WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear forensic inferences

  1. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  2. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  3. System Support for Forensic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  4. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  5. What is nuclear forensics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information

  6. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  7. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  8. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  9. Radiochronology in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics corresponds to the forensic analysis of nuclear materials. The samples analysed may either be those that are confiscated during any act of smuggling or that is retrieved from a postexplosion debris. The characterisation of the material is based on the isotopic composition, physical and chemical compositions, age and history of the material which are determined by suitable analytical techniques. The interpretation of the analytical results is necessary to understand the details of the material such as its provenance, the industrial history of the material as well as the implications of the probable use of the material

  10. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  11. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  12. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  13. The state of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  14. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: tumey2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  15. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  16. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  17. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  18. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  19. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  20. Safeguards and nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangotra, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards is the detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons, or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by early detection. Safeguards implementation involves nuclear material accounting and containment and surveillance measures. The safeguards are implemented in nuclear facilities by the states, or agencies and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The measures for the safeguards include nuclear material Accounting (NUMAC) and Containment and surveillance systems. In recent times, there have been advances in safeguards like Near Real Time Monitoring (NRTM), Dynamic Nuclear Material Accounting (DNMA), Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), satellite imagery, information from open sources, remote monitoring etc

  1. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution.

  2. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  3. Nuclear forensics: a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)

  4. Post detonation nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jay [The Hertz Foundation, 2300 First Street, Suite 250, Livermore, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The problem of working backwards from the debris of a nuclear explosion to attempt to attribute the event to a particular actor is singularly difficult technically. However, moving from physical information of any certainty through the political steps that would lead to national action presents daunting policy questions as well. This monograph will outline the operational and physical components of this problem and suggest the difficulty of the policy questions that remain.

  5. Post detonation nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The problem of working backwards from the debris of a nuclear explosion to attempt to attribute the event to a particular actor is singularly difficult technically. However, moving from physical information of any certainty through the political steps that would lead to national action presents daunting policy questions as well. This monograph will outline the operational and physical components of this problem and suggest the difficulty of the policy questions that remain

  6. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommé, S.; Jerome, S.M.; Venchiarutti, C.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent–daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. - Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation formulae for age dating with nuclear chronometers. • Applied to parent–daughter pairs used in nuclear forensics. • Investigated need for better half-life data

  7. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material

  8. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  9. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  10. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  11. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  12. Nuclear Forensics' role in analyzing nuclear trafficking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnecek, E.; Mayer, K.; Schubert, A.; Wallenius, M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics aims at identifying origin and intended use of nuclear material using information inherent to the nuclear material.The information gathered in nuclear forensics include isotopic composition, elemental composition, impurities and age of the material, macroscopic appearance and microstructure. The information so collected helps to solve criminal cases and put the individuals involved in nuclear trafficking in jails. The information also helps to improve safeguards and physical protection measures at place of theft or diversion to prevent future thefts or diversions.

  13. Nuclear forensics and nuclear analytical chemistry - iridium determination in a referred forensic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.K.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Ghosh, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear approaches for compositional characterization has bright application prospect in forensic perspective towards assessment of nature and origin of seized material. The macro and micro physical properties of nuclear materials can be specifically associated with a process or type of nuclear activity. Under the jurisdiction of nuclear analytical chemistry as well as nuclear forensics, thrust areas of scientific endeavor like determination of radioisotopes, isotopic and mass ratios, analysis for impurity contents, arriving at chemical forms/species and physical parameters play supporting evidence in forensic investigations. The analytical methods developed for this purposes can be used in international safeguards as well for nuclear forensics. Nuclear material seized in nuclear trafficking can be identified and a profile of the nuclear material can be created

  14. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases

  15. Nuclear Forensics: Scientific Analysis Supporting Law Enforcement and Nuclear Security Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Toole, Kaitlyn; Kips, Ruth; Young, Emma

    2016-02-02

    Nuclear forensic science, or "nuclear forensic", aims to answer questions about nuclear material found outside of regulatory control. In this Feature, we provide a general overview of nuclear forensics, selecting examples of key "nuclear forensic signatures" which have allowed investigators to determine the identity of unknown nuclear material in real investigations.

  16. Nondestructive assay methodologies in nuclear forensics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present chapter, the nondestructive assay (NDA) methodologies used for analysis of nuclear materials as a part of nuclear forensic investigation have been described. These NDA methodologies are based on (i) measurement of passive gamma and neutrons emitted by the radioisotopes present in the nuclear materials, (ii) measurement of gamma rays and neutrons emitted after the active interrogation of the nuclear materials with a source of X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons

  17. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  18. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  19. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  20. Addressing Attribution - Advances in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzenkirchen, K.; Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear forensic investigations the information is typically used to find out the origin of the material including its production place and process. As nuclear material is an industrial product, the respective production process will unavoidably leave a 'fingerprint' in the material. In consequence, parameters related to process and source material are measured and conclusions about the history and origin of the nuclear material can be drawn. Chemical impurities, microstructure, molecular structure or isotopic composition are examples of such parameters, which compose a characteristic 'signature'. The rare-earth elemental (REE) pattern has been found to be an important signature to determine the type of ore used as source material for the production of uranium ore concentrate, since the REE pattern is invariable in most hydrometallurgical processes. Generally, Decrypting the information for nuclear forensic investigations requires sophisticated methodology, subject matter expertise and reference data. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  1. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  2. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities

  3. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities.

  4. Testing inferences in developmental evolution: the forensic evidence principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hans C E; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-09-01

    Developmental evolution (DE) examines the influence of developmental mechanisms on biological evolution. Here we consider the question: "what is the evidence that allows us to decide whether a certain developmental scenario for an evolutionary change is in fact "correct" or at least falsifiable?" We argue that the comparative method linked with what we call the "forensic evidence principle" (FEP) is sufficient to conduct rigorous tests of DE scenarios. The FEP states that different genetically mediated developmental causes of an evolutionary transformation will leave different signatures in the development of the derived character. Although similar inference rules have been used in practically every empirical science, we expand this approach here in two ways: (1) we justify the validity of this principle with reference to a well-known result from mathematical physics, known as the symmetry principle, and (2) propose a specific form of the FEP for DE: given two or more developmental explanations for a certain evolutionary event, say an evolutionary novelty, then the evidence discriminating between these hypotheses will be found in the most proximal internal drivers of the derived character. Hence, a detailed description of the ancestral and derived states, and their most proximal developmental drivers are necessary to discriminate between various evolutionary developmental hypotheses. We discuss how this stepwise order of testing is necessary, establishes a formal test, and how skipping this order of examination may violate a more accurate examination of DE. We illustrate the approach with an example from avian digit evolution. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  6. Basic processes in nuclear forensics and analytical plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  7. A Study on Research Trend in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Yim, Hobin; Lee, Seungmin; Hong, Yunjeong; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2014-01-01

    The international community has recognized the serious threat posed by nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. To address these concerns, the Office of Nuclear Security of the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is developing, inter alia, guidance for nuclear forensics to assist Member States. According to the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) of the IAEA to record the illegal trade and trafficking incidents of nuclear material or other radioactive material, incidents of 2331 have been reported in 1993 to 2012. These incidents mean that we are not safe for nuclear material. In order to solve the case generated by the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and the efficient management of nuclear material, the study of nuclear forensics is very important. In this study, we investigated the analytical techniques and the current status of nuclear forensics research. In this study, we investigated the current status of research of nuclear forensics, procedures for analysis and nuclear forensics analysis technique. A result of the study, we have been found that the major institutes and laboratory actively research on analysis technique and nuclear forensics. However, research on nuclear forensics is still in early stage, ROK is necessary preliminary survey of analysis technique and foundation of physical, chemical, and morphology characteristics of nuclear materials

  8. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The chemical behavior of radioactive elements can differ from conventional wisdom because the number of atoms can be unusually small. Kinetic effects and unusual oxidation states are phenomena that make radiochemistry different from conventional analytic chemistry. The procedures developed at Los Alamos are designed to minimize these effects and provide reproducible results over a wide range of sample types. The analysis of nuclear debris has the additional complication of chemical fractionation and the incorporation of environmental contaminants. These are dealt with through the use of three component isotope ratios and the use of appropriate end members.

  9. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  10. 2016 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Program is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8–10 weeks for a hands-on research experience. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students also have the opportunity to meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  11. 2017 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Internship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-13

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Internship Program (NFSIP) is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8-10 weeks of hands-on research. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students can also meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  12. 2016 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavarin, Mavrik

    2016-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Program is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8-10 weeks for a hands-on research experience. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students also have the opportunity to meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  13. Combating nuclear terrorism in India: preventive nuclear forensic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, N.K.; Lad, J.S.; Deshmukh, A.V.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is constant threat to India by many terrorist organization and neighboring country. These organizations are directly or indirectly aided with nuclear material by terrorism supporting country. Such organization has a significant potential source for acquiring nuclear and other radioactive material. Possibility of leakage is widely feared because of the deteriorating law and order condition, great spur of nuclear proliferation after the cold war and disintegration of USSR. Terrorist could gain access to Nuclear and radioactive material and smuggle to India through porous borders. Preventive forensic approach in screening and searching nuclear and radioactive material will play cardinal role to prevent nuclear disaster happening in India. Future plans could be extracted from terrorists through their narco-tests, brain fingerprinting and a data base on this could be prepared, which could later be used to help prevent any attacks. In present paper authors strongly recommend setting up Preventive Forensic Units in India so that any internal or external nuclear attack could be aborted. (author)

  14. Isotopic Ratios of Samarium by TIMS for Nuclear Forensic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Jean, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inglis, Jeremy David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The isotopic ratio of Nd, Sm, and Gd can provide important information regarding fissile material (nuclear devices, reactors), neutron environment, and device yield. These studies require precise measurement of Sm isotope ratios, by either TIMS or MC-ICP-MS. There has been an increasing trend to measure smaller and smaller quantities of Sm bearing samples. In nuclear forensics 10-100 ng of Sm are needed for precise measurement. To measure sub-ng Sm samples using TIMS for nuclear forensic analysis.

  15. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di

    1999-01-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author)

  16. The deterrent effect of nuclear forensics: The case of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A State capable of identifying the origin and history of intercepted nuclear or radioactive material can have a deterrent effect. This is why nuclear forensics — the examination of nuclear and other radioactive material as part of criminal or nuclear security investigations — is an important tool.

  17. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  18. No Money Down. Boost State Nuclear Forensics Capabilities with Less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Any mention of boosting nuclear forensics capabilities can have governments clutching their wallets reflexively. That's because it sounds very high tech, and therefore very expensive. In a time of austerity measures, countries can find it difficult to take on additional financial responsibilities, even when those responsibilities have to do with nuclear security. But according to the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security, becoming proficient in nuclear forensics isn't as expensive as it initially appears. Nuclear forensics is the science of uncovering the origin and history of nuclear materials, especially those found at a crime scene. ''And every country can engage in a nuclear forensics examination, using existing technical capabilities that are readily adapted as part of a nuclear security infrastructure,'' says David Smith, IAEA Nuclear Security Coordinator. ''They already have the right analytical equipment - spectrometry and inorganic chemistry equipment, for example - in universities, regulatory bodies and mining companies, just to name a few places. And they have much of the expertise - trained technicians and law enforcement officials - but are unaware that putting these things together along with workable plans and strategies - that the IAEA can provide - can create an effective means for the practice of nuclear forensics''

  19. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library

  20. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  1. Sampling flies or sampling flaws? Experimental design and inference strength in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J-P; Schoenly, Kenneth G; Moreau, G

    2012-01-01

    Forensic entomology is an inferential science because postmortem interval estimates are based on the extrapolation of results obtained in field or laboratory settings. Although enormous gains in scientific understanding and methodological practice have been made in forensic entomology over the last few decades, a majority of the field studies we reviewed do not meet the standards for inference, which are 1) adequate replication, 2) independence of experimental units, and 3) experimental conditions that capture a representative range of natural variability. Using a mock case-study approach, we identify design flaws in field and lab experiments and suggest methodological solutions for increasing inference strength that can inform future casework. Suggestions for improving data reporting in future field studies are also proposed.

  2. Nuclear forensics of a non-traditional sample: Neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    Recent nuclear forensics cases have focused primarily on plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) materials. By definition however, nuclear forensics can apply to any diverted nuclear material. This includes neptunium (Np), an internationally safeguarded material like Pu and U, that could offer a nuclear security concern if significant quantities were found outside of regulatory control. This case study couples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with quantitative analysis using newly developed specialized software, to evaluate a non-traditional nuclear forensic sample of Np. Here, the results of the morphological analyses were compared with another Np sample of known pedigree, as well as other traditional actinide materials in order to determine potential processing and point-of-origin

  3. Utilization of nuclear research reactors in forensic science - Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Arya, Bharti; Chattopadhyay, N.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques in Forensic Science is one of the most important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal cause. Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the suspect/criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. (author)

  4. Review of the study and application on nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng'an; Song Jiashu; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the interests of national security, many scientists who work in the field of nuclear forensic analysis have carried out extensive work in the past on the detection of radioactive material and attributions study, developed a series of scientific and technical means to trace and detect illicit circulation of nuclear materials used to weapons and other radioactive materials which impair public security. All these questions relate to physical, chemical, biological attribution of materials. The nuclear forensic analysis has already become a special, up-to-date sphere of learning. The goal of the study of nuclear forensics is to prevent terrorists from acquiring not only nuclear weapons but also mate- rials that can be used to make such weapons, including radioactive materials for nuclear power plants, and medical radioisotope to and provide us as many clues of environmental links as possible that could help us trace the smuggling path, to answer the following questions: What is the material? Where did it come from? How did it pass from legitimate to illicit use? How did it get to where it was interdicted? Who did it? This paper outlines the contents, analysis means and application of nuclear forensics. (authors)

  5. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for source inference in forensic science: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Natacha; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Esseiva, Pierre; Doyle, Sean; Zollinger, Kurt; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used in numerous fields of forensic science in a source inference perspective. This review compiles the studies published on the application of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to the traditional fields of forensic science so far. It completes the review of Benson et al. [1] and synthesises the extent of knowledge already gathered in the following fields: illicit drugs, flammable liquids, human provenancing, microtraces, explosives and other specific materials (packaging tapes, safety matches, plastics, etc.). For each field, a discussion assesses the state of science and highlights the relevance of the information in a forensic context. Through the different discussions which mark out the review, the potential and limitations of IRMS, as well as the needs and challenges of future studies are emphasized. The paper elicits the various dimensions of the source which can be obtained from the isotope information and demonstrates the transversal nature of IRMS as a tool for source inference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Approaches to characterization of nuclear material for establishment of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Hiro; Sumi, Mika; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Kayano, Masashi; Kageyama, Tomio; Shinohara, Nobuo; Martinez, Patrick; Xu, Ning; Thomas, Mariam; Porterfield, Donivan; Colletti, Lisa; Schwartz, Dan; Tandon, Lav

    2014-01-01

    The Plutonium Fuel Development Center (PFDC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been analyzing isotopic compositions and contents of plutonium and uranium as well as trace impurities and physics in the nuclear fuel from MOX fuel fabrication process for accountancy and process control purpose. These analytical techniques are also effective for nuclear forensics to identify such as source, history, and route of the material by determining a composition and characterization of nuclear material. Therefore, PFDC cooperates with Los Alamos National Laboratory which has broad experience and established measurement skill for nuclear forensics, and evaluates the each method, procedure and analytical data toward R and D of characterizing a nuclear material for forensic purposes. This paper describes the approaches to develop characterization techniques of nuclear material for nuclear forensics purposes at PFDC. (author)

  7. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  8. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K; Wallenius, M; Luetzenkirchen, K; Galy, J; Varga, Z; Erdmann, N; Buda, R; Kratz, J-V; Trautmann, N; Fifield, K

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236 U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  9. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  10. Application of Nuclear Forensics in Combating Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As a scientific discipline, nuclear forensics poses formidable scientific challenges with regard to extracting information on the history, origin, movement and processing of nuclear and other radioactive material found to be out of regulatory control. Research into optimized techniques is being pursued by leading nuclear forensic research groups around the world. This research encompasses areas including evidence collection, analytical measurements for rapid and reliable categorization and characterization of nuclear and radioactive material, and interpretation using diverse data characteristics or the 'science of signatures' from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. In this regard, the IAEA recently concluded the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Application of Nuclear Forensics in Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material. The CRP seeks to improve the ability of Member States to provide robust categorization and characterization of seized material, reliable techniques for the collection and preservation of nuclear forensic evidence, and the ability to interpret the results for law enforcement and other purposes. In accordance with broader IAEA objectives, the CRP provides a technical forum for participating institutes from Member States to exchange technical information to benefit national confidence building as well as to advance the international discipline of nuclear forensics. This CRP was initially planned in 2006, commenced in 2008 and was completed in 2012. Three research coordination meetings (RCM) were convened at the IAEA in Vienna to review progress. The leadership of the chairpersons was essential to establishing the technical viability of nuclear forensics at the IAEA and with the Member States

  11. Characterization of highly enriched uranium in a nuclear forensic exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do; Quinelato, Antonio L.; Silva, Nivaldo C. da, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Sarkis, Jorge E.S., E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the characterization of two metal samples of highly enriched uranium as a contribution of Pocos de Caldas Laboratory, LAPOC, a branch of Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, to the Round Robin 3, R R3, coordinated by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group. A scenario was constructed in which two separate seizures of nuclear material occurred and forensics analysis was requested to help discern whether these incidents were related and whether these incidents exceeded country statutes. Laboratories were instructed to submit assessment reports in 24 hours, one week, and two month time frames. Besides preliminary evaluations for categorization of the material, our laboratory applied high resolution gamma spectrometry, optical emission spectrometry by inductively coupled plasma, and potentiometric titration for quantitative characterization of the samples. Concerning our technical reports answers for the three main forensics questions formulated by R R3, one of them was inconclusive, considering that LAPOC does not yet have all essential equipment for a fully satisfactory forensics nuclear analysis. (author)

  12. Characterization of highly enriched uranium in a nuclear forensic exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do; Quinelato, Antonio L.; Silva, Nivaldo C. da; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of two metal samples of highly enriched uranium as a contribution of Pocos de Caldas Laboratory, LAPOC, a branch of Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, to the Round Robin 3, R R3, coordinated by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group. A scenario was constructed in which two separate seizures of nuclear material occurred and forensics analysis was requested to help discern whether these incidents were related and whether these incidents exceeded country statutes. Laboratories were instructed to submit assessment reports in 24 hours, one week, and two month time frames. Besides preliminary evaluations for categorization of the material, our laboratory applied high resolution gamma spectrometry, optical emission spectrometry by inductively coupled plasma, and potentiometric titration for quantitative characterization of the samples. Concerning our technical reports answers for the three main forensics questions formulated by R R3, one of them was inconclusive, considering that LAPOC does not yet have all essential equipment for a fully satisfactory forensics nuclear analysis. (author)

  13. Federal Bureau of Investigation's use of nuclear forensics in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysak, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This presentation outlines the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) role, responsibility and use of nuclear forensics analysis in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics is defined and approached from a law enforcement perspective using the objectives of anticipation, prevention, attribution and prosecution in a court of law. A sustained, systematic and integrated approach is discussed utilizing established standard operating procedures and protocols between the law enforcement and scientific establishments as well as the challenges that still exist. (author)

  14. A review on nuclear forensic methodology for analysis of nuclear material of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Raghav, N.K.; Fatangare, N.M.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of nuclear power and threat from illegal nuclear smuggling nuclear forensic provides an aid to the law enforcement to trace back modus operandi of such threats. Extensive nuclear proliferation, race among countries to acquire nuclear capability and global terrorism scenario has mandated Nuclear Forensic Science technology to tackle nuclear threats. Gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are employed for characterization and relative isotopic composition determinant of Nuclear material and techniques like SEM transmission electron TEM, FT-IR, GC-MS, Electrophoretic technique are used to characterize the contaminated materials in order to deceive investigative agencies. The present paper provide systematic forensic methodology for nuclear and radioactive materials encountered at any crime scene due to any accidental discharges or military activities. (author)

  15. Non-destructive nuclear forensics of radioactive samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, R.B. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Bentoumi, G.; Dimayuga, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Flacau, R. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Li, G.; Li, L.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    It is a matter of public safety and security to be able to examine suspicious packages of unknown origin. If the package is radioactive and sealed (i.e., the radioactive materials contained in the package, including their chemical and physical forms, are unknown), there is a significant risk on how to handle the package and eventually safely dispose of its contents. Within the context of nuclear security, nuclear forensics helps address the key issue of identifying the nature and origin of radioactive and nuclear material in order to improve physical protection measures and prevent future theft or diversion of these materials. Nuclear forensics utilizes analytical techniques, destructive and non-destructive, developed for applications related to nuclear fuel cycles. This paper demonstrates the non-destructive examination techniques that can be used to inspect encapsulated radioactive samples. Results of γ spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, neutron imaging, neutron diffraction, and delayed neutron analysis as applied to an examination of sealed capsules containing unknown radioactive materials are presented. The paper also highlights the value of these techniques to the overall nuclear forensic investigation to determine the origin of these unknown radioactive materials. (author)

  16. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA quantification of various forensic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, H; Nilsson, M; Budowle, B; Lundberg, H; Allen, M

    2006-12-01

    Due to the different types and quality of forensic evidence materials, their DNA content can vary substantially, and particularly low quantities can impact the results in an identification analysis. In this study, the quantity of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA was determined in a variety of materials using a previously described real-time PCR method. DNA quantification in the roots and distal sections of plucked and shed head hairs revealed large variations in DNA content particularly between the root and the shaft of plucked hairs. Also large intra- and inter-individual variations were found among hairs. In addition, DNA content was estimated in samples collected from fingerprints and accessories. The quantification of DNA on various items also displayed large variations, with some materials containing large amounts of nuclear DNA while no detectable nuclear DNA and only limited amounts of mitochondrial DNA were seen in others. Using this sensitive real-time PCR quantification assay, a better understanding was obtained regarding DNA content and variation in commonly analysed forensic evidence materials and this may guide the forensic scientist as to the best molecular biology approach for analysing various forensic evidence materials.

  17. Fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Reilly, D.; Marsden, O.

    2018-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group is a community of nuclear forensic practitioners who respond to incidents involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The Group is dedicated to advancing nuclear forensic science in part through periodic participation in materials exercises. The Group completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise in 2015 in which laboratories from 15 countries and one multinational organization analyzed three samples of special nuclear material in support of a mock nuclear forensic investigation. This special section of the Journal for Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry is devoted to summarizing highlights from this exercise. (author)

  18. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics. Current capability vis-a-vis forensic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.E.; Garrison, J.R.; Hall, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been used in the past for the rapid separation of newly created elements/isotopes and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. We are assessing the utility of this method for rapid separation in the gas-phase to accelerate the separations of radioisotopes germane to post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations. The existing state of the art for thermo chromatographic separations, and its applicability to nuclear forensics, will be reviewed. (author)

  19. Emerging trends in forensic science with special emphasis on nuclear and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Rukmani

    2011-01-01

    Forensic science uses the basic principles of all physical and natural science and have evolved many domain of its owns, like Anthropometry, fingerprint, Foot print, ballistics, documentation, Forensic Biology and Serology, Forensic Chemistry, Nuclear forensic science, Forensic Physic, Toxicology, Odontology, Forensic DNA, Cyber Forensic, Forensic Psychology, Forensic engineering etc., which provides a fool prove scientific aid to criminal justice administration. Nuclear forensic science is a fairly young discipline and only a small number of laboratories are active practitioners. However, the number of incidents of illicit trafficking reported and furthermore, the threat of nuclear terrorism calls for preparedness and for effective tools providing hints on the origin of the material and thus on the perpetrator. The determination of characteristic parameters is subject to ongoing research and development work in a number of nuclear measurement laboratories. Parameters like isotopic composition, chemical impurities, age of the material, macroscopic parameters and microstructure provide clues on the origin and on the intended use of the material. Today, nuclear forensics has reached a high degree of maturity and it is highly relevant in the areas of non-proliferation and of nuclear security. Continued development activities and strengthened international cooperation will be of key importance for the perfection of the discipline of nuclear forensics

  20. Development and evaluation of first responder equipment for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kuroki, Kenro; Schwantes, Jon M.; Pierson, Richard; Piper, Roman K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics are the technical means by which nuclear and other radioactive materials used in illegal activities are characterized as to physical and chemical condition, provenance, and history. Sampling for traditional forensics evidence (e.g. fingerprints, DNA, hair, fibers, and digital evidence) contaminated by radionuclides, and categorization of nuclear and other radioactive materials by on-sight measurement are required for first responders. Portable radiological equipment and radiation protection for first responders to achieve emergency tasks safely at the incident sites have been developed and evaluated in National Research Institute of Police Science. In this report, we introduce wireless network dosimetry system and neutron protection shield with water under sampling and categorization. Described next in this report are evaluation tests of active personal dosimeters using neutron irradiation field in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We evaluated them under fast and thermal neutron field. We confirmed the large fluctuation of the response for each dosimeter caused by the energy dependence of the detectors. (author)

  1. Technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Kokaji, Lisa; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics capability has been developed under the international collaborations. For its effective function, technical development in analysis of seized nuclear materials as well as the institutional development in comprehensive response framework are required under individual national responsibility. In order to keep the “chain of custody” in the proper operation of sample collection at the event scene, radiological analysis at the laboratory, storage of the samples, and further inspection and trial, close cooperation and information sharing between relevant organisations are essential. IAEA issues the Implementing Guide to provide the model action plan and assists individual national development. Some countries at the advancing stage of national response framework, promote the international cooperation for the technical improvement and awareness cultivation. Examples in such national developments will be introduced and prospective technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework will be studied. (author)

  2. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  3. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  4. Investigative radiochemistry. A key element in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z.; Wiss, T.; Fanghaenel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Since the fall of the Iron Curtain illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material has become an issue of concern both on the political and the scientific level. Seized material may be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of material from the same source in the future. Nuclear materials (uranium or plutonium) are of particular worry due to the nuclear proliferation risk associated with the material. Nuclear forensic investigations are aimed at the fact that nuclear material carries (inherent) information on its history, including on its origin and the processes applied for its production. Important conclusions can be drawn from decay products, activation products and fission products. Chemical impurities and the isotopic composition of certain major and minor constituents may provide additional information. Comparison of the measured results with nuclear material databases may yield evidence on the production site. The paper will describe the methodologies developed for addressing the above issues, focussing on radiochemical methods. Examples of nuclear forensic casework will illustrate the experience gathered in these areas. (orig.)

  5. Recent developments and case studies in nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, I.L.F.; Wiss, T.; Thiele, H.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements has played the leading role in Europe in the development of Nuclear Forensic Science. This is a new discipline which has developed out of necessity following the break up of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Block countries in 1989, which resulted in the emergence of a new form of illegal smuggling - that of nuclear materials. The Institute has been involved in the investigation of all the major cases of illicit trafficking involving nuclear- and nuclear-related materials in Europe from 1994, following the first major incident at Munich airport, up to the present time. Examples will be given here illustrating different types of cases: the accidental release of nuclear material into the environment, exercises carried out in cooperation with the German Federal Police (Bundeskriminalamt), and the removal of nuclear material with deliberate criminal intent

  6. Co-Chairs’ Summary of Technical Session 3B. Nuclear Forensic Science: Synergies with Other Disciplines I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.; Roger, I.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific disciplines, including radiochemistry, provide a technical foundation for the science of nuclear forensics. In addition, analytical chemistry, pathology and nuclear material measurements all contribute to the technical spectrum encompassing a nuclear forensic capability. Subject matter experts versed in the former production of nuclear material may contribute to improved understanding of process streams of interest to a nuclear forensic examination

  7. Traces of evidence. Nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    2003-01-01

    An IAEA databank lists a number of reported cases of illicitly trafficked nuclear or other radioactive materials. Apart from the traditional concern with nuclear proliferation, the post September 11th public is now wary of a possible attack by terrorists with a nuclear or radiation dispersion device (RDD). Until now, the seized quantities have not been sufficient to manufacture a nuclear explosive device, but they might be enough to construct an RDD. Recognizing the latent global challenge to public health and safety, the G8 States (Japan, USA, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Canada, and Russia) have called for 'joint international efforts to identify and suppress illicit supply' of, and demand for, nuclear material and to deter potential traffickers. One measure gaining in significance is to identify seized material and trace it back to its origin the objective of an emerging science known as nuclear forensics. Repeatedly nuclear or other radioactive material of unknown origin are observed being released into the environment or illegally possessed. This follows from: accidents involving dispersed material; illegal dumping of nuclear scrap or waste; releases of traces from declared or clandestine activities; orphaned radioactive sources; diverted nuclear material; illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive material. In investigating such incidents, questions arise regarding the intended use, the origin and, where applicable, the smuggling route of the detected material. For this purpose the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group developed a 'Model Action Plan' outlining a series of steps to be taken once material is found or seized. The IAEA and ITU jointly assisted Member States in its implementation and application through a demonstration exercise. As a result of training and technical upgrading, law enforcement services in those States are now able to establish to what extent seized nuclear material might constitute an occupational hazard

  8. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution: A National Laboratory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2008-04-01

    Current capabilities in technical nuclear forensics - the extraction of information from nuclear and/or radiological materials to support the attribution of a nuclear incident to material sources, transit routes, and ultimately perpetrator identity - derive largely from three sources: nuclear weapons testing and surveillance programs of the Cold War, advances in analytical chemistry and materials characterization techniques, and abilities to perform ``conventional'' forensics (e.g., fingerprints) on radiologically contaminated items. Leveraging that scientific infrastructure has provided a baseline capability to the nation, but we are only beginning to explore the scientific challenges that stand between today's capabilities and tomorrow's requirements. These scientific challenges include radically rethinking radioanalytical chemistry approaches, developing rapidly deployable sampling and analysis systems for field applications, and improving analytical instrumentation. Coupled with the ability to measure a signature faster or more exquisitely, we must also develop the ability to interpret those signatures for meaning. This requires understanding of the physics and chemistry of nuclear materials processes well beyond our current level - especially since we are unlikely to ever have direct access to all potential sources of nuclear threat materials.

  9. Development of the fundamental techniques for nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongho; Song, Kyuseok; Ha, Younggeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Heedong

    2013-08-15

    The main goal of this project is to develop the fundamental techniques of physical and chemical analysis of the target materials, and data interpretation methods to identify the origin and the production attributions of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive materials. This also includes production of analytical data for domestic nuclear materials to be used in establishment of national nuclear material data library. As the result of the R and D of this project, we developed the analytical techniques for H and O isotopes to identify the origin of the target samples, the techniques of chemical treatments of water type and soil type samples, and the fundamental research on the gamma spectroscopy for nuclear forensics. We also performed the study on the national collaboration plan on nuclear forensics, and fundamental research and the target materials and analytical requirements for analytical data production of domestic nuclear materials to construct a national data library. Most of the R and D's in the schedule of this project have not been performed due to the early termination of the project by the decision of the government.

  10. Development of the fundamental techniques for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Song, Kyuseok; Ha, Younggeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Heedong

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this project is to develop the fundamental techniques of physical and chemical analysis of the target materials, and data interpretation methods to identify the origin and the production attributions of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive materials. This also includes production of analytical data for domestic nuclear materials to be used in establishment of national nuclear material data library. As the result of the R and D of this project, we developed the analytical techniques for H and O isotopes to identify the origin of the target samples, the techniques of chemical treatments of water type and soil type samples, and the fundamental research on the gamma spectroscopy for nuclear forensics. We also performed the study on the national collaboration plan on nuclear forensics, and fundamental research and the target materials and analytical requirements for analytical data production of domestic nuclear materials to construct a national data library. Most of the R and D's in the schedule of this project have not been performed due to the early termination of the project by the decision of the government

  11. A Study on the Improvement of Nuclear Forensics Legal Regime in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Baek, Ye Ji; Kim, Jae Kwang; Chang, Sun Young; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a critical component of security of these materials and an effective investigatory tool in providing evidence for the prosecution of these malicious acts related to the illicit materials. Because nuclear forensic enhances a State's ability to assess and establish linkages between nuclear and radioactive materials, and those who have attempted to transport, possess, or use it without legitimate State control. However, nuclear forensics is not yet reflected in the domestic laws. Therefore, in this study, we examined related international laws and other important efforts. We compared legal regime improvement options between amending existing legislations and introducing new legislation. Then, based on the analysis, we suggested draft provisions of highest level national legislation on nuclear forensics. We reviewed the analysis of international laws and other important efforts on nuclear forensics to improve of domestic legislations on the nuclear forensics. Through the review of current international movement on the nuclear forensics, we concluded as follows; (a) The state government must be responsible for the nuclear forensics (b) Appropriate administrative regulations on nuclear forensics is required within the highest level legislation

  12. A Study on the Improvement of Nuclear Forensics Legal Regime in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Baek, Ye Ji; Kim, Jae Kwang; Chang, Sun Young; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear forensics is a critical component of security of these materials and an effective investigatory tool in providing evidence for the prosecution of these malicious acts related to the illicit materials. Because nuclear forensic enhances a State's ability to assess and establish linkages between nuclear and radioactive materials, and those who have attempted to transport, possess, or use it without legitimate State control. However, nuclear forensics is not yet reflected in the domestic laws. Therefore, in this study, we examined related international laws and other important efforts. We compared legal regime improvement options between amending existing legislations and introducing new legislation. Then, based on the analysis, we suggested draft provisions of highest level national legislation on nuclear forensics. We reviewed the analysis of international laws and other important efforts on nuclear forensics to improve of domestic legislations on the nuclear forensics. Through the review of current international movement on the nuclear forensics, we concluded as follows; (a) The state government must be responsible for the nuclear forensics (b) Appropriate administrative regulations on nuclear forensics is required within the highest level legislation.

  13. Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dion, Heather M.; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; LaMont, Stephen Philip; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  14. Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dion, Heather M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-22

    LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  15. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Reaction Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-22

    In the intense neutron flux of a nuclear explosion the production of isotopes may occur through successive neutron induced reactions. The pathway to these isotopes illustrates both the complexity of the problem and the need for high quality nuclear data. The growth and decay of radioactive isotopes can follow a similarly complex network. The Bateman equation will be described and modified to apply to the transmutation of isotopes in a high flux reactor. A alternative model of growth and decay, the GD code, that can be applied to fission products will also be described.

  16. Case studies of application of nuclear forensics to analyze nuclear trafficking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnecek, E.; Mayer, K.; Schubert, A.; Wallenius, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discuses the use of nuclear forensics to identify the source of 14 uranium pellets found in Germany. The pellets were found to be homogeneous typical of western european PWR pellets. Based on geometry Siemens , Germany was identified as the only possible manufacturer. The other case study considered was on a metal can containing of 18 grams of uranium dioxide powder found at ulm together with a lead foil containing 1.8 kilograms of uranium dioxide powder plus pellets of Uranium. Four other case studies are considered. the case studies demonstrates the use of nuclear forensics as a key element in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.

  17. Nuclear forensics-metrological basis for legal defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggitt, J.; Inn, K.; Goldberg, S.; Essex, R.; LaMont, S.; Chase, S.

    2009-01-01

    The admissibility of nuclear forensics measurements and opinions derived from them in US Federal and State courts are based on criteria established by the US Supreme Court in the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow and the 2000 Amendment of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. These criteria are being addressed by new efforts that include the development of certified reference materials (CRMs) to provide the basis for analytical method development, optimization, calibration, validation, quality control, testing, readiness, and declaration of measurement uncertainties. Quality data is crucial for all stages of the program, from R and D, and database development, to actual casework. Weakness at any point in the program can propagate to reduce the confidence of final conclusions. The new certified reference materials will provide the necessary means to demonstrate a high level of metrological rigor for nuclear forensics evidence and will form a foundation for legally defensible nuclear chemical analysis. The CRMs will allow scientists to devise validated analytical methods, which can be corroborated by independent analytical laboratories. CRMs are required for ISO accreditation of many different analytical techniques which may be employed in the analysis of interdicted nuclear materials. (author)

  18. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  19. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang

    2015-01-01

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command

  20. Nuclear forensics support. Technical guidance. Reference manual (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material.

  1. The Importance of International Technical Nuclear Forensics to Deter Illicit Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K

    2007-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a transboundary problem that requires a cooperative approach involving international nuclear forensics to ensure all states understand the threat posed by nuclear smuggling as well as a means to best deter the movement of nuclear contraband. To achieve the objectives, all cases involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials must be vigorously pursued and prosecuted when appropriate. The importance of outreach and formal government-to-government relationships with partner nations affected by nuclear trafficking cannot be under-estimated. States that are situated on smuggling routes may be well motivated to counter nuclear crimes to bolster their own border and transportation security as well as strengthen their economic and political viability. National law enforcement and atomic energy agencies in these states are aggressively pursuing a comprehensive strategy to counter nuclear smuggling through increasing reliance on technical nuclear forensics. As part of these activities, it is essential that these organizations be given adequate orientation to the best practices in this emerging discipline including the categorization of interdicted nuclear material, collection of traditional and nuclear forensic evidence, data analysis using optimized analytical protocols, and how to best fuse forensics information with reliable case input to best develop a law enforcement or national security response. The purpose of formalized USG relationship is to establish an institutional framework for collaboration in international forensics, improve standards of forensics practice, conduct joint exercises, and pursue case-work that benefits international security objectives. Just as outreach and formalized relationships are important to cultivate international nuclear forensics, linking nuclear forensics to ongoing national assistance in border and transpiration security, including port of entry of entry monitoring

  2. CETAMA contribution to safeguards and nuclear forensic analysis based on nuclear reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudil, D.; Rigaux, C.; Rivier, C.; Hubinois, J.C.; Aufore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement quality is crucial for the safety of nuclear facilities: nuclear reference materials (CRM) and interlaboratory programs (ILC), beyond the assessment of analytical measurement quality, play an important role. In the nuclear field, the CETAMA proposes suitable scientific and technical developments, in particular the preparation and certification of CRM used either as analytical standards or as reference samples for ILCs. The growing emphasis on nuclear forensic measurements will require some re-certification of old CRMs. But the future analytical challenges of meeting nuclear fuel cycle needs and of ensuring safeguard performance improvements will also concern the future CRMs. (authors)

  3. Nuclear forensic science-From cradle to maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Fanghaenel, T.

    2007-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, when the first seizures of nuclear material were reported, the IAEA recorded more than 800 cases of illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials. Despite the decreasing frequency of seizures involving nuclear materials (i.e. uranium or plutonium), the issue continues to attract public attention and is a reason for concern due to the hazard associated with such materials. Once illicitly trafficked nuclear material has been intercepted, the questions of its intended use and origin are to be addressed. Especially the origin is of prime importance in order to close the gaps and improve the physical protection at the sites where the theft or diversion occurred. To answer the questions, a dedicated nuclear forensics methodology has been developed. In this paper, an overview is given on the methodologies used, the measurement techniques that are applies and on the characteristic parameters that help in the identification of the origin of the material. Some selected examples shall illustrate the challenges and the complexity associated with this work. In particular the past and on-going developments in this new area of science will be highlighted and special attention is attributed to the challenges ahead

  4. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them

  5. Application of modern autoradiography to nuclear forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Davis, Tashi; Knight, Kim; Fitzgerald, Marc; Stone, Gary; Caldeira, Lee; Ramon, Christina; Kristo, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Modern autoradiography techniques based on phosphorimaging technology using image plates (IPs) and digital scanning can identify heterogeneities in activity distributions and reveal material properties, serving to inform subsequent analyses. Here, we have adopted these advantages for applications in nuclear forensics, the technical analysis of radioactive or nuclear materials found outside of legal control to provide data related to provenance, production history, and trafficking route for the materials. IP autoradiography is a relatively simple, non-destructive method for sample characterization that records an image reflecting the relative intensity of alpha and beta emissions from a two-dimensional surface. Such data are complementary to information gathered from radiochemical characterization via bulk counting techniques, and can guide the application of other spatially resolved techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). IP autoradiography can image large 2-dimenstional areas (up to 20×40cm), with relatively low detection limits for actinides and other radioactive nuclides, and sensitivity to a wide dynamic range (10 5 ) of activity density in a single image. Distributions of radioactivity in nuclear materials can be generated with a spatial resolution of approximately 50μm using IP autoradiography and digital scanning. While the finest grain silver halide films still provide the best possible resolution (down to ∼10μm), IP autoradiography has distinct practical advantages such as shorter exposure times, no chemical post-processing, reusability, rapid plate scanning, and automated image digitization. Sample preparation requirements are minimal, and the analytical method does not consume or alter the sample. These advantages make IP autoradiography ideal for routine screening of nuclear materials, and for the identification of areas of interest for subsequent micro-characterization methods. In this

  6. Present status of R and D on nuclear forensics at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Okubo, Ayako; Magara, Masaaki; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    The national statement made by the Japan Government at 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (Washington D.C., U.S.A.) was to develop its nuclear forensics detection and analysis technologies in a three-year period and to share them with the international community to contribute to strengthening the nuclear security regime. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, the organization that possesses analytical capabilities with the potential to fulfill this nuclear forensics mission, started R and D on nuclear forensics technology from JFY 2011. The main areas of development are isotopic ratio analysis, impurity analysis, uranium age determination, etc. The cooperation with US-DOE and EC-JRC were also started to effectively promote the technical development. In the presentation reported will be progress in R and D to establish nuclear forensics analytical capabilities and international cooperation. (author)

  7. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  8. Use of a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor for nuclear forensics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.T.; Beames-Canivet, T.L.; Elliott, R.S.; Kelly, D.G.; Corcoran, E.C., E-mail: Emily.Corcoran@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A low enriched uranium SLOWPOKE-2 reactor is used as a neutron interrogation source in support of the identification and characterization of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC). Small amounts of fissile uranium and plutonium are sent into a SLOWPOKE-2 irradiation site before their transport to RMCC’s delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) system. The counting arrangement of the DNGC consists of an array of six {sup 3}He and a high purity germanium detector. These detectors record the delayed neutron and photon emissions as a function of count time, to verify MCNP6 simulations of delayed particle emissions, and to detect and quantify trace amounts of fissile content. This paper discusses MCNP analyses done in preparation for an upcoming nuclear forensics exercise in the fall of 2014. MCNP6 simulations of the DNGC system focussed on the identification of characteristic gamma lines from prominent fission products. The relative intensities of these gamma lines are dependent on the SNM content in the sample. Gamma line pairs useful for SNM identification in RMCC's DNGC system are presented. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the national workshop on nuclear forensics: fundamentals and applications - course material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Chaudhury, Probal

    2016-01-01

    This course introduces the understanding of the nuclear/radioactive material involved either in illicit trafficking or possibility of getting involved in nuclear or radiological threats or incidents. It will also highlight the basics of nuclear forensics involving various steps i.e categorization, characterization, interpretation and finally the reconstruction of the nuclear/radiological scenario. This will also provide a platform for discussing the challenges and opportunities associated with such investigations. Various techniques adopted throughout the globe for the characterization of nuclear/radioactive materials for nuclear/radiological forensic investigations involving destructive, non-destructive assay methodologies along with traditional forensic analysis will be discussed. The international cooperation which is an indispensable part for nuclear forensic investigation and nuclear forensics support at IAEA will also be discussed in the forum. Apart from this the applications of the techniques in safeguards and other frameworks will also be a part of this workshop. For understanding of the participants about the subject, a table top exercise will be conducted along with demonstration of different radiation detection systems. This manual will serve as a post course reference. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. The role of nuclear forensics in the prevention of acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: States continue to report cases of illicit trafficking that involve nuclear material and other radioactive materials. Over the past decade a total of about 500 cases have been confirmed by States Points of Contact, another 300 remains unconfirmed. Most of the confirmed cases have a criminal dimension, even if not for known terrorist purposes. Much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases: What specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained, in stock, scrap or waste? Was the small quantity seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as nuclear forensics, an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. The events of 11 September 2001 was a wake-up call for the need to protect against nuclear terrorism. In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference, the IAEA Director General has reviewed thoroughly the Agency's activities and programmes with a view of strengthening the protection against acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. A set of specific proposals for the protection against nuclear terrorism, a plan of action, was approved, in principle, by the IAEA Board of Governors in March 2002. While the plan emphasizes prevention, it also recognizes that measures are required to detect and respond to malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The combating of illicit nuclear trafficking remains important in the plan of action. The implementation of the plan will be funded through Member States extra-budgetary contributions. The Agency has adopted an integrated approach to the protection against nuclear terrorism. This brings together Agency activities concerned with physical protection of nuclear material and

  11. Identification of High Confidence Nuclear Forensics Signatures. Results of a Coordinated Research Project and Related Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    The results of a Coordinated Research Project and related research on the identification of high confidence nuclear forensic isotopic, chemical and physical data characteristics, or signatures, provides information on signatures that can help identify the origin and history of nuclear and other radioactive material encountered out of regulatory control. This research report compiles findings from investigations of materials obtained from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle to include radioactive sources. The report further provides recent results used to identify, analyse in the laboratory, predict and interpret these signatures relative to the requirements of a nuclear forensics examination. The report describes some of the controls on the incorporation and persistence of these signatures in these materials as well as their potential use in a national system of identification to include a national nuclear forensics library.

  12. Chemical, physical and isotopic characterization of U3Si2, for nuclear forensics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Daniele Scarpim

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the first illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials was observed mainly in Europe. A decade marked by numerous cases of seizures of these materials. As a result, these events have become the subject of criminal forensic investigations and develop from there, nuclear forensics. In Brazil there are no illicit trafficking official records of nuclear material, however, is widely known the extraction and illegal transportation of radioactive geological materials, and the materials pieces attachment used as shielding for radioactive sources. One of the main tools used in nuclear forensics is the nuclear materials databases establishment. These documents must contain the most information as possible about the physical, chemical and nuclear material seized, allowing the identification of their origin, manufacturing process or age. Thus, it sets characteristic composition standards of each material, called 'chemical signatures' (chemical finger print). In this work nuclear forensic protocol was adopted as well as the three stages of assessment suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in identifying the origin of uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ). Assays were performed in order to make physical, chemical and isotopic characterization of the studied materials and compared the data with those obtained for other uranium compounds (Uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 ; uranium oxide, UO 2 and U 3 O 8 ; Yellow cake) by establishing a characteristic signature for each one. Through the assays the uranium compounds were classify by origin groups, as far as they are from different manufactured process and/ or origin. It was also possible to show the importance of a nuclear forensic database during an investigation of a nuclear forensic event. (author)

  13. The first international training course on basic nuclear forensic methodologies for practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Smith, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in cooperation with the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, developed and conducted the first international training course on basic nuclear forensic methodologies for practitioners in 2012. An overview of the major elements of this landmark workshop as well as successes and recommendations for future improvement are presented here. (author)

  14. "Morphology is a witness which doesn't lie": diagnosis by similarity relation and analogical inference in clinical forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gethin

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I utilise semi-structured interviews with Forensic Medical Examiners (FMEs) in Scotland in order to investigate their diagnostic work. Drawing upon classic medical sociological work on diagnosis (for instance, the work of Paul Atkinson and Michael Bloor), my understanding of diagnosis is as a subjective, but socially-constructed activity whereby medical practitioners are taught to identify (in this case) injury types, initially by ostension, then also by examination. I then extend the analysis postulated within the classic studies by outlining a mechanistic method for the actual cognitive process of diagnosis, drawn from a sociologically informed reading of the historian of science, Thomas Kuhn. It is argued that diagnosis is achieved by similarity relation (comparing new cases to those previously observed), and analogical reasoning (drawing inferences based on the analogy with previous cases). Given that new cases subtly alter the individual FME's classificatory schema, resulting in potential differences in diagnoses, the FME community are required to conduct much reparative work in order to construct their evidence as consensual and factual, as is required by law. The paper will conclude with some brief comments on the future of forensic medical examinations, particularly concerning the fact/opinion distinction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From illicit trafficking to nuclear terrorism? - The role of nuclear forensics science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Cromboom, O.; Daures, P.; Janssens, W.; Koch, L.; Mayer, K.; Ray, I.

    2002-01-01

    The events of 11th September 2001 have reminded us of the importance of taking preventive action in the field of nuclear terrorism as well as measures to mitigate the effects after such an attack. We have seen in the last 10 years the emergence of a new and potentially hazardous form of smuggling: that of nuclear and radioactive materials. The threat of terrorist activities involving nuclear materials has now become a matter of concern as well. Dispersion of such materials over urban areas, their introduction in the food chain or drinking water system are examples of currently perceived risks to our modern societies. Following its early involvement in a large number of cases of illicit trafficking and environmental issues the Institute for Transuranium Elements has developed a new discipline to support Member State authorities to combat illicit trafficking and dealing with criminal environmental issues: nuclear forensic science. The principal aims of research in this field at ITU are: (1) To maintain and develop further investigative techniques for identifying the nature of seized materials, to assess the immediate danger, to locate the original source of the material and, as far as possible, the route it has taken, and to give an opinion on the probable intended use of the material; (2) To foster close contacts with law enforcement agencies -- Europol, Interpol, World Customs Organisation and national police forces -- and to develop techniques to optimise collaboration between standard forensic techniques and the special requirements of the nuclear scientist; (3) To develop and implement a programme of assistance for applicant countries in combating illicit trafficking within their own borders. This involves giving advice, training operators and officials in the detection of illicit materials and the supply of appropriate equipment, such as radiation detectors; (4) To maintain and update an extensive database on commercial nuclear materials -- a separate section

  16. Characterization of nuclear materials by laser ablation ICP(SF)MS for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanka, Z.; Katona, R.; Varga, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The task of the categorization and characterization of nuclear materials of unknown origin has been delegated to the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1996 by a governmental decree. Since the investigated materials are forensic evidences special attention was paid for minimizing the required sample amount. Therefore LA-ICP(SF)MS has been developed and also applied for the determination of isotopic composition, production date and the concentration of trace impurities. The LA-ICP(SF)MS methods were validated by inter-laboratory comparisons and were applied for analysis of uranium oxide pellets seized in Hungary. (author)

  17. Challenges in ensuring radiological safety and nuclear forensic for malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Chatterjee, M.K.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear and other radioactive materials may get smuggled into the country aimed at malicious acts. Radioactive material detected accidentally or during inspection at the entry points/national borders may indicate illicit trafficking for the purpose of nuclear/radiological terrorism. As country requires prevention and preparedness for response to these malicious acts, nuclear forensic techniques are to be developed incorporating radiological safety aspects. Nuclear forensics helps in determining the origin, intended use, legal owner and the smuggled route etc. by using fingerprinting as well as comparison with reference data. The suggested sequence of methods for analysis of radioactive material/samples will be radiological assessment, physical characterization, traditional forensic analysis, isotope analysis along with elemental/chemical analysis

  18. A unified framework for haplotype inference in nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Alexandros; Anastassiou, Dimitris; Wang, Xiaodong

    2012-07-01

    Many large genome-wide association studies include nuclear families with more than one child (trio families), allowing for analysis of differences between siblings (sib pair analysis). Statistical power can be increased when haplotypes are used instead of genotypes. Currently, haplotype inference in families with more than one child can be performed either using the familial information or statistical information derived from the population samples but not both. Building on our recently proposed tree-based deterministic framework (TDS) for trio families, we augment its applicability to general nuclear families. We impose a minimum recombinant approach locally and independently on each multiple children family, while resorting to the population-derived information to solve the remaining ambiguities. Thus our framework incorporates all available information (familial and population) in a given study. We demonstrate that using all the constraints in our approach we can have gains in the accuracy as opposed to breaking the multiple children families to separate trios and resorting to a trio inference algorithm or phasing each family in isolation. We believe that our proposed framework could be the method of choice for haplotype inference in studies that include nuclear families with multiple children. Our software (tds2.0) is downloadable from www.ee.columbia.edu/∼anastas/tds. © 2012 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  19. U.S. and Russian Collaboration in the Area of Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, M J

    2007-10-22

    Nuclear forensics has become increasingly important in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. The illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is, of course, an international problem; nuclear materials may be mined and milled in one country, manufactured in a second country, diverted at a third location, and detected at a fourth. There have been a number of articles in public policy journals in the past year that call for greater interaction between the U. S. and the rest of the world on the topic of nuclear forensics. Some believe that such international cooperation would help provide a more certain capability to identify the source of the nuclear material used in a terrorist event. An improved international nuclear forensics capability would also be important as part of the IAEA verification toolkit, particularly linked to increased access provided by the additional protocol. A recent study has found that, although international progress has been made in securing weapons-usable HEU and Pu, the effort is still insufficient. They found that nuclear material, located in 40 countries, could be obtained by terrorists and criminals and used for a crude nuclear weapon. Through 2006, the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database had recorded a total of 607 confirmed events involving illegal possession, theft, or loss of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Although it is difficult to predict the future course of such illicit trafficking, increasingly such activities are viewed as significant threats that merit the development of special capabilities. As early as April, 1996, nuclear forensics was recognized at the G-8 Summit in Moscow as an important element of an illicit nuclear trafficking program. Given international events over the past several years, the value and need for nuclear forensics seems greater than ever. Determining how and where legitimate control of nuclear material was lost and tracing the route of the material from

  20. U.S. and Russian Collaboration in the Area of Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, M J

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear forensics has become increasingly important in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. The illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is, of course, an international problem; nuclear materials may be mined and milled in one country, manufactured in a second country, diverted at a third location, and detected at a fourth. There have been a number of articles in public policy journals in the past year that call for greater interaction between the U. S. and the rest of the world on the topic of nuclear forensics. Some believe that such international cooperation would help provide a more certain capability to identify the source of the nuclear material used in a terrorist event. An improved international nuclear forensics capability would also be important as part of the IAEA verification toolkit, particularly linked to increased access provided by the additional protocol. A recent study has found that, although international progress has been made in securing weapons-usable HEU and Pu, the effort is still insufficient. They found that nuclear material, located in 40 countries, could be obtained by terrorists and criminals and used for a crude nuclear weapon. Through 2006, the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database had recorded a total of 607 confirmed events involving illegal possession, theft, or loss of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Although it is difficult to predict the future course of such illicit trafficking, increasingly such activities are viewed as significant threats that merit the development of special capabilities. As early as April, 1996, nuclear forensics was recognized at the G-8 Summit in Moscow as an important element of an illicit nuclear trafficking program. Given international events over the past several years, the value and need for nuclear forensics seems greater than ever. Determining how and where legitimate control of nuclear material was lost and tracing the route of the material from

  1. Present status and future plan of development on National Nuclear Forensics Library at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Funatake, Yoshio; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated R and D project on nuclear forensics technology such as analytical technologies towards the establishment of nuclear forensics capabilities in Japan. National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) is one of the fundamental nuclear forensics capabilities and a prototype NNFL has been developed as one topic of the R and D project at JAEA. Main objective of NNFL is to determine whether a seized nuclear or other radioactive material from nuclear security event (e.g. illicit trafficking) is originated from one's country or not. Analytical data of the seized material are compared with the existing materials populated in a NNFL, and its attributions such as origin and history will be identified. This paper describes the current status and future plan on the development of prototype NNFL. The outline and the results of the participation in an international table top exercise on NNFL named 'Galaxy Serpent' are also reported in the present paper. (author)

  2. Uranium from German nuclear power projects of the 1940s - a nuclear forensic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Froehlich, Michaela B. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Isotopenforschung und Kernphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-11-02

    Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Uranium from German nuclear power projects of the 1940s - a nuclear forensic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt; Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole; Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert; Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Steier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the 230 Th/ 234 U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of 236 U and 239 Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Research and service capabilities of the National Nuclear Forensic Research Laboratory; Capacidades de investigacion y servicio del Laboratorio Nacional de Investigacion en Forense Nuclear, Lanafonu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero G, E. T.; Hernandez M, H.; Flores C, J.; Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: elizabeth.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    According to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mexico is taking steps to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear material. The creation of a National Nuclear Forensic Research Laboratory (Lanafonu, acronym in Spanish) has been assigned to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ, Mexico) in 2014. The objectives of this Laboratory are: to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, to optimize scientific processes and techniques used to analyze nuclear materials (orphans or radioactive sources), environmental and potential biological sources as a result of the handling, transport and final storage. At present, the Lanafonu facilities are focused on the optimization of emergency and routine protocols for measuring radioisotopes in environmental and biological samples using inductive coupling mass spectrometer with magnetic sector. The main activities are: i) optimization of the methods for measuring the isotopes of Pu by alpha-spectrometry, Icp-SFMS and AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry), ii) development or radiochemical methods for routine situations and nuclear emergencies, iii) participation in the scientific technical commission on nuclear forensic science, iv) participation in international intercomparison exercises to optimize and validate methods, and v) consolidation of Lanafonu in Mexico and the IAEA. (Author)

  5. Nuclear forensic analysis capabilities and experience at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembree, D.M.; Carter, J.A.; Hinton, E.R. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex has been involved in the U.S. nuclear weapons program since the program's inception in the 1940's. Known as the U.S. 'Fort Knox of uranium', the site is also a repository of unique expertise and experience related to enriched uranium and other weapons-related materials. Y-12's Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) contains a wide range of analytical instrumentation that has demonstrated the ability to provide important forensic information in a short period of time. This rapid response capability is in part due to having all of the analytical instrumentation and expertise contained in one building, within one organization. Rapid-response teams are easily formed to quickly obtain key information. The infrastructure to handle nuclear materials, e.g. chain-of-custody, radiological control, information management, etc. is maintained for normal operations. As a result, the laboratory has demonstrated the capability for rapid response times for nuclear forensic samples. This poster presentation will discuss Y-12's analytical capabilities and the importance of key instruments and highly trained personnel in providing critical information. The laboratory has collaborated with both state and federal law enforcement agencies to analyze non-nuclear forensic evidence. Y-12's participation in two nuclear forensic events, as part of multi-laboratory teams, will be described. (author)

  6. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  7. Using pattern classification and nuclear forensic signatures to link UOC to source rocks and purification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.; Robel, M.; Borg, M.; Hutcheon, I.; Kristo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a scientific discipline interfacing law enforcement, nuclear science and nonproliferation. Information on the history and on the potential origin of unknown nuclear material can be obtained through nuclear forensic analysis. Using commonly available techniques of mass spectrometry, microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we have gained insight into the processing and origin of a suite of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) samples. We have applied chemometric techniques to investigate the relationships between uranium ore deposits and UOC samples in order to identify chemical and isotopic signatures of nuclear forensic importance. We developed multivariate signatures based on elemental concentrations and isotope ratios using a database of characteristics of UOC originating throughout the world. By introducing detailed and specific information about the source rock geology for each sample, we improved our understanding of the preservation of forensic signatures in UOC. Improved characterization of sample processing and provenance allows us to begin to assess the statistical significance of different groupings of samples and identify underlying patterns. Initial results indicate the concentration of uranium in the ore body, the geochemical conditions associated with uranium emplacement, and host rock petrogenesis exert controlling influences on the impurities preserved in UOC. Specific ore processing techniques, particularly those related to In-Situ Recovery, are also reflected in UOC impurity signatures. Stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry can be used in conjunction with rare earth element patterns and other characteristics to link UOCs to specific geologic deposits of origin. We will present a number of case studies illustrating the ways in which nuclear forensic analysis can provide insight into the ore geology and production and purification processes used to produce UOC. (author)

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Surrogate Glasses Aimed to Validate Nuclear Forensic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the glass formed during a nuclear event, trinitite [14]. The SiO2 composition is generally greater than 50% for trinitite and can vary appreciably...CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO VALIDATE NUCLEAR FORENSIC TECHNIQUES by Ken G. Foos December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Claudia...December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO

  9. Development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards and Forensic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; El-Jaby, A.; Doucet, F.; Bouchard, P.; Sabsabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Under the IAEA Task A1855, the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP) undertook the development of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technologies for safeguards applications. Collaboration between the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the National Research Council Canada, and the IAEA has demonstrated that the LIBS technique combined with chemometrics can determine the origins of yellowcake, identify maraging steels, aluminium alloys, and magnesium alloys, among other materials involved in the nuclear industry; and determine heavy water content as well as the isotope ratios of other actinides. As part of the task, the CSSP has developed a portable LIBS system to enable inspectors to characterize specific nuclear and non-nuclear material during complementary access and inspections. This device was recently tested by the IAEA in both Vienna and Siebersdorf for various metals and uranium bearing materials. The laser source proved to be stable and the chemometrics software was able to identify various materials. The device is ready for further in-depth testing. The chemometrics algorithm that has been developed for LIBS can also be adapted to nuclear forensics for the querying database. Multi-stage pattern recognition algorithms can reliably identify unknown materials among database populations (e.g., identify origins of yellowcake). Further work in this field is being undertaken as part of the CNSC's National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) development activities for the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project (CNNFCP). The paper will provide an overview of the LIBS techniques being developed for safeguards and forensic applications, and of progress in integrating all components into a compact unit. (author)

  10. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Marsden, Oliva; Pellegrini, Kristi L.

    2016-09-16

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official nuclear forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with roughly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist law enforcement during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. The ITWG recently completed its fourth CMX in the 20 year history of the organization. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or organizations. Three samples of low enriched uranium were shipped to these laboratories as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. An objective review of the State Of Practice and Art of international nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided.

  11. Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

    2014-04-01

    The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

  12. Applicability of Machine-Learning Enabled LIBS in Post Irradiation Nuclear Forensic Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onkongi, J.; Maina, D.; Angeyo, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics seeks Information to determine; Chemical Composition, Routes of transit, Origin (Provenance) and Intended use. Post Irradiation/Post detonation NF In a post-detonation event could you get clues/signatures from glass debris, minute sample sizes? Nuclear Forensic Technique Should be State-of -the art that is Rapid, Non-invasive, Remote ability and Non-destructive. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) unlike other Analytic Techniques that require tedious sample preparations such as Dissolution, digestion & matrix removal, which generate additional nuclear wastes that require proper Procedures for handling, storage & ultimate disposal, LIBS overcomes these limitations. Utility of Machine Learning Techniques employed include; Artificial Neural Networks, ANN (Regression/Modelling), Principal component Analysis, PCA (Classification) and Support Vector Machine SVM (Comparative study/Classification Machine Learning coupled with LIBS gives a state of the art analytic method. Utility of the technic in safeguards security and non-proliferation

  13. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  14. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su' ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  15. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.R.; Hanson, D.E.; Hall, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation. (author)

  16. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi; Yan, Fengming; Wang, Jianyun; Song, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Here, we reconstructed the Hemiptera phylogeny based on the expanded mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, separately. The differential rates of change across lineages may associate with long-branch attraction (LBA) effect and result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny from different types of data. To reduce the potential effects of systematic biases on inferences of topology, various data coding schemes, site removal method, and different algorithms were utilized in phylogenetic reconstruction. We show that the outgroups Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, and the ingroup Sternorrhyncha share similar base composition, and exhibit "long branches" relative to other hemipterans. Thus, the long-branch attraction between these groups is suspected to cause the failure of recovering Hemiptera under the homogeneous model. In contrast, a monophyletic Hemiptera is supported when heterogeneous model is utilized in the analysis. Although higher level phylogenetic relationships within Hemiptera remain to be answered, consensus between analyses is beginning to converge on a stable phylogeny.

  18. Quality assurance and reference material requirements and considerations for environmental sample analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Perrin, R.E.; Goldberg, S.A.; Cappis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Following the Gulf War, the capability and revealing power of environmental sampling and analysis techniques to support international safeguards was demonstrated and subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as routine safeguards measures in safeguards inspections and verifications. In addition to having been proved useful in international safeguards, environmental sampling and analysis techniques have demonstrated their utility in identifying the origins of 'orphaned' nuclear material, as well as the origin of intercepted smuggled nuclear material. Today, environmental sampling and analysis techniques are now being applied in six broad areas to support nonproliferation, disarmament treaty verification, national and international nuclear security, and environmental stewardship of weapons production activities. Consequently, more and more laboratories around the world are establishing capabilities or expanding capabilities to meet these growing applications, and as such requirements for quality assurance and control are increasing. The six areas are: 1) Nuclear safeguards; 2) Nuclear forensics/illicit trafficking; 3) Ongoing monitoring and verification (OMV); 4) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); 5) Weapons dismantlement/materials disposition; and 6) Research and development (R and D)/environmental stewardship/safety. Application of environmental sampling and analysis techniques and resources to illicit nuclear material trafficking, while embodying the same basic techniques and resources, does have unique requirements for sample management, handling, protocols, chain of custody, archiving, and data interpretation. These requirements are derived from needs of how data from nuclear forensics

  19. The Department of Homeland Security’s Approach to Countering Nuclear Terrorism through Detection and Technical Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huban A. Gowadia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To combat the threat of nuclear terrorism, the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO was established within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to focus efforts on developing and enhancing radiological and nuclear detection and national technical nuclear forensics capabilities. With respect to nuclear detection, we at DNDO, in concert with interagency partners, are developing and enhancing a multi-faceted, layered, defense-in-depth framework to make prohibitively difficult the importation, possession, storage, development, transportation, or use of nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. In furtherance of this framework, we conduct research and development on detection and forensics technologies, characterize system performance, acquire and deploy detection systems, and support operational partners with the development of programs to effectively perform detection operations. To support the U.S. Government’s (USG attribution process, we focus on improving the readiness of the overarching USG forensic capabilities; advancing the technical capabilities to perform forensic analyses on pre-detonation nuclear and other radioactive materials; and building and sustaining an expertise pipeline for nuclear forensic scientists. These efforts, coupled with the work of interagency partners, will advance USG capabilities to detect and interdict a nuclear threat and hold accountable those who are responsible for such actions.

  20. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiemann, Dora K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choi, Junoh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  1. Challenges for development and provision of metrological quality control tools in nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aregbe, Y.; Richter, S.; Jakopic, R.; Bauwens, J.; Truyens, J.; Sturm, M.; Bujak, R.; Eykens, R.; Kehoe, F.; Kuehn, H.; Hennessy, C.

    2013-01-01

    Joint advancements in quality control tools and measurement sciences of international reference and safeguards laboratories include: -) successful integration of the Modified Total Evaporation technique (MTE) as a new tool for routine thermal ionization mass spectrometry in nuclear safeguards and security, -) research and feasibility studies for the development of new materials standard, particularly for nuclear forensics (Certified Reference Materials - CRMs for age-dating), -) quality control tools to support the additional protocol and nuclear security (particle CRMs, NUSIMEP (inter-laboratory comparisons for U particle analysis), and -) scientific/technical advice, training and knowledge transfer. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the CETAMA Commission from the French Commission of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA/CETAMA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Meetings are the platforms to exchange views on the needs and challenges for new Quality Control tools for nuclear safeguards and security. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  2. Research and service capabilities of the National Nuclear Forensic Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E. T.; Hernandez M, H.; Flores C, J.; Paredes G, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    According to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mexico is taking steps to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear material. The creation of a National Nuclear Forensic Research Laboratory (Lanafonu, acronym in Spanish) has been assigned to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ, Mexico) in 2014. The objectives of this Laboratory are: to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, to optimize scientific processes and techniques used to analyze nuclear materials (orphans or radioactive sources), environmental and potential biological sources as a result of the handling, transport and final storage. At present, the Lanafonu facilities are focused on the optimization of emergency and routine protocols for measuring radioisotopes in environmental and biological samples using inductive coupling mass spectrometer with magnetic sector. The main activities are: i) optimization of the methods for measuring the isotopes of Pu by alpha-spectrometry, Icp-SFMS and AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry), ii) development or radiochemical methods for routine situations and nuclear emergencies, iii) participation in the scientific technical commission on nuclear forensic science, iv) participation in international intercomparison exercises to optimize and validate methods, and v) consolidation of Lanafonu in Mexico and the IAEA. (Author)

  3. Statement to International Conference on Advances in Nuclear Forensics, 7 July 2014, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    National authorities have primary responsibility for ensuring that such materials, and the facilities in which they are housed, are properly secured. But terrorists and criminals operate across international borders, so a coordinated international response is essential. The IAEA plays the central role in helping countries to ensure that nuclear and other radioactive materials do not fall into the wrong hands. Globally, the protection of these materials and related facilities has undoubtedly improved in the past decade. But much remains to be done. In the 20 years to 2013, our Member States reported nearly 2 400 confirmed incidents of nuclear and other radioactive material falling out of regulatory control. These are figures compiled by the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database. Of greatest concern were 16 incidents which involved the unauthorized possession of highly enriched uranium and plutonium. As recently as 2011, there was evidence of the existence of organized networks of sellers and buyers for this material. Experience has shown that the harder law enforcement agencies look for nuclear and other radioactive material, the more they find. The question then is to determine the precise nature of material that is seized. Where did it originate? What threat does it pose? Is there more? This is where nuclear forensics comes in. By helping to determine the origin and history of seized materials, nuclear forensics provides important answers that can guide investigations. Investigators need the specialist knowledge to manage crime scenes effectively in the case of a nuclear security incident. They must establish an appropriate chain of custody in dealing with evidence and seized material must be analysed in accordance with well documented procedures. This helps to establish confidence in the conclusions of nuclear forensic investigations and can contribute to successful prosecutions of perpetrators

  4. Post Blast Nuclear Forensics Of A Radiological Dispersion Device Scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Halevy, I; Sattinger, D; Admon, U; Banaim, P; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    'Green Field' (GF) project conducting in Israel, between the years ’06-‘14, aimed at increasing the preparedness for outdoor terrorism events, where a radioactive (RA) material is dispersed by an explosive charge. Under the project framework a wide experimental program was established and conducted. The experimental plan included set of about 150 detonation tests that were done in order to close some gaps of knowledge mainly relating to the “source term” characterization. Experiments were done using wide range of different source term parameters. Among these are: explosive types, dispersed materials (both, stable simulants and short live radio isotopes), device geometries, ground surfaces, detonation heights and orientation, atmospheric stability situations etc. Field data collection and documentation used some of the “state of the art” detectors, cameras etc. Based on a comprehensive data analysis and complementary simulations, a methodology for post blast forensic using data collected from the close vicinity of the detention point was developed

  5. Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 9: This contribution concerns statistical inference for parametric models used in stochastic geometry and based on quick and simple simulation free procedures as well as more comprehensive methods based on a maximum likelihood or Bayesian approach combined with markov chain Monte Carlo...... (MCMC) techniques. Due to space limitations the focus is on spatial point processes....

  6. Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    (This text written by Jesper Møller, Aalborg University, is submitted for the collection ‘Stochastic Geometry: Highlights, Interactions and New Perspectives', edited by Wilfrid S. Kendall and Ilya Molchanov, to be published by ClarendonPress, Oxford, and planned to appear as Section 4.1 with the ......(This text written by Jesper Møller, Aalborg University, is submitted for the collection ‘Stochastic Geometry: Highlights, Interactions and New Perspectives', edited by Wilfrid S. Kendall and Ilya Molchanov, to be published by ClarendonPress, Oxford, and planned to appear as Section 4.......1 with the title ‘Inference'.) This contribution concerns statistical inference for parametric models used in stochastic geometry and based on quick and simple simulation free procedures as well as more comprehensive methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Due to space limitations the focus...

  7. DHS National Technical Nuclear Forensics Program FY 10 Summary Report: Graduate Mentoring Assistance Program (GMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, Martha R.

    2011-01-01

    This program provides practical training to DHS graduate fellows in the DOE laboratory complex. It involves coordinating students, their thesis advisors, and their laboratory project mentors in establishing a meaningful program of research which contributes to the graduate student's formation as a member of the nuclear forensics community. The summary report details the student/mentor experience and future plans after the first summer practicum. This program provides practical training to DHS graduate fellows in the DOE laboratory complex. It involves coordinating students, their thesis advisors, and their laboratory project mentors in establishing a meaningful program of research which contributes to the graduate student's formation as a member of the nuclear forensics community. This final written report includes information concerning the overall mentoring experience, including benefits (to the lab, the mentors, and the students), challenges, student research contributions, and lab mentor interactions with students home universities. Idaho National Laboratory hosted two DHS Nuclear Forensics graduate Fellows (nuclear engineering) in summer 2011. Two more Fellows (radiochemistry) are expected to conduct research at the INL under this program starting in 2012. An undergraduate Fellow (nuclear engineering) who worked in summer 2011 at the laboratory is keenly interested in applying for the NF Graduate Fellowship this winter with the aim of returning to INL. In summary, this program appears to have great potential for success in supporting graduate level students who pursue careers in nuclear forensics. This relatively specialized field may not have been an obvious choice for some who have already shown talent in the traditional areas of chemistry or nuclear engineering. The active recruiting for this scholarship program for candidates at universities across the U.S. brings needed visibility to this field. Not only does this program offer critical practical training

  8. Recent advances in nuclear forensic science - The identification of unknown nuclear materials and co-operation with the legal authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, I.L.F.; Schubert, A.; Schenkel, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Forensic Science is a new branch of forensic science, which has arisen out of necessity following the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and East Block countries. One result of this break up was the emergence of a new form of smuggling, involving nuclear materials, radioactive sources and scrap metal contaminated with radioactive substances. Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission Joint Research Centre has played a major role in combating the illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and contaminated scrap metals. The Institute has the advantages of extensive experience in handling these materials, which require sophisticated instruments mounted in glove boxes. As part of the European Commission Joint Research Centre the Institute is also independent of national interests within the European Union and abroad. Some twenty-five cases of illicit trafficking have been examined so far. Some of the latest cases will be described and the methods developed at the Institute for isotopic and microstructural fingerprinting of nuclear materials will be illustrated. The microstructural fingerprint is a new technique developed here, which complements the isotopic analysis of the samples, and is highly characteristic of the production process and subsequent history of the materials involved. Furthermore, the microstructural fingerprint cannot be disguised by, for example, the addition of other substances or isotopes to the sample. An extensive database on commercial nuclear materials is maintained by the Institute, and this is being enlarged to include microstructural information such as porosity, grain size, precipitation, dislocation structures, pellet surface roughness, etc. The database can be used for comparison when samples of unknown provenance are seized. The Institute places emphasis on developing close co-operation with the legal authorities to optimize the side-by-side working of law enforcement officers and

  9. Role of mass spectrometry in nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Sivaraman, N.

    2016-01-01

    The present talk will focus on the role of mass spectrometry in NFS in general; besides that, the various chromatographic methods developed towards separation of actinides and lanthanide fission products and characterization of dissolver solutions of nuclear reactor fuels using TIMS and some applications of using ICP-MS as well

  10. Nuclear forensics: a supporting tool for ensuring safety and security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    After the breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990's, illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials ('nuclear smuggling') was noticed and these materials were seized at border crossings and international points of entry. The first instance of this new criminal activity was reported in 1991 in Italy and Switzerland and by 2011, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) recorded more than 2150 incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive material. About 400 of these incidents involve depleted, natural or low-enriched uranium. Out of the need not only to identify and characterise illicit nuclear materials but also to learn more about both the original and intended use of the material, its origin and the putative trafficking route, 'nuclear forensics' discipline came into being

  11. Who Did It? Using International Forensics to Detect and Deter Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, W H; Smith, H P

    2006-08-28

    On February 2, the ''New York Times'' reported that the Pentagon has formed a nuclear forensics team tasked with identifying the terrorist attackers should the United States be hit with a nuclear bomb. Adapting nuclear technology to the forensics of exploded nuclear weapons is an old but rapidly evolving field. It dates back to at least 1949, when analysis of airborne debris, retrieved at high altitude off the coast of China, convinced President Harry Truman that the Soviet Union had exploded a nuclear device on the steppes of central Asia. The technology is neither new nor has it been particularly secret, but the formation of a national nuclear forensics team was newsworthy and a useful development. An international team, however, would be even better. Although Washington has naturally focused on preventing a nuclear terrorism attack in the United States, a U.S. city is not necessarily the most likely target for nuclear terrorists. It is doubtful that a terrorist organization would be able to acquire a U.S. nuclear device and even more doubtful that it would acquire one on U.S. soil. Accordingly, if a terrorist organization does get its hands on a fission device, it is likely that it will do so on foreign territory. At that point, the terrorists will have an enormously valuable political weapon in their hands and will be loath to risk losing that asset. Given the risks associated with getting the device into the United States, the rational choice would be to deploy the device abroad against much softer targets. For Islamist terrorists, a major ''Christian'' capital such as London, Rome, or Moscow might offer a more suitable target. Among these, Moscow perhaps presents the most compelling case for international cooperation on post-detonation nuclear forensics. Russia has the largest stockpile of poorly secured nuclear devices in the world. It also has porous borders and poor internal security, and it continues to be a

  12. Present status and future challenges of nuclear forensics technology developments in JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okubo, Ayako; Toda, Nobufumi; Funatake, Yoshio; Kataoka, Osamu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a nuclear forensics (NF) technology development project from JFY 2011, according to the National Statement of Japan in Nuclear Security Summit 2010. This paper will present the progress and future prospects of the development project during JFY 2011 to 2013. The project on NF technology in JAEA includes the development of analytical technologies such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and the prototype of nuclear forensics library (NFL) for future national NFL. Some analytical devices were installed for the analytical technology developments, and various uranium materials produced in JAEA facilities at Ningyo-toge have been measured to verify the analytical technologies. A nuclear material database of the prototype NFL was also developed with brief tools of multivariate analysis and image analysis. The implementation of the analytical technologies, the development of advanced analytical technologies and the system improvements of the prototype NFL will be continued from JFY 2014 in JAEA. The national regime and national response plan are remained as a big challenge to establish the national NF capabilities in Japan. (author)

  13. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Pellegrini, K.L.; Marsden, Oliva

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) recently completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX-4) in the 21 year history of the Group. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or international organizations. Exercise samples (including three separate samples of low enriched uranium oxide) were shipped as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. In all, over 30 analytical techniques were applied to characterize exercise materials, for which ten of those techniques were applied to ITWG exercises for the first time. An objective review of the state of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided. (author)

  14. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Marsden, Oliva; Pellegrini, Kristi L.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) recently completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX-4) in the 21 year history of the Group. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or international organizations. Moreover, exercise samples (including three separate samples of low enriched uranium oxide) were shipped as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. In all, over 30 analytical techniques were applied to characterize exercise materials, for which ten of those techniques were applied to ITWG exercises for the first time. We performed an objective review of the state of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided.

  15. Application of nuclear and allied techniques for the characterisation of forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Kayasth, S.R.; Pant, D.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Bhattacharyya, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Forensic science deals with the application of various techniques for physics, chemistry and biology for crime investigation. The legal implication of such analysis put considerable restriction on the choice of analytical techniques. Moreover, the unknown nature of the materials, the limited availability of samples and the large number of elements to be analysed put considerable strain on the analytical chemist on the selection of the appropriate technique. The availability of nuclear techniques has considerably enhanced the scope of forensic analysis. This paper deals with the recent results on the use of nuclear and allied analytical techniques for forensic applications. One of the important types of samples of forensic importance pertain to the identification of gunshot residues. The use of nuclear techniques has considerably simplified the interpretation of results through the use of appropriate elements like Ba, Cu, Sb, Zn, As and Sn etc. The combination of non-nuclear techniques for elements like Pb and Ni which are not easily amenable to be analysed by NAA and the use of appropriate separation procedure has led to the use of this method as a valid and versatile analytical procedure. In view of the presence of a large amounts of extraneous materials like cloth, body tissues etc in these samples and the limited availability of materials, the procedures for sample collection, dissolution and analysis have been standardized. Analysis of unknown materials like powders, metallic pieces etc. for the possible presence of nuclear materials or as materials in illicit trafficking is becoming important in recent years. The use of multi-technique approach is important in this case. Use of non-destructive techniques like XRF and radioactive counting enables the preliminary identification of materials and for the detection of radioactivity. Subsequent analysis by NAA or other appropriate analytical methods allows the characterization of the materials. Such

  16. Process for estimating likelihood and confidence in post detonation nuclear forensics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craft, Charles M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) must provide answers to questions of concern to the broader community, including an estimate of uncertainty. There is significant uncertainty associated with post-detonation TNF. The uncertainty consists of a great deal of epistemic (state of knowledge) as well as aleatory (random) uncertainty, and many of the variables of interest are linguistic (words) and not numeric. We provide a process by which TNF experts can structure their process for answering questions and provide an estimate of uncertainty. The process uses belief and plausibility, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

  17. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tims (Sebastian); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHuman fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically

  18. The urgent requirement for new radioanalytical certified reference materials for nuclear safeguards, forensics, and consequence management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; Martin Johnson, Jr.C.; Warren Oldham; Lav Tandon; Simon Jerome; Thomas Schaaff; Robert Jones; Daniel Mackney; Pam MacKill; Brett Palmer

    2013-01-01

    A multi-agency workshop was held from 25 to 27 August 2009, at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to identify and prioritize the development of radioanalytical Certified Reference Materials (CRMs, generally provided by National Metrology Institutes; Standard Reference Materials, a CRM issued by NIST) for field and laboratory nuclear measurement methods to be used to assess the consequences of a domestic or international nuclear event. Without these CRMs, policy makers concerned with detecting proliferation and trafficking of nuclear materials, attribution and retribution following a nuclear event, and public health consequences of a nuclear event would have difficulty making decisions based on analytical data that would stand up to scientific, public, and judicial scrutiny. The workshop concentrated on three areas: post-incident Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) nuclear forensics, safeguard materials characterization, and consequence management for an IND or a Radiological Dispersion Device detonation scenario. The workshop identified specific CRM requirements to fulfill the needs for these three measurement communities. Of highest priority are: (1) isotope dilution mass spectrometry standards, specifically 233 U, 236 gNp, 244 Pu, and 243 Am, used for quantitative analysis of the respective elements that are in critically short supply and in urgent need of replenishment and certification; (2) CRMs that are urgently needed for post-detonation debris analysis of actinides and fission fragments, and (3) CRMs used for destructive and nondestructive analyses for safeguards measurements, and radioisotopes of interest in environmental matrices. (author)

  19. Forensic Reconstructions of Radioactive Particulate Releases at the Chernobyl and the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesser, R. K.; Rogers, B. E.; Philips, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating dispersion of nuclear materials released by accidental, operational, or clandestine means is important to the international community. Our research team has performed forensic reconstructions of radionuclide releases at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine and the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Facility (ATNF) near Baghdad, Iraq. Our objectives at ChNPP were to determine the influences of extant atmospheric conditions on particle size distributions and their depositions in the near-field (less than 12 km) regions surrounding the complex. We derived mathematical models of particulate fluid-flow in varying velocity and turbulence fields to fit with 3000 geographically-referenced measurements. Conformity of predicted and empirical fallout patterns was excellent, enabling accurate reconstructions of the particle size contributions, weather conditions, and release energies from the accident. The objectives at ATNF were to evaluate means of dispersion and characterization of nuclear materials within and outside of the compound. Normal facility operations, military actions, and looting of the facility could have contributed to the release of radioactivity, but would yield quite different geographic and radionuclide profiles. Detailed gamma, alpha, and beta radiation profiles were examined for 400 geographically-referenced soil samples collected from ATNF and the villages of Ishtar and Al Ryhad. Natural uranium clusters were identified in several locations clearly showing that looting of yellowcake was the primary means of dispersion. No dispersion of nuclear materials was shown to result from military operations at the site. Our programs demonstrate the precision of geographic-based forensic reconstructions and show that forecast models are robust.(author)

  20. NECSA'S Need to Establish a Nuclear Forensics Specific NDA Facility for On-Site Categorization of Seized Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshielo, P.; Mogafe, R.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of nuclear material that are out of regulatory control is becoming a serious concern and threat and thereby continuously seeking urgent interventions and counteractions from the international community aspiring effective control over all nuclear material and peaceful uses of nuclear technologies globally. In South Africa the nuclear forensics initiative approach and its execution have been adopted, established and managed by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) to support the country's nuclear safeguards system and nuclear security investigations plan to fight against the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials. On this nuclear forensics initiative approach adopted by Necsa, the development and later execution of a Non-Destructive Analyses (NDA) facility capability for quick categorization of any seized nuclear material by law-enforcement agencies is currently envisaged as a critical initiative to comprehend nuclear forensics Laboratory analytical or characterization techniques. The main objective for this NDA facility is planned to be used for performing nuclear material screening process for material categorization purposes to generate information and results which will be open to law enforcement agencies for prosecution processes and also for the safeguards reporting to the IAEA (ITDB). The NDA technique is therefore found to be a critical tool needed at NECSA as an Early-Checking-Point or first-line material check point for all seized nuclear materials in determining some characteristics of the materials and collection of data without having to destroy or changing the morphology of the material. (author)

  1. Rare earths in uranium compounds and important evidences for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Daniele S.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensics mainly focuses on the nuclear or radioactive material and aims to providing indication on the intended use, the history and even the origin of the material. Uranium compounds have isotopic or chemical characteristics that provide unambiguous information concerning their origin and production process. Rare earths elements (REE) are a set of sixteen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fourteen Lanthanides in addition scandium and yttrium. These elements are often found together but in widely variable concentrations in uncommon varieties of igneous rocks. A large amount of uranium is in rare earths deposits, and may be extracted as a by-product. Accordingly, REE in uranium compounds can be used as an evidence of uranium origin. In this study, REE was determined in uranium compounds from different origin. Measurements were carried out using a High resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) Element 2, in low resolution mode (R-300). (author)

  2. Nuclear Forensics: Measurements of Uranium Oxides Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Isotope Ratio Analysis of Actinides , Fission Products, and Geolocators by High- efficiency Multi-collector Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry...Information, 1999. Hou, Xiaolin, and Per Roos. “ Critical Comparison of radiometric and Mass Spectrometric Methods for the Determination of...NUCLEAR FORENSICS: MEASUREMENTS OF URANIUM OXIDES USING TIME-OF-FLIGHT SECONDARY ION MASS

  3. Conceptual Design of Simulated Radiation Detector for Nuclear Forensics Exercise Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Baek, Ye Ji; Lee, Seung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A site associated with an illicit trafficking or security event may contain trace evidence of criminal or malicious acts involving radioactive material. Such a site is called a radiological crime scene. Management of a radiological crime scene requires a process of ensuring an orderly accurate and effective collection and preservation of evidence. In order to effectively address such a security event, first responders and/or on-scene investigators need to exercise detecting, locating and recovering materials at the scene of the incident. During such the exercise, a sealed source can be used. This source is allowed to be a very small amount for exercises as there is the limit on the amount of radioactive material that causes no harm. So it is typically difficult to be found by some radiation detectors that the exercises have little effect on improving the ability of trainees. Therefore, we developed a conceptual design of a simulation radiation detector coupled with simulation sources which are designed to imitate a significant amount radioactive material for the purpose of a nuclear forensics exercise. With the potential of a terrorist attack using radioactive materials, the first responders should regularly perform the nuclear forensics exercise in order to prepare for a recovery operation. In this regard, some devices such as simulated detector, coupled with a virtual source, can replace a real detector and a surrogate source of material in field exercises. BLE technology could be applied to create similar environments to that of an actual radiological attack. The detector coupled with the simulated sources could be very helpful for first responders in testing and improving their ability in the case of a nuclear security event. In addition, this conceptual design could be extended to develop a simulated dosimeter coupled with a beacon signal emitters. The dosimeter is a personal device used for indicating the cumulated exposure of radiation in real time in the

  4. Conceptual Design of Simulated Radiation Detector for Nuclear Forensics Exercise Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Baek, Ye Ji; Lee, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    A site associated with an illicit trafficking or security event may contain trace evidence of criminal or malicious acts involving radioactive material. Such a site is called a radiological crime scene. Management of a radiological crime scene requires a process of ensuring an orderly accurate and effective collection and preservation of evidence. In order to effectively address such a security event, first responders and/or on-scene investigators need to exercise detecting, locating and recovering materials at the scene of the incident. During such the exercise, a sealed source can be used. This source is allowed to be a very small amount for exercises as there is the limit on the amount of radioactive material that causes no harm. So it is typically difficult to be found by some radiation detectors that the exercises have little effect on improving the ability of trainees. Therefore, we developed a conceptual design of a simulation radiation detector coupled with simulation sources which are designed to imitate a significant amount radioactive material for the purpose of a nuclear forensics exercise. With the potential of a terrorist attack using radioactive materials, the first responders should regularly perform the nuclear forensics exercise in order to prepare for a recovery operation. In this regard, some devices such as simulated detector, coupled with a virtual source, can replace a real detector and a surrogate source of material in field exercises. BLE technology could be applied to create similar environments to that of an actual radiological attack. The detector coupled with the simulated sources could be very helpful for first responders in testing and improving their ability in the case of a nuclear security event. In addition, this conceptual design could be extended to develop a simulated dosimeter coupled with a beacon signal emitters. The dosimeter is a personal device used for indicating the cumulated exposure of radiation in real time in the

  5. Determination of origin and intended use of plutonium metal using nuclear forensic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H; Kuhn, Kevin J; Tandon, Lav; Xu, Ning; Porterfield, Donivan R; Worley, Christopher G; Thomas, Mariam R; Spencer, Khalil J; Stanley, Floyd E; Lujan, Elmer J; Garduno, Katherine; Trellue, Holly R

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear forensics techniques, including micro-XRF, gamma spectrometry, trace elemental analysis and isotopic/chronometric characterization were used to interrogate two, potentially related plutonium metal foils. These samples were submitted for analysis with only limited production information, and a comprehensive suite of forensic analyses were performed. Resulting analytical data was paired with available reactor model and historical information to provide insight into the materials' properties, origins, and likely intended uses. Both were super-grade plutonium, containing less than 3% 240 Pu, and age-dating suggested that most recent chemical purification occurred in 1948 and 1955 for the respective metals. Additional consideration of reactor modeling feedback and trace elemental observables indicate plausible U.S. reactor origin associated with the Hanford site production efforts. Based on this investigation, the most likely intended use for these plutonium foils was 239 Pu fission foil targets for physics experiments, such as cross-section measurements, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed

  7. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Erik B., E-mail: ejohnson@rmdinc.com [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Whitney, Chad [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Christian, James F. [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As {sup 6}Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for {sup 6}Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery

  8. Computationally-generated nuclear forensic characteristics of early production reactors with an emphasis on sensitivity and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redd, Evan M.; Sjoden, Glenn; Erickson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •X-10 reactor is used as a case study for nuclear forensic signatures. •S/U analysis is conducted to derive statistically relevant markers. •Computationally-generated signatures aid with proliferation pathway identification. •Highest uncertainty in total plutonium production originates from 238 Pu and 242 Pu. -- Abstract: With nuclear technology and analysis advancements, site access restrictions, and ban on nuclear testing, computationally-generated nuclear forensic signatures are becoming more important in gaining knowledge to a reclusive country’s weapon material production capabilities. In particular, graphite-moderated reactors provide an appropriate case study for isotopics relevant in Pu production in a clandestine nuclear program due to the ease of design and low thermal output. We study the production characteristics of the X-10 reactor with a goal to develop statistically-relevant nuclear forensic signatures from early Pu production. In X-10 reactor, a flat flux gradient and low burnup produce exceptionally pure Pu as evident by the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio. However, these design aspects also make determining reactor zone attribution, done with the 242 Pu/ 240 Pu ratio, uncertain. Alternatively, the same ratios produce statistically differentiable results between Manhattan Project and post-Manhattan Project reactor configurations, allowing for attribution conclusions.

  9. Overall approaches and experiences of first-time participants in the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group's Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.M.L.; Nelwamondo, A.N.; Hancke, J.J.; Ramebaeck, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. Each of the laboratories had their strategic role to play in its respective country, analyzing real-world samples using their in-house resources. The scenario was fictitious but was thoughtfully crafted to engage participants in nuclear forensic investigations. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. (author)

  10. Measurement of 160Tb and 161Tb in nuclear forensics samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.V.; Britton, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    160 Tb and 161 Tb are important radionuclides to measure when analysing a Nuclear Forensics sample. An analytical method for the measurement of both 160 Tb and 161 Tb was developed in this study. Terbium was separated and purified using exchange resin and TrisKem LN Resin. The purified fraction containing 160 Tb and 161 Tb was measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The counting efficiencies of 160 Tb and 161 Tb were determined using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method. The LSC count rate ratio, R160 Tb /R161 Tb , on the reference date was determined by sequential counting and calculated using a custom script based on their half-lives. (author)

  11. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  12. Measuring Uranium Decay Rates for Advancement of Nuclear Forensics and Geochronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons-Davis, Tashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Radioisotopic dating techniques are highly valuable tools for understanding the history of physical and chemical processes in materials related to planetary sciences and nuclear forensics, and rely on accurate knowledge of decay constants and their uncertainties. The decay constants of U-238 and U-235 are particularly important to Earth science, and often the measured values with lowest reported uncertainties are applied, although they have not been independently verified with similar precision. New direct measurements of the decay constants of U-238, Th-234, U-235, and U-234 were completed, using a range of analytical approaches. An overarching goal of the project was to ensure the quality of results, including metrological traceability to facilitate implementation across diverse disciplines. This report presents preliminary results of these experiments, as a few final measurements and calculations are still in progress.

  13. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubley, Nicholas T.; Brockman, John D.; Robertson, J. David; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO

    2017-01-01

    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH_4HF_2 or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  14. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubley, Nicholas T. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brockman, John D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Robertson, J. David [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  15. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee, NSW (Australia); and others

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (∝ 1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 4} . 4H{sub 2}O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (∝ 380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO{sub 3} . 2H{sub 2}O, with minor phases of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of {sup 236}U and {sup 232}U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.

  16. The concept of a 'microstructural fingerprint' for the characterization of samples in nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, I.L.F.; Schubert, A.; Wallenius, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the examination of unknown specimens of nuclear materials the primary parameter of importance is the 'Isotopic Fingerprint' of the sample, mainly the ratios of the different isotopes of U and Pu which are present. In some cases, however, where no clear isotopic signature is found, or where there is a mixture of materials present, the isotopic fingerprint alone is not sufficient for a unique identification to be made. In this paper the concept of a 'Microstructural Fingerprint' of a sample is proposed and developed, which is complementary to the 'Isotopic Fingerprint' for the characterisation of materials which are under investigation in the field of nuclear forensic science. The proposal combines the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), to define the microstructure of a suspect sample, a combination of techniques which has not been used before in nuclear forensic science. The microstructural information is particularly important in the case of powder samples, for the following reasons: 1) An essential prerequisite to an isotopic analysis, for example by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is the information whether a powder sample consists of a single component, or is a mixture of several distinct components. If the material is multicomponent it must be separated and the individual components analysed separately. 2) Powder samples mainly represent precursor stages in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the microstructural analysis gives information on the production process and conditions (for example, the grain size in PuO 2 platelets produced by the calcination of oxalate precipitate, and the size and thickness distributions of the platelets themselves). 3) Powder samples can be mixed with other compounds with the deliberate intention of confusing the chemical or isotopic analysis of suspect materials. However the microstructural fingerprint of a component cannot

  17. Applicability of Machine-Learning Enabled LIBS in Post Irradiation Nuclear Forensic Analysis of High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onkongi, J.; Maina, D.; Angeyo, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics seeks Information to determine; Chemical Composition, Routes of transit, Origin (Provenance) and Intended use. Post Irradiation/Post detonation NF In a post-detonation event could you get clues/signatures from glass debris, minute sample sizes? Nuclear Forensic Technique Should be State-of -the art that is Rapid, Non-invasive, Remote ability and Non-destructive. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) unlike other Analytic Techniques that require tedious sample preparations such as Dissolution, digestion & matrix removal, which generate additional nuclear wastes that require proper Procedures for handling, storage & ultimate disposal, LIBS overcomes these limitations. Utility of Machine Learning Techniques employed include; Artificial Neural Networks, ANN (Regression/Modelling), Principal component Analysis, PCA (Classification) and Support Vector Machine SVM (Comparative study/Classification Machine Learning coupled with LIBS gives a state of the art analytic method. Utility of the technic in safeguards security and non-proliferation

  18. FY13 Summary Report on the Augmentation of the Spent Fuel Composition Dataset for Nuclear Forensics: SFCOMPO/NF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady Raap, Michaele C.; Lyons, Jennifer A.; Collins, Brian A.; Livingston, James V.

    2014-03-31

    This report documents the FY13 efforts to enhance a dataset of spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition data for use in developing intrinsic signatures for nuclear forensics. A review and collection of data from the open literature was performed in FY10. In FY11, the Spent Fuel COMPOsition (SFCOMPO) excel-based dataset for nuclear forensics (NF), SFCOMPO/NF was established and measured data for graphite production reactors, Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) were added to the dataset and expanded to include a consistent set of data simulated by calculations. A test was performed to determine whether the SFCOMPO/NF dataset will be useful for the analysis and identification of reactor types from isotopic ratios observed in interdicted samples.

  19. Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via laser based microphotonic techniques coupled with chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatta, B.; Kalambuka, H.A.; Dehayem-Kamadjeu, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear forensics (NF) is an important tool for analysis and attribution of nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) in support of nuclear security. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid and minimally-invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Microphotonic techniques can achieve this task particularly when the materials are of limited size and under concealed condition. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the combined potential of chemometrics enabled LIBS and laser Raman spectromicroscopy (LRS) for rapid NF analysis and attribution. Using LIBS, uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures in uranium ore surrogates. A multivariate calibration strategy using artificial neural network was developed for quantification of trace uranium. Principal component analysis (PCA) of LIBS spectra achieved source attribution of the ores. LRS studies on UCl3, UO3(NO3)2.6H2O, UO2SO4.3H2O and UO3 in pellet state identified the bands associated with different uranium molecules as varying in the range of (840 to 867) ± 15 cm-1. Using this signature, we have demonstrated spectral imaging of uranium under concealed conditions (author)

  20. Development of an Origin Trace Method based on Bayesian Inference and Artificial Neural Network for Missing or Stolen Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Yim Ho; Min, Lee Seung; Min, Kim Kyung; Jeong, Hong Yoon; Kim, Jae Kwang [Nuclear Security Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Thus, 'to put nuclear materials under control' is an important issue for prosperity mankind. Unfortunately, numbers of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials have been increased for decades. Consequently, security of nuclear materials is recently spotlighted. After the 2{sup nd} Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in 2012, the president of Korea had showed his devotion to nuclear security. One of the main responses for nuclear security related interest of Korea was to develop a national nuclear forensic support system. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published the document of Nuclear Security Series No.2 'Nuclear Forensics Support' in 2006 to encourage international cooperation of all IAEA member states for tracking nuclear attributions. There are two main questions related to nuclear forensics to answer in the document. The first question is 'what type of material is it?', and the second one is 'where did the material come from?' Korea Nuclear Forensic Library (K-NFL) and mathematical methods to trace origins of missing or stolen nuclear materials (MSNMs) are being developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC) to answer those questions. Although the K-NFL has been designed to perform many functions, K-NFL is being developed to effectively trace the origin of MSNMs and tested to validate suitability of trace methods. New fuels and spent fuels need each trace method because of the different nature of data acquisition. An inductive logic was found to be appropriate for new fuels, which had values as well as a bistable property. On the other hand, machine learning was suitable for spent fuels, which were unable to measure, and thus needed simulation.

  1. Investigation of correlations in some chemical impurities and isotope ratios for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Nicholl, A.; Horta, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has worked in the area of nuclear forensic science since 1992 when the first seized sample was analysed. From the beginning the analytical tools for seized materials were adapted from safeguards measurements and from materials science. Especially in the view of the origin determination the spectrum of parameters to be taken into account had to be widened. In addition to the development of a comprehensive database on nuclear materials for power reactor fuels, experimental investigations were started to identify characteristic parameters. These systematic investigations comprised the development of methodologies for age determination of Pu and highly enriched uranium, surface roughness determination of UO 2 pellets and n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) measurements in uranium oxides. However, a more profound understanding on the nature of the characteristic chemical impurities and their propagation throughout the entire process appeared necessary in particular for uranium materials. Therefore a systematic research programme was launched in order to better understand which chemical impurities might be considered as characteristic for the origin of the base material. On the other hand some impurities are introduced intentionally during the processing of the material. These impurities might be characteristic for the process used or for the plant where the material was processed. We carried out impurity measurements on uranium ores, on intermediate products (Ammoniumdiuranate or yellow cake) and on (natural) uranium oxides, hence 'vertically' throughout the process in individual facilities. n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) ratio measurements have been proven to provide useful additional information on the geographic origin of the materials. We therefore investigated the n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) isotope ratios in these different compounds, in order to obtain further experimental evidence for a consistent set of materials reportedly originating from the same

  2. Feasibility Study for the Development of Plutonium Reference Materials for Age Dating in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, M.; Richter, S.; Aregbe, Y.; Wellum, R.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Verbruggen, A.; Mayer, K.; Prohaska, T.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic reference materials certified for the age of nuclear material (uranium, plutonium) are needed in the fields of nuclear forensics and environmental measurements. Therefore a feasibility study for the development of plutonium reference materials for age dating has been started recently at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM). The ''age'' of the material is defined as the time that has passed since the last chemical separation of the mother and daughter isotopes (e.g. 241 Pu and 241 Am). Assuming that the separation has been complete and all the daughter isotopes have been removed from the original material during this last separation, the age of the material can be determined by measuring the ratio of daughter and mother radio-nuclides, e.g. 241 Am/ 241 Pu. At a given time after the last separation and depending on the half lives of the radio-nuclides involved, a certain amount of the daughter radionuclide(s) will be present. For the determination of the unknown age of a material different ''clocks'' can be used; ''clocks'' are pairs of mother and daughter radio-nuclides, such as 241 Am/ 241 Pu, 238 Pu/ 234 U, 239 Pu/ 235 U, 240 Pu/ 236 U, and possibly 242 Pu/ 238 U. For the age estimation of a real sample, such as material seized in nuclear forensics investigations or dust samples in environmental measurements, it is advisable to use more than one clock in order to ensure the reliability of the results and to exclude the possibility that the sample under question is a mixture of two or more materials. Consequently, a future reference material certified for separation date should ideally be certified for more than one ''clock'' or several reference materials for different ''clocks'' should be developed. The first step of this study is to verify the known separation dates of different plutonium materials of different ages and isotopic compositions by measuring the mother ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu) and daughter

  3. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Phillips

    Full Text Available The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus and M. (Osphranter, as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus. A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby within M. (Osphranter rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus. Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  4. Study on the applicability of structural and morphological parameters of selected uranium compounds for nuclear forensic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho Mer Lin, Doris

    2015-03-13

    Nuclear forensic science or nuclear forensics, is a relatively young discipline which evolved due to the need of analysing interdicted nuclear or radioactive material, necessary for determining its origin. Fundamentally, nuclear forensic science makes use of measurable material properties, referred to as ''signatures'', which provide hints on the history of the material. As part of the advancement in this multi-faceted field, new signatures are constantly sought after and as well as analytical techniques to efficiently and accurately determine the signatures. The work carried out in this study is part of this fulfilment to investigate new structural and morphological parameters as possible new nuclear forensic signatures for selected uranium compounds. The scientific goals have been oriented into three parts for investigations in this study. Firstly, five different compositions of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were prepared in the laboratory under well-defined conditions. These materials were subsequently characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy etc. Such materials were pivotal for comparison with the industrial samples. Secondly, several uranium compounds, mainly UOCs were measured using Raman spectroscopy. At least three different Raman spectrometers were used and a comparison made in their performance and suitability for nuclear forensics. Raman spectra of industrial uranium materials were interpreted with regard to compound identification and to determination of (anionic) impurities. Anionic impurities that were present were identified and they could provide clues to the processing history of the samples. Statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to several Raman spectra. The analysis showed that

  5. Study on the applicability of structural and morphological parameters of selected uranium compounds for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Mer Lin, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science or nuclear forensics, is a relatively young discipline which evolved due to the need of analysing interdicted nuclear or radioactive material, necessary for determining its origin. Fundamentally, nuclear forensic science makes use of measurable material properties, referred to as ''signatures'', which provide hints on the history of the material. As part of the advancement in this multi-faceted field, new signatures are constantly sought after and as well as analytical techniques to efficiently and accurately determine the signatures. The work carried out in this study is part of this fulfilment to investigate new structural and morphological parameters as possible new nuclear forensic signatures for selected uranium compounds. The scientific goals have been oriented into three parts for investigations in this study. Firstly, five different compositions of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were prepared in the laboratory under well-defined conditions. These materials were subsequently characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy etc. Such materials were pivotal for comparison with the industrial samples. Secondly, several uranium compounds, mainly UOCs were measured using Raman spectroscopy. At least three different Raman spectrometers were used and a comparison made in their performance and suitability for nuclear forensics. Raman spectra of industrial uranium materials were interpreted with regard to compound identification and to determination of (anionic) impurities. Anionic impurities that were present were identified and they could provide clues to the processing history of the samples. Statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to several Raman spectra. The analysis showed that

  6. The application of radiochronometry during the 4th collaborative materials exercise of the nuclear forensics international technical working group (ITWG)

    OpenAIRE

    KRISTO M.; WILLIAMS ROSS; GAFFNEY AMY; KAYZAR-BOGGS THERESA; SCHOZMAN KERRI; LAGERKVIST P.; VESTERLUND ANNA; RAMEBÄCK HENRIK; NELWAMONDO AUBREY; KOTZE DEON; SONG KYUSEOK; LIM SANG HO; HAN SUN-HO; LEE CHI-GYU; OKUBO AYAKO

    2018-01-01

    In a recent international exercise, 10 international nuclear forensics laboratories successfully performed radiochronometry on three low enriched uranium oxide samples, providing 12 analytical results using three different parent-daughter pairs serving as independent chronometers. The vast majority of the results were consistent with one another and consistent with the known processing history of the materials. In general, for these particular samples, mass spectrometry gave more ...

  7. Phylogeny of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from nuclear ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Colwell, Alison; Park, Jeong-Mi; Jang, Chang-Gee; Stuessy, Tod F

    2004-02-01

    Orobanche is the largest genus among the holoparasitic members of Orobanchaceae. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis (using nuclear ITS sequences) that includes members of all sections of Orobanche, Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon, and Orobanche. Orobanche is not monophyletic, but falls into two lineages: (1) the Orobanche group comprises Orobanche sect. Orobanche and the small Near Asian genus Diphelypaea and is characterized by a chromosome base number of x=19 and (2) the Phelipanche group contains Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, and Trionychon and possesses a chromosome base number of x=12. The relationships between these two groups and to other genera such as Boschniakia or Cistanche remain unresolved. Within the Orobanche group, Orobanche macrolepis and Orobanche anatolica (including Orobanche colorata) constitute two phylogenetically distinct lineages. Intrasectional structurings proposed by some authors for O. sect. Orobanche are not confirmed by the molecular data. In most cases, intraspecific sequence divergence between accessions, if present, is negligible and not correlated with morphological or ecological traits. In a few cases, however, there is evidence for the presence of cryptic taxa.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of elasmobranchs inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Babu, P P Suresh; Jaiswar, A K; Hari Krishna, V; Prasasd, K Pani; Chaudhari, Aparna; Raje, S G; Chakraborty, S K; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2014-01-01

    The elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) being the extant survivors of one of the earliest offshoots of the vertebrate evolutionary tree are good model organisms to study the primitive vertebrate conditions. They play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance and have high economic value. Due to over-exploitation and illegal fishing worldwide, the elasmobranch stocks are being decimated at an alarming rate. Appropriate management measures are necessary for restoring depleted elasmobranch stocks. One approach for restoring stocks is implementation of conservation measures and these measures can be formulated effectively by knowing the evolutionary relationship among the elasmobranchs. In this study, a total of 30 species were chosen for molecular phylogeny studies using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 12S ribosomal RNA gene and nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2. Among different genes, the combined dataset of COI and 12S rRNA resulted in a well resolved tree topology with significant bootstrap/posterior probabilities values. The results supported the reciprocal monophyly of sharks and batoids. Within Galeomorphii, Heterodontiformes (bullhead sharks) formed as a sister group to Lamniformes (mackerel sharks): Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) and to Carcharhiniformes (ground sharks). Within batoids, the Myliobatiformes formed a monophyly group while Pristiformes (sawfishes) and Rhinobatiformes (guitar fishes) formed a sister group to all other batoids.

  9. Phylogeny of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from nuclear ITS sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Colwell, A.; Park, J.-M.; Jang, C.-G.; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2004-01-01

    Orobanche is the largest genus among the holoparasitic members of Orobanchaceae. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis (using nuclear ITS sequences) that includes members of all sections of Orobanche, Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon, and Orobanche. Orobanche is not monophyletic, but falls into two lineages: (1) the Orobanche group comprises Orobanche sect. Orobanche and the small Near Asian genus Diphelypaea and is characterized by a chromosome base number of x = 19 and (2) the Phelipanche group contains Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, and Trionychon and possesses a chromosome base number of x = 12. The relationships between these two groups and to other genera such as Boschniakia or Cistanche remain unresolved. Within the Orobanche group, Orobanche macrolepis and Orobanche anatolica (including Orobanche colorata) constitute two phylogenetically distinct lineages. Intrasectional structurings proposed by some authors for O. sect. Orobanche are not confirmed by the molecular data. In most cases, intraspecific sequence divergence between accessions, if present, is negligible and not correlated with morphological or ecological traits. In a few cases, however, there is evidence for the presence of cryptic taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  10. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    sharing, an essential tool for combating money laundering and terrorist financing, verifying sanctions against rogue nations and non-state actors, tracking nuclear proliferation networks, and protecting dual-use materials. These steps can save lives without interfering with state sovereignty or individual rights. The specter of nuclear threat is real and constant. This paper will provide forensic analysis of the most effective financial tools and policies to combat that threat, placing special emphasis on multinational and public-private cooperation.

  11. Seasonal Blowfly Distribution and Abundance in Fragmented Landscapes. Is It Useful in Forensic Inference about Where a Corpse Has Been Decaying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Jabi; Díaz, Beatriz; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Blowflies are insects of forensic interest as they may indicate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery. In order to estimate changes in community related to landscape and to assess if blowfly species can be used as indicators of the landscape where a corpse has been decaying, we studied the blowfly community and how it is affected by landscape in a 7,000 km2 region during a whole year. Using baited traps deployed monthly we collected 28,507 individuals of 10 calliphorid species, 7 of them well represented and distributed in the study area. Multiple Analysis of Variance found changes in abundance between seasons in the 7 analyzed species, and changes related to land use in 4 of them (Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). Generalised Linear Model analyses of abundance of these species compared with landscape descriptors at different scales found only a clear significant relationship between summer abundance of C. vomitoria and distance to urban areas and degree of urbanisation. This relationship explained more deviance when considering the landscape composition at larger geographical scales (up to 2,500 m around sampling site). For the other species, no clear relationship between land uses and abundance was found, and therefore observed changes in their abundance patterns could be the result of other variables, probably small changes in temperature. Our results suggest that blowfly community composition cannot be used to infer in what kind of landscape a corpse has decayed, at least in highly fragmented habitats, the only exception being the summer abundance of C. vomitoria. PMID:24918607

  12. International conference on advances in destructive and non-destructive analysis for environmental monitoring and nuclear forensics. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 59 extended synopses of the presentations delivered at the conference during oral and poster sessions. The four oral sessions were devoted to: The role of nuclear forensics in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism; Current capabilities and past experiences; Analytical techniques; and Challenges and alternative approaches. Each of the synopses was indexed separately

  13. The evolutionary history of ferns inferred from 25 low-copy nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfels, Carl J; Li, Fay-Wei; Sigel, Erin M; Huiet, Layne; Larsson, Anders; Burge, Dylan O; Ruhsam, Markus; Deyholos, Michael; Soltis, Douglas E; Stewart, C Neal; Shaw, Shane W; Pokorny, Lisa; Chen, Tao; dePamphilis, Claude; DeGironimo, Lisa; Chen, Li; Wei, Xiaofeng; Sun, Xiao; Korall, Petra; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wong, Gane K-S; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    • Understanding fern (monilophyte) phylogeny and its evolutionary timescale is critical for broad investigations of the evolution of land plants, and for providing the point of comparison necessary for studying the evolution of the fern sister group, seed plants. Molecular phylogenetic investigations have revolutionized our understanding of fern phylogeny, however, to date, these studies have relied almost exclusively on plastid data.• Here we take a curated phylogenomics approach to infer the first broad fern phylogeny from multiple nuclear loci, by combining broad taxon sampling (73 ferns and 12 outgroup species) with focused character sampling (25 loci comprising 35877 bp), along with rigorous alignment, orthology inference and model selection.• Our phylogeny corroborates some earlier inferences and provides novel insights; in particular, we find strong support for Equisetales as sister to the rest of ferns, Marattiales as sister to leptosporangiate ferns, and Dennstaedtiaceae as sister to the eupolypods. Our divergence-time analyses reveal that divergences among the extant fern orders all occurred prior to ∼200 MYA. Finally, our species-tree inferences are congruent with analyses of concatenated data, but generally with lower support. Those cases where species-tree support values are higher than expected involve relationships that have been supported by smaller plastid datasets, suggesting that deep coalescence may be reducing support from the concatenated nuclear data.• Our study demonstrates the utility of a curated phylogenomics approach to inferring fern phylogeny, and highlights the need to consider underlying data characteristics, along with data quantity, in phylogenetic studies. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Enhanced forensic discrimination of pollutants by position-specific isotope analysis using isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Höhener, Patrick; Parinet, Julien; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2016-01-15

    In forensic environmental investigations the main issue concerns the inference of the original source of the pollutant for determining the liable party. Isotope measurements in geochemistry, combined with complimentary techniques for contaminant identification, have contributed significantly to source determination at polluted sites. In this work we have determined the intramolecular (13)C profiles of several molecules well-known as pollutants. By giving additional analytical parameters, position-specific isotope analysis performed by isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR) spectrometry gives new information to help in answering the major question: what is the origin of the detected contaminant? We have shown that isotope profiling of the core of a molecule reveals both the raw materials and the process used in its manufacture. It also can reveal processes occurring between the contamination site 'source' and the sampling site. Thus, irm-(13)C NMR is shown to be a very good complement to compound-specific isotope analysis currently performed by mass spectrometry for assessing polluted sites involving substantial spills of pollutant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Results from the second Galaxy Serpent web-based table top exercise utilizing the concept of nuclear forensics libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgardt, James; Canaday, Jodi; Chamberlain, David

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy Serpent is a unique, virtual, web-based international tabletop series of exercises designed to mature the concept of National Nuclear Forensics Libraries (NNFLs). Teams participating in the second version of the exercise were provided synthetic sealed radioactive source data used to compile a model NNFL which then served as a comparative instrument in hypothetical scenarios involving sources out of regulatory control, allowing teams to successfully down-select and determine whether investigated sources were consistent with holdings in their model library. The methodologies utilized and aggregate results of the exercise will be presented, along with challenges encountered and benefits realized. (author)

  16. Fuzzy inference system for evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Antonio Cesar F.; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy inference system (FIS) as an approach to estimate Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) performance indicators. The performance indicators for this study are the energy availability factor (EAF) and the planned (PUF) and unplanned unavailability factor (UUF). These indicators are obtained from a non analytical combination among the same operational parameters. Such parameters are, for example, environment impacts, industrial safety, radiological protection, safety indicators, scram rate, thermal efficiency, and fuel reliability. This approach uses the concept of a pure fuzzy logic system where the fuzzy rule base consists of a collection of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The fuzzy inference engine uses these fuzzy IF-THEN rules to determine a mapping from fuzzy sets in the input universe of discourse to fuzzy sets in the output universe of discourse based on fuzzy logic principles. The results demonstrated the potential of the fuzzy inference to generate a knowledge basis that correlate operations occurrences and NPP performance. The inference system became possible the development of the sensitivity studies, future operational condition previsions and may support the eventual corrections on operation of the plant

  17. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  18. Effects analysis fuzzy inference system in nuclear problems using approximate reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Franklin Lapa, Celso Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy inference system modeling technique applied on failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is introduced in reactor nuclear problems. This method uses the concept of a pure fuzzy logic system to treat the traditional FMEA parameters: probabilities of occurrence, severity and detection. The auxiliary feed-water system of a typical two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) was used as practical example in this analysis. The kernel result is the conceptual confrontation among the traditional risk priority number (RPN) and the fuzzy risk priority number (FRPN) obtained from experts opinion. The set of results demonstrated the great potential of the inference system and advantage of the gray approach in this class of problems

  19. Statistics for nuclear engineers and scientists. Part 1. Basic statistical inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggs, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    This report is intended for the use of engineers and scientists working in the nuclear industry, especially at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. It serves as the basis for several Bettis in-house statistics courses. The objectives of the report are to introduce the reader to the language and concepts of statistics and to provide a basic set of techniques to apply to problems of the collection and analysis of data. Part 1 covers subjects of basic inference. The subjects include: descriptive statistics; probability; simple inference for normally distributed populations, and for non-normal populations as well; comparison of two populations; the analysis of variance; quality control procedures; and linear regression analysis.

  20. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J.; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In early 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. While searching the laboratory, they discovered a small glass jar labelled 'Gamma Source' and containing a green powder. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterize and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine

  1. Statistical inference of the nuclear accidents occurrence number for the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felizia, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper aims to give a response using the classical statistical and bayesian inference techniques regarding the common characteristic in the Harrisburg and Chernobyl nuclear accidents: in both reactors, core fusion occurred. In relation to the last mentioned techniques, the most recent developments were applied, based on the decision theory of uncertainty; among others, the principle of maximum entropy. Besides, as a preliminar information on the accidents occurrence frequency with core fusion, the German risk analysis results were used. The estimations predicted for the next decade an average between one or two accidents with core fusion and low possibilities for the 'no accident' event in the same period. (Author)

  2. Hair elemental analysis for forensic science using nuclear and related analytical methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2018), s. 65-74 ISSN 2468-1709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : hair * forensic analysis * neutron activation analysis * particle induced X-ray emission Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  3. Phylogeny, character evolution, and biogeography of Cuscuta (dodders; Convolvulaceae) inferred from coding plastid and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel A; Costea, Mihai; Kuzmina, Maria; Stefanović, Saša

    2014-04-01

    The parasitic genus Cuscuta, containing some 200 species circumscribed traditionally in three subgenera, is nearly cosmopolitan, occurring in a wide range of habitats and hosts. Previous molecular studies, on subgenera Grammica and Cuscuta, delimited major clades within these groups. However, the sequences used were unalignable among subgenera, preventing the phylogenetic comparison across the genus. We conducted a broad phylogenetic study using rbcL and nrLSU sequences covering the morphological, physiological, and geographical diversity of Cuscuta. We used parsimony methods to reconstruct ancestral states for taxonomically important characters. Biogeographical inferences were obtained using statistical and Bayesian approaches. Four well-supported major clades are resolved. Two of them correspond to subgenera Monogynella and Grammica. Subgenus Cuscuta is paraphyletic, with section Pachystigma sister to subgenus Grammica. Previously described cases of strongly supported discordance between plastid and nuclear phylogenies, interpreted as reticulation events, are confirmed here and three new cases are detected. Dehiscent fruits and globose stigmas are inferred as ancestral character states, whereas the ancestral style number is ambiguous. Biogeographical reconstructions suggest an Old World origin for the genus and subsequent spread to the Americas as a consequence of one long-distance dispersal. Hybridization may play an important yet underestimated role in the evolution of Cuscuta. Our results disagree with scenarios of evolution (polarity) previously proposed for several taxonomically important morphological characters, and with their usage and significance. While several cases of long-distance dispersal are inferred, vicariance or dispersal to adjacent areas emerges as the dominant biogeographical pattern.

  4. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Jennifer M; Simmons, Mark P; Lombardi, Julio A; Yakobson, Kendra; Archer, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae (∼ 100 species and 19 genera in the Old and New World tropics) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. The subfamily is easily recognized by the synapomorphies of transversely flattened, deeply lobed capsules and seeds with membranous basal wings or narrow stipes together with bisexual, 5-merous flowers that generally have an extrastaminal disk and three stamens. Hippocrateoideae, like Salacioideae, are inferred to have an Old World origin. The narrow stipes of Neotropical species that are water-dispersed are inferred to be derived within the subfamily from ancestral species with wind-dispersed winged seeds. Helictonema, a monotypic genus endemic to tropical Africa, has a small, white, spongy aril that is located at the base of the seed wing and appears to be unique within Hippocrateoideae. Our inference that Helictonema is sister to the remaining members of the subfamily, considered in the context of Sarawakodendron being sister to Salacioideae, suggests that small arils and capsular fruit were primitive within both subfamilies. The aril became dramatically enlarged within Salacioideae, in which the fruits are berries, and lost entirely within Hippocrateoideae, in which the fruits are transversely flattened capsules. All five Old World taxa of Prionostemma and all eight currently recognized species within Simirestis are transferred to Pristimera, one South African variety of Pristimera is raised to species level, and all three taxa in Pristimera subgenus Trochantha are transferred to the new genus Trochantha. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear forensics of a colored gemstone: evidence of proton bombardment of a blue topaz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H.; Hammer, Vera M.F.

    2013-01-01

    A blue topaz was investigated radiologically for forensic purposes. It clearly exhibited detectable activities of 22 Na (0.28±0.01 Bq). The occurrence of this artificial radionuclide evidences fraudulent irradiation of the gemstone with protons to give it its blue color. It can be assumed that also 7 Be must have been produced in the course of proton bombardment, yielding even greater activities than 22 Na. Since no traces of short-lived 7 Be could be detected, the topaz must have been irradiated at least 300 days prior to measurement. - Highlights: ► A blue topaz was radiologically investigated for forensic purposes. ► Detectable activities of 22 Na were found. ► The lack of 7 Be indicates that the gemstone was irradiated >300 d prior to measurement. ► The irradiation was performed by fraudulent intent to give the topaz the blue color

  6. A human error probability estimate methodology based on fuzzy inference and expert judgment on nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, C.S. do; Mesquita, R.N. de

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies point human error as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents: Three Mile Island (1979), Bhopal (1984), Chernobyl and Challenger (1986) are classical examples. Human contribution to these accidents may be better understood and analyzed by using Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), which has being taken as an essential part on Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of nuclear plants. Both HRA and PSA depend on Human Error Probability (HEP) for a quantitative analysis. These probabilities are extremely affected by the Performance Shaping Factors (PSF), which has a direct effect on human behavior and thus shape HEP according with specific environment conditions and personal individual characteristics which are responsible for these actions. This PSF dependence raises a great problem on data availability as turn these scarcely existent database too much generic or too much specific. Besides this, most of nuclear plants do not keep historical records of human error occurrences. Therefore, in order to overcome this occasional data shortage, a methodology based on Fuzzy Inference and expert judgment was employed in this paper in order to determine human error occurrence probabilities and to evaluate PSF's on performed actions by operators in a nuclear power plant (IEA-R1 nuclear reactor). Obtained HEP values were compared with reference tabled data used on current literature in order to show method coherence and valid approach. This comparison leads to a conclusion that this work results are able to be employed both on HRA and PSA enabling efficient prospection of plant safety conditions, operational procedures and local working conditions potential improvements (author)

  7. Phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; McKenna, Miles J; Bacon, Christine D; Yakobson, Kendra; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae (≈ 230 species in eight genera in both the Old and New Worlds) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. Tribe Euonymeae has been defined as those genera of Celastraceae with generally opposite leaves, isomerous carpels, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, and arillate seeds (except Microtropis). Euonymus is the most diverse (129 species) and widely cultivated genus in the tribe. We infer that tribe Euonymeae consists of at least six separate lineages within Celastraceae and that a revised natural classification of the family is needed. Microtropis and Quetzalia are inferred to be distinct sister groups that together are sister to Zinowiewia. The endangered Monimopetalum chinense is an isolated and early derived lineage of Celastraceae that represents an important component of phylogenetic diversity within the family. Hedraianthera is sister to Brassiantha, and we describe a second species (Brassiantha hedraiantheroides A.J. Ford) that represents the first reported occurrence of this genus in Australia. Euonymus globularis, from eastern Australia, is sister to Menepetalum, which is endemic to New Caledonia, and we erect a new genus (Dinghoua R.H. Archer) for it. The Madagascan species of Euonymus are sister to Pleurostylia and recognized as a distinct genus (Astrocassine ined.). Glyptopetalum, Torralbasia, and Xylonymus are all closely related to Euonymus sensu stricto and are questionably distinct from it. Current intrageneric classifications of Euonymus are not completely natural and require revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological Sexing of a 4000-Year-Old Egyptian Mummy Head to Assess the Potential of Nuclear DNA Recovery from the Most Damaged and Limited Forensic Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreille, Odile; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Bazinet, Adam L; Stockwell, Timothy B; Sommer, Daniel D; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Johnson, Philip L F; Skoglund, Pontus; Onorato, Anthony J; Bergman, Nicholas H; Reich, David; Irwin, Jodi A

    2018-03-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) has been used for a number of years in the field of paleogenomics to facilitate the recovery of small DNA fragments from ancient specimens. Recently, these techniques have also been applied in forensics, where they have been used for the recovery of mitochondrial DNA sequences from samples where traditional PCR-based assays fail because of the very short length of endogenous DNA molecules. Here, we describe the biological sexing of a ~4000-year-old Egyptian mummy using shotgun sequencing and two established methods of biological sex determination (R X and R Y ), by way of mitochondrial genome analysis as a means of sequence data authentication. This particular case of historical interest increases the potential utility of HTS techniques for forensic purposes by demonstrating that data from the more discriminatory nuclear genome can be recovered from the most damaged specimens, even in cases where mitochondrial DNA cannot be recovered with current PCR-based forensic technologies. Although additional work remains to be done before nuclear DNA recovered via these methods can be used routinely in operational casework for individual identification purposes, these results indicate substantial promise for the retrieval of probative individually identifying DNA data from the most limited and degraded forensic specimens.

  9. Biological Sexing of a 4000-Year-Old Egyptian Mummy Head to Assess the Potential of Nuclear DNA Recovery from the Most Damaged and Limited Forensic Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Loreille

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing (HTS has been used for a number of years in the field of paleogenomics to facilitate the recovery of small DNA fragments from ancient specimens. Recently, these techniques have also been applied in forensics, where they have been used for the recovery of mitochondrial DNA sequences from samples where traditional PCR-based assays fail because of the very short length of endogenous DNA molecules. Here, we describe the biological sexing of a ~4000-year-old Egyptian mummy using shotgun sequencing and two established methods of biological sex determination (RX and RY, by way of mitochondrial genome analysis as a means of sequence data authentication. This particular case of historical interest increases the potential utility of HTS techniques for forensic purposes by demonstrating that data from the more discriminatory nuclear genome can be recovered from the most damaged specimens, even in cases where mitochondrial DNA cannot be recovered with current PCR-based forensic technologies. Although additional work remains to be done before nuclear DNA recovered via these methods can be used routinely in operational casework for individual identification purposes, these results indicate substantial promise for the retrieval of probative individually identifying DNA data from the most limited and degraded forensic specimens.

  10. Development of methodologies used in the areas of safeguards and nuclear forensics based on LA-HR-ICP-MS technique; Desenvolvimento de metodologias utilizadas nas areas de salvaguardas e forense nuclear baseadas na tecnica LA-HR-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Rafael Coelho

    2013-07-01

    Environmental sampling performed by means of swipe samples is a methodology frequently employed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify if the signatory States of the Safeguards Agreements are conducing unauthorized activities. Swipe samples analysis is complementary to the Safeguards ordinary procedures used to verify the information given by the States. In this work it was described a methodology intending to strengthen the nuclear safeguards and nuclear forensics procedures. The proposal is to study and evaluate the laser ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) technique as an alternative to analyze the real-life swipe samples. The precision achieved through the standard (CRM - 125A) measurements, represented by the relative standard deviation (RSD), was respectively 1.3 %, 0.2 % e 7.6 % for the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U, {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U e {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotopes ratios. The percent uncertainties (u %), which covers the RSD, ranged from 3.5 % to 29.8 % to the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U measurements and from 16.6 % to 42.9 % to the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio. These results were compatible with former studies performed by the LA-HR-ICP-MS that analyzed real-life swipe samples collected at a nuclear facility. Swipe samples collected from several points of the nuclear facility presented enrichment level ranging from (2.3 ± 0.7) % (sample 3) to (17.3 ± 2.8) % (sample 18). They also allowed detecting different enrichment levels within the facility. (author)

  11. Forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  12. Ultra-high-resolution alpha spectrometry for nuclear forensics and safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacrania, Minesh K.; Croce, Mark; Bond, Evelyn; Dry, Donald; Moody, W. Allen; Lamont, Stephen; Rabin, Michael; Rim, Jung; Smith, Audrey; Beall, James; Bennett, Douglas; Kotsubo, Vincent; Horansky, Robert; Hilton, Gene; Schmidt, Daniel; Ullom, Joel; Cantor, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We will present our work on the development of ultra-high-resolution detectors for alpha particle spectrometry. These detectors, based on superconducting transition-edge sensors, offer energy resolution that is five to ten times better than conventional silicon detectors. Using these microcalorimeter detectors, the isotopic composition of mixed-actinide samples can be determined rapidly without the need for actinide separation chemistry to isolate each element, or mass spectrometry to separate isotopic signatures that can not be resolved using traditional alpha spectrometry (e.g. Pu-239/Pu-240, or Pu-238/Am-241). This paper will cover the detector and measurement system, actinide source preparation, and the quantitative isotopic analysis of a number of forensics- and safeguards-relevant radioactive sources.

  13. Development of methodologies used in the areas of safeguards and nuclear forensics based on LA-HR-ICP-MS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Environmental sampling performed by means of swipe samples is a methodology frequently employed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify if the signatory States of the Safeguards Agreements are conducing unauthorized activities. Swipe samples analysis is complementary to the Safeguards ordinary procedures used to verify the information given by the States. In this work it was described a methodology intending to strengthen the nuclear safeguards and nuclear forensics procedures. The proposal is to study and evaluate the laser ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) technique as an alternative to analyze the real-life swipe samples. The precision achieved through the standard (CRM - 125A) measurements, represented by the relative standard deviation (RSD), was respectively 1.3 %, 0.2 % e 7.6 % for the 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U e 236 U/ 238 U isotopes ratios. The percent uncertainties (u %), which covers the RSD, ranged from 3.5 % to 29.8 % to the 235 U/ 238 U measurements and from 16.6 % to 42.9 % to the 234 U/ 238 U isotope ratio. These results were compatible with former studies performed by the LA-HR-ICP-MS that analyzed real-life swipe samples collected at a nuclear facility. Swipe samples collected from several points of the nuclear facility presented enrichment level ranging from (2.3 ± 0.7) % (sample 3) to (17.3 ± 2.8) % (sample 18). They also allowed detecting different enrichment levels within the facility. (author)

  14. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J.; Lefebvre, Jordan P.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  15. Measurement of UO2 surface oxidation using grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction: Implications for nuclear forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Park, Sulgiye; Davisson, M. Lee; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear forensics involves determination of the origin and history of interdicted nuclear materials based on the detection of signatures associated with their production and trafficking. The surface oxidation undergone by UO2 when exposed to air is a potential signature of its atmospheric exposure during handling and transport. To assess the sensitivity of this oxidation to atmospheric parameters, surface sensitive grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements were performed on UO2 samples exposed to air of varying relative humidity (34%, 56%, and 95% RH) and temperature (room temperature, 50 °C, and 100 °C). Near-surface unit cell contraction was observed following exposure, indicating oxidation of the surface and accompanying reduction of the uranium cation ionic radii. The extent of unit cell contraction provides a measure of the extent of oxidation, allowing for comparison of the effects of various exposure conditions. No clear influence of relative humidity on the extent of oxidation was observed, with samples exhibiting similar degrees of unit cell contraction at all relative humidities investigated. In contrast, the thickness of the oxidized layers increased substantially with increasing temperature, such that differences on the order of 10 °C yielded readily observable crystallographic signatures of the exposure conditions.

  16. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  17. Analysis Code - Data Analysis in 'Leveraging Multiple Statistical Methods for Inverse Prediction in Nuclear Forensics Applications' (LMSMIPNFA) v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-03-19

    R code that performs the analysis of a data set presented in the paper ‘Leveraging Multiple Statistical Methods for Inverse Prediction in Nuclear Forensics Applications’ by Lewis, J., Zhang, A., Anderson-Cook, C. It provides functions for doing inverse predictions in this setting using several different statistical methods. The data set is a publicly available data set from a historical Plutonium production experiment.

  18. Phylogeny of Celastrus L. (Celastraceae) inferred from two nuclear and three plastid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xian-Yun; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    This is the first comprehensive molecular investigation of the genus Celastrus L. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were assessed based on sequences of two nuclear (ETS, ITS) and three plastid (psbA-trnH, rpl16 and trnL-F) regions using the Bayesian inference and the maximum parsimony methods. Our results show that Celastrus, together with Tripterygium, formed a maximal supported clade. Within the cluster, Celastrus is composed of a basal clade and a core Celastrus clade, and the latter is consisted of six subclades. Relationships among species are more influenced by latitude than continental distribution patterns. The cauline cyme and lunate seeds are distinct characters to one of the maximal supported subclades. Their close relationship, similar geographical pattern and habitat imply that C. flagellaris may be a potential invasive species threatening C. scandens in North America. Celastrus leiocarpus, C. oblanceifolius and C. rugosus are confirmed as synonyms of C. punctatus, C. aculeatus and C. glaucophyllus, respectively. Discordance between the molecular data and previous morphology-based subgeneric classifications are noted. More works are needed to clarify the relationship between Celastrus and Tripterygium and the species within Celastrus.

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  20. Nuclear Forensics Attributing the Source of Spent Fuel Used in an RDD Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    An RDD attack against the U.S. is something America needs to prepare against. If such an event occurs the ability to quickly identify the source of the radiological material used in an RDD would aid investigators in identifying the perpetrators. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel burnup, age from discharge, reactor type, and initial fuel enrichment. It is shown that by analyzing the post-event material, these attributes can be determined with enough accuracy to be useful for investigators. The burnup can be found within a 5% accuracy, enrichment with a 2% accuracy, and age with a 10% accuracy. Reactor type can be determined if specific nuclides are measured. The methodology developed was implemented into a code call NEMASYS. NEMASYS is easy to use and it takes a minimum amount of time to learn its basic functions. It will process data within a few minutes and provide detailed information about the results and conclusions

  1. Nuclear Forensics Attributing the Source of Spent Fuel Used in an RDD Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mark Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An RDD attack against the U.S. is something America needs to prepare against. If such an event occurs the ability to quickly identify the source of the radiological material used in an RDD would aid investigators in identifying the perpetrators. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel burnup, age from discharge, reactor type, and initial fuel enrichment. It is shown that by analyzing the post-event material, these attributes can be determined with enough accuracy to be useful for investigators. The burnup can be found within a 5% accuracy, enrichment with a 2% accuracy, and age with a 10% accuracy. Reactor type can be determined if specific nuclides are measured. The methodology developed was implemented into a code call NEMASYS. NEMASYS is easy to use and it takes a minimum amount of time to learn its basic functions. It will process data within a few minutes and provide detailed information about the results and conclusions.

  2. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  3. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  4. Advanced Quantification of Plutonium Ionization Potential to Support Nuclear Forensic Evaluations by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    woman I know. She is the true cornerstone of my career. Through the tribulations of deployments and long hours in port, she steadily provided me...right diagram (b), shows an odd isotope with the nuclear spin angular momenta of I = 3/2. In contrast with the even isotope, there is two states, F...The electron spin angular momentum is not affected by the dipole operator. The even isotopes have equal squares of their Clebsch-Gordan

  5. Development of a data-mining methodology for spent nuclear fuel forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghwa Lee; Kyungho Jin; Gyunyoung Heo; Jaekwang Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to categorize the type of spent nuclear fuels using simulation data-based classification methods. Considering the practical conditions making the full analysis of radioactive nuclides difficult, the classification methods were designed to be robust to noise and missing information. The strength and weakness of three classifiers, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and support vector classification were compared, which is developed by the history information such as burnup, enrichment, and cooling type generated from ORIGEN-ARP upon fuel assembly types. Auto-Associative Kernel Regression improved outlier management as a pre-processing technique. (author)

  6. Nuclear forensic applications involving high spatial resolution analysis of Trinitite cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, P.H.; Antonio Simonetti; Koeman, E.C.; Sara Mana; University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Burns, P.C.; University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive cross-sectional analysis of major and trace element abundances and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios within vertically oriented Trinitite thin sections. The upper glassy layer (∼2 mm thick) represents fused desert sand combined with devolatilized fallout from the debris cloud. The vertical distribution of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios indicates that residual fuel was incorporated deeper (up to ∼10 mm depth) into Trinitite than previously reported. This requires thorough mixing and disturbance of the upper cm of the blast site prior to or during the initial melting of the desert sand resulting from the nuclear explosion. (author)

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt

    2014-11-01

    The Gonorynchiformes are the sister lineage of the species-rich Otophysi and provide important insights into the diversification of ostariophysan fishes. Phylogenies of gonorynchiforms inferred using morphological characters and mtDNA gene sequences provide differing resolutions with regard to the sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms (Chanos vs. Gonorynchus) and support for monophyly of the two miniaturized lineages Cromeria and Grasseichthys. In this study the phylogeny and divergence times of gonorynchiforms are investigated with DNA sequences sampled from nine nuclear genes and a published morphological character matrix. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal substantial congruence among individual gene trees with inferences from eight genes placing Gonorynchus as the sister lineage to all other gonorynchiforms. Seven gene trees resolve Cromeria and Grasseichthys as a clade, supporting previous inferences using morphological characters. Phylogenies resulting from either concatenating the nuclear genes, performing a multispecies coalescent species tree analysis, or combining the morphological and nuclear gene DNA sequences resolve Gonorynchus as the living sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms, strongly support the monophyly of Cromeria and Grasseichthys, and resolve a clade containing Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys. The morphological dataset, which includes 13 gonorynchiform fossil taxa that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene, was analyzed in combination with DNA sequences from the nine nuclear genes and a relaxed molecular clock to estimate times of evolutionary divergence. This "tip dating" strategy accommodates uncertainty in the phylogenetic resolution of fossil taxa that provide calibration information in the relaxed molecular clock analysis. The estimated age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of living gonorynchiforms is slightly older than estimates from previous node dating efforts, but the molecular tip dating

  8. Fusion Bead Procedure for Nuclear Forensics Employing Synthetic Enstatite to Dissolve Uraniferous and Other Challenging Materials Prior to Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E

    2017-06-06

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested, and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The novelty of the procedure is the production of glass beads using 9 parts high purity synthetic enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) as the glass former with 1 part of sample (sample mass ∼1.5 mg). The beads are rapidly prepared (∼10 min overall time) by fusing the blended mixture on an iridium strip resistance heater in an argon-purged chamber. Many elements can be measured in the glass bead, but the rare earth group in particular is a valuable series in nuclear forensic studies and is well-determined using LA-ICP-MS. The REE data obtained from the GRMs, presented as chondrite normalized patterns, are in very good agreement with consensus patterns. The UOCs have comparable patterns to solution ICP-MS methods and published data. The attractions of the current development are its conservation of sample, speed of preparation, and suitability for microbeam analysis, all of which are favorable for nuclear forensics practitioners and geochemists requiring REE patterns from scarce or valuable samples.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIF KHADEMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Khademi H, Mehregan I, Assadi M, Nejadsatari T, Zarre S. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biodiversitas 17: 16-23. This study was carried out on the Acer monspessulanum complex growing wild in Iran. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for 75 samples representing five different subspecies of Acer monspessulanum were analyzed. Beside this, 86 previously published ITS sequences from GenBank were used to test the monophyly of the complex worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The results indicate that most samples of A. monspessulanum species from Iran were part of a monophyletic clade with 8 samples of A. ibericum from Georgia, A. hyrcanum from Iran and one of A. sempervirens from Greece (PP= 1; BS= 79%. Our results indicate that use of morphological characteristics coupled with molecular data will be most effective.

  10. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  11. Hungarian experience in the role of a Technical Support Organization - Expert support and R and D activities in nuclear safeguards and forensics, participation in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeles, E.; Kovacs, A.; Biro, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Isotopes (IoI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has been - since the mid-fifties - engaged not only in basic and applied research related to the use of radioisotopes in Hungary but also in the production, trade and safety of radioisotopes supported by the central accountancy at national level. Based on its experience and capabilities the technical tasks of nuclear safeguards and forensics have been delegated to the Institute by governmental decrees. Thus the Institute is one of the Technical Support Organizations of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) providing expert support in the areas mentioned above and maintaining the central isotope registry. An Agreement between HAEA and IoI specifies both routine and R and D activities supporting authority functions. These include the development and application of both non-destructive (i.e. gamma spectrometry, neutron-coincidence counting and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and destructive (i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical methods to satisfy domestic needs as well as to explore novel methods both for safeguards and nuclear forensics purposes. Methods have been developed to identify and quantify nuclear material in fresh and spent fuel assemblies and to characterize seized or found nuclear material of unknown origin and also environmental samples. The validation of these measurement methods have been performed in inter-laboratory comparisons organized by the Joint Research Centers of the European Union and by other international organizations such as IAEA and the International Technical Working Group on Nuclear Smuggling (ITWG). The presentation describes TSO activities both at domestic level and in potential international cooperation initiatives. The need of regional cooperation is emphasized discussing advantages and difficulties. (author)

  12. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, David G., E-mail: d.reading@noc.soton.ac.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Britton, Richard [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40–200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 235}U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. - Highlights: • Low energy gamma photons (<200 keV) are attenuated in U-bearing compounds. • Corrections based on bulk density do not yield accurate activity

  13. Improved sample utilization in thermal ionization mass spectrometry isotope ratio measurements: refined development of porous ion emitters for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruzzini, Matthew Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-08

    The precise and accurate determination of isotopic composition in nuclear forensic samples is vital for assessing origin, intended use and process history. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is widely accepted as the gold standard for high performance isotopic measurements and has long served as the workhorse in the isotopic ratio determination of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic and safeguard specialists have relied heavily on such methods for both routine and atypical e orts. Despite widespread use, TIMS methods for the assay of actinide systems continue to be hindered by poor ionization e ciency, often less than tenths of a percent; the majority of a sample is not measured. This represents a growing challenge in addressing nextgeneration nuclear detection needs by limiting the ability to analyze ultratrace quantities of high priority elements that could potentially provide critical nuclear forensic signatures. Porous ion emitter (PIE) thermal ion sources were developed in response to the growing need for new TIMS ion source strategies for improved ionization e ciency, PIEs have proven to be simple to implement, straightforward approach to boosting ion yield. This work serves to expand the use of PIE techniques for the analysis of trace quantities of plutonium and americium. PIEs exhibited superior plutonium and americium ion yields when compared to direct lament loading and the resin bead technique, one of the most e cient methods for actinide analysis, at similar mass loading levels. Initial attempts at altering PIE composition for the analysis of plutonium proved to enhance sample utilization even further. Preliminary investigations of the instrumental fractionation behavior of plutonium and uranium analyzed via PIE methods were conducted. Data collected during these initial trial indicate that PIEs fractionate in a consistent, reproducible manner; a necessity for high precision isotope ratio measurements. Ultimately, PIEs methods were applied for

  14. Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi arvense is a well-known annual farmland weed with worldwide distribution, which can be found from sea level to above 4000 m high on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. In this paper, a phylogeographic history of T. arvense including 19 populations from China was inferred by using three chloroplast (cp DNA segments (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and rps16 and one nuclear (n DNA segment (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein, ZIP. A total of 11 chloroplast haplotypes and six nuclear alleles were identified, and haplotypes unique to the QTP were recognized (C4, C5, C7 and N4. On the basis of molecular dating, haplotypes C4, C5 and C7 have separated from others around 1.58 Ma for cpDNA, which corresponds to the QTP uplift. In addition, this article suggests that the T. arvense populations in China are a mixture of diverged subpopulations as inferred by hT/vT test (hT ≤ vT, cpDNA and positive Tajima’s D values (1.87, 0.05 < p < 0.10 for cpDNA and 3.37, p < 0.01 for nDNA. Multimodality mismatch distribution curves and a relatively large shared area of suitable environmental conditions between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as well as the present time recognized by MaxEnt software reject the sudden expansion population model.

  15. Nuclear and cpDNA sequences combined provide strong inference of higher phylogenetic relationships in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh A; Chan, Lauren M; Weese, Terri L; Busby, Lisa D; McMurry, Samuel

    2008-09-01

    Members of the phlox family (Polemoniaceae) serve as useful models for studying various evolutionary and biological processes. Despite its biological importance, no family-wide phylogenetic estimate based on multiple DNA regions with complete generic sampling is available. Here, we analyze one nuclear and five chloroplast DNA sequence regions (nuclear ITS, chloroplast matK, trnL intron plus trnL-trnF intergeneric spacer, and the trnS-trnG, trnD-trnT, and psbM-trnD intergenic spacers) using parsimony and Bayesian methods, as well as assessments of congruence and long branch attraction, to explore phylogenetic relationships among 84 ingroup species representing all currently recognized Polemoniaceae genera. Relationships inferred from the ITS and concatenated chloroplast regions are similar overall. A combined analysis provides strong support for the monophyly of Polemoniaceae and subfamilies Acanthogilioideae, Cobaeoideae, and Polemonioideae. Relationships among subfamilies, and thus for the precise root of Polemoniaceae, remain poorly supported. Within the largest subfamily, Polemonioideae, four clades corresponding to tribes Polemonieae, Phlocideae, Gilieae, and Loeselieae receive strong support. The monogeneric Polemonieae appears sister to Phlocideae. Relationships within Polemonieae, Phlocideae, and Gilieae are mostly consistent between analyses and data permutations. Many relationships within Loeselieae remain uncertain. Overall, inferred phylogenetic relationships support a higher-level classification for Polemoniaceae proposed in 2000.

  16. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  17. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. UO2 Fuel pellet impurities, pellet surface roughness and n(18O)/n(16O) ratios, applied to nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajo, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, law enforcement has faced the problem of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic science is a new branch of science that enables the identification of seized nuclear material. The identification is not based on a fixed scheme, but further identification parameters are decided based on previous identification results. The analysis is carried out by using traditional analysis methods and applying modern measurement technology. The parameters are generally not unambiguous and not self-explanatory. In order to have a full picture about the origin of seized samples, several identification parameters should be used together and the measured data should be compared to corresponding data from known sources. A nuclear material database containing data from several fabrication plants is installed for the purpose. In this thesis the use of UO 2 fabrication plant specific parameters, fuel impurities, fuel pellet surface roughness and oxygen isotopic ratio in UO 2 were investigated for identification purposes in nuclear forensic science. The potential use of these parameters as 'fingerprints' is discussed for identification purposes of seized nuclear materials. Impurities of the fuel material vary slightly according to the fabrication method employed and a plant environment. Here the impurities of the seized UO 2 were used in order to have some clues about the origin of the fuel material by comparing a measured data to nuclear database information. More certainty in the identification was gained by surface roughness of the UO 2 fuel pellets, measured by mechanical surface profilometry. Categories in surface roughness between a different fuel element type and a producer were observed. For the time oxygen isotopic ratios were determined by Thermal Ionisation Mass Speckometry (TIMS). Thus a TIMS measurement method, using U 16 O + and U 18 0 + ions, was developed and optimised to achieve precise oxygen isotope ratio measurements for the

  19. [Forensic entomology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  20. Nuclear power plant transient identification using a neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luchetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Auguto, Silas Cordeiro

    2005-01-01

    Transient identification in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is often a very hard task and may involve a great amount of human cognition. The early identification of unexpected departures from steady state behavior is an essential step for the operation, control and accident management in nuclear power plants. The basis for the identification of a change in the system is that different system faults and anomalies lead to different patterns of evolution of the involved process variables. During an abnormal event, the operator must monitor a great amount of information from the instruments, that represents a specific type of event. In this work, an approach for the identification of transients is presented, aiming at helping the operator to make a decision relative to the procedure to be followed in situations of accidents/transients at nuclear power plants. In this way, a diagnostic strategy based on hierarchical use artificial neural networks (ANN) for a first level transient diagnose. After the ANN has done a preliminary transient type identification, a fuzzy-logic system analyzes the results emitting reliability degree of it. In order to validate the method, a Nuclear Power Plant transient identification problem, comprising postulated accidents, is proposed. Noisy data was used to evaluate the method robustness. The results obtained reveal the ability of the method in dealing with dynamic identification of transients and its reliability degree. (author)

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the Oriental butterfly genus Arhopala (Lycaenidae, Theclinae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, H.J.W.C.; Nes, Van W.J.; Moorsel, van C.H.M.; Pierce, N.E.; Jong, de R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a phylogeny for a selection of species of the butterfly genus Arhopala Boisduval, 1832 based on molecular characters. We sequenced 1778 bases of the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase 1 and 2 including tRNALeu, and a 393-bp fragment of the nuclear wingless gene for a total of 42

  2. Investigation of the isotopic composition of lead and of trace elements concentrations in natural uranium materials as a signature in nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedkauskaite-LeGore, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania); Mayer, K.; Millet, S.; Nicholl, A.; Rasmussen, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Baltrunas, D. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2007-07-01

    Lead is contained as trace element in uranium ores and propagates throughout the production process to intermediate products like yellow cake or uranium oxide. The lead isotopes in such material originate from two sources: natural lead and radiogenic lead. The variability of the isotopic composition of lead in ores and yellow cakes was studied and the applicability of this parameter for nuclear forensic investigations was investigated. Furthermore, the chemical impurities contained in these materials were measured in order to identify characteristic differences between materials from different mines. For the samples investigated, it could be shown, that the lead isotopic composition varies largely from mine to mine and it may be used as one of the parameters to distinguish between materials of different origins. Some of the chemical impurities show a similar pattern and support the conclusions drawn from the lead isotope data. (orig.)

  3. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  4. Forensic and archaeological applications of neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.

    1977-11-01

    The work carried out can be categorized as follows: setting up and standardization of the instrumental multielement analysis facility, for which a system manual is attached; forensic applications which have included the examination of firearm discharge residues around holes suspected to have been caused by the passage of a bullet, and the trace element characterization of biological (hair) and non-biological (transmission wires) materials; archaeological applications involving the study of potsherds from sites along the Stulej river in India; analysis of IAEA intercomparison samples, for which the results are tabulated; and methods for data evaluation

  5. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  6. [Forensic anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  7. Extensive paraphylies within sharks of the order Carcharhiniformes inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglésias, Samuel P; Lecointre, Guillaume; Sellos, Daniel Y

    2005-03-01

    Using nuclear coding and mitochondrial ribosomal genes we try to clarify relationships within Carcharhiniformes with special focus on the two most problematic groups: scyliorhinids and triakids. The mitochondrial aligned sequences are 1542 bp long, and include principally portion of 16S rRNA gene. They are obtained for two outgroup species and 43 Carcharhiniformes species, covering 5 of the 8 families and 15 of the 48 genera of the order. The nuclear RAG1 sequences are 1454 bp long, and are obtained for 17 species representative of the diversity of all species sampled. We used Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood criteria for tree reconstruction. Paraphylies within the family Scyliorhinidae was proposed for the first time by Maisey [Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 82, 33, 1984] in a morphological cladistic analysis. This result has never been proposed again until recently from molecular phylogenies [Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31, 214, 2004]. Here, independent and simultaneous analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial data are congruent in supporting the paraphyly of scyliorhinids. Two groups of scyliorhinids are obtained, thoroughly in line with discrimination proposed by previous authors, based on presence/absence of supraorbital crests on the chondrocranium. The first group (Scyliorhinus+Cephaloscyllium) is basal within carcharhiniforms and the second group (Apristurus+Asymbolus+Cephalurus+Galeus+Parmaturus) is sister group of all the other families investigated (Carcharhinidae, Proscyllidae, Pseudotriakidae, and Triakidae). The paraphyly of triakids appeared probable but more investigations are needed. In conclusion several independent morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies support paraphyly within scyliorhinids. So we propose a new classification for the group, with the redefinition of the family Scyliorhinidae sensu stricto and the resurrection of the family Pentanchidae with a new definition.

  8. Molecular phylogeny and radiation time of erysiphales inferred from the nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Sato, Y.; Takamatsu, S.

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Erysiphales within Ascomycota were inferred from the newly determined sequences of the 18S rDNA and partial sequences of the 28S rDNA including the D1 and D2 regions of 10 Erysiphales taxa. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Erysiphales form a distinct clade among ascomycetous fungi suggesting that the Erysiphales diverged from a single ancestral taxon. The Myxotrichaceae of the Onygenales was distantly related to the other onygenalean families and was the sister group to the Erysiphales calde, with which it combined to form a clade. The Erysiphales/Myxotrichaceae clade was also closely related to some discomycetous fungi (Leotiales, Cyttariales and Thelebolaceae) including taxa that form cleistothecial ascomata. The present molecular analyses as well as previously reported morphological observations suggest the possible existence of a novel evolutionary pathway from cleistothecial discomycetous fungi to Erysiphales and Myxotrichaceae. However, since most of these fungi, except for the Erysiphales, are saprophytic on dung and/or plant materials, the questions of how and why an obligate biotroph like the Erysiphales radiated from the saprophytic fungi remain to be addressed. We also estimated the radiation time of the Erysiphales using the 18S rDNA sequences and the two molecular clockes that have been previously reported. The calculation showed that the Erysiphales split from the Myxotrichaceae 190–127 myr ago. Since the radiation time of the Erysiphales does not exceed 230 myr ago, even when allowance is made for the uncertainty of the molecular clocks, it is possible to consider that the Erysiphales evolved after the radiation of angiosperms. The results of our calculation also showed that the first radiation within the Erysiphales (138–92 myr ago) coincided with the date of a major diversification of angiosperms (130–90 myr ago). These results may support our early assumption that the radiation of the Erysiphales

  9. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  11. Phylogeny and genetic diversity of Bridgeoporus nobilissimus inferred using mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redberg, G.L.; Hibbett, D.S.; Ammirati, J.F.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogeny of Bridgeoporus nobilissimus have been analyzed. DNA was extracted from spores collected from individual fruiting bodies representing six geographically distinct populations in Oregon and Washington. Spore samples collected contained low levels of bacteria, yeast and a filamentous fungal species. Using taxon-specific PCR primers, it was possible to discriminate among rDNA from bacteria, yeast, a filamentous associate and B. nobilissimus. Nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences of B. nobilissimus were compared among individuals representing six populations and were found to have less than 2% variation. These sequences also were used to design dual and nested PCR primers for B. nobilissimus-specific amplification. Mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA sequences were used in a phylogenetic analysis that placed B. nobilissimus in the hymenochaetoid clade, where it was associated with Oxyporus and Schizopora.

  12. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  13. Biogeography of Old World emballonurine bats (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) inferred with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedi, Manuel; Friedli-Weyeneth, Nicole; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Goodman, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Extant bats of the genus Emballonura have a trans-Indian Ocean distribution, with two endemic species restricted to Madagascar, and eight species occurring in mainland southeast Asia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Ancestral Emballonura may have been more widespread on continental areas, but no fossil identified to this genus is known from the Old World. Emballonura belongs to the subfamily Emballonurinae, which occurs in the New and Old World. Relationships of all Old World genera of this subfamily, including Emballonura and members of the genera Coleura from Africa and western Indian Ocean islands and Mosia nigrescens from the western Pacific region, are previously unresolved. Using 1833 bp of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Old World emballonurine bats. We estimated that these lineages diverged around 30 million years ago into two monophyletic sister groups, one represented by the two taxa of Malagasy Emballonura, Coleura and possibly Mosia, and the other by a radiation of Indo-Pacific Emballonura, hence, rendering the genus Emballonura paraphyletic. The fossil record combined with these phylogenetic relationships suggest at least one long-distance dispersal event across the Indian Ocean, presumably of African origin, giving rise to all Indo-Pacific Emballonura species (and possibly Mosia). Cladogenesis of the extant Malagasy taxa took place during the Quaternary giving rise to two vicariant species, E. atrata in the humid east and E. tiavato in the dry west. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M Morton

    Full Text Available The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F and one nuclear region (ITS and various morphological characters, based on Mziray's taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L. Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl. H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group.

  15. Evolutionary history of the Corallinales (Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta) inferred from nuclear, plastidial and mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Lucie; Payri, Claude E; Maneveldt, Gavin W; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; de Reviers, Bruno; Le Gall, Line

    2011-12-01

    Systematics of the red algal order Corallinales has a long and convoluted history. In the present study, molecular approaches were used to assess the phylogenetic relationships based on the analyses of two datasets: a large dataset of SSU sequences including mainly sequences from GenBank; and a combined dataset including four molecular markers (two nuclear: SSU, LSU; one plastidial: psbA; and one mitochondrial: COI). Phylogenetic analyses of both datasets re-affirmed the monophyly of the Corallinales as well as the two families (Corallinaceae and Hapalidiaceae) currently recognized within the order. Three of the four subfamilies of the Corallinaceae (Corallinoideae, Lithophylloideae, Metagoniolithoideae) were also resolved as a monophyletic lineage whereas members of the Mastophoroideae were resolved as four distinct lineages. We therefore propose to restrict the Mastophoroideae to the genera Mastophora, Metamastophora, and possibly Lithoporella in the aim of rendering this subfamily monophyletic. In addition, our phylogenies resolved the genus Hydrolithon in two unrelated lineages, one containing the generitype Hydrolithon reinboldii and the second containing Hydrolithon onkodes, which used to be the generitype of the now defunct genus Porolithon. We therefore propose to resurrect the genus Porolithon for the second lineage encompassing those species with primarily monomerous thalli, and trichocyte arrangements in large pustulate horizontal rows. Moreover, our phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of cryptic diversity in several taxa, shedding light on the need for further studies to better circumscribe species frontiers within the diverse order Corallinales, especially in the genera Mesophyllum and Neogoniolithon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-06-01

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Revealing less derived nature of cartilaginous fish genomes with their evolutionary time scale inferred with nuclear genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina J Renz

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous fishes, divided into Holocephali (chimaeras and Elasmoblanchii (sharks, rays and skates, occupy a key phylogenetic position among extant vertebrates in reconstructing their evolutionary processes. Their accurate evolutionary time scale is indispensable for better understanding of the relationship between phenotypic and molecular evolution of cartilaginous fishes. However, our current knowledge on the time scale of cartilaginous fish evolution largely relies on estimates using mitochondrial DNA sequences. In this study, making the best use of the still partial, but large-scale sequencing data of cartilaginous fish species, we estimate the divergence times between the major cartilaginous fish lineages employing nuclear genes. By rigorous orthology assessment based on available genomic and transcriptomic sequence resources for cartilaginous fishes, we selected 20 protein-coding genes in the nuclear genome, spanning 2973 amino acid residues. Our analysis based on the Bayesian inference resulted in the mean divergence time of 421 Ma, the late Silurian, for the Holocephali-Elasmobranchii split, and 306 Ma, the late Carboniferous, for the split between sharks and rays/skates. By applying these results and other documented divergence times, we measured the relative evolutionary rate of the Hox A cluster sequences in the cartilaginous fish lineages, which resulted in a lower substitution rate with a factor of at least 2.4 in comparison to tetrapod lineages. The obtained time scale enables mapping phenotypic and molecular changes in a quantitative framework. It is of great interest to corroborate the less derived nature of cartilaginous fish at the molecular level as a genome-wide phenomenon.

  18. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhe; Guo, Xianwu; Chen, Liping; Bai, Xiaohui; Wei, Xinlan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA) were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China. PMID:26132567

  19. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  20. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Guido W.; Renner, Susanne S.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Hemleben, Vera

    2007-01-01

    The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML) and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation) instead of the full (partly redundant) original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994) 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly. PMID:19455198

  1. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  2. Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings

  3. Forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  4. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  6. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What Do Forensic Scientists Do? What’s a Forensic Scientist? ... ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) Annual Meeting Events ...

  7. Differential Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Preservation in Post-Mortem Teeth with Implications for Forensic and Ancient DNA Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Futhermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  8. Validation of Likelihood Ratio Methods Used for Forensic Evidence Evaluation: Application in Forensic Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the Likelihood Ratio (LR) inference model will be introduced, the theoretical aspects of probabilities will be discussed and the validation framework for LR methods used for forensic evidence evaluation will be presented. Prior to introducing the validation framework, following

  9. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  10. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  11. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  12. Technical Note: "Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA approaches for reliable identification of Lucilia (Diptera, Calliphoridae) species of forensic interest from Southern Europe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    GilArriortua, Maite; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Cainé, Laura M; Pinheiro, Fátima; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-12-01

    In forensic entomology, rapid and unambiguous identification of blowfly species is a critical prerequisite for accurately estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). The conventional diagnosis of cadaveric entomofauna based on external characters is hampered by the morphological similarities between species, especially in immature stages. Genetic analysis has been shown to allow precise and reliable diagnosis and delimitation of insect species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of some species remains unresolved. This study was focused on improving the effectiveness and accuracy of analysis based on the widely used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI barcode, 658 bp), complemented by other mitochondrial and nuclear regions, such as cytochrome b (Cyt-b, 307 bp) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2, 310-331 bp), for the identification of Southern European blowflies. We analyzed a total of 209 specimens, collected from 38 human corpses, belonging to three Calliphoridae genera and seven species: Chrysomya (Ch. albiceps), Calliphora (C. vicina and C. vomitoria), and Lucilia (L. sericata, L. ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). These species are the most common PMI indicators in Portugal. The results revealed that unambiguous separation of species of the Lucilia genus requires different loci from the barcode region. Furthermore, we conclude that the ITS2 (310-331 bp) molecular marker is a promising diagnostic tool because its inter-specific discriminatory power enables unequivocal and consistent distinctions to be made, even between closely related species (L. caesar-L. illustris). This work also contributes new genetic data that may be of interest in performing species diagnosis for Southern European blowflies. Notably, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first records of the Cyt-b (307 bp) locus for L. illustris and the ITS2 (310-331 bp) region for Iberian Peninsula Lucilia species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  13. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  14. Design of experiments and data analysis challenges in calibration for forensics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Burr, Thomas L.; Hamada, Michael S.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Thomas, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic science aims to infer characteristics of source terms using measured observables. Our focus is on statistical design of experiments and data analysis challenges arising in nuclear forensics. More specifically, we focus on inferring aspects of experimental conditions (of a process to produce product Pu oxide powder), such as temperature, nitric acid concentration, and Pu concentration, using measured features of the product Pu oxide powder. The measured features, Y, include trace chemical concentrations and particle morphology such as particle size and shape of the produced Pu oxide power particles. Making inferences about the nature of inputs X that were used to create nuclear materials having particular characteristics, Y, is an inverse problem. Therefore, statistical analysis can be used to identify the best set (or sets) of Xs for a new set of observed responses Y. One can fit a model (or models) such as Y = f(X) + error, for each of the responses, based on a calibration experiment and ''invert'' to solve for the best set of Xs for a new set of Ys. This perspectives paper uses archived experimental data to consider aspects of data collection and experiment design for the calibration data to maximize the quality of the predicted Ys in the forward models; that is, we assume that well-estimated forward models are effective in the inverse problem. In addition, we consider how to identify a best solution for the inferred X, and evaluate the quality of the result and its robustness to a variety of initial assumptions, and different correlation structures between the responses. In addition, we also briefly review recent advances in metrology issues related to characterizing particle morphology measurements used in the response vector, Y

  15. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  16. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  18. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  19. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  20. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part II: The critical interaction between research, policy/law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    This paper builds on the FoRTE conceptual model presented in part I to address the forms of knowledge that are integral to the four components of the model. Articulating the different forms of knowledge within effective forensic reconstructions is valuable. It enables a nuanced approach to the development and use of evidence bases to underpin decision-making at every stage of a forensic reconstruction by enabling transparency in the reporting of inferences. It also enables appropriate methods to be developed to ensure quality and validity. It is recognised that the domains of practice, research, and policy/law intersect to form the nexus where forensic science is situated. Each domain has a distinctive infrastructure that influences the production and application of different forms of knowledge in forensic science. The channels that can enable the interaction between these domains, enhance the impact of research in theory and practice, increase access to research findings, and support quality are presented. The particular strengths within the different domains to deliver problem solving forensic reconstructions are thereby identified and articulated. It is argued that a conceptual understanding of forensic reconstruction that draws on the full range of both explicit and tacit forms of knowledge, and incorporates the strengths of the different domains pertinent to forensic science, offers a pathway to harness the full value of trace evidence for context sensitive, problem-solving forensic applications. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Current developments in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for use in geology, forensics, and nuclear nonproliferation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, Joshua D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-08-26

    This dissertation focused on new applications of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The diverse fields that were investigated show the versatility of the technique. In Chapter 2, LA-ICP-MS was used to investigate the rare earth element (REE) profiles of garnets from the Broken Hill Deposit in New South Wales, Australia. The normalized REE profiles helped to shed new light on the formation of deposits of sulfide ores. This information may be helpful in identifying the location of sulfide ore deposits in other locations. New sources of metals such as Pg, Zn, and Ag, produced from these ores, are needed to sustain our current technological society. The application of LA-ICP-MS presented in Chapter 3 is the forensics analysis of automotive putty and caulking. The elemental analysis of these materials was combined with the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The PCA comparison was able to differentiate the automotive putty samples by manufacturer and lot number. The analysis of caulk was able to show a differentiation based on manufacturer, but no clear differentiation was shown by lot number. This differentiation may allow matching of evidence in the future. This will require many more analyses and the construction of a database made up of many different samples. The 4th chapter was a study of the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for fast and precise analysis of particle ensembles for nuclear nonproliferation applications. Laser ablation has the ability to spatially resolve particle ensembles which may contain uranium or other actinides from other particles present in a sample. This is of importance in samples obtained from air on filter media. The particle ensembles of interest may be mixed in amongst dust and other particulates. A problem arises when ablating these particle ensembles directly from the filter media. Dust particles other than ones of interest may be accidentally entrained in the aerosol of the ablated particle

  2. Plethora of Cyber Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    N.Sridhar; Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Dr.P.S.Avadhani

    2011-01-01

    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper f...

  3. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  4. Entropic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2011-03-01

    In this tutorial we review the essential arguments behing entropic inference. We focus on the epistemological notion of information and its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of rational agents. The problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), includes as special cases both MaxEnt and Bayes' rule, and therefore unifies the two themes of these workshops—the Maximum Entropy and the Bayesian methods—into a single general inference scheme.

  5. The importance of Forensic research in the Nuclear Power Industry. What the OECD Three Mile Island reactor vessel investigation. Means to the future of commercial nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    TMI-2 altered the perception of the likelihood of severe accidents and their precursors and shortly after the accident, changes began at the NRC. NRC required its nuclear power licensees to make a rather large number of back fits to respond to the lessons learned; NRC broadened the study of severe accident phenomena (focus on studies involving molten core materials); other lessons learned concerned the severe accident source terms and the shift from a deterministic tradition point of view to a probabilistic risk assessment formalism. A Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan was issued in 1989. A review of what was known before the TMI-Vessel Investigation Project and what was not known, is presented

  6. Distributional Inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A.H.; van der Meulen, E.A.; Poortema, Klaas; Schaafsma, W.

    1995-01-01

    The making of statistical inferences in distributional form is conceptionally complicated because the epistemic 'probabilities' assigned are mixtures of fact and fiction. In this respect they are essentially different from 'physical' or 'frequency-theoretic' probabilities. The distributional form is

  7. Entropic Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Caticha, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    In this tutorial we review the essential arguments behing entropic inference. We focus on the epistemological notion of information and its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of rational agents. The problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), includes as special cases both MaxEn...

  8. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  9. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  11. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phylogeny of the gymnosperm genus Cycas L. (Cycadaceae) as inferred from plastid and nuclear loci based on a large-scale sampling: Evolutionary relationships and taxonomical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Shouzhou; Nagalingum, Nathalie S; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Lindstrom, Anders J; Gong, Xun

    2018-05-18

    The gymnosperm genus Cycas is the sole member of Cycadaceae, and is the largest genus of extant cycads. There are about 115 accepted Cycas species mainly distributed in the paleotropics. Based on morphology, the genus has been divided into six sections and eight subsections, but this taxonomy has not yet been tested in a molecular phylogenetic framework. Although the monophyly of Cycas is broadly accepted, the intrageneric relationships inferred from previous molecular phylogenetic analyses are unclear due to insufficient sampling or uninformative DNA sequence data. In this study, we reconstructed a phylogeny of Cycas using four chloroplast intergenic spacers and seven low-copy nuclear genes and sampling 90% of extant Cycas species. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies suggest: (1) matrices of either concatenated cpDNA markers or of concatenated nDNA lack sufficient informative sites to resolve the phylogeny alone, however, the phylogeny from the combined cpDNA-nDNA dataset suggests the genus can be roughly divided into 13 clades and six sections that are in agreement with the current classification of the genus; (2) although with partial support, a clade combining sections Panzhihuaenses + Asiorientales is resolved as the earliest diverging branch; (3) section Stangerioides is not monophyletic because the species resolve as a grade; (4) section Indosinenses is not monophyletic as it includes Cycas macrocarpa and C. pranburiensis from section Cycas; (5) section Cycas is the most derived group and its subgroups correspond with geography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogeny of the Celastreae (Celastraceae) and the relationships of Catha edulis (qat) inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J; Eichstedt, Dedra; Clevinger, Curtis C

    2008-08-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Celastreae, which includes about 350 species of trees and shrubs in 15 genera, was inferred in a simultaneous analysis of morphological characters together with nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) and plastid (matK, trnL-F) genes. A strong correlation was found between the geography of the species sampled and their inferred relationships. Species of Maytenus and Gymnosporia from different regions were resolved as polyphyletic groups. Maytenus was resolved in three lineages (New World, African, and Austral-Pacific), while Gymnosporia was resolved in two lineages (New World and Old World). Putterlickia was resolved as nested within the Old World Gymnosporia. Catha edulis (qat, khat) was resolved as sister to the clade of Allocassine, Cassine, Lauridia, and Maurocenia. Gymnosporia cassinoides, which is reportedly chewed as a stimulant in the Canary Islands, was resolved as a derived member of Gymnosporia and is more closely related to Lydenburgia and Putterlickia than it is to Catha. Therefore, all eight of these genera are candidates for containing cathinone- and/or cathine-related alkaloids.

  14. Digital forensics and its application to forensic audit

    OpenAIRE

    Martinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe a process framework suitable for conducting digital forensics investigation projects as support for forensic audit. Selection of existing digital forensics investigation framework was a subject of criterial comparison. Described new framework is a result of combination and enhancement of those frameworks, which were suitable for the characteristics of forensic audit. Thesis also discusses digital forensics methods for fraud examination and risk assessment as a par...

  15. Radiological field exercises for forensic investigators. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.L.; Clement, C.; Estan, D.; McDiarmid, C.; Tessier, M.

    2006-06-01

    A series of tabletop and field exercises were designed and executed to test traditional forensic investigation procedures in a crime scene with radioactive material present. This allowed for specific training needs of forensic identification specialists to be identified and revised procedures to be drafted. Two scenarios were exercised, first as tabletop discussions with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), and DRDC Ottawa, and then as field exercises with the participation of the RCMP and Ottawa Police Services (OPS) forensic investigators. These exercises produced a number of lessons learned with regard to protocols for forensic investigators and led to the development of a one-page fact sheet on performing forensic identification tasks in a radiation environment. (author)

  16. Forensic use of Y-chromosome DNA: a general overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes

  17. Diversification in insular plants: Inferring the phylogenetic relationship in Aeonium (Crassulaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Frydenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ITS regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced in 37 species of the genus Aeonium. A phylogeny obtained through the use of parsimony agrees to some extent with the sectional division of the genus and confirms the position of two newly described species. It also suggests the potential imp...

  18. Population structure of the African savannah elephant inferred from mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, S; Arctander, P; Siegismund, H R

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-six mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences were used in combination with polymorphism at four nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the amount and distribution of genetic variation within and between African savannah elephants. They were sampled from 11 localities in easter...

  19. Phylogeny of the cycads based on multiple single copy nuclear genes: congruence of concatenation and species tree inference methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a recent new classification, a stable tree of life for the cycads has been elusive, particularly regarding resolution of Bowenia, Stangeria and Dioon. In this study we apply five single copy nuclear genes (SCNGs) to the phylogeny of the order Cycadales. We specifically aim to evaluate seve...

  20. Perceptual inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C

    2015-08-01

    Perceptual inference refers to the ability to infer sensory stimuli from predictions that result from internal neural representations built through prior experience. Methods of Bayesian statistical inference and decision theory model cognition adequately by using error sensing either in guiding action or in "generative" models that predict the sensory information. In this framework, perception can be seen as a process qualitatively distinct from sensation, a process of information evaluation using previously acquired and stored representations (memories) that is guided by sensory feedback. The stored representations can be utilised as internal models of sensory stimuli enabling long term associations, for example in operant conditioning. Evidence for perceptual inference is contributed by such phenomena as the cortical co-localisation of object perception with object memory, the response invariance in the responses of some neurons to variations in the stimulus, as well as from situations in which perception can be dissociated from sensation. In the context of perceptual inference, sensory areas of the cerebral cortex that have been facilitated by a priming signal may be regarded as comparators in a closed feedback loop, similar to the better known motor reflexes in the sensorimotor system. The adult cerebral cortex can be regarded as similar to a servomechanism, in using sensory feedback to correct internal models, producing predictions of the outside world on the basis of past experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  2. Forensic seismology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  3. Phylogenetic inferences of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia revealed by chloroplast (trnL intron) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Yaakop, Salmah; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background The chloroplastic trnL intron and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were sequenced for 11 Nepenthes species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia to examine their phylogenetic relationship and to evaluate the usage of trnL intron and ITS sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of this genus. Results Phylogeny reconstruction was carried out using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. All the trees revealed two major clusters, a lowland group consi...

  4. Forensic DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  5. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes’ inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of

  6. Data partitions, Bayesian analysis and phylogeny of the zygomycetous fungal family Mortierellaceae, inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Petkovits

    Full Text Available Although the fungal order Mortierellales constitutes one of the largest classical groups of Zygomycota, its phylogeny is poorly understood and no modern taxonomic revision is currently available. In the present study, 90 type and reference strains were used to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Mortierellales from the sequence data of the complete ITS region and the LSU and SSU genes with a special attention to the monophyly of the genus Mortierella. Out of 15 alternative partitioning strategies compared on the basis of Bayes factors, the one with the highest number of partitions was found optimal (with mixture models yielding the best likelihood and tree length values, implying a higher complexity of evolutionary patterns in the ribosomal genes than generally recognized. Modeling the ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2, loci separately improved model fit significantly as compared to treating all as one and the same partition. Further, within-partition mixture models suggests that not only the SSU, LSU and ITS regions evolve under qualitatively and/or quantitatively different constraints, but that significant heterogeneity can be found within these loci also. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Mortierella is paraphyletic with respect to the genera Dissophora, Gamsiella and Lobosporangium and the resulting phylogeny contradict previous, morphology-based sectional classification of Mortierella. Based on tree structure and phenotypic traits, we recognize 12 major clades, for which we attempt to summarize phenotypic similarities. M. longicollis is closely related to the outgroup taxon Rhizopus oryzae, suggesting that it belongs to the Mucorales. Our results demonstrate that traits used in previous classifications of the Mortierellales are highly homoplastic and that the Mortierellales is in a need of a reclassification, where new, phylogenetically informative phenotypic traits should be identified, with molecular phylogenies playing a decisive role.

  7. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  8. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  9. The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, C P; Introna, F

    2001-08-15

    An adequate death investigation requires the combined efforts and cooperation of experts in different disciplines: crime scene technicians, death investigators, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, entomologists, other medical and non-medical professionals. These front-line experts play a crucial role in every death investigation process. The forensic pathologist normally has the legal authority to take charge of the dead body at a death scene and his primary functions are the exterior and interior examination of the cadaver by analyzing the extent of antemortem injuries and the postmortem changes and the recovery of physical evidence. He is responsible for determining how, when and why of any death which is the result of violence, suspicious or unexplained circumstances or a death which is sudden or unattended, defending and explaining the reasons for making these diagnoses in a courtroom. The forensic entomologist can provide invaluable aid in death cases where human remains are colonized by insects and in the overall investigation. His principal role is to identify the arthropods associated with such cases and to analyze entomological data for interpreting insect evidence. He is responsible for determining the period of insect activity according to all the variables affecting insect invasion of remains and their development. The major goal of medico-criminal entomology is to contribute to the determination of the time, cause, manner and place of the investigated death (especially on badly decomposed corpses or skeletonized human remains) with the support of all the elements which can be inferred from the study of insects found on the cadaver or nearby. The application of techniques devised recently in forensic entomology can allow experts in the field to collect strong entomological evidence and provide useful information not only in a death investigation including movement or storage of the remains following death, time of dismemberment, postmortem artifacts

  10. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  11. Research in computer forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Hor Cheong

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities on the web, this area of study is catching on in the IT industry and among the law enforcement agencies. The objective of the study is to explore the techniques of computer forensics ...

  12. Phylogenetic inferences of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia revealed by chloroplast (trnL intron) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Yaakop, Salmah; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2017-01-26

    The chloroplastic trnL intron and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were sequenced for 11 Nepenthes species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia to examine their phylogenetic relationship and to evaluate the usage of trnL intron and ITS sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of this genus. Phylogeny reconstruction was carried out using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. All the trees revealed two major clusters, a lowland group consisting of N. ampullaria, N. mirabilis, N. gracilis and N. rafflesiana, and another containing both intermediately distributed species (N. albomarginata and N. benstonei) and four highland species (N. sanguinea, N. macfarlanei, N. ramispina and N. alba). The trnL intron and ITS sequences proved to provide phylogenetic informative characters for deriving a phylogeny of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular phylogenetic study of Nepenthes species occurring along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

  13. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Candidula (Geomitridae) land snails inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers reveals the polyphyly of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Luis J; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Madeira, María José; Pfenninger, Markus

    2018-01-01

    The genus Candidula (Geomitridae), consisting of 28 species in Western Europe as currently described, has a disjunct distribution in the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, the Balkans, the Aegean Islands, and one species on the Canary Islands. Although the genus is seemingly well defined by characters of the reproductive system, the relationships within the genus are still unclear and some authors have indicated a possible subgeneric division based on the internal morphology of the dart sac. Despite substantial phylogenetic incongruence, we present a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of Candidula based on two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S rRNA), the nuclear rDNA region (5.8S rNRA + ITS2 + 28S rRNA) and seven additional nuclear DNA regions developed specifically for this genus (60SL13, 60SL17, 60SL7, RPL14, 40SS6, 60SL9, 60SL13a), in total 5595 bp. Six reciprocally monophyletic entities including Candidula species were recovered, grouping into two major clades. The incorporation of additional geomitrid genera allowed us to unequivocally demonstrate the polyphyly of the genus Candidula. One major clade grouped species from southern France and Italy with the widely distributed species C. unifasciata. The second major clade grouped all the species from the Iberian Peninsula, including C. intersecta and C. gigaxii. Candidula ultima from the Canary Islands was recovered as separated lineage within the latter clade and related to African taxa. The six monophyla were defined as six new genera belonging to different tribes within the Helicellinae. Thus, we could show that similar structures of the stimulatory apparatus of the genital system in different taxa do not necessarily indicate a close phylogenetic relationship in the Geomitridae. More genera of the family are needed to clarify their evolutionary relationships, and to fully understand the evolution of the stimulatory apparatus of the genital system within the Geomitridae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H

    2017-04-01

    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  16. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment

  17. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur

    2014-01-01

    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  18. Phylogeny, historical biogeography and characters evolution of the drought resistant fern Pyrrosia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueping; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Xianchun; Luo, Li; Shang, Hui; Wei, Ran; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Bengang

    2017-10-06

    Pyrrosia s.l. comprises ca. 60 species with a disjunct Africa/Asia and Australia distribution. The infrageneric classification of Pyrrosia s.l. is controversial based on the phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast markers and morphology. Based on the expanded taxon sampling of Pyrrosia s.l. (51 species), we investigated its phylogeny, biogeography, character evolution and environmental adaptation by employing five chloroplastid markers (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH, and rps4 + rps4-trnS) and one single (low)-copy nuclear gene, LEAFY. Pyrrosia s.l. was divided into six major clades and eight subclades. Reticulate evolution was revealed both among clades and among species in Pyrrosia s.l. Ancestral character state optimization revealed high levels of homoplastic evolution of the diagnostic characters in Pyrrosia s.l., while the crassulacean acid metabolism pathway seems to have an independent origin. Molecular dating and biogeographic diversification analyses suggested that Pyrrosia s.l. originated no later than the Oligocene and the main clades diversified during the Oligocene and Miocene, with southern Asia, the Indo-China Peninsula and southwestern and southern China as the most likely ancestral areas. Transoceanic long-distance dispersal, rather than vicariance, contributed to the intercontinental disjunction. Diversification scenarios of Pyrrosia s.l. under geological movements and climate fluctuation are also discussed.

  19. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Devi, Khumuckcham Sangeeta; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-02-01

    Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13 bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili.

  20. Local structures of mesoporous bioactive glasses and their surface alterations in vitro: inferences from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawidjaja, Philips N.; Mathew, Renny; Lo, Andy Y. H.; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; García, Ana; Arcos, Daniel; Mattias Edén, María Vallet-Regí

    2012-01-01

    We review the benefits of using 29Si and 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for probing the local structures of both bulk and surface portions of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO–SiO2−(P2O5) system. These mesoporous materials exhibit an ordered pore arrangement, and are promising candidates for improved bone and tooth implants. We discuss experimental MAS NMR results from three MBGs displaying different Ca, Si and P contents: the 29Si NMR spectra were recorded either directly by employing radio-frequency pulses to 29Si, or by magnetization transfers from neighbouring protons using cross polarization, thereby providing quantitative information about the silicate speciation present in the pore wall and at the MBG surface, respectively. The surface modifications were monitored for the three MBGs during their immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for intervals between 30 min and one week. The results were formulated as a reaction sequence describing the interconversions between the distinct silicate species. We generally observed a depletion of Ca2+ ions at the MBG surface, and a minor condensation of the silicate-surface network over one week of SBF soaking. PMID:22349247

  1. From Computer Forensics to Forensic Computing: Investigators Investigate, Scientists Associate

    OpenAIRE

    Dewald, Andreas; Freiling, Felix C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws a comparison of fundamental theories in traditional forensic science and the state of the art in current computer forensics, thereby identifying a certain disproportion between the perception of central aspects in common theory and the digital forensics reality. We propose a separation of what is currently demanded of practitioners in digital forensics into a rigorous scientific part on the one hand, and a more general methodology of searching and seizing digital evidence an...

  2. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic toxicology . 13DOD’s forensic directive defines DOD components as the Office of the...DEFENSE FORENSICS Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Forensics : Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring

  3. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  4. The nucleic acid revolution continues - will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to "forensic molecular biology." Aside from DNA's established role in identifying the "who" in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about "when" a crime took place and "what" took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.

  5. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  6. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M P; Savolainen, V; Clevinger, C C; Archer, R H; Davis, J I

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) were inferred from nucleotide sequence characters from the 5' end of 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (including expansion segments D1-D3; 84 species sampled), phytochrome B (58 species), rbcL (31 species), atpB (23 species), and morphology (94 species). Among taxa of questionable affinity, Forsellesia is a member of Crossosomataceae, and Goupia is excluded from Celastraceae. However, Brexia, Canotia, Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, Siphonodon, and Stackhousiaceae are supported as members of Celastraceae. Gymnosporia and Tricerma are distinct from Maytenus, Cassine is supported as distinct from Elaeodendron, and Dicarpellum is distinct from Salacia. Catha, Maytenus, and Pristimera are not resolved as natural genera. Hippocrateaceae (including Plagiopteron and Lophopetalum) are a clade nested within a paraphyletic Celastraceae. These data also suggest that the Loesener's classification of Celastraceae sensu stricto and Hallé's classification of Hippocrateaceae are artificial. The diversification of the fruit and aril within Celastraceae appears to be complex, with multiple origins of most fruit and aril forms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  9. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  10. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  11. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-12-21

    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  12. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  13. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  14. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  15. Kindle Forensics: Acquisition & Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hannay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Kindle eBook reader supports a wide range of capabilities beyond reading books. This functionality includes an inbuilt cellular data connection known as Whispernet. The Kindle provides web browsing, an application framework, eBook delivery and other services over this connection. The historic data left by user interaction with this device may be of forensic interest. Analysis of the Amazon Kindle device has resulted in a method to reliably extract and interpret data from these devices in a forensically complete manner.

  16. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  17. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.

  18. Fuzzy Clustering based Methodology for Multidimensional Data Analysis in Computational Forensic Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian Stoffel; Paul Cotofrei; Dong Han

    2012-01-01

    As interdisciplinary domain requiring advanced and innovative methodologies the computational forensics domain is characterized by data being simultaneously large scaled and uncertain multidimensional and approximate. Forensic domain experts trained to discover hidden pattern from crime data are limited in their analysis without the assistance of a computational intelligence approach. In this paper a methodology and an automatic procedure based on fuzzy set theory and designed to infer precis...

  19. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  20. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  1. Forensic importance of jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  2. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  3. Soil Science Forensic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M

    2009-01-01

    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  4. Cenozoic biogeography and evolution in direct-developing frogs of Central America (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus) as inferred from a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Smith, Eric N

    2005-06-01

    We report the first phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data for the Central American component of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylinae), one of the most ubiquitous, diverse, and abundant components of the Neotropical amphibian fauna. We obtained DNA sequence data from 55 specimens representing 45 species. Sampling was focused on Central America, but also included Bolivia, Brazil, Jamaica, and the USA. We sequenced 1460 contiguous base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial genome containing ND2 and five neighboring tRNA genes, plus 1300 bp of the c-myc nuclear gene. The resulting phylogenetic inferences were broadly concordant between data sets and among analytical methods. The subgenus Craugastor is monophyletic and its initial radiation was potentially rapid and adaptive. Within Craugastor, the earliest splits separate three northern Central American species groups, milesi, augusti, and alfredi, from a clade comprising the rest of Craugastor. Within the latter clade, the rhodopis group as formerly recognized comprises three deeply divergent clades that do not form a monophyletic group; we therefore restrict the content of the rhodopis group to one of two northern clades, and use new names for the other northern (mexicanus group) and one southern clade (bransfordii group). The new rhodopis and bransfordii groups together form the sister taxon to a clade comprising the biporcatus, fitzingeri, mexicanus, and rugulosus groups. We used a Bayesian MCMC approach together with geological and biogeographic assumptions to estimate divergence times from the combined DNA sequence data. Our results corroborated three independent dispersal events for the origins of Central American Eleutherodactylus: (1) an ancestor of Craugastor entered northern Central America from South American in the early Paleocene, (2) an ancestor of the subgenus Syrrhophus entered northern Central America from the Caribbean at the end of the Eocene, and (3) a wave of

  5. Species-Level Phylogeny and Polyploid Relationships in Hordeum (Poaceae) Inferred by Next-Generation Sequencing and In Silico Cloning of Multiple Nuclear Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassac, Jonathan; Blattner, Frank R

    2015-09-01

    Polyploidization is an important speciation mechanism in the barley genus Hordeum. To analyze evolutionary changes after allopolyploidization, knowledge of parental relationships is essential. One chloroplast and 12 nuclear single-copy loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all Hordeum plus six out-group species. Amplicons from each of 96 individuals were pooled, sheared, labeled with individual-specific barcodes and sequenced in a single run on a 454 platform. Reference sequences were obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing of all loci for nine supplementary individuals. The 454 reads were assembled into contigs representing the 13 loci and, for polyploids, also homoeologues. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for all loci separately and for a concatenated data matrix of all loci. For diploid taxa, a Bayesian concordance analysis and a coalescent-based dated species tree was inferred from all gene trees. Chloroplast matK was used to determine the maternal parent in allopolyploid taxa. The relative performance of different multilocus analyses in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization was also assessed. The resulting multilocus phylogeny reveals for the first time species phylogeny and progenitor-derivative relationships of all di- and polyploid Hordeum taxa within a single analysis. Our study proves that it is possible to obtain a multilocus species-level phylogeny for di- and polyploid taxa by combining PCR with next-generation sequencing, without cloning and without creating a heavy load of sequence data. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  6. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  7. Forensic Accounting and Financial Crimes: Adopting the Inference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    , payroll frauds, fraudulent billing systems, ... the effects of financial crimes in corporate organizations are very grave ..... internal controls, poor management oversight, among others; while ... evidence and facts in legal matters.

  8. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ways in which such an acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. The study presents information on a relatively new field of expertise and considers the Digital Forensic discipline, forensic tools, practical problems experienced during...

  9. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  10. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. CYBER FORENSICS COMPETENCY-BASED FRAMEWORK - AREVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Elfadil Sabeil; Azizah Bt Abdul Manaf; Zuraini Ismail; Mohamed Abas

    2011-01-01

    Lack of Cyber Forensics experts is a huge challenge facing the world today. It comes due to the fancy of Cyber Forensics training or education. The multidisciplinary nature of Cyber Forensics proliferates to diverse training programmes, from a handful day‟s workshop to Postgraduate in Cyber Forensics. Consequently, this paper concentrates on analyzing the Cyber Forensics training programmes in terms of Competency-Based Framework. The study proves that Cyber Forensics training or education h...

  12. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  13. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  14. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  15. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  16. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  17. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  18. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  19. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  20. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  1. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  2. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  3. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  4. Intricate patterns of phylogenetic relationships in the olive family as inferred from multi-locus plastid and nuclear DNA sequence analyses: a close-up on Chionanthus and Noronhia (Oleaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Wa, Cynthia; Besnard, Guillaume

    2013-05-01

    Noronhia represents the most successful radiation of the olive family (Oleaceae) in Madagascar with more than 40 named endemic species distributed in all ecoregions from sea level to high mountains. Its position within the subtribe Oleinae has, however, been largely unresolved and its evolutionary history has remained unexplored. In this study, we generated a dataset of plastid (trnL-F, trnT-L, trnS-G, trnK-matK) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) DNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships within Oleinae and to examine evolutionary patterns within Noronhia. Our sample included most species of Noronhia and representatives of the ten other extant genera within the subtribe with an emphasis on Chionanthus. Bayesian inferences and maximum likelihood analyses of plastid and nuclear data indicated several instances of paraphyly and polyphyly within Oleinae, with some geographic signal. Both plastid and ITS data showed a polyphyletic Noronhia that included Indian Ocean species of Chionanthus. They also found close relationships between Noronhia and African Chionanthus. However, the plastid data showed little clear differentiation between Noronhia and the African Chionanthus whereas relationships suggested by the nuclear ITS data were more consistent with taxonomy and geography. We used molecular dating to discriminate between hybridization and lineage sorting/gene duplication as alternative explanations for these topological discordances and to infer the biogeographic history of Noronhia. Hybridization between African Chionanthus and Noronhia could not be ruled out. However, Noronhia has long been established in Madagascar after a likely Cenozoic dispersal from Africa, suggesting any hybridization between representatives of African and Malagasy taxa was ancient. In any case, the African and Indian Ocean Chionanthus and Noronhia together formed a strongly supported monophyletic clade distinct and distant from other Chionanthus, which calls for a revised

  5. An introduction to computer forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  6. [Progress in Application of Measuring Skeleton by CT in Forensic Anthropology Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C Y; Xu, L; Wang, N; Zhang, M; Li, Y S; Lü, J X

    2017-02-01

    Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation. The major technology and the application of CT in forensic anthropology research are compared and discussed, respectively. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  8. Forensic applications of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Ernesto N.

    2002-01-01

    Science and the law are considered to be the two main shaping forces in modern societies. The Regional Seminars on Forensic Physics are organized by (mostly CNEA) scientists in Bariloche with a twofold purpose: to increase the participation of researchers as experts witnesses in the solution of legal problems, and to make judges aware of facilities and techniques that might prove useful. Some of the contributions to the last seminar are discussed, ranging from the numerical simulation of mayor explosions to the behavior of snow avalanches, and from the proper control of a trace laboratory to the distribution of words in the plays of Shakespeare. (author)

  9. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  10. Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-15

    Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  12. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  13. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Ian

    2015-08-05

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning-about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  16. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  17. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations

  18. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  20. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  1. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  2. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-01-01

    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  3. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  4. A history of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-04-01

    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  6. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  8. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  9. Joint IAEA/NNSA International Workshop Nuclear Forensics Methodologies for Practitioners 2013 Scenario Based Exercise – Version 4.0 Instructor’s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Douglas, Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morley, Shannon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hill, David [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, New South Wales (Australia); Thompson, Paul [AWE, Aldermasten (United Kingtom); Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gassman, Paul L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierson, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wallenius, Maria [European Commission, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe, (Germany); Marks, Naomi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    [Participants will serve as border guards for Reimerland. They will be given brief instruction on the operation of hand-held RadioIsotope DetectorS (RIDS) and be provided an intelligence briefing that tells them to be on the lookout for suspicious activity at their post. Their instruction will include directing suspicious vehicles to a location for secondary screening. If, after secondary screening, suspicions of a criminal act involving nuclear and or radioactive materials remain, participants have been instructed to request assistance from the NLEA, who will then setup and manage a radiological crime scene. Participants will watch a demonstration of two vehicles containing radioactive materials driving through and setting off a portal monitor. The first vehicle, a semi-tractor trailer, sets off only a gamma alarm. After the driver provides a shipping manifest of fertilizer, participants, posing as border guards, are expected to waive this vehicle through inspection. The second vehicle, an SUV, set off both gamma and 2 neutron alarms. The alarming of the neutron monitor should prompt participants to set up a secondary inspection of the vehicle immediately. The driver of the vehicle indicates he is in legal possession of an industrial instrument containing an old 133Ba source that has decayed to a level no longer requiring official paperwork according to the IAEA and internationally accepted transportation regulations. Authorities have verified that the industrial source does fit the description of one that is sold commercially. However, upon setting up a secondary screening, participants will use hand-held detectors to locate several other radioactive sources emanating from a black duffle bag in the rear of the vehicle (Figure 1). Hand held detectors detect the presence of 133Ba, and Pu. Upon questioning, the driver only commits to having the 133Ba industrial source and cannot account for the detection of neutrons within his vehicle. Since neutron alarms also

  10. Joint IAEA/NNSA International Workshop Nuclear Forensics Methodologies for Practitioners 2013 Scenario Based Exercise - Version 4.0 Instructor's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Morley, Shannon M.; Hill, David; Thompson, Paul; Santi, Peter; Gassman, Paul L.; Meier, David E.; Pierson, Richard M.; Wallenius, Maria; Marks, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    [Participants will serve as border guards for Reimerland. They will be given brief instruction on the operation of hand-held RadioIsotope DetectorS (RIDS) and be provided an intelligence briefing that tells them to be on the lookout for suspicious activity at their post. Their instruction will include directing suspicious vehicles to a location for secondary screening. If, after secondary screening, suspicions of a criminal act involving nuclear and or radioactive materials remain, participants have been instructed to request assistance from the NLEA, who will then setup and manage a radiological crime scene. Participants will watch a demonstration of two vehicles containing radioactive materials driving through and setting off a portal monitor. The first vehicle, a semi-tractor trailer, sets off only a gamma alarm. After the driver provides a shipping manifest of fertilizer, participants, posing as border guards, are expected to waive this vehicle through inspection. The second vehicle, an SUV, set off both gamma and 2 neutron alarms. The alarming of the neutron monitor should prompt participants to set up a secondary inspection of the vehicle immediately. The driver of the vehicle indicates he is in legal possession of an industrial instrument containing an old 133Ba source that has decayed to a level no longer requiring official paperwork according to the IAEA and internationally accepted transportation regulations. Authorities have verified that the industrial source does fit the description of one that is sold commercially. However, upon setting up a secondary screening, participants will use hand-held detectors to locate several other radioactive sources emanating from a black duffle bag in the rear of the vehicle (Figure 1). Hand held detectors detect the presence of 133Ba, and Pu. Upon questioning, the driver only commits to having the 133Ba industrial source and cannot account for the detection of neutrons within his vehicle. Since neutron alarms also

  11. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  12. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  13. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  14. Forensic individual age estimation with DNA: From initial approaches to methylation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Aradas, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V

    2017-07-01

    Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan. In the last four years, the number of publications reporting DNA methylation age-correlated changes has gradually risen and the forensic community now has a range of age methylation tests applicable to forensic casework. Most forensic age predictor models have been developed based on blood DNA samples, but additional tissues are now also being explored. This review assesses the most widely adopted genes harboring methylation sites, detection technologies, statistical age-predictive analyses, and potential causes of variation in age estimates. Despite the need for further work to improve predictive accuracy and establishing a broader range of tissues for which tests can analyze the most appropriate methylation sites, several forensic age predictors have now been reported that provide consistency in their prediction accuracies (predictive error of ±4 years); this makes them compelling tools with the potential to contribute key information to help guide criminal investigations. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  16. Forensic image analysis - CCTV distortion and artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckiner, Dilan; Mallett, Xanthé; Roux, Claude; Meuwly, Didier; Maynard, Philip

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the worldwide deployment of surveillance cameras, authorities have gained a powerful tool that captures footage of activities of people in public areas. Surveillance cameras allow continuous monitoring of the area and allow footage to be obtained for later use, if a criminal or other act of interest occurs. Following this, a forensic practitioner, or expert witness can be required to analyse the footage of the Person of Interest. The examination ultimately aims at evaluating the strength of evidence at source and activity levels. In this paper, both source and activity levels are inferred from the trace, obtained in the form of CCTV footage. The source level alludes to features observed within the anatomy and gait of an individual, whilst the activity level relates to activity undertaken by the individual within the footage. The strength of evidence depends on the value of the information recorded, where the activity level is robust, yet source level requires further development. It is therefore suggested that the camera and the associated distortions should be assessed first and foremost and, where possible, quantified, to determine the level of each type of distortion present within the footage. A review of the 'forensic image analysis' review is presented here. It will outline the image distortion types and detail the limitations of differing surveillance camera systems. The aim is to highlight various types of distortion present particularly from surveillance footage, as well as address gaps in current literature in relation to assessment of CCTV distortions in tandem with gait analysis. Future work will consider the anatomical assessment from surveillance footage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, R. E. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1967-10-15

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  18. Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. March...ion batteries are the common technology for powering portable electronics. The nuclear reactions within the batteries are sensitive to neutrons. By...and chemical changes within the battery . These changes can be determined by mass spectrometry or gamma and beta spectroscopy of long-lived

  19. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  1. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  2. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  4. Nuclear Forensic Lab Interoperability and Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    to the decay-corrected disintegrations per second (Bq) from the certified specific activity and the aliquot mass. Count rates for each peak were...balance, five- place • Anti-static holder for plastic bottles • Anti-static “gun” or equivalent Bottles for reagents Teflon or HDPE Test tubes...for GPEC wash solutions plastic Vials or bottles for sample collection Teflon or HDPE (or other non-leachable plastic ) Pipets, pipet tips

  5. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  6. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  7. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  8. Home - Virginia Department of Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collecting DNA Data Bank Samples Forensic Training Forensic Science Academy Short Course Schedule Forensic gross weights, marijuana food products and search warrant cases. Click anywhere on the image to open the -screen comparison software system to perform and document the comparison. Virginia DNA Data Bank

  9. THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and dental practitioners of the crucial role of dentist in victim's identification and ... role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following ... matrimonial, or financial reasons6. The first and .... chief physician during the systematic extermination of the Jews at ... of police officers with forensic pathologist and forensic.

  10. Forensic genetic analysis of bio-geographical ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris

    2015-09-01

    With the great strides made in the last ten years in the understanding of human population variation and the detailed characterization of the genome, it is now possible to identify sets of ancestry informative markers suitable for relatively small-scale PCR-based assays and use them to analyze the ancestry of an individual from forensic DNA. This review outlines some of the current understanding of past human population structure and how it may have influenced the complex distribution of contemporary human diversity. A simplified description of human diversity can provide a suitable basis for choosing the best ancestry-informative markers, which is important given the constraints of multiplex sizes in forensic DNA tests. It is also important to decide the level of geographic resolution that is realistic to ensure the balance between informativeness and an over-simplification of complex human diversity patterns. A detailed comparison is made of the most informative ancestry markers suitable for forensic use and assessments are made of the data analysis regimes that can provide statistical inferences of a DNA donor's bio-geographical ancestry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of transferred fragrance and its forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherghel, Simona; Morgan, Ruth M; Blackman, Christopher S; Karu, Kersti; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-12-01

    Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made. With this purpose a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of perfumes was developed. This paper presents two different series of experiments that investigate the dynamics of perfume transfer as a factor of perfume ageing time, and as a factor of perfume contact time. Empirical data showed that both perfume ageing time, and perfume contact time play a key role in the number of perfume components transferred. These studies have implication for forensic protocols, specifically for perfume trace evidence collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation, and there is potentially great value in analysing perfumes from clothing exhibits in forensic enquiries that involve close contact between individuals, such as sexual assaults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety insights from forensics evaluations at Daiichi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rempe

    2017-01-01

    Information obtained from Daiichi is required to inform Decontamination and Decommissioning activities, improving the ability of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO to characterize potential hazards and to ensure the safety of workers involved with cleanup activities. This paper reports initial results from the US Forensics Effort to utilize examination information obtained by TEPCO to enhance the safety of existing and future nuclear power plant designs. In this paper, three examples are presented in which examination information, such as visual images, dose surveys, sample evaluations, and muon tomography examinations, along with data from plant instrumentation, are used to obtain significant safety insights in the areas of component performance, fission product release and transport, debris end-state location, and combustible gas generation and transport. In addition to reducing uncertainties related to severe accident modeling progression, these insights confirm actions, such as the importance of water addition and containment venting, that are emphasized in updated guidance for severe accident prevention, mitigation, and emergency planning.

  13. SEMANTIC PATCH INFERENCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Collateral evolution the problem of updating several library-using programs in response to API changes in the used library. In this dissertation we address the issue of understanding collateral evolutions by automatically inferring a high-level specification of the changes evident in a given set ...... specifications inferred by spdiff in Linux are shown. We find that the inferred specifications concisely capture the actual collateral evolution performed in the examples....

  14. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  15. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  16. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  17. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  18. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  19. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...

  20. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  1. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  2. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  3. Forensic drug intelligence: an important tool in law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, Pierrre; Ioset, Sylvain; Anglada, Frédéric; Gasté, Laëtitia; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre; Gallusser, Alain; Biedermann, Alex; Specht, Yves; Ottinger, Edmond

    2007-04-11

    Organised criminality is a great concern for national/international security. The demonstration of complex crimes is increasingly dependant on knowledge distributed within law-enforcement agencies and scientific disciplines. This separation of knowledge creates difficulties in reconstructing and prosecuting such crimes. Basic interdisciplinary research in drug intelligence combined with crime analysis, forensic intelligence, and traditional law enforcement investigation is leading to important advances in crime investigation support. Laboratory results constitute one highly dependable source of information that is both reliable and testable. Their operational use can support investigation and even provide undetected connections or organisation of structure. The foremost difficulties encountered by drug analysts are not principally of a chemical or analytical nature, but methodologies to extract parameters or features that are deemed to be crucial for handling and contextualising drug profiling data. An organised memory has been developed in order to provide accurate, timely, useful and meaningful information for linking spatially and temporally distinct events on a national and international level (including cross-border phenomena). Literature has already pointed out that forensic case data are amenable for use in an intelligence perspective if data and knowledge of specialised actors are appropriately organised, shared and processed. As a particular form of forensic case data, the authors' research focuses on parameters obtained through the systematic physical and chemical profiling of samples of illicit drugs. The procedure is used to infer and characterise links between samples that originate from the same and different seizures. The discussion will not, however, focus on how samples are actually analysed and compared as substantial literature on this topic already exists. Rather, attention is primarily drawn to an active and close collaboration between

  4. Final Report on Small Particle Speciation for Forensics Analysis by Soft X-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacold, J. I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Altman, A. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Donald, S B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davisson, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, K S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Minasian, S. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nelson, A J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tyliszczak, T [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Materials of interest for nuclear forensic science are often highly heterogeneous, containing complex mixtures of actinide compounds in a wide variety of matrices. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is ideally suited to study such materials, as it can be used to chemically image specimens by acquiring X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data with 25 nm spatial resolution. In particular, STXM in the soft X-ray synchrotron radiation regime (approximately 120 – 2000 eV) can collect spectroscopic information from the actinides and light elements in a single experiment. Thus, STXM combines the chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectroscopy with high spatial resolution in a single non-destructive characterization method. This report describes the application of STXM to a broad range of nuclear materials. Where possible, the spectroscopic images obtained by STXM are compared with information derived from other analytical methods, and used to make inferences about the process history of each material. STXM measurements can yield information including the morphology of a sample, “elemental maps” showing the spatial distribution of major chemical constituents, and XANES spectra from localized regions of a sample, which may show spatial variations in chemical composition.

  5. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  7. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  8. Bayesian statistical inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno De Finetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was translated into English and published in the volume: Bruno De Finetti, Induction and Probability, Biblioteca di Statistica, eds. P. Monari, D. Cocchi, Clueb, Bologna, 1993.Bayesian statistical Inference is one of the last fundamental philosophical papers in which we can find the essential De Finetti's approach to the statistical inference.

  9. Geometric statistical inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periwal, Vipul

    1999-01-01

    A reparametrization-covariant formulation of the inverse problem of probability is explicitly solved for finite sample sizes. The inferred distribution is explicitly continuous for finite sample size. A geometric solution of the statistical inference problem in higher dimensions is outlined

  10. Practical Bayesian Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; 1. Probability basics; 2. Estimation and uncertainty; 3. Statistical models and inference; 4. Linear models, least squares, and maximum likelihood; 5. Parameter estimation: single parameter; 6. Parameter estimation: multiple parameters; 7. Approximating distributions; 8. Monte Carlo methods for inference; 9. Parameter estimation: Markov chain Monte Carlo; 10. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 11. Model comparison; 12. Dealing with more complicated problems; References; Index.

  11. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  12. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.

    2017-01-01

    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  13. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Forensic trace DNA: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so

  15. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  16. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  18. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decad...

  19. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  20. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  1. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  2. Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

    Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are

  3. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  4. Knowledge and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge and Inference discusses an important problem for software systems: How do we treat knowledge and ideas on a computer and how do we use inference to solve problems on a computer? The book talks about the problems of knowledge and inference for the purpose of merging artificial intelligence and library science. The book begins by clarifying the concept of """"knowledge"""" from many points of view, followed by a chapter on the current state of library science and the place of artificial intelligence in library science. Subsequent chapters cover central topics in the artificial intellig

  5. Logical inference and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perey, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given

  6. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  7. Development of diagnosis and maintenance support system for nuclear power plants with flexible inference function and knowledge base edition support function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Makoto; Seki, Eiji; Tai, Ichiro; Morioka, Toshihiko

    1988-01-01

    For the reliable and efficient diagnosis and inspection work of the nuclear power plant equipments, 'Diagnosis and Maintenance Support System' has been developed. This system has functions to assist operators or engineers to observe and evaluate equipment conditions based on the experts' knowledge. These functions are carried out through dialogue between the system and users. This system has two subsystems: diagnosis subsystem and knowledge base edition support subsystem. To achieve the functions of diagnosis subsystem, a new method of knowledge processing for equipment diagnosis is adopted. This method is based on the concept of 'Cause Generation and Checking'. Knowledge for diagnosis is represented with modularized production rules. And each rule module consists of four different type rules with hierarchical structure. With this approach, the system is equipped with sufficient performance not only in diagnosis function but also in flexible man-machine interface. Knowledge base edition support subsystem (Graphical Rule Editor) is provided for this system. This editor has functions to display and edit the contents of knowledge base with tree structures through the graphic display. With these functions, the efficiency of constructing expert system is highly improved. By applying this system to the maintenance support of neutron monitoring system, it is proved that this system has satisfactory performance as a diagnosis and maintenance support system. (author)

  8. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Feng; Häkkinen, Markku; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Musaceae is a small paleotropical family. Three genera have been recognised within this family although the generic delimitations remain controversial. Most species of the family (around 65 species) have been placed under the genus Musa and its infrageneric classification has long been disputed. In this study, we obtained nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast (atpB-rbcL, rps16, and trnL-F) DNA sequences of 36 species (42 accessions of ingroups representing three genera) together with 10 accessions of ingroups retrieved from GenBank database and 4 accessions of outgroups, to construct the phylogeny of the family, with a special reference to the infrageneric classification of the genus Musa. Our phylogenetic analyses elaborated previous results in supporting the monophyly of the family and suggested that Musella and Ensete may be congeneric or at least closely related, but refuted the previous infrageneric classification of Musa. None of the five sections of Musa previously defined based on morphology was recovered as monophyletic group in the molecular phylogeny. Two infrageneric clades were identified, which corresponded well to the basic chromosome numbers of x=11 and 10/9/7, respectively: the former clade comprises species from the sections Musa and Rhodochlamys while the latter contains sections of Callimusa, Australimusa, and Ingentimusa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. It remains an association of active practitioners of nuclear forensics underwritten by funding from sponsoring countries and organizations. While the primary mission of the ITWG continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to combat nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises, promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in nuclear forensics investigations. By its very nature nuclear trafficking is a transboundary problem; nuclear materials

  10. Probability and Statistical Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper, Harrison B.

    2006-01-01

    These lectures introduce key concepts in probability and statistical inference at a level suitable for graduate students in particle physics. Our goal is to paint as vivid a picture as possible of the concepts covered.

  11. On quantum statistical inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Gill, R.D.; Jupp, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, developments in the theory of quantum measurements have

  12. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  13. INFERENCE BUILDING BLOCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    expressed a variety of inference techniques on discrete and continuous distributions: exact inference, importance sampling, Metropolis-Hastings (MH...without redoing any math or rewriting any code. And although our main goal is composable reuse, our performance is also good because we can use...control paths. • The Hakaru language can express mixtures of discrete and continuous distributions, but the current disintegration transformation

  14. Introductory statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Nitis

    2014-01-01

    This gracefully organized text reveals the rigorous theory of probability and statistical inference in the style of a tutorial, using worked examples, exercises, figures, tables, and computer simulations to develop and illustrate concepts. Drills and boxed summaries emphasize and reinforce important ideas and special techniques.Beginning with a review of the basic concepts and methods in probability theory, moments, and moment generating functions, the author moves to more intricate topics. Introductory Statistical Inference studies multivariate random variables, exponential families of dist

  15. ON THE INFERENCE OF THE COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE ζ FROM THE HCO{sup +}-to-DCO{sup +} ABUNDANCE RATIO: THE EFFECT OF NUCLEAR SPIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Le Gal, Romane; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bergner, Jennifer B. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Öberg, Karin I., E-mail: shingledecker@virginia.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The chemistry of dense interstellar regions was analyzed using a time-dependent gas–grain astrochemical simulation and a new chemical network that incorporates deuterated chemistry, taking into account nuclear spin states for the hydrogen chemistry and its deuterated isotopologues. With this new network, the utility of the [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] abundance ratio as a probe of the cosmic-ray ionization rate has been re-examined, with special attention paid to the effect of the initial value of the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen. After discussing the use of the probe for cold cores, we compare our results with previous theoretical and observational results for a molecular cloud close to the supernova remnant W51C, which is thought to have an enhanced cosmic-ray ionization rate ζ caused by the nearby γ -ray source. In addition, we attempt to use our approach to estimate the cosmic-ray ionization rate for L1174, a dense core with an embedded star. Beyond the previously known sensitivity of [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] to ζ , we demonstrate its additional dependence on the initial OPR and, secondarily, on the age of the source, its temperature, and its density. We conclude that the usefulness of the [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] abundance ratio in constraining the cosmic-ray ionization rate in dense regions increases with the age of the source and the ionization rate as the ratio becomes far less sensitive to the initial value of the OPR.

  16. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian

  17. Allopatric speciation despite historical gene flow: Divergence and hybridization in Carex furva and C. lucennoiberica (Cyperaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear RAD-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilla, Enrique; Escudero, Marcial; Hipp, Andrew L; Luceño, Modesto

    2017-10-01

    Gene flow among incipient species can act as a creative or destructive force in the speciation process, generating variation on which natural selection can act while, potentially, undermining population divergence. The flowering plant genus Carex exhibits a rapid and relatively recent radiation with many species limits still unclear. This is the case with the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal)-endemic C. lucennoiberica, which lay unrecognized within Carex furva until its recent description as a new species. In this study, we test how these species were impacted by interspecific gene flow during speciation. We sampled the full range of distribution of C. furva (15 individuals sampled) and C. lucennoiberica (88 individuals), sequenced two cpDNA regions (atpI-atpH, psbA-trnH) and performed genomic sequencing of 45,100 SNPs using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). We utilized a set of partitioned D-statistic tests and demographic analyses to study the degree and direction of introgression. Additionally, we modelled species distributions to reconstruct changes in range distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. Plastid, nuclear and morphological data strongly support divergence between species with subsequent gene flow. Combined with species distribution modelling, these data support a scenario of allopatry leading to species divergence, followed by secondary contact and gene flow due to long-distance dispersal and/or range expansions and contractions in response to Quaternary glacial cycles. We conclude that this is a case of allopatric speciation despite historical secondary contacts, which could have temporally influenced the speciation process, contributing to the knowledge of forces that are driving or counteracting speciation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genetic diversity among eight Dendrolimus species in Eurasia (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) inferred from mitochondrial COI and COII, and nuclear ITS2 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, Alexander; Ustyantsev, Kirill; Wang, Baode; Mastro, Victor C; Fet, Victor; Blinov, Alexander; Baranchikov, Yuri

    2016-12-22

    Moths of genus Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) are among the major pests of coniferous forests worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature of this genus are not entirely established, and there are many species with a controversial taxonomic position. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the most economically important Dendrolimus species in Eurasia. Our analysis was based on the nucleotide sequences of COI and COII mitochondrial genes and ITS2 spacer of nuclear ribosomal genes. All known sequences were extracted from GenBank. Additional 112 new sequences were identified for 28 specimens of D. sibiricus, D. pini, and D. superans from five regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East to be able to compare the disparate data from all previous studies. In total, 528 sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis. Two clusters of closely related species in Dendrolimus were found. The first cluster includes D. pini, D. sibiricus, and D. superans; and the second, D. spectabilis, D. punctatus, and D. tabulaeformis. Species D. houi and D. kikuchii appear to be the most basal in the genus. Genetic difference among the second cluster species is very low in contrast to the first cluster species. Phylogenetic position D. tabulaeformis as a subspecies was supported. It was found that D. sibiricus recently separated from D. superans. Integration of D. sibiricus mitochondrial DNA sequences and the spread of this species to the west of Eurasia have been established as the cause of the unjustified allocation of a new species: D. kilmez. Our study further clarifies taxonomic problems in the genus and gives more complete information on the genetic structure of D. pini, D. sibiricus, and D. superans.

  19. The evolution and biogeography of the austral horse fly tribe Scionini (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae) inferred from multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, B D; Cameron, S L; Bayless, K M; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K

    2013-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Tabanidae are largely unknown, despite their considerable medical and ecological importance. The first robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the horse fly tribe Scionini is provided, completing the systematic placement of all tribes in the subfamily Pangoniinae. The Scionini consists of seven mostly southern hemisphere genera distributed in Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand and South America. A 5757 bp alignment of 6 genes, including mitochondrial (COI and COII), ribosomal (28S) and nuclear (AATS and CAD regions 1, 3 and 4) genes, was analysed for 176 taxa using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Results indicate the Scionini are strongly monophyletic, with the exclusion of the only northern hemisphere genus Goniops. The South American genera Fidena, Pityocera and Scione were strongly monophyletic, corresponding to current morphology-based classification schemes. The most widespread genus Scaptia was paraphyletic and formed nine strongly supported monophyletic clades, each corresponding to either the current subgenera or several previously synonymised genera that should be formally resurrected. Molecular results also reveal a newly recognised genus endemic to New Zealand, formerly placed within Scaptia. Divergence time estimation was employed to assess the global biogeographical patterns in the Pangoniinae. These analyses demonstrated that the Scionini are a typical Gondwanan group whose diversification was influenced by the fragmentation of that ancient land mass. Furthermore, results indicate that the Scionini most likely originated in Australia and subsequently radiated to New Zealand and South American by both long distance dispersal and vicariance. The phylogenetic framework of the Scionini provided herein will be valuable for taxonomic revisions of the Tabanidae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Progenitor-derivative relationships of Hordeum polyploids (Poaceae, Triticeae inferred from sequences of TOPO6, a nuclear low-copy gene region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Brassac

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major mechanism of speciation in plants. Within the barley genus Hordeum, approximately half of the taxa are polyploids. While for diploid species a good hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships exists, there is little information available for the polyploids (4×, 6× of Hordeum. Relationships among all 33 diploid and polyploid Hordeum species were analyzed with the low-copy nuclear marker region TOPO6 for 341 Hordeum individuals and eight outgroup species. PCR products were either directly sequenced or cloned and on average 12 clones per individual were included in phylogenetic analyses. In most diploid Hordeum species TOPO6 is probably a single-copy locus. Most sequences found in polyploid individuals phylogenetically cluster together with sequences derived from diploid species and thus allow the identification of parental taxa of polyploids. Four groups of sequences occurring only in polyploid taxa are interpreted as footprints of extinct diploid taxa, which contributed to allopolyploid evolution. Our analysis identifies three key species involved in the evolution of the American polyploids of the genus. (i All but one of the American tetraploids have a TOPO6 copy originating from the Central Asian diploid H. roshevitzii, the second copy clustering with different American diploid species. (ii All hexaploid species from the New World have a copy of an extinct close relative of H. californicum and (iii possess the TOPO6 sequence pattern of tetraploid H. jubatum, each with an additional copy derived from different American diploids. Tetraploid H. bulbosum is an autopolyploid, while the assumed autopolyploid H. brevisubulatum (4×, 6× was identified as allopolyploid throughout most of its distribution area. The use of a proof-reading DNA polymerase in PCR reduced the proportion of chimerical sequences in polyploids in comparison to Taq polymerase.

  1. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  2. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...... is on crime cases as these differ from the other types of cases since the biological material often is used for person identification contrary to affinity. Common to all cases, however, is that the DNA is used as evidence in order to assess the probability of observing the biological material given different...... of the DNA evidence under competing hypotheses the biological evidence may be used in the court’s deliberation and trial on equal footing with other evidence and expert statements. These probabilities are based on population genetic models whose assumptions must be validated. The thesis’s first two articles...

  6. A brief overview of forensic herpetology

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of forensic herpetology is reviewed. This research focus, defined here as the application of science to studies of reptiles and amphibians when these animals become the subject of legal investigations, has gained increasing attention in recent years. A diverse range of experts contributes to methods in forensic herpetology including forensic scientists, herpetologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, physicians, pathologists and toxicologists. The English language literature in ...

  7. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  8. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim

    2005-03-01

    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  9. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

    2014-10-01

    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model

    2011-01-01

    Law practitioners are in an uninterrupted battle with criminals in the application of digital/computertechnologies, and require the development of a proper methodology to systematically searchdigital devices for significant evidence. Computer fraud and digital crimes are growing day by dayand unfortunately less than two percent of the reported cases result in confidence. This paperexplores the development of the digital forensics process model, compares digital forensicmethodologies, and fina...

  11. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  12. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  13. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  14. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  15. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  16. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  19. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking

  20. Rapid quantification and sex determination of forensic evidence materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, Hanna; Allen, Marie

    2003-11-01

    DNA quantification of forensic evidence is very valuable for an optimal use of the available biological material. Moreover, sex determination is of great importance as additional information in criminal investigations as well as in identification of missing persons, no suspect cases, and ancient DNA studies. While routine forensic DNA analysis based on short tandem repeat markers includes a marker for sex determination, analysis of samples containing scarce amounts of DNA is often based on mitochondrial DNA, and sex determination is not performed. In order to allow quantification and simultaneous sex determination on minute amounts of DNA, an assay based on real-time PCR analysis of a marker within the human amelogenin gene has been developed. The sex determination is based on melting curve analysis, while an externally standardized kinetic analysis allows quantification of the nuclear DNA copy number in the sample. This real-time DNA quantification assay has proven to be highly sensitive, enabling quantification of single DNA copies. Although certain limitations were apparent, the system is a rapid, cost-effective, and flexible assay for analysis of forensic casework samples.

  1. Forensics and mitochondrial DNA: applications, debates, and foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2003-01-01

    Debate on the validity and reliability of scientific methods often arises in the courtroom. When the government (i.e., the prosecution) is the proponent of evidence, the defense is obliged to challenge its admissibility. Regardless, those who seek to use DNA typing methodologies to analyze forensic biological evidence have a responsibility to understand the technology and its applications so a proper foundation(s) for its use can be laid. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an extranuclear genome, has certain features that make it desirable for forensics, namely, high copy number, lack of recombination, and matrilineal inheritance. mtDNA typing has become routine in forensic biology and is used to analyze old bones, teeth, hair shafts, and other biological samples where nuclear DNA content is low. To evaluate results obtained by sequencing the two hypervariable regions of the control region of the human mtDNA genome, one must consider the genetically related issues of nomenclature, reference population databases, heteroplasmy, paternal leakage, recombination, and, of course, interpretation of results. We describe the approaches, the impact some issues may have on interpretation of mtDNA analyses, and some issues raised in the courtroom.

  2. Forensic Uncertainty Quantification of Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kyle; Park, Chanyoung; Haftka, Raphael; Kim, Nam-Ho

    2017-06-01

    In addition to the numerical challenges of simulating the explosive dispersal of particles, validation of the simulation is often plagued with poor knowledge of the experimental conditions. The level of experimental detail required for validation is beyond what is usually included in the literature. This presentation proposes the use of forensic uncertainty quantification (UQ) to investigate validation-quality experiments to discover possible sources of uncertainty that may have been missed in initial design of experiments or under-reported. The current experience of the authors has found that by making an analogy to crime scene investigation when looking at validation experiments, valuable insights may be gained. One examines all the data and documentation provided by the validation experimentalists, corroborates evidence, and quantifies large sources of uncertainty a posteriori with empirical measurements. In addition, it is proposed that forensic UQ may benefit from an independent investigator to help remove possible implicit biases and increases the likelihood of discovering unrecognized uncertainty. Forensic UQ concepts will be discussed and then applied to a set of validation experiments performed at Eglin Air Force Base. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program.

  3. 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference, ASFSFM 2017: Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for

  4. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

    2011-07-01

    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation.

  5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  6. 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting, ASFSFM 2016: Meeting Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam Bakdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security, and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting (ASFSFM Meeting 2016 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  7. Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia data and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...

  8. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both......Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  9. Forensic investigation of plutonium metal: a case study of CRM 126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byerly, B.L.; Floyd Stanley; Khal Spencer; Colletti, Lisa; Garduno, Katherine; Kuhn, Kevin; Lujan, Elmer; Martinez, Alex; Porterfield, Donivan; Jung Rim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a certified plutonium metal reference material (CRM 126) with a known production history is examined using analytical methods that are commonly employed in nuclear forensics for provenancing and attribution. The measured plutonium isotopic composition and actinide assay are consistent with values reported on the reference material certificate. Model ages from U/Pu and Am/Pu chronometers agree with the documented production timeline. The results confirm the utility of these analytical methods and highlight the importance of a holistic approach for forensic study of unknown materials. (author)

  10. Forensic use of fingermarks and fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Li, Stan Z.; Jain, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this entry is to describe and explain the main forensic uses of fingermarks and fingerprints. It defines the concepts and provides the nomenclature related to forensic dactyloscopy. It describes the structure of the papillary ridges, the organization of the information in three levels,

  11. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  12. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  13. Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Goor, L.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance

  14. Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Ballard, David; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that...

  15. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  16. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  18. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  19. Inference as Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Inference, or decision making, is seen in curriculum documents as the final step in a statistical investigation. For a formal statistical enquiry this may be associated with sophisticated tests involving probability distributions. For young students without the mathematical background to perform such tests, it is still possible to draw informal…

  20. Hybrid Optical Inference Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-27

    with labels. Now, events. a set of facts cal be generated in the dyadic form "u, R 1,2" Eichmann and Caulfield (19] consider the same type of and can...these enceding-schemes. These architectures are-based pri- 19. G. Eichmann and H. J. Caulfield, "Optical Learning (Inference)marily on optical inner