are used as a basis for the projection of arisings of spent fuel and the storage capacity which might be needed. The characteristics of spent fuel which are relevant to long-term storage include the dimensions, materials and physical construction of the elements, their radioactive inventory and the associated decay heating as a function of time after removal from the reactor. Information on the behaviour of spent fuel in storage ponds is reviewed with particular reference to the corrosion of the cladding. The review indicates that, for long-term storage, both Magnox and AGR fuel would need to be packaged because of the high rate of cladding corrosion and the resulting radiological problems. The position on PWR fuel is less certain. Experience of dry storage is less extensive but it appears that the rate of corrosion of cladding is much lower than in water. Unit costs are discussed. Consideration is given to the radiological impact of fuel storage. (author)

  17. Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1985-06-01

    Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that gadolinium, one of 16 rare earth elements, appears in the marketplace as a by-product and that its present supply is a function of the production rate of other more prevalent rare earths. The potential demand for gadolinium in a fuel reprocessing facility serving a future fast reactor industry amounts to only a small fraction of the supply. At the present rate of consumption, domestic supplies of rare earths containing gadolinium are adequate to meet national needs (including fuel reprocessing) for over 100 years. With access to foreign sources, US demands can be met well beyond the 21st century. It is concluded therefore that the supply of gadolinium will quite likely be more than adequate for reprocessing spent fuel for the early generation of fast reactors. The current price of 99.99% pure gadolinium oxide lies in the range $50/lb to $65/lb (1984 dollars). By the year 2020, in time for reprocessing spent fuel from an early generation of large fast reactors, the corresponding values are expected to lie in the $60/lb to $75/lb (1984 dollars) price range. This increase is modest and its economic impact on nuclear fuel reprocessing would be minor. The economic potential for recovering gadolinium from the wastes of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (which use gadolinium neutron poison) was also investigated. The cost of recycled gadolinium was estimated at over twelve times the cost of fresh gadolinium, and thus recycle using current recovery technology is not economical. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  18. British Nuclear Fuels - a dirty business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive discharges from British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield, Cumbria, reprocessing plant to the sea are discussed. Statements that have been made by various individuals and groups about the contamination of the sea, the coast and places inland, and the biological effects of plutonium and americium, are discussed in detail. Particular stress is placed on statements about increased incidence of cancers. (U.K.)

  19. Inspecting fuel pellets for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, R.S.; Sternheim, E.; Breakey, G.A.; Sturges, R.H.; Taleff, A.; Castner, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method of controlling the inspection, sorting and classifying of nuclear reactor fuel pellets, including a mechanical handling system and a computer controlled data processing system, is described. Having investigated the diameter, length, surface flaws and weights of the pellets, they are sorted accordingly and the relevant data are stored. (U.K.)

  20. Manufacturing process for improved nuclear fuel tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flipot, A.J.; Smolders, A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for manufacturing improved nuclear fuel pellets, including compacting ceramic powder in the compaction chamber of a pelletizing machine with only the lower punch moving on compaction, wherein the walls of the compaction chamber are widened on at least part of their height in the direction of a diameter increase toward the die-bearing table. 3 claims, 6 drawing figures

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-04-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.

  3. Transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Lenail, B.

    1987-01-01

    From a safety standpoint, spent fuel is clearly not ideal for permanent disposal and reprocessing is the best method of preparing wastes for long-term storage in a repository. Furthermore, the future may demonstrate that some fission products recovered in reprocessing have economic applications. Many countries have in fact reached the point at which the recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent fuel is economical in LWR's. Even in countries where this is not yet evident, (i.e., the United States), the French example shows that the day will come when spent fuel will be retrieved for reprocessing and recycle. It is highly questionable whether spent fuel will ever be considered and treated as waste in the same sense as fission products and processed as such, i.e., packaged in a waste form for permanent disposal. Even when recycled fuel material can no longer be reused in LWR's because of poor reactivity, it will be usable in FBR's. Based on the considerable experience gained by SGN and Cogema, this paper has provided practical discussion and illustrations of spent fuel transport and storage of a very important step in the nuclear fuel management process. The best of spent fuel storage depends on technical, economic and policy considerations. Each design has a role to play and we hope that the above discussion will help clarify certain issues

  4. Method for inspecting nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled is described. A traveling bridge and trolley span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool and support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components

  5. Fuel handling grapple for nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousar, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel handling system for nuclear reactor plants. It comprises: a reactor vessel having an openable top and removable cover and containing therein, submerged in water substantially filling the reactor vessel, a fuel core including a multiplicity of fuel bundles formed of groups of sealed tube elements enclosing fissionable fuel assembled into units, the fuel handling system consisting essentially of the combination of: a fuel bundle handling platform movable over the open top of the reactor vessel; a fuel bundle handling mast extendable downward from the platform with a lower end projecting into the open top reactor vessel to the fuel core submerged in water; a grapple head mounted on the lower end of the mast provided with grapple means comprising complementary hooks which pivot inward toward each other to securely grasp a bail handle of a nuclear reactor fuel bundle and pivot backward away from each other to release a bail handle; the grapple means having a hollow cylindrical support shaft fixed within the grapple head with hollow cylindrical sleeves rotatably mounted and fixed in longitudinal axial position on the support shaft and each sleeve having complementary hooks secured thereto whereby each hook pivots with the rotation of the sleeve secured thereto; and the hollow cylindrical support shaft being provided with complementary orifices on opposite sides of its hollow cylindrical and intermediate to the sleeves mounted thereon whereby the orifices on both sides of the hollow cylindrical support shaft are vertically aligned providing a direct in-line optical viewing path downward there-through and a remote operator positioned above the grapple means can observe from overhead the area immediately below the grapple hooks

  6. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.

    1984-11-01

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  9. CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Laura L.; Barela, Amanda Crystal; Schetnan, Richard Reed; Walkow, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog: FY16 Improvements and Additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2016 fiscal year.

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  13. Innovative nuclear fuels: results and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the discovery and design of innovative nuclear fuels, multi-scale models and simulations are used to predict irradiation effects on the thermal conductivity, oxygen diffusivity, and thermal expansion of oxide fuels. The multi-scale approach is illustrated using results on ceramic fuels with a focus on predictions of point defect concentrations, stoichiometry, and phase stability. The high performance computer simulations include coupled heat transport, diffusion, and thermal expansion, gas bubble formation and temperature evolution in a fuel element consisting of UO2 fuel and metallic cladding. The second part of the talk is dedicated to a discussion of an international strategy for developing advanced, innovative nuclear fuels. Four initiative are proposed to accelerate the discovery and design of new materials: (a) Develop an international pool of experts, (b) Create Institutes for Materials Discovery and Design, (c) Create an International Knowledge base for experimental data, models (mathematical expressions), and simulations (codes) and (d) Organize international workshops and conference sessions. The paper ends with a discussion of existing and emerging international collaborations.

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening Findings on Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.; Taiwo, T.A.; Gehin, J.C.; Jubin, R.; Todosow, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening (E and S) study has recently been completed in the United States. The study considered the entire fuel cycle, included considerations for both once-through and recycle fuel cycle options, evaluated a set of 40 fuel cycles that allowed a comprehensive assessment of fuel cycle performance, identified a relatively small number of promising fuel cycle options that have the potential for achieving substantial improvements compared to the current nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and allowed the identification of research and development (R and D) activities needed to support the development of the promising fuel cycle options. Nine high-level criteria (Nuclear Waste Management, Proliferation Risk, Nuclear Material Security Risk, Safety, Environmental Impact, Resource Utilisation, Development and Deployment Risk, Institutional Issues, and Financial Risk and Economics) and associated metrics were used in the study to compare the performance of nuclear fuel cycle options to that of the current fuel cycle practiced in the United States. The study also evaluated a number of fuel cycle characteristics that may have the potential to impact future R and D directions. These included for example: 1) The fuel resources used, i. e., uranium and/or thorium. 2) Impact of extremely high burnup fuels. 3) Minor actinide recycle. 4) The impact of losses during separations (partitioning). 5) Critical versus subcritical (externally-driven) systems for material irradiation. 6) Impact of spectrum of irradiation system, i.e., fast, thermal or intermediate. 7) Waste generation reduction, all of which were quantified in the study. The E and S study has implemented a framework that can be used now and in the future to objectively inform on the potential of alternative nuclear fuel cycles, providing decision-makers and others with perspective on fuel cycle capabilities. (authors)

  15. Assessment of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The status of technology and the regulatory situation are summarized; the level of Federal support believed to be necessary to ensure that the nuclear option plays its role in the National Energy Plan is estimated. The assessment is based on a review of the open literature (no proprietary information), preliminary economic calculations, and experience of the Du Pont staff in the design, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities at Hanford and Savannah River. Because of the limited time available for the review, the conclusions and recommendations are preliminary, but they should provide an appropriate point of departure for planning purposes. A summary of recommendations and conclusions is provided at the beginning of the report, a current status of the applicable technology is given in Appendix B, and a glossary of terms is provided at the end of the report

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-08-17

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage.

  18. Fluid pressure method for recovering fuel pellets from nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for removing fuel pellets from a nuclear fuel element without damaging the fuel pellets or fuel element sheath so that both may be reused. The method comprises holding the fuel element while a high pressure stream internally pressurizes the fuel element to expand the fuel element sheath away from the fuel pellets therein so that the fuel pellets may be easily removed

  19. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 2. Radiological health and related standards for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Wong, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the status and basis of radiation protection standards, with a view to identifying how they particularly apply to nuclear power plants. The national and international organizations involved in the setting of standards are discussed, paying explicit attention to their jurisdictions and to the considerations they use in setting standards. The routine and accidental radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are characterized, and the effect of these emissions on ambient radiation levels is discussed. The state of information on the relationship between radiation exposures and health effects is summarized.

  20. Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, J.; Long, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)